You are on page 1of 7

O.W.

Andersen

USER’S MANUAL, PROGRAM HARM


SPATIAL HARMONIC MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES

PROGRAM DESCRIPTION

Fourier analysis

One phase of an armature winding produces a stationary pulsating MMF, which can be fourier analyzed
into a number of spatial harmonics. The winding can be divided up into sections which repeat
themselves, and only one such section needs to be analyzed. Each pulsating harmonic MMF wave can
be divided up into one forward and one backward rotating component, each with half the amplitude and
rotating with a speed proportional to the wave length (or inversely proportional to the harmonic order).

If the phase has phase angle zero, the maximum amplitude occurs at the time t=0. In phases with phase
angles 120 and 240 degrees, the maximum amplitude occurs later, at 1/3 and 2/3 of the cycle. For each
harmonic, the contributions from each phase are added vectorially, taking into account the positions at
t=0.

Phase belt and slot harmonics

As an example, take a three phase winding with 12 slots per pole pair, i.e. two slots per pole per phase.
The winding repeats itself after each pole pair, so it is sufficient to analyze such a section. A two pole
forward rotating MMF wave then represents the fundamental.

The section is divided up into six phase belts, each with two slots and containing coil sides in a
sequence:
+1 -3 +2 -1 +3 -2
The signs of the phase numbers indicate the directions in which the coil sides are connected.

The MMFs under north and south poles are mirror images in this case. If the two pole fundamental is
said to be of order one, harmonics can therefore only appear in orders with odd numbers.

Due to the limited number of phase belts, six per pole pair, harmonics appear with orders around
multiples of this number.

The first phase belt harmonic is of order 5. The phases follow each other with angles 0-120-240 degrees
for the fundamental, therefore 0-600-1200 for the 5th harmonic. This is equivalent to a sequence
0-240-120 degrees, which is the opposite phase sequence, resulting in a backward rotating wave.

The second phase belt harmonic is of order 7. A similar analysis of phase sequence reveals forward
rotation of this wave.

12 slots per pole pair results in slot harmonics of orders around multiples of this number, the first ones
of orders 11 and 13. The 11th harmonic rotates in the backward direction, the 13th harmonic in the
forward direction.

If nothing else is specified, the program analyzes MMF waves up to the first two slot harmonics.
-2-

Subharmonics

Armature windings for synchronous machines often repeat themselves only after more than one pole
pair. In that case, MMF waves appear with wave lengths longer than that of the fundamental.

Attractive magnetic forces in the air gap between rotor and stator are proportional to flux density
squared and often of a magnitude 15-20 metric tons per square meter. If they tend to deform the stator
in a pattern with long wave lengths and few nodes around the circumference, it may result in excessive
noise and vibration.

Applications

In addition to noise and vibration, other undesirable effects of harmonics include additional stray load
losses and cusps or saddles in speed-torque curves.

The analysis of MMF waves is also of interest in order to evaluate different arrangements for starting of
single phase induction motors.

Capabilities

An early computer program for the same purpose is described in the paper:

C.G. Veinott, “Spatial Harmonic Magnetomotive Forces in Irregular Windings and Special Connections
of Polyphase Windings”, IEEE Paper 64-94 presented at the Winter Power Meeting, New York,
February 1964.

However, this program was limited to three phase windings with balanced currents, two coil sides per
slot, and lap windings with a constant coil pitch.

Program HARM can handle any number of phases, both balanced and unbalanced currents, one and
two coil sides per slot, and not only lap windings, but also wave windings and concentric coils. In
addition to analyzing harmonic MMFs, it can also check the balance of voltages induced in parallel
circuits and the symmetry of phase windings.

PROGRAM INSTALLATION

HARM must be installed in directory (folder) \HARM, usually in unit C. The program is supplied on
the Internet as a zip-file together with installation instructions.
-3-

RUNNING THE DEMO INPUT

An input file DEMO.INP is supplied with the program. To run the program with this input, enter:

RUN DEMO.INP

Output from HARM is stored in file OUTPUT. To display it on the screen for subsequent printing,
enter:

FILE OUTPUT

Batch command FILE is equivalent to the DOS command START NOTEPAD, where NOTEPAD is the
standard Windows program used here for viewing, editing and printing files. The first time it is invoked,
it should be set to Courier New size 11 text, word wrap, and to no top and bottom text when printing.
The window should always be maximized.

To display and print the input file, enter:

FILE DEMO.INP

ENTERING NEW INPUT

Input file names can be chosen arbitrarily, as long as they follow DOS conventions. However, to make it
easy to retrieve old files, it is suggested that names are of the type:

010912-1.LAB

The file name starts with the date when the input was run, as yymmdd (y=year, m=month, d=day). Then
follows the run number on that date, if more than one run was made. The three letter extension indicates
for whom the run was made.

New input is made up most easily by modifying old input. It can be done by copying the old file to the
new file, and then modifying it with NOTEPAD.

Headings can be inserted in the input file with the command:

HEADINGS 010912-1.LAB (or with another file name)

Headings are inserted and NOTEPAD started at the same time with command:

HEADFILE 010912-1.LAB

Before using the file, the headings must be removed with the command:

CLEANUP 010912-1.LAB

Cleanup and start of the program at the same time is done with command:

CLEANRUN 961219-1.LAB
SPATIAL HARMONIC MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES PROGRAM HARM INPUT SHEET

Numerical data are entered with the first digit in columns 1,11,21 etc., as indicated. Decimal point is optional.

IDENTIFICATION (line 1): Max. 80 characters, including blanks

Col. Data Line


NUMBER OF PHASES OR CIRCUITS *1 1
NUMBER OF POLES (in section calculated) 11
NUMBER OF SLOTS (in section calculated) 21 2
NUMBER OF COIL SIDES PER SLOT (1 or 2) 31
COIL PITCH (Zero if not constant, =5 for slots 1 to 6) 41
MAXIMUM HARMONIC ORDER (decided by program if given as zero) 51

For each phase or circuit: Col.


NUMBER 1
PER UNIT CURRENT 11
PHASE ANGLE 21

Two lines per slot if pitch=0 and sides=2. Phase or circuit numbers have signs indicating direction of current.
SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

SLOT NUMBER 1
PHASE OR CIRCUIT NUMBER 11

*1: The number of phases will normally be 3. If each phase has two parallel circuits and it is also desired to check the
balance between them, the number is given as 6.
-5-

PRINTING FROM WINDOWS

Many of the programs under Windows can open text files and print them, with the possibility of
changing fonts, sizes, margins and so on. Some of these programs are Word, Explorer, Netscape,
Eudora, Notepad and WordPad. A Courier New font is recommended.

THE DOS OR COMMAND PROMPT ENVIRONMENT

The Command Prompt window should be maximized and the size and letters adjusted after right
clicking the top title bar. Alt-Enter should shift to full screen size. On some laptops with Windows XP it
doesn't. This is fixed by going to:
Control panel - screen - settings - advanced - flat panel - display stretch

Since many PC users are not familiar with MS-DOS, here are some hints and frequently used
commands. The commands are examples and may be modified in obvious manners. Large and small
letters are interchangeable.

DOS file names can have up to eight characters (letters, numbers and special symbols), optionally
followed by a decimal point and up to three characters (extension).

Commands given once or automatically on startup:


SET COPYCMD=/Y Deactivates warning on overwriting existing files.
DOSKEY Makes it possible to recall previous commands with the up and down arrow keys.
PATH=C:\SYSTEM;C:\QBASIC Specifies search paths for executable files.
SUBST F: C:\DRIVEF Substitutes drive F for directory (or folder) C:\DRIVEF making F a virtual
drive (or unit).
Other commands:
C: Moves to unit C or another unit. A=diskette.
CD\ Changes to base directory.
MD GRAPHICS Makes directory GRAPHICS.
CD\GRAPHICS Changes directory to GRAPHICS, just below the base directory.
COPY OLD.INP NEW.INP Copies old file OLD.INP to a new file NEW.INP.
COPY /? Explains options available for command COPY.
REN OLD.INP NEW.INP Renames OLD.INP as NEW.INP.
DEL OLD.INP Deletes OLD.INP.
DIR *.INP Lists all files in the directory with extension INP.
DIR *.I?? Lists all files in the directory with three letter extension starting with I.
START NOTEPAD OUTPUT Invokes Windows program NOTEPAD with file OUTPUT.
The window should always be maximized. Return to DOS by clicking at the bottom title bar.

You can get the command line program index in the Windows XP help system using these steps:
1. Click Start, Help and Support. Search for fsutil.
2. Select the suggested topic “Managing disk quotas from the command line”.
3. In the text that is displayed, select the link “Command line reference”. That will display an alphabetic
listing of all Windows XP command line utilities. Microsoft has made it amazingly difficult to find, but
it is there.
-6-

PROGRAM HARM SPATIAL HARMONIC MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES

NORMAL WINDING WITH 12 SLOTS PER POLE PAIR

NUMBER OF PHASES (OR CIRCUITS) 3.0


NUMBER OF POLES (IN SECTION CALCULATED) 2.0
NUMBER OF SLOTS (IN SECTION CALCULATED) 12.0
COIL SIDES PER SLOT (1 OR 2) 2.0
COIL PITCH (ZERO IF NOT CONSTANT) 5.0
MAX. HARMONIC ORDER (ZERO IF CHOSEN BY PROGRAM) 0.0

FOR EACH PHASE (OR CIRCUIT):

NUMBER PU CURRENT PHASE ANGLE


1 1.0000 0.0000
2 1.0000 120.0000
3 1.0000 240.0000

FOR EACH SLOT:

SLOT NO. PHASE (OR CIRCUIT) NO.


1 1
2 1
3 -3
4 -3
5 2
6 2
7 -1
8 -1
9 3
10 3
11 -2
12 -2

HARMONIC PU MMF
ORDER POLES FORWARD BACKWARD
1 2 1.00000 0.00000
2 4 0.00000 0.00000
3 6 0.00000 0.00000
4 8 0.00000 0.00000
5 10 0.00000 0.01436
6 12 0.00000 0.00000
7 14 0.01026 0.00000
8 16 0.00000 0.00000
9 18 0.00000 0.00000
10 20 0.00000 0.00000
11 22 0.00000 0.09091
12 24 0.00000 0.00000
13 26 0.07692 0.00000

PITCH FACTOR 0.9659


DISTRIBUTION FACTOR 0.9659
WINDING FACTOR 0.9330

CALCULATED FOR EACH PHASE (OR CIRCUIT):


NUMBER PU VOLTAGE PHASE ANGLE
1 1.0000 0.0000
2 1.0000 120.0000
3 1.0000 240.0000