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- Foundation Analysis
- Foundations Theory & Design
- Foundations and Deep Basements
- Auger foundation
- Gate House
- Pile Foundations - 1
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Generally structure is analysed and designed assuming fixity at their support, In the design process,

ground condition (soil type) play an important role in terms of seismic loads transferred to

foundation and foundation capacity. Estimation of seismic loads, for a typical multi-storied building

(G+8) considered being located in seismic zone IV, for medium soil according to Indian standard

In the present work various aspects of modelling of pile foundation with different type of structure

in SAP 2000 are studied. The work is started with Estimation of loads on the structure for this

purpose selected the seismic zone(Z), Importance factor (I) and response reduction factor (R) and

applied Response Spectrum Analysis in SAP 2000 and got the loads at foundation level. And for the

purpose of number of piles and diameter of pile calculated the Capacity of the pile by Static formula

and compared. Then laterally loaded piles are studied, in this laterally loaded pile is analysed using

SAP 2000. Spring constant for laterally loaded piles are calculated. This laterally loaded pile with

different loads and diameter are compared for deflection, and deflection curve is compared. Then

G+8 storey building is studied using spring constant in SAP2000.

Also, group of piles is studied for efficiency of pile group. The efficiency of pile group is by Converse-

Labara method because it considers block capacity of pile. The G+8 storey building is analysed with

SAP2000 using pile groups.

OBJECTIVES

The major problem concerning the seismic resistant design of pile foundations is the presence of

liquefiable soils in the foundation region. Liquefiable soil layers alter the pile capacity and also can

cause large lateral loads on pile foundations. Piles driven through a weak, potentially liquefiable, soil

layer to a stronger layer not only have to carry vertical loads from the superstructure, but must also

be able to resist horizontal loads and bending moments induced by lateral movements if the weak

layer liquefies. Thus, it is very essential to investigate the liquefaction susceptibility of sub surface

soil layers before proceed for the seismic design. Semi empirical method recommended by Idriss and

Boulanger (2004) is being followed to evaluating the liquefaction potential.

MATERIALS USED

Timber piles

Timber piles are tree trunks that have had their branches and bark carefully trimmed off. The

maximum length of most timber piles is 30-65 ft (10-20 m). To qualify for use as a pile, the timber

should be straight, sound, and without any defects.

Concrete Pile

Precast concrete piles may be made using ordinary reinforcement or they may be prestressed.

Composite piles

In general, a composite pile is made up of two or more sections of different materials or different file

types. The upper portion could be eased cast-in-place concrete combined with a lower portion of

timber, steel H or concrete filled steel pipe pile. These piles have limited application and are

employed under special conditions.

Wooden piles

Timber piles are made of tree trunks driven with small end as a point

Max load for usual conditions: 450 kN; optimum load range = 80 - 240 kN

Steel piles

Steel piles generally are either pile piles or rolled steel H-section piles. Pipe piles can be driven into

the ground with their ends open or closed. Wide-flange and I-section steel beams can also be used

as piles. However, H-section piles are usually preferred because their wed and flange thicknesses are

equal. In wide-flange and I-section beams, the wed thicknesses are smaller than the thicknesses of

the flange.

Introduction

Foundation is the most important structure of the building. In this project report dealing with the

most important structure of the building that is the foundation. In this project the focus on the

seismic design of the pile foundation for the building.

Piles are structural members that are made of steel, concrete, and/or timber. They are used to build

pile foundations, which are deep and which cost more than shallow foundations. Despite the cost,

the use of piles often is necessary to ensure structural safety. The following list identifies some of

the conditions that require pile foundations (Vesic, 1977).

When the upper soil layer(s) is (are) highly compressible and too weak to support the load

transmitted by the superstructure, piles are used to transmit the load to underlying bedrocks or a

stronger soil layer, as shown in figure 1.1a. When bedrock is not encountered at a reasonable depth

below the ground surface, piles are used to transmit the structural load to the soil gradually. The

resistance to the applied structural load is derived mainly from the frictional resistance developed at

the soil-pile interface (figure 1. 1b).

When subjected to horizontal forces (see figure 1.1c), pile foundations resist by bending while still

supporting the vertical load transmitted by the superstructure. This type of situation is generally

encountered in the design and construction of earth-retaining structures and foundations of tall

structures that are subject to high wind and/or earthquake forces.

In many cases, expansive and collapsible soils may be present at the site of a proposed structure.

These soils may extend to a great depth below the ground surface. Expansive soils swell and shrink

as the moisture content increases and decreases, and the swelling pressure of such soils can be

considerable. If shallow foundations are used in such circumstances, the structure may suffer

considerable damage. However, pile foundations may be considered as an alternative when pies are

extended beyond the active zone, which swells and shrinks (figure 1.1d). Bridge abutments and piers

are usually constructed over pile foundations to avoid the possible loss of bearing capacity that a

shallow foundation might suffer because of soil erosion at the ground surface.

2. Method of Installation

3. Type of Materials

Difficult to splice, vulnerable to damage in hard driving, vulnerable to decay unless treated with

preservatives (If timber is below permanent Water table it will apparently last forever), if subjected

to alternate wetting & drying, the useful life will be short, partly embedded piles or piles above

Water table are susceptible to damage from wood borers and other insects unless treated.

Advantages: Comparatively low initial cost, permanently submerged piles are resistant to decay,

easy to handle, best suited for friction piles in granular material.

Steel Piles

• Maximum length practically unlimited, optimum length: 12-50m

• The members are usually rolled HP shapes/pipe piles. Wide flange beams & I beams

proportioned to withstand the hard-driving stress to which the pile may be subjected. In HP pile the

flange thickness = web thickness, piles are either welded or seamless steel pipes, which may be

driven either open-ended or closed end. Closed-end piles are usually filled with concrete after

driving.

• Open end piles may be filled but this is not often necessary.

Easy to splice, high capacity, small displacement, able to penetrate through light obstructions, best

suited for end bearing on a rock, reduce allowable capacity for corrosive locations or provide

corrosion protection.

Disadvantages:

• Vulnerable to corrosion.

Concrete Piles

Precast concrete piles may be made using ordinary reinforcement or they may be prestressed

Precast piles using ordinary reinforcement are designed to resist bending stresses during picking up

& transport to the site & bending moments from lateral loads and to provide sufficient resistance to

vertical loads and any tension forces developed during driving. Prestressed piles are formed by

tensioning high strength steel prestress cables, and casting the concrete about the cable. When the

concrete hardens, the prestress cables are cut, with the tension force in the cables now producing

compressive stress in the concrete pile. It is common to higher-strength concrete (35 to 55 MPa) in

prestressed piles because of the large initial compressive stresses from prestressing. Prestressing the

piles, tend to counteract any tension stresses during either handling or driving.

Advantages:

• Cast in place concrete piles is formed by drilling a hole in the ground & filling it with

concrete. The hole may be drilled or formed by driving a shell or casing into the ground.

Disadvantages:

• Concrete piles are considered permanent, however, certain soils (usually organic) contain

materials that may form acids that can damage the concrete.

• Salt water may also adversely react with the concrete unless special precautions are taken

when the mix proportions are designed. Additionally, concrete piles used for marine structures may

undergo abrasion from wave action and floating debris in the water.

prestressed piles are difficult to splice.

Composite piles

different file types. The upper portion could be eased cast-in-place concrete combined with a lower

portion of timber, steel H or concrete filled steel pipe pile. These piles have limited application and

are employed under special conditions.

• The upper and lower portions of composite piles are made of different materials. For

example, composite piles may be made of steel and concrete or timber and concrete. Steel and

concrete piles consist of a lower portion of steel and an upper portion of cast-in-place concrete. This

type of pile is the one used when the length of the pile required for adequate bearing exceeds the

capacity of simple cast-in-place concrete piles. Timber and concrete piles usually consist of a lower

portion of timber pile below the permanent water table and an upper portion of concrete. In any

case, forming proper joints between two dissimilar materials is difficult, and, for that reason,

composite piles are not widely used.

As a case study, a model of a typical multi-storied residential building is considered and the seismic

action on it is determined for the different seismic zones in India and the different ground types. The

procedures, as per IS 1893 is followed to estimate the seismic loads on the structure. The structure is

then analyzed with the structural and seismic loads using the computer program SAP2000 to

determining the loads that are transferred to the foundations. Among different foundation loads,

the maximum loaded foundation was considered for the foundation design. For an efficient seismic

design of the foundation, it is important to estimate the loads that are being transferred to the

foundation during an earthquake. These loads depend on the seismic loads that act on the

superstructure during an earthquake. Different codes around the world propose different methods

of estimation of these seismic loads on the superstructure. The methods proposed by the Indian

standard (IS 1893) reviewed and used to estimate the seismic loads. A case study of a typical multi-

storied structure is considered as a model superstructure for the purpose.

As a case study, to estimate the seismic loads that act on a structure during an earthquake, a typical

multi-storied building frame model is considered. The building frame is a moment resisting frame

with reinforced concrete members. The plan and elevation of the concrete building frame

considered are shown in Fig. 5.1. The parameters used for the modeling of the building were based

on the values used in general practice during the construction of a residential complex. Suitable

cross-sectional dimensions of beams and columns, as well as the thickness of slabs and unreinforced

brick masonry infill walls, were assumed (all in accordance with the Indian standards). The grade of

concrete and the grade of steel were considered to be M25 and Fe415 respectively. The modeling of

the building without the staircase was done in the computer program SAP2000 with the assumed

geometry and material properties.

The pile load capacity calculation is done to find the ultimate load the pile foundation can support

when loaded. It is also known as the bearing capacity of piles. The pile load capacity calculation is

done for single pile or a group of piles based on the requirement of a number of piles for the given

load or size of foundation. We will discuss here the load carrying capacity of both single pile and

group of piles.

Selecting the type of pile to be used and estimating its necessary length are fairly difficult tasks that

require good judgment. In addition to the classification given in section 2, piles can be divided into

three major categories, depending on their lengths and the mechanisms of load transfer to the soil:

(a) point bearing piles, (b) friction piles, and (c) compaction piles.

If soil-boring records establish the presence of bedrocks or rock-like material at a site within a

reasonable depth, piles can be extended to the rock surface. (Figure 4.1 a). In this case, the ultimate

capacity of the piles depends entirely on the load-bearing capacity of the underlying material; thus

the piles are called point bearing piles. In most of these cases, the necessary length of the pile can be

fairly well established.

Fig (a) and (b) Point bearing piles; (c) friction piles

Friction Piles

These piles are called friction piles because most of the resistance is derived from skin friction.

However, the term friction pile, although used often in the literature, is a misnomer: in clayey soils,

the resistance to the applied load is also caused by adhesion.The length of friction of piles depends

on the shear strength of the soil, the applied load, and the pile size. To determine the necessary

lengths of these piles, an engineer needs a good understanding of soil-pile interaction, good

judgment, and experience.

Compaction Piles

Under certain circumstances, piles are driven in granular soils to achieve proper compaction of soil

close to the ground surface. These piles are called compaction piles. The length of compaction piles

depends on factors such as

(c) The required depth of compaction. These piles are generally short; however, some field tests are

necessary to determine a reasonable

• IS 2911 recommends a minimum factor of safety of 2.5 for piles founded in soil using reliable

soil parameter in static formula. Factor of safety of 3 are to be used for socketed piles in rock.

Piles in a group are often subjected to both axial and lateral loads. Designers in the mid-1960s

usually assumed piles could carry only axial loads; lateral loads were carried by batter piles, where

the lateral load was a component of axial load in those piles. Graphical methods were used to find

the individual pile loads in the group, and the resulting force polygon could close only if there were

batter piles for the lateral loads.

The pile can be directly modeled in any FEM software by providing its geometry and material

property as input. The effect of soil can be considered by assuming it as a number if un-damped

individual springs.

The elastic foundation beam method presented by Winkler is extensively used in analyzing the pile

subjected to lateral loads. The pile is investigated in terms of (1) Horizontal stiffness of soil

surrounding the pile, and (2) soil to pile vertical stiffness interaction (Adhikari et al.). The FEM model

used in the pile group analysis is presented in Fig. 5.3.The pile can be modeled as beam element and

surrounding soil is modeled as an array of the uncoupled spring element.

1) The relative movement between the fill and the pile shaft.

2) The relative movement between any underlying compressive soil and pile shaft.

1. Spacing of piles

The reduction in total bearing value of the group of piles is more in case of friction piles, particularly

in clayey soils. No reduction in grouping occurs in end bearing piles. The pile groups which are

resisting the load by the combined action of friction and end bearing, only the load carrying capacity

of friction is reduced. The efficiency η_g of the pile group can be calculated by using the following

formula:

Thus, the pile group efficiency is equal to the ratio of the average load per pile in the group at which

the failure occurs to the ultimate load of a comparable single pile.

Single pile

Comparison of forces on column for 1.5 (DL-SAX) case, considering with and without soil-structure

interaction

1) There is difference in the axial force to the effect of soil structure interaction consider while

calculating axial force

3) It is observed that Bending moment along major axis is increased by more than 40% and also.

Group of Pile

Comparison of forces on column for 1.5 (DL-SAX) case, considering with and without soil-structure

interaction

1) There is not much difference in the axial force to the effect of soil structure interaction is not

consider while calculating axial force

Conclusion

With the increasing seismic activities in the recent times, an efficient design of the pile foundations

to resist the estimated earthquake loads is a major concerned issue. In this interest, this study deals

with the estimation of the seismic loads on a superstructure as per the international code selected,

IS 1893. Different cases are considered assuming the location of the structure to be in seismic zone

IV of India and on different ground types. The estimated seismic loads are applied to the SAP2000

model of the structure and analyzed to find the maximum (design) foundation loads.

It is to conclude that ground conditions should be considered much prior in the analysis of any

structure to evaluate the seismic loads acting on the structure which will further influence the

foundation design loads and foundation capacity.

References

1) A. Murali Krishna, A. Phani Teja (2012) “Seismic Design of Pile foundation for different ground

condition” Tenth world conference ©2012

2) T. Ilyas, C. F. Leung, Y. K. Chow, and S. S. Budi, “Centrifuge model Study of Laterally Loaded Pile

groups in clay", Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering ASCE / March 2010/283

3) Philip S.K. Ooi, M. Brian K.F. Chang, A.M, and Shuo Shang Wang, " Simplified lateral load analysis

of fixed -head piles and pile groups'' Journal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering

ASCE / November 2011/1151

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