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# Contents

PAGE
CHAPTERS
Nos.
1.0 Linear Programming
1.1 History of OR
1.1.1 Phases of OR study
1.1.2 Types of Data
1.1.3 Optimization Techniques for various types of data
1.1.4 Various OR techniques.
1.2 Mathematical Formulation of Decision Problems
1.2.1 Steps in Mathematical Formulation and it’s importance
1.2.2 Problems on Mathematical Formulation
1.3 Graphical method solution to LPP (with illustration)
1.3.1 All possible forms of solution to LPP - discussion &
illustrations
1.3.2 Additional problems on graphical solution
1.4 Simplex method solution to LPP –ordinary form,
1.4.1 Standard and canonical form of LPP
1.4.2 Principle behind Simplex method– initial, basic, feasible
and basic feasible solution to LPP – a discussion.
1.4.3 Problems on Simplex Method

## 1.4.4 Problems on LPP for various types of solution to LPP

Unique, alternate, unbounded and infeasible solution to
LPP.
1.5 1.5.1 Duality Theory
1.5.2 The Essence of Duality Theory
1.5.3 Primal-Dual Relationships
1.5.4 Duality applications
1.5.5 Economic Interpretation of Duality
1.5.6 The Dual Simplex Method

## 1.6 1.6.1 Sensitivity Analysis

1.6.2 The Essence of Sensitivity Analysis
1.6.3 Applying Sensitivity Analysis
1.7 Big M Method
1.8 Two phase method
1.9 Solution of LPP using TORA & Solver in Excel
2.0 Transportation Problem and Assignment Problem
2.1 Introduction and Formulation of Transportation models
2.1.1 Balanced and unbalanced transportation models.
2.1.2 Initial solution to transportation problems. – North West
Corner method,
2.1.3 Least Cost method
2.1.4 VAM method of getting solutions.
2.1.5 Additional problems on initial basic feasible solution
2.1.6 Additional problems on Transportation models -
Unbalanced type.
2.1.7 Degeneracy in Transportation model and finding Optimal
Solution by Stepping stone method
2.18 Degeneracy in Transportation model and finding Optimal
Solution by MODI method.
2.1.9 Additional problems on transportation models
2.2 Introduction to Assignment problems
2.2.1 Formulation and Illustration of Assignment problem
3.0 Network Models
3.1 Introduction to Network Analysis – Network Diagrams –AOA and
AON Diagrams
3.2 Dummy Activities – Numbering of nodes using Fulkerson’s rule.
3.3 CPM & PERT techniques – an introduction.
3.3.1 CPM -Time Computations.
3.3.2 Slacks and Floats – an introduction about forward and
backward recursive algorithms for time computations
(CPM)
3.3.3 Problems on CPM
3.3.4 Probable time estimates – optimistic, pessimistic and
most probable time estimates – PERT/Time calculations.
3.3.5 Computation of probability of completing the project,
Problems on PERT & CPM
3.4 Introduction to Shortest Path Method
3.4.1 Minimum Spanning Tree and Maximum Flow method,
Shortest path: Systematic method problems
3.4.2 Shortest Path: Dijkstra’s Algorithm and problems,
3.4.3 Flyod’s Algorithm and problems.
3.4.4 Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP)
3.4.5 Branch and Bound Algorithms for TSP
3.4.6 Chinese Postman Problem
4.0 Sequencing Model
4.1 Sequencing-Introduction, Terminology, assumptions, and
notations
4.2 Problems on processing n jobs on 2 machines
4.3 Introduction and illustration processing n jobs on 3 machines
4.4 Introduction and illustration processing n jobs on m machines

## 5.0 Replacement & Maintenance Models

5.1 Replacement models- Introduction,
5.2 Replacement of items that deteriorate with time.
Case 1- Value of money does not change with time-Illustration.
5.3 Case 2 - Value of money changes with time
5.4 Replacement of items that fail suddenly-individual and group
replacements.
6.0 Inventory models
6.1 Inventory Management.
6.2 Economic order quantity models
6.3 Quantity discount models
6.4 Stochastic Inventory models

## 7.1 Introduction and terminology

7.2 Two -person zero sum game
7.3 Minimax and maximin principle
7.5 Dominance property
7.6 Solutions with Graphical methods.
8.0 Queuing theory

## 8.1 Introduction, terminology,

8.2 Elements of Queues – Kendell – Lee Notation
8.3 Poisson and Exponential Distribution in arrival and service time
8.4 Single server queuing models
8.5 Multi- server queuing models

## 9.0 Dynamic and Integer programming

9.1 Dynamic programming introduction
9.1.1 Application, capital budgeting, different problems solved
by dynamic programming.
9.2 Integer programming introduction
9.2.1 Branch & bound
9.2.2 Cutting plane method
9.2.3 Mixed integer linear programming
10.0 Computer Modelling & Simulation
10.1 Use of Computer in modelling real life situations,
10.2 Random number generation

## 10.3 Design of simulation models Experimental design

10.4 Introduction to simulation languages
10.5 Programming tools for developing simulation models.
11.0 Goal programming and decision making
11.1 Goal programming introduction
11.2 Goal programming formulation
11.3 Goal programming solution
11.4 Analytical Hierarchy Process
11.5 Decision Tree – Logic
11.6 Decision making under uncertainty.