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Calub, Jhunel Adam M.

Javier, Philippe Fausto D.

Lago, Neil Ian R.

Rey, Ranel Simon T.


Vital Concepts on Paints and Solvents

1. Life Cycle Analysis

- There are five critical parts in the manufacturing process of paint, they are a measurement of
ingredients, preparation and pigment dispersion, Let-down, laboratory testing, and canning.
Using calibrated vats, the ingredients are measured and weighed on scales; then pigments are
added next. These powders are small and stick together forming clumps which then they are
broken down by the resin and additives that keep them from sticking together, which is called
dispersion. Mixers are used to combine and disperse the pigments. In the let-down stage, the
resin, solvent, and additives are combined in a large vat. The mill-base is stirred in during this
phase. The finished product is tested in a laboratory. Before manufacturing is approved, critical
ingredients are tested. When the batch is complete, it can be canned. Two samples are taken
during this phase. A retained sample is kept and stored for future references, and then there is
the final inspection sample. The final sample is inspected to guarantee conformance to
standards. Once the final sample has been completed, it can be dispatched. It is illegal to
dispose of paints and solvents into open water, such as drains and gutters. They contain
chemicals that can contaminate groundwater and endanger human health. Paint and solvent
recycling units use simple distillation. Excess paint is poured into the machine’s plastic liner and
the lid is closed. The paint is heated until the solvent boils into a vapour and the paint residue is
collected as a powder. The vapour is then cooled and the solvent drips into a collection tank to
be reused. The paint solids retrieved during the recycling process can be reformulated into
quality paint coatings.

2. Carbon Footprint and Water Footprint

- The environmental impact of paint is diverse. Traditional painting materials and processes can
have harmful effects on the environment, including those from the use of lead and other
additives. Measures can be taken to reduce environmental impact, including accurately
estimating paint quantities so waste is minimized, and use of environmentally preferred paints,
coating, painting accessories, and techniques. Volatile organic compounds are gases emitted by
various solids or liquids, many of which have short- and long-term adverse health effects.
Solvents in traditional paints often contain high quantities of VOCs. Low VOC paints improve
indoor air quality and reduce urban smog. Antifouling paint (or bottom paint) is used to protect
the hulls of boats from fouling by marine organisms. Antifouling paint protects the surface from
corrosion and prevents drag on the ship from any build-up of marine organisms. These paints
have contained organotin compounds such as tributyltin, which are considered to be toxic
chemicals with negative effects on humans and the environment. Tributyltin compounds are
moderately to highly persistent organic pollutants that bio-concentrate up the marine
predators' food chain. One common example is it leaching from marine paints into the aquatic
environment, causing irreversible damage to the aquatic life. Tributyltin has also been linked to
obesity in humans, as it triggers genes that cause the growth of fat cells. Lead paint
contains lead as pigment. Lead is also added to paint to speed drying, increase durability, retain
a fresh appearance, and resist moisture that causes corrosion. Paint with significant lead
content is still used in industry and by the military. For example, leaded paint is sometimes used
to paint roadways and parking lot lines. Lead, a poisonous metal, can damage nerve connections
(especially in young children) and cause blood and brain disorders. Because of lead's low
reactivity and solubility, lead poisoning usually only occurs in cases when it is dispersed, such as
when sanding lead-based paint prior to repainting.

3. Laws
- Law is an arrangement of tenets that are made and implemented through social or
administrative establishments to control behaviour. It has been characterized both as "the
Science of Justice" and "the Art of Justice". Law is a framework that manages and guarantees
that people or a network hold fast to the desire of the state. State-authorized laws can be made
by an aggregate assembly or by a solitary lawmaker, bringing about resolutions, by the official
through announcements and directions, or built up by judges through point of reference,
regularly in custom-based law wards.

Philippine Laws

a.) Presidential Decree No. 856 (Code on Sanitation)

- WHEREAS, the health of the people, being of paramount importance, all efforts of public
services should be directed towards the protection and promotion of health; and WHEREAS, the
advance in the field of sanitation in recent years, there arises the need for updating and codifying our
scattered sanitary laws to ensure that the are in keeping with modern standards of sanitation and
provide a handy reference and guide for their enforcement

b.) Republic Act 9514 (Fire Code of the Philippines)

- It is the policy of the State to ensure public safety, promote economic development through
the prevention and suppression of all kinds, of destructive fires, and promote the professionalization of
the fire service as a profession. Towards this end, the State shall enforce all laws, rules and regulations
to ensure adherence to standard fire prevention and safety measures, and promote accountability in the
fire protection and prevention service.

c.) Republic Act 6969 (Toxic Substances and Hazardous and Nuclear Wastes Control Act of 1990)

- It is the policy of the State to regulate, restrict or prohibit the importation, manufacture,
processing, sale, distribution, use and disposal of chemical substances and mixtures that present
unreasonable risk and/or injury to health or the environment; to prohibit the entry, even in transit, of
hazardous and nuclear wastes and their disposal into the Philippine territorial limits for whatever
purpose; and to provide advancement and facilitate research and studies on toxic chemicals.

d.) Presidential Decree 1152 (Philippine Environmental Code)

- It is where the broad spectrum of environment has become a matter of vital concern to the
government. It is necessary that the creation of the Council be implemented with the launching of a
comprehensive program of environmental protection and management, a program that can assume
tangible and meaningful significance only by establishing specific environment management policies and
prescribing environment quality standards in a Philippine Environment Code.

4. Waste Disposal and Treatment

- Careless or unlawful disposal of paints and solvents can be hazardous to the environment. These
materials are usually thrown into landfills, sewers or waterways and sometimes plainly on the
ground on its liquid form, which can risk the ecosystem and contribute to pollution. It is advised
to utilize these materials with efficiency, acquiring only much of what is needed. Also, waste
products from all kinds of paints and solvents may be disposed of properly in waste
management units in one's respective community. Paints should be left to dry out or mixed with
hardeners (commonly latex-based paints) so it would be transformed to solid waste and be
easier to dispose of. Lastly, proper reuse of paints (through storage) and implements and
recycling of these materials can also help in managing wastes concerning paints and solvents.