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IMPACT OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS ON THE DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF

INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA BY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS

BY

OPENIYI, Munhend Ibrahim

11/25PE025

2016

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DECLARATION

I declare that this project “Impact of computer graphics on the design and production of

instructional media by Educational technology students”, is my own work and had not been

submitted by me or any other person for any course or qualification at this or any other institution.

I also declare as far as I am aware, all cited works have been acknowledged and referenced.

Name: OPENIYI, Munhend Ibrahim

Matriculation number: 11/25PE025

Signature: ____________________

Date: __________________________

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CERTIFICATION

This is to certify that this research was carried out by OPENIYI, Munhend Ibrahim

(11/25PE025) in the Department of Educational Technology, Faculty of Education, University of

Ilorin, Ilorin Nigeria.

Name Date

------------------------------ -------------------------

Prof. S.A. Onasanya

Supervisor

----------------------------- ---------------------------

Prof. S.A. Onasanya

Head of Department

----------------------------- ---------------------------

Prof. N.B. Oyedeji

Dean Faculty of Education

------------------------------- ---------------------------

External Examiner

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COPYRIGHT

IMPACT OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS ON THE DESIGN AND PRODUCTION OF

INSTRUCTIONAL MEDIA BY EDUCATIONAL TECHNOLOGY STUDENTS

B. Ed Project

By

OPENIYI, Ibrahim

11/25PE025

All Right Reserved

© 2016

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DEDICATION

This work is dedicated to my family and friends who have supported me all through the years

of my stay in school. Firstly, from my dad, mum, brothers and sisters, starting from Toyin, who is

in her second year at the Lagos state University, Abdulroqeeb who will be in his second year in

the secondary school, Abdul Salam who will start his first year in the secondary school and Bose

who is seeking admission into a university. I also want to dedicate this work to a friend and a pastor

who was actually the first person to introduce me to computer graphics, he spent tremendous efforts

tutoring me during my study, which provided me confidence and concentration to do this work.

To my family, I love you so much.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

I’m deeply grateful to my supervisor, Prof. S.A. Onasanya, for his guidance, for the

constructive ideas, adequate feedback and proper support. The continuous discussion and the

intellectual support he provided helped me to accept and overcome the difficulties and problems I

met at the beginning and the end. This work could not have been completed without his supervision

and assistance. I consider myself very fortunate for being able to work with a very considerate and

encouraging professor like him. My sincere appreciation also goes to Dr. (Mrs.) Aboyeji and Alfa

Taye who despite their busy schedule, created time to guide this work from the beginning to the

end with care and endurance. I’m also much obliged to my group members Anthony and ifeoluwa.

Their enlightening suggestions and encouragements made me feel I was not isolated in my

research. I also want to show my sincere gratitude to my friends, Ayodele temitope, Eromonsele

Princewill, Ade, Michael verissimo and olota oluwatosin, for taking their precious time to consider

my work. I would like to extend my gratitude to the many people who helped to bring this research

project to reality. I am grateful to my colleagues of the Department of Educational Technology,

ifeoluwa, packaging, Tha white, Anthony, silvanus and Frosh for the constructive discussion

during the class meetings. Special thanks go to Silvanus for his contribution towards the

completion of the project. I must express my very profound gratitude to my parents for providing

me with unfailing support and continuous encouragement throughout my years of study and

through the process of researching and writing this thesis. This accomplishment would not have

been possible without them. Thank you.

I also want to appreciate Dean of my faculty Prof. N.B. Oyedeji, my Head of Department

Prof. S.A. Onasanya and my lecturers, starting from Dr. M.A Fakomogbon, Dr. O.O Obielodan,

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Dr. C.O Olumorin, Dr. (Mrs.) F.O Daramola, Dr. A.I Issa, Dr. A.A. Falade, Mr. A.A Amosa, Mr.

N.J Alasan, Mr. A.E Alimi, Mr. K.K Oladosu and Mr. K.J. Muhammed who have imparted

knowledge on me during the course of my stay on this campus. I also acknowledge Dr. O. Olafare

and Dr. O.S Olanrewaju for reading and guiding me through this work. God bless you all.

Finally, I acknowledge my coursemates Edutech CLASS of 2016, I am fortunate to be part

of this set.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE ...............................................................................................................................i


DECLARATION ........................................................................................................................ii
CERTIFICATION .....................................................................................................................iii
COPYRIGHT.............................................................................................................................iv
DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS.......................................................................................................vi
LIST OF TABLES...................................................................................................................viii
ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................x

CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION
Background to the Study…...……………………………………………………………...…...1
Statement of Problem………..…………………………………………………………...…….9
Purpose of Study………………………………………………………………………...……10
Research Questions…………………………………………………………………...………11
Scope of Study……………………………………………………………………..…………11
Clarification of Major Terms and Variables……………………………………...…………..11
Significance of the Study………………………………………………..……..……………..12

CHAPTER TWO
REVIEW OF LITERATURE
Nature and Concept of Computer Graphics ..............................................................................15
Instructional Value of Computer Graphics……………………..…………………………….21
Cmputer Graphics in the Design and Production of Instructional Media.................................27
The Place of Computer Graphics in Teaching and Learning of Educational Technology .......39
Appraisal of literature reviewed................................................................................................44

CHAPTER THREE
RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
Research Type...........................................................................................................................47
Sample and Sampling Techniques ............................................................................................47
Research Instruments ................................................................................................................47

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Validation of Research Instrument ...........................................................................................48
Procedure for Data Collection...................................................................................................48
Data Analysis Technique ..........................................................................................................48

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS
Demographic Table...................................................................................................................49
Analyses of Research Questions ...............................................................................................50
Summary of Findings................................................................................................................56

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
Implications of the findings ......................................................................................................59
Conclusions...............................................................................................................................59
Recommendations.....................................................................................................................59
Suggestions for further studies..................................................................................................60

References…………………………………………………………………………………….61

Appendix
Research Instruments……………………………………………………………..……..…71

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ABSTRACT

Computer graphics is defined as the pictorial representation and manipulation of data: the

process by which a Computer displays data, to enrich the quality of Instructional Media Design

and Production by Educational Technology students for teaching and learning. It had been

perceived that some Educational technology students in Universities in Nigeria are not conversant

with the variety of software available for the design and production of instructional media. Based

on this, the study analyzed the impact of computer graphics on the design and production of

instructional media by educational technology students. Specifically, this study: i. Found out the

usage of computer graphics by Educational technology on the design and production of

instructional media; ii. Investigated the influence of computer graphics on the design and

production of instructional media; iii. Examined the relevance of computer graphics on the design

and production of instructional media.

The study was a descriptive research type using the survey method. Sample comprised 100

Educational technology students in University of Ilorin, Kwara state, Nigeria and a researcher-

designed questionnaire was used for this study. Data were analyzed using percentage and mean to

answer research question 1 to 3.

The findings of this study showed that:

i. Among the available Computer graphics software used by Educational technology students

Adobe flash professional and CorelDraw were the most used software with highest scores

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of 73% and 73% while Autodesk Maya was the least used software with the lowest score

of 4%.

ii. It also revealed that computer graphics had positive influence on the design and production

of instructional media by educational technology students.

The study concluded that educational technology students should familiarize themselves with

the numerous computer graphics softwares available to them and make use of them proficiently

for designing and producing instructional media. It was therefore recommended that Educational

institutions, governments, and non-governmental organizations should organize conferences,

seminars, workshops on the benefits of the positive use of computer graphics softwares on the

design and production of instructional media.

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CHAPTER ONE

Background to the study

Education is a powerful driver of development and one of the strongest instruments for

reducing poverty and improving health, gender equality, peace and stability. Although there has

been great progress in the last decades as many more children attend schools, 57 million children

are still out of school. Even when children complete school, they often do so without acquiring

basic skills necessary for work and life. Siti, Azhar, Zali (2015) confirmed that today’s children

are the first generation of the “digital age.” They are raised in a society that is changing rapidly as

a result of the influx of new computer-based technologies that provides a more pervasive and faster

worldwide links to commerce, communication, and culture.

Therefore, students cannot benefit fully from a traditional classroom anymore because they

have a weak hand drawing skill that impairs their ability to participate faster in presenting ideas

(Siti, Azhar & Zali). This is particularly detrimental when unemployment is high and labor markets

are demanding more skilled and agile workforce than ever before (World Bank Group, 2014).

Olorundare (2011) stated that the knowledge in learning a particular skill definitely influences the

learners to develop creative ability, muscle control and appreciation of good craftsmanship towards

the use of a particular medium of learning. However, for effective functioning in the modern world,

there is need to integrate Information and Communication Technology (ICT) into teaching and

learning process (Federal Republic of Nigeria, FRN, 2014).

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Thus, education is a life-long process. That is, it begins at birth and ends at death. Education

must involve the transmission of knowledge, ideas, values and norm of the society across

generations. The mode of transmission must be based on willingness and voluntariness on the part

of the learners as well as learning with ease. The place of education in national development cannot

be overstressed. Its importance is stated in the National Policy on Education (NPE) (FRN, 2014)

where it is maintained that “education in Nigeria is an instrument ‘par excellence’ for affecting

national development” in other words, education is not just a medium of knowledge and

acquisition, it is also a tool for nation building. This explains the rationale behind the huge amount

of money that the government usually earmarks for education in its annual budget.

Rieber (2000) reported that our sense of vision represents our richest source of information

about the world. The partial or complete loss of sight is one of the most difficult impairments to

overcome. Enormous amounts of information are transmitted manually. We need to consider how

various media influence us and what part visuals play. Think about how we use the visuals in

television, magazines, newspapers, and product catalogs. In virtually every case, visuals of some

sort and variety are the main vehicle of expression and communication.

The role of computer graphics in education is both unique and significant. Naturally,

graphics on its own has always found a way of attracting attention. Computer graphics can be

powerful tools for analysing, designing, and interacting with complex systems or processes. Well-

designed and produced computer graphics provide a model of those elements most relevant to the

immediate learning objective. In addition, “they inform the instructor and the learner of aspects of

the real-life system or process that have been simplified” or eliminated (Heinich and Sternberg,

1999). Experience over the years has shown that teachers have been depending on excessive use

of words to express, to convey ideas or facts in teaching- learning process. This practice is termed

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the “chalk – talk” method (Achieng, 2013). Today, advancement in technology has made it

possible for graphics to be used to minimize the teacher’s talking and at the same time, make the

message clearer and more interesting and easier for the learners to assimilate (Siliki, 2014).

Mayer (2008) defined graphics as, the iconic expressions of content that are designed to

optimise learning and performance in ways that improve the bottom-line performance of

organisation. This definition incorporates three ideas: Iconic; which refers to representations of

content that are pictorial. The surface features of such visuals may be static or dynamic and they

may have high or low degrees of correspondence to real things. According to (Soetan, Iwokwagh,

Shehu and Onasanya, 2010), Graphics include charts, posters, sketches, cartoons. Graphics and

drawings. The use of Graphics in education is as old as the history of education itself. So also are

the use of illustrations in books written in English, especially those intended for children, was

common by about 1840. After that time, the use of illustrations in children's books has been

especially extensive, elaborate, and artistic (Rieber, 2000). A wide variety of graphics from

photographs, pictures, and cartoons, to charts, maps, diagrams, and outlines are all common today

in most teaching strategies. The use of graphics in instruction seems to make sense as it holds a

certain degree of face validity. The cliché that a picture is worth a thousand words seems consistent

with educational practice. However, research has shown that the relationship between the intent

and results of graphics in education is often jumbled.

However, advancement in technology has brought about Computer Graphics. Wikipedia

(2016) The phrase “computer graphics” itself was coined in 1960 by William Fetter, a graphic

designer for Boeing. He was the first to create a visualization tool for scientists and engineers in

government and corporate research centers such as Bell Labs and Boeing in the 1950’s. The tools

were later developed at Universities in the 60s and 70s at places such as Ohio State University,

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Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), University of Utah, Cornell, North Carolina and the

New York Institute of Technology. The early breakthroughs that took place in academic centers

continued at research centers such as the famous Xerox PARC in the 1970’s. Companies such as

George Lucas’s Industrial Light and Magic are constantly redefining the cutting edge of computer

graphics technology in order to present the world with a new synthetic digital reality. In the 1940s,

the first computer-assisted graphics began in many different unrelated fields around the world.

There is a very blurred line that is crossed between mechanical and analog computer assisted

graphics, and the first directly digital computer generated graphics that would associate with today

as being true CG. The very first computer graphics company was formed by two of the leading

researchers of the day, Drs. David C. Evans and Ivan E. Sutherland

(jxu2000.tripod.com/timeline.htm).

Certainly, the use and history of animation in film easily predates modern computer

technology. However, the computer is rapidly becoming an important tool in modern animation

studios, including Disney (Rieber, 2000). The field of visualization uses computer animation as a

central tool for studying problems and issues in architecture, medicine, and fine arts. In each of

these cases, the computer is used as an important production tool for creating animation sequences

that are normally transferred to film or video for delivery.

Today, computer graphics is popular in film production as it is being used to incorporate

visual effects into films. This is not before the advent of computer graphics seeing that early

filmmakers began by mimicking what was then status quo: a camera, placed on a pedestal,

photographed a play acted out on a stage. It is remarkable how far the medium has come during

this century, considering all the production effects that are now part of standard filmmaking:

zooming, panning, lighting effects, color, flashbacks, and so on.

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The point is that production skills are always biased to the attributes particular to each

medium. If we evaluate only the product side of instructional media, then we are judging quality

only on the basis of production. It is easy to forget that there is also a process that is being

replicated. This is unfortunate because the process should determine the product. In instructional

media applications, this process is called instructional design. As certain instructional media, such

as the computer, increase in popularity, guiding the design of graphics in educational computing

is especially important as the graphical power of computers increases. The temptation to

incorporate a wide array of graphics, simply given the awesome ability to do so, can be

overwhelming. Guidance is needed to ensure that instructional processes direct instructional

product development (Rieber, 2000).

Computer Graphics, Animation and Special Effects created with computers have been

embraced by movie studios in developed nations. (Onasanya, 2002) In Nigeria, evidence of

computer animations is only seen on television in the areas of advertisement and entertainment.

Literarily, works on 3-dimensional animation in Nigeria are not known to the researcher within

the Nigerian school system. Some of the best examples of using full-motion video to demonstrate

procedural knowledge come from television toy commercials. Advertisers must not only capture

the attention and interest of the children but should also show them how to have fun with the toy,

albeit in exaggerated and contrived ways. Findings have revealed that segmenting instructional

animations into small chunks could encourage novice students to learn from complex dynamic

visualizations (Moreno, 2007).

Nowadays, the area of computer graphics is widely used in a variety of applications for

specific purposes. We can find information about virtual simulators for training in driving vehicles,

like cars, buses or trains; 3D representations of future buildings or houses most of the times only

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with the objective of visualization; computer and console games with high-quality graphics, where

the player can live a different experience inside the virtual world; or film scenes and characters

that are generated using computer graphics. Simulation, training, visualisation, and entertainment

are environments where the use of computer graphics is very popular, (Lucia Vera, Ruben Campos,

Gerardo Herrera, Cristina Romero, 2007). Its use is particularly strong in training environments

and situations that emphasize the materials-centered instruction, of which Computer-Based-

Instruction (CBI) is an example. Materials-centered instructional environments depend on media

other than the teacher, trainer, or workshop leader for the primary presentation of instruction. Apart

from computer applications, materials-centered instruction has been a dominant influence in

instruction and training since World War II, especially in the private sector and in the military.

Traditional examples of media include textual materials (books, workbooks, and worksheets),

videos and films, slides and filmstrips, learning centers, and overhead transparencies, to name just

a few. The field of educational technology is usually associated with its contributions in refining

design techniques used to produce materials-centered instruction.

It has been noted that most educational technologists do not see computer graphics design

and production as a career, (www.moweble.com) recent computer advancements have redefined

various aspects of making movies, commercials, games, etc. Capabilities of computer technology

have allowed the discovery of endless innovation possibilities. These days, computer generated

effects have acquired center stage in everything from a basic advertisement to games, big budget

films to television. Now, some of the educational technologists now develop an interest in

computer graphics. Computer graphics has raised ethical concern because of the ease of

manipulating images and texts with the aid of different software (Adobe Photoshop, CorelDraw,

Maya). The last 10 years have demonstrated marked increases in sophistication in the graphics

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produced and displayed on computers and the success of desktop microcomputer systems

integrating graphical user interfaces (GUIs). The principal reason to highlight the computer in the

design and production of instructional graphics is the computer's increasing range, versatility, and

flexibility of graphic design. There is almost no graphic design need that the computer cannot

serve. In addition, the design of computer graphics is no longer limited to delivery on computer

platforms. The unprecedented spread of desktop publishing is a prime example of the computer as

a design and production tool, though the delivery platform is paper (Rieber, 2000).

The instructional design of a given medium is biased to delivering only certain instructional

attributes or stimuli. Audiocassettes deliver aural stimuli, such as the spoken word, music, and

other sounds, generally in a predetermined order. Overheads can present only static visuals, such

as words and pictures. Other media offer mixtures of attributes. Slide/tape projectors can offer

static visuals and sound. Computers offer the delivery of static and dynamic visuals (animation) in

linear and non-linear formats with high-quality sound becoming increasingly available. The

computer has given films, and TV producers’ new powerful tools for the creation of animation for

cartoons and creating special effects in many films, (Onasanya, 2002).

It is very important to know that without the knowledge of Computer Graphics, Nigeria as

a nation might be left behind in the technological race, and Educational Technologists which are

instructional designers would lack the necessary skills to design and produce instructional media.

This means that there is need for adequate commitment in the teaching and training of computer

graphics though, the thoroughness in the teaching of Computer graphics will lead to the

accomplishment of the objectives of vocational and technical Educational programmes at the

higher level of education programmers at higher level of our educational system which is the major

plight of Nigeria as a nation. Furtherance of our youths in skills acquired at the secondary school

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level. Looking at the alarming rate of unemployment in the country, the need for the nation to

embrace the teaching and learning of vocational and technical courses in our schools in order to

turn our graduates who can be self-employed should be given priority as the technological

development of any nation rest on the competence and capability of her manpower.

AECT (2004) which has the most accepted definition of educational technology define

Educational technology as the study and ethical practice of facilitating learning and improving

performance by creating, using, and managing appropriate technological process and resources.

Baba (2014) observed that the field of educational technology can be understood as the

development of a set of systematic technologies accompanying practical knowledge for designing,

testing and operating schools as an educational system.

The use of computer graphics is a big help for an educational technologist to facilitate the

production of instructional media process Onasanya (2004). Its visual aids are important in

motivating and arousing interest. The influence of computer graphics in promoting Educational

Technologists’ performance in teaching and learning in educational development is indisputable.

Educational technologists and Classroom teachers should carefully consider the impact of

such innocent graphics on all their design and production of instructional media. Like most issues

in education, computer graphics represent a qualitative, not quantitative, issue. It is not simply a

question of how many graphics are used that determines their effectiveness. (Ertmer, 2013) The

interaction between instruction and learning is complex and does not lend itself to many

generalizations. (Sofowora, 2011) confirmed that the main problems facing education are how to

make learning meaningful, real and concrete. This can be done with the use of appropriate

instructional media which includes pictures and videos with the beautification of special effects

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and visual effects graphics can offer. To produce such, there is a need for availability of computer

hardware machines e.g. workstation with good video cards and a computer software.

Statement of the Problem

The application of computer graphics to present learning contents by Educational

Technology students in Nigerian universities has been a challenging task. Problems associated

with the utilization of graphic instructional resources could stem up from different aspects –

ranging from students’ attitudes to work, dispositions of school managements to use of

instructional media, and a multitude of other factors. A reasonable percentage of the Educational

Technology students in the Nigerian educational system are not abreast of new trends and

developments in the field of Education. As a result, most of them lack the required knowledge

about the peculiarities of computer graphics and the conditions in which they provide best results

in learning (Faruk, 2015).

The inadequacy of skills on design and production of computer graphic resources among

Educational Technologists is also another area of concern. After the decision to present a learning

content in visual form has been reached by a student, the problem of basic illustration techniques

arise. The use of appropriate criteria for the application of graphics to learning tasks is essential.

Unfortunately, this is another area where most students are lagging behind. This could be a serious

problem because no matter how good a graphic material is, it may not produce the desired impact

unless it suits the learners’ level of intelligence, prior knowledge, and learning styles (Faruk,

2015).

The lukewarm attitudes of some school managements towards providing necessary

materials and encouragement to enable lecturers to improvise computer graphic visuals also

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deprive students of benefiting from the array of effective visual illustrations obtainable. Longe

(2012) revealed that government and private owners of various institutions do not adequately

provide enough equipment for the practice of educational technology. Also, there is no adequate

professional staff to assist lecturers in using Educational Technology Centre. This ultimately

undermines the academic achievements of educational technology students in higher institutions.

In view of the afore-identified challenges, it becomes essential to examine the impact of computer

graphics on design and production of instructional media by educational technology students so as

to provide an empirical basis for school administrators to advance the cause of integrating

computer graphics to teaching – learning process.

Purpose of study

The main purpose of this study was to investigate the Impact of computer graphics on the

design and production of instructional media by Educational Technology students

Specifically, the study aimed at the followings:

i. Usage of Computer Graphics softwares by Educational Technology students.

ii. to determine the influence of computer graphics on the design and production of

instructional media by educational technology students.

iii. to assess the relevance of computer graphics on design and production of instructional

media.

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Research Questions

In this study, answers were sought to the following research questions;

i. Do educational technology students use computer graphics softwares?

ii. Does Computer graphics influence the design and production of instructional media by

educational technology students?

iii. What is the relevance of computer graphics on the design and production of instructional

media?

Scope of the Study

The essence of this research work was to primarily study the Impact of computer graphics on

the design and production of instructional media by Educational technology students in the

University of Ilorin. The research was targeted at students in the department of Educational

Technology from 200 to 400 level, one hundred (100) students were sampled in total. Computer

graphics is a wide discipline so It was restricted to; 2-D computer graphics, 3-D computer graphics,

Animation, Graphics, Pixel art, Vector graphics, Sprite graphics, Static graphics, Raster graphics,

Rendering and 3-D modeling.

Clarification of major terms and variables

Instructional Computer Graphics: These are considered a subset of computer visuals and involves

the display of non-verbal information, or information that is conveyed spatially. Included in this

definition are the range of computer-generated pictures, with pictures being defined as graphics

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that share some physical resemblance to an actual person, place, or thing? The quality of these

types of graphics ranges from near photographic to crude line drawings. Also included is the

spectrum of nonrepresentational graphics, including, but not limited to, charts, diagrams, and

schematics.

Graphics: graphikos, ‘something written’, are visual images or designs on some surface, such as a

wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, r entertain. In the contemporary usage, it

includes pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and manufacture, in

typesetting and the graphic arts, and in educational and recreational software. Images that are

generated by a computer are called computer graphics.

GUI (graphical user interface): a type of user interface which allows people to interact with a

computer through a metaphor of direct manipulation f graphical images and widgets in addition to

texts

Computer: A programmable electronic device that performs mathematical calculations and logical

operations, store and retrieves large amounts of data very quickly: now especially, a small one for

manipulating texts or graphics, accessing the internet, or playing games or media

Animation: the technique of making inanimate objects or drawings appear to move in motion

pictures or computer graphics

Significance of study

The findings of this research would contribute to effective teaching and learning methods and

also enhance student’s interest, motivation, and understanding of the course to be taught. It would

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also be useful to Educational technologists in preparing effective instructional media to be used

for classroom purposes. Topics or objects that are very tactical to explain can be visualised with

the help of computer graphics. Of great importance would it be to educational technologists if they

can learn how to induce computer graphics for instructional purposes and it would also be

beneficial to them by making them carry out their instructional activities with ease.

Moreover, the results of this study would be of great significance to the curriculum planners

and developers they will find the work useful in reviewing the educational technology curriculum

by seriously laying emphasis on utilization of computer graphics so as to meet up with emerging

needs of the society. This study would be of immense benefit to researchers in the field of

educational technology by forming a basis for further studies on the usage of computer graphics

and Educational technology students’ quality in order learning aspects of educational technology.

The study would also equip our educational administrators in the ministry of education, science,

and technology (MOEST).

Curriculum planners and policy makers on education may also benefit from the study in

such a way that when engaged in further review of curriculum, interest groups such as Non-

Governmental Organizations (NGOS) and students’ associations will be contacted to make their

inputs. The study may avail educational technologists with an opportunity to broaden their

professional skills in utilization of computer graphics in the design and production of instructional

media. This would enhance their resourcefulness which will in turn influence behavioral changes

in them- which is the ultimate goal of education. To parents and non-governmental organizations,

it could engage them to take more prime roles in the provision of instructional media to schools

and creating opportunities for capacity building to keep educational technologists abreast to recent

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developments in the art of learning. Finally, the study will provide additional literature that could

enrich the existing ones in area of instructional graphics.

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CHAPTER TWO

Review of Related Literature

This chapter focuses on the review of related literature to this study. It is presented under

the following headings;

i. Nature and Concept of Computer Graphics,

ii. Instructional values of Computer Graphics,

iii. Computer Graphics in the Design and production of Instructional Media,

iv. The place of Computer Graphics in teaching and learning of Educational Technology

v. Appraisal of Literature review

Nature and Concept of Computer Graphics

Sulabh (2016) stated that a computer is a device that can be instructed to carry out an

arbitrary set of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Their ability to follow a sequence

of operations called a program, make computers very flexible and popular. Such computers are

used as control systems for a very wide variety of industrial and consumer devices. Joyce, Vivian

& Eunice (2013) revealed that computers have transformed the way people conduct business and

perform their daily tasks this includes simple special purpose devices like microwave

ovens and remote-controls, but more importantly in general purpose devices like personal

computers and mobile devices (Wikipedia, 2016).

Since ancient times, simple manual devices like the abacus aided people in doing

calculations (Wikipedia, 2016). Early in the Industrial Revolution, some mechanical devices were

built to automate long tedious tasks, such as patterns for looms. More sophisticated electrical
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machines did specialized analog calculations in the early 20th century. The first digital electronic

calculating machines were developed during World War II. The speed, power, and versatility of

computers increased continuously and dramatically since then, to the point of possible artificial

intelligence in the near future (Sulabh, 2016).

Conventionally, modern computer consists of at least one processing element, typically

a central processing unit (CPU), and some form of memory. The processing element carries out

arithmetic and logic operations, and a sequencing and control unit can change the order of

operations in response to stored information. Peripheral devices allow information to be retrieved

from an external source, and the result of operations saved and retrieved (Hussain, 2013).

The word Graphics is derived from The Greek language “Graphikos” meaning “something

written”. The basic idea behind graphics is the intention of writing, which regards all forms of

written and drawn elements as writing. It could be described as visual images or designs on some

surface, such as a wall, screen, paper, or stone to inform, illustrate, or entertain. In contemporary

usage, graphics include pictorial representation of data, as in computer-aided design and

manufacture, typesetting, educational and recreational software (Clark, 2010).

Computer graphics are pictures and movies created using computers - usually referring

to image data created by a computer specifically with help from specialized graphical hardware

and software (www.pinterest.com). It is a vast and recent area in computer science. The phrase

was coined by computer graphics researchers Verne Hudson and William Fetter of Boeing in

1960. Another name for the field is computer-generated imagery, or simply CGI (Iyke Technology

Solutions, 2014).

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Important topics in computer graphics include user interface design, sprite graphics, vector

graphics, 3D modeling, shaders, GPU design, and computer vision, among others. The overall

methodology depends heavily on the underlying sciences of geometry, optics, and physics.

Computer graphics is responsible for displaying art and image data effectively and beautifully to

the user, and processing image data received from the physical world. The interaction and

understanding of computers and interpretation of data have been made easier because of computer

graphics. Computer graphic development has had a significant impact on many types of media and

has revolutionized animation, movies, advertising, video games, and graphic design generally

(Iyke Technology Solutions, 2014).

Yvette and Tai- Kim (2013) stated that 2D computer graphics is the computer-based

generation of digital images, mostly from two-dimensional models such as geometric models, text,

and digital images and by techniques specific to them. The word may stand for the branch of

computer science that comprises such techniques, or for the models themselves. Two-

dimensional images are not just representations of real-world objects, but an independent artifact

with added semantic value; two-dimensional models are therefore preferred because they give

more direct control of the image than 3D computer graphics, whose approach is more akin

to photography than to typography (Dan, 2011).

Another from of 2-D computer graphics is sprite graphics. A sprite is a two-

dimensional image or animation that is integrated into a larger scene (Susan, 2010). Initially

including just graphical objects handled separately from the memory bitmap of a video display,

this now includes various manners of graphical overlays. initially, sprites were a means of

integrating unrelated bitmaps so that they appeared to be part of the normal bitmap on a screen,

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such as creating an animated character that can be moved on a screen without alteration of

the data defining the overall screen.

A large form of digital art which is pixel art is created through the use of raster graphics

software, where images are edited on the pixel level. Graphics in most old (or relatively limited)

computer and video games, graphing calculator games, and many mobile phones games are mostly

pixel art. Pixel art as frequently employed in games of the 90s and earlier (Felix, Johannes &

Michael, 2015).

Raster graphics is the representation of images as an array of pixels and is typically used

for the representation of photographic images. Vector graphics formats are complementary

to raster graphics. Vector graphics consists of encoding information about shapes and colors that

comprise the image, which can allow for more flexibility in rendering. There are instances when

working with vector tools and formats is best practice, and instances when working with raster

tools and formats is best practice. There are times when both formats come together. An

understanding of the advantages and limitations of each technology and the relationship between

them is most likely to result in an efficient and effective use of tools.

(Bosoon and Renfu, 2015) proposed that vector graphics formats are complementary

to raster graphics which are a representation of images based on mathematical expressions, as are

typically used in computer graphics for images made up of vectors (arrows of direction, points,

and lines) that define shapes as compared to the individual pixels used to represent a raster image.

3D computer graphics are graphics that use a three-dimensional representation of

geometric data (often Cartesian) that is stored in the computer for the purposes of performing

calculations and rendering 2D images. Such images may be stored for viewing later or displayed

in real-time. (Yvette & Tai- Kim, 2013).Tony, (2015) also stated that 3D graphics compared to 2D

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graphics are graphics that use a three- dimensional representation of geometric data. For the

purpose of performance, this is stored in the computer. This includes images that may be for later

display or for real-time viewing. Despite these differences, 3D computer graphics rely on

similar algorithms as 2D computer graphics do in the frame and raster graphics (like in 2D) in the

final rendered display. In computer graphics software, the distinction between 2D and 3D is

occasionally blurred; 2D applications may use 3D techniques to achieve effects such as lighting,

and primarily 3D may use 2D rendering techniques. 3D computer graphics are the same as 3D

models. The model is contained within the graphical data file, apart from the rendering.

Computer animation is the art of creating moving images via the use of computers. It is a

subfield of computer graphics and animation (Nicolae, 2014). Increasingly it is created by means

of 3D computer graphics, though 2D computer graphics are still widely used for stylistic, low

bandwidth, and faster real-time rendering needs. Sometimes the target of the animation is the

computer itself, but sometimes the target is another medium, such as film. It is also referred to as

CGI (Computer-generated imagery or computer-generated imaging), especially when used in

films. Virtual entities may contain and be controlled by assorted attributes, such as transform

values (location, orientation, and scale) stored in an object's transformation matrix. The animation

is the visible change of an attribute over time (Matt, 2011).

Other methods of animation include procedural and expression-based techniques: the

former consolidates related elements of animated entities into sets of attributes, useful for

creating particle effects and crowd simulations. To create the illusion of movement, an image is

displayed on the computer screen then quickly replaced by a new image that is similar to the

previous image, but shifted slightly. This technique is identical to the illusion of movement is

achieved with television and motion pictures, (Gianmaria, Roberto & Giampaolo, 2011).

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A pixel (or picture element) is a single point in a raster image. Pixels are placed on a regular

2-dimensional grid and are often represented using dots or squares (Dan, 2011).

Graphics are visual presentations on a surface, such as a computer screen. Examples are

photographs, drawing, graphics designs, maps, engineering drawings, or other images. Graphics

often combine text and illustration. Graphic design may consist of the deliberate selection,

creation, or arrangement of typography alone, as in a brochure, flier, poster, website, or book

without any other element.

Parminder, (2013) attested that Rendering is the process of generating a 2D image from a

3D model, by means of a software program. It would contain geometry, viewpoint, texture and

lighting information. The term "rendering" may be by analogy with an "artist's rendering" of a

scene. Though the technical details of rendering methods vary, the general challenges to overcome

in producing a 2D image from a 3D representation stored in a scene file are outlined as the graphics

pipeline along a rendering device, such as a GPU. A GPU is a device able to assist the CPU in

calculations. If a scene is to look relatively realistic and predictable under virtual lighting, the

rendering software should solve the rendering equation. The rendering equation does not account

for all lighting phenomena but is a general lighting model for computer-generated imagery.

'Rendering' is also used to describe the process of calculating effects in a video editing file to

produce final video output (Faxin, Zheming & Hao, 2011).

3-D modeling is the process of developing a mathematical, wireframe representation of

any three-dimensional object, called “3d model”, via specialized software (Demosthenes, 2009).

Models may be created automatically or manually; the manual modeling process of preparing

geometric data for 3D computer graphics is similar to plastic arts such as sculpting. A 3D model

can be displayed as a two-dimensional image through a process called 3D rendering, used in

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a computer simulation of physical phenomena, or animated directly for other purposes. The model

can also be physically created using 3D Printing devices (Dan, 2011).

Instructional values of Computer Graphics in Learning

According to Srivastava (2008), Education has continued to evolve, diversify and extend

its reach and coverage since the dawn of human history. Countries develop their socio-cultural

identity and also to meet the challenges of times. The National Educational Policy (NPE) marked

a significant step in the history of education in Nigeria. It aimed to promote national progress, a

sense of common citizenship and culture and to strengthen national integration it laid emphasis on

the need for a radical reconstruction of educational system improve its quantity at all stages and

gave much greater attention to science and technology (Aggarwal, 1990).

Computer graphics provides an attractive learning environment, which was why Paul (2011)

revealed that Do-it-yourself, student-to-student teaching, project-based learning, and student-

centered learning environments are some of the encouraging programs in learning. Also, the

integration of this Computer technology into every subject and at all grade levels allows

unprecedented levels and types of exciting collaboration and learner to learner connectivity. There

are various ways of making curriculum more interesting, enjoyable and student-centered. Like the

integration of computer graphics into courses.

Though Computer Graphics mirrors both fiction and reality, it is an art as well as science. Its

awesomeness can be explained with the way it captures and connects both fiction and reality, this

makes it play an invaluable role of fitting into any field of study such as Education, Medicine,

Entertainment, art, Anatomy, Physics, Engineering, Geography, etc. Whether you're an architect

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or a web designer, a fashion student or a scientist, computer graphics can make your work quicker,

easier, and much more effective as explained by (Chris, 2015).

Computer Graphics provides the full thrill of catching and freezing moments, scenes and

facial expressions, it is basically the medium used to give life to an imagination through creativity.

3-D and 2-D computer graphics, for instance, are produced with computer graphics softwares

(Adobe Animate, Adobe Photoshop, CorelDRAW, Toon boom, Autodesk Maya etc.) these

graphics softwares provides a priceless help towards the design and production of attractively

motivating instructional media to help students with easy comprehension of subject matter for the

achievement of instructional objectives, with computer technology, Web-based learning has

become a common choice in education institutions (Bauer, 2002). These multimedia components

get and hold learners’ interest, which many researchers believe is important when teaching the

video generation (Jonassen, 2000). Using these techniques, the most widely used asynchronous

online learning tool is courses primarily posted in visual text and static graphics (Liles, 2004).

Adobe Animate (formerly Adobe Flash Professional) is a multimedia authoring and

computer animation program developed by Adobe Systems. Animate is mostly used to design

vector graphics and animation, and publish the same for television programs, online video,

websites, web applications, rich internet applications, and video games. The program also offers

support for raster graphics, rich text, audio and video embedding, and ActionScript scripting. It

was first released in 1996 as FutureSplash Animator and then renamed Macromedia Flash upon

its acquisition by Macromedia. It was created to serve as the main authoring environment for the

Adobe Flash platform, vector-based software for creating animated and interactive content. It was

renamed Adobe Animate in 2016 to better reflect its market position then since over a third of all

content created in Animate uses HTML5.

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Adobe Photoshop which is another Adobe Systems’ product is a raster graphics editor

which has to edit or render text, vector graphics, 3D graphics, and video. It was developed and

published by Adobe Systems for Windows and OS X (Adobe systems, 2016). Photoshop was

created in 1988 by Thomas and John Knoll. Since then, it has become the de facto industry standard

in raster graphics editing, such that the word "Photoshop" has become a verb as in "to Photoshop

an image," " photoshopping " and " Photoshop contest ". Photoshop continues to be the best way

to edit photos and accomplish great stylish choices with ease (CoryIsBatman, 2016). Photoshop

pixel-based which means it can be used for editing programmes developed and published by

Adobe systems. It is the current market leader for commercial image manipulation and the leading

image editing programme in the world. Burke (2011) indicates that Photoshop is a market standard

image editing software. In Fashion, it is used for editing and correcting digital photos and prepare

images for mood/storyboard, magazines, and posters. It can be used to create designs for wall

hangings and print designs for fabrics and ‘Tee’ shirts. It can also be used to make basic patterns,

figures, simple garments and garment features with the aid of grids and guides. It is also used to

create digital design portfolio which provides visual evidence of capabilities, strengths, and

qualities. Digital portfolio allows students to send their work to any part of the world.

CorelDraw is a vector graphics developed and marketed by Corel Corporation. It was

revealed by CREL (2008) that Corel Corporation is Canadian computer software, with a vector-

based illustration programme developed to bundle with desktop publishing systems. Additionally,

it stated that it is the first software which combines vector graphics software with a photo editing

programme. It has a full range of editing tools that allow users to adjust contrast and colour

balance. CREL (2008) stated that CorelDraw is capable of handling multiple master layers from

within the main programme. CorelDraw is used to make a simple technical drawing, create figures,

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garments and garment features with the aid of grids and guides, design textile fabric, embroidery,

mood board, and collage for wall hanging and develop presentations for the screen and for print

(Joyce, Vivian & Eunice, 2013).

Wolff (2004) attested that One of the widely distributed and popular tools for creating 3D

modeling and animation is Autodesk Maya (formerly Alias Maya). Autodesk Maya is an

application used to generate 3D assets for use in film, television, game development and

architecture (Wikipedia, 2016). it renders out 2-D images but it really isn’t used for that as there

are 2-D computer graphics which are specifically made for that e.g. Adobe Animate (formerly

known as Adobe Flash Professional) and Toon Boom. it is a 3D computer graphics software that

runs on Windows, OSX, and Linux. it was originally developed by Alias Systems Corporation

(formerly Alias| Wavefront) and currently owned and developed by Autodesk, Inc. It is used to

create interactive 3D applications, including video games, animated film, TV series, or visual

effects (Wikipedia, 2016). Industry usage of Maya has been used to create graphics for many

cinematic films with Pixar 's RenderMan, including the Academy Award winners, Monsters, Inc.,

The Matrix, Spider- Man, The Girl with the Dragon Tattoo, Avatar, Finding Nemo, Up, Hugo,

Rango, and Frozen. It is also used to create visual effects for television programs, including Game

of Thrones, The Walking Dead, Once Upon a Time, Bones, Futurama, Boardwalk Empire and

South Park. Maya is involved in creating the visual effects for video games, including Halo 4.

Maya has also been used as a tool to create digital paintings (Wikipedia, 2016). This software is

one of the widely distributed and popular tools for creating 3D modeling and animation through

its artistic way of creating digital models of real or imaginary objects, it also allows the addition

of colors and textures, lighting, and virtual motion to the models created. The digital animation

process is reminiscent of some traditional means of animation, such as claymation or stop-motion

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animation, but is done entirely within the three-dimensional virtual space displayed on the

computer monitor. The output is in the form of a digital movie file that can then be finished with

sound, credits, and music

Toon Boom Animation Inc. is a 2-D computer graphics software used in the Film and TV

animation industry for its professional-quality 2D animation production capabilities. It contains

the tools required to handle cutout (puppet), paperless frame-by-frame and traditional animation

workflows from scanning to compositing and 2D/3D integration (Wikipedia, 2016). Its toolset

includes pencil lines with textures, deformation tools, morphing, inverse kinematics, particles,

built-in compositor, 3D camera and 2D-3D integration. When used as a paperless animation

solution, users can draw animation directly into the software, using a graphics tablet. is a Canadian

software company that specializes in animation production and storyboarding software. This

animation software company is a division of Corus Entertainment. Toon Boom develops animation

and storyboarding software for film, television, web animation, games, mobile devices, training

applications, and education. In 2005, the Academy of Arts and Sciences of Television Awarded

Toon Boom Animation a Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Achievement in Engineering

Development for USAnimation Opus (Wikipedia, 2016). In 2012, the Academy of Television Arts

& Sciences awarded Toon Boom a second Primetime Emmy Award for Outstanding Achievement

in Engineering, this time for Storyboard Pro, recognizing its significant impact in the industry. The

following year, in 2013, the International Animated Film Society, ASIFA-HOLLYWOOD

awarded Toon Boom Animation an Annie Award, namely the Ub Iwerks Award for Special

Achievements in Animation.

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Limitations

The cost of Computer: Within the past decade, virtually all disciplines have been affected by

computers (Joyce, 2016), for the design and production of instructional media in Education,

workstations are essential if work is to be done effectively. Workstations offered higher

performance than mainstream personal computers, especially with respect to CPU and graphics,

memory capacity, and multitasking capability. Workstations were optimized for

the visualization and manipulation of different types of complex data such as 3D mechanical

design, engineering simulation (e.g., computational fluid dynamics), animation and rendering of

images, and mathematical plots (Wikipedia, 2016).

Lack of qualified teachers to teach computer graphics in schools: the need for computer graphics

in Nigeria today is on the high side and the number of qualified teachers to teach it is on the low

side. (Ukaoha, 2009) Proper management of computing facilities and the information they generate

aids in no small measure in promoting better teaching methods and understanding in the classroom

and laboratory. Though there are so many students willing to be taught computer graphics the lack

of knowledge on the part of the teacher poses a serious problem to the teaching of the course in

Nigerian university system. Hence Agbamu (2004) stated that teachers might find it difficult to

deliver the appropriate education and training to their students.

Fear of Indispensable: the teacher may be afraid of being rendered irrelevant due to the

introduction of computers in all aspect of education. The ‘feel’ that the teacher remains an authority

and know it all in the class which the teacher cherish which makes them otherwise is deemed an

enemy of class (Ohiwerei, Franklin, Azih, N and Okoli, 2013).

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Epileptic Power Supply: Nigeria being a developing country cannot boast of twenty-four hours of

power supply to its citizens. The institutions are directly electricity companies in Nigeria, yet no

adequate electricity power supply to the institutions (Ohiwerei, et al…2013).

Technicality: the teacher has to consider the audience knowledge to interpret i.e. the instructional

medium has to cater for all the students in the class, which makes this a strenuous task for the

teacher.

Expensive Softwares: Many people mistakenly believe that computers are what makes the world

go round – which we can’t do anything without them, and if they went away tomorrow, the world

would slip into a cultural black hole. In reality, computers don’t make the world go round Software

does (http://www.intertech.com/Blog/13-expensive-software-products/). And sometimes that

software gets quite expensive (keygensoul1b.cf/expensive-music-production-software.html).

Computer Graphics in the Design and Production Instructional Media

Beattie (1999) asserted that whether using a commercially purchased program or a

custom designed program it is important to link the use of the instructional media to the course

instructional objectives. He also confirmed that an instructional medium is a tool for teaching,

not necessarily a solution for teaching problems. Instructional medium is only as effective as

the instructor using it is. The instructor must distinguish between entertaining the students

and teaching the students. It is very easy for the message of the material to be lost in the

gimmicks and glitz of the program package. Great care must be taken when choosing and/or

designing instructional media for instructional purposes, while attention to choosing the

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appropriate hardware and software for the classroom is prerequisite, it is the skill and attitude

of the educator that determines the effectiveness of technology integration into the curriculum

(Bitner & Bitner, 2002).

Design only begins to assume some meaning or value when it is implemented. The goal of

instructional design is to create successful learning experiences and to engender transfer of

training. Instructional Design (ISD) provides a road map to guide designers and instructors through

the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation to the goal (ADDIE) (Rieber,

2000).

The ADDIE model is a framework that lists generic processes that instructional

designers and training developers use. It represents a descriptive guideline for building effective

training and performance support tools in five phases (Wikipedia, 2016).

i. Analysis

ii. Design

iii. Development

iv. Implementation

v. Evaluation

ADDIE is an Instructional Systems Design (ISD) framework. Most current ISD

models are variations of the ADDIE process. Other models include the Dick & Carey and

Kemp ISD models. A prototype is a basic working model of a product or information system,

usually built for demonstration purposes or as part of the development process. That is, even

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though video may have been selected as the instructional medium, non-video materials can

be developed first to test various aspects of the instructional design. Rapid prototyping is a

commonly used alternative to this approach; rapid prototyping is the idea of reviewing

continual or formative feedback while creating instructional materials. This model strives to

save time and money by catching problems while they are still easy to fix. A more recent

expression of rapid prototyping is SAM (successive approximation model) (Wikipedia, 2016).

Instructional theories also play an important role in the design of instructional

materials/media. Theories such as behaviorism, constructivism, social learning,

and cognitivist help shape and define the outcome of instructional materials/media.

-Phases of ADDIE

Analysis phase:

If a software were to be selected as the instructional media it needs to be clear and

straightforward. In one sense, a computer graphics software is simply one more thing for the user

to deal with in an already complex world. It is arguably even more important to design instructional

software with a clear and easy-to-understand Interface connects the than other kinds of software

since the purpose of instructional software is to teach (or to help students learn) about some content

or domain. (Lloyd, 2000) stated that Time spent just figuring out how to use the software will

obviously distract and detract from the instructional value of the software. Therefore, students are

to be tutored before the beginning of the class.

Wikipedia (2016) The analysis phase addresses the instructional problems, as well as the

objectives, then identifies the learning environment and learner's previous knowledge and skills.

Examples of questions the analysis phase addresses include:

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i. Who are the learners and what are their characteristics?

ii. What is the desired new behavior?

iii. What types of learning constraints exist?

iv. What are the delivery options?

v. What are the pedagogical considerations?

vi. What adult learning theory considerations apply?

vii. What is the timeline for project completion?

Design phase:

Richard (2013) reported that the design phase deals with learning objectives, assessment

instruments, exercises, content, subject matter analysis, and lesson planning and media selection.

The design phase should be systematic and specific.

These are steps used for the design phase:

i. Documentation of the project's instructional, visual and technical design strategy

ii. Apply instructional strategies according to the intended behavioral outcomes by domain

(cognitive, affective, and psychomotor).

iii. Create storyboards

iv. Design the user interface and user experience

v. Prototype creation

vi. Apply visual design (graphic design)

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Beginning the design phase involves drafting a lesson plan and revising until a lesson script

is written. The script is the starting point for the development phase. After the first drafts of the

instructional mediums are produced, the process of formative evaluation begins. Instructional

Design should be seen as a construct referring to the step-by-step prescriptive procedure for

producing instructional media in a consistent and reliable fashion so as to facilitate learning most

effectively. Traditional perceptions of instructional design at the lesson level start with identifying

lesson objectives as step one of the whole process (Thomas, 2010). Although the intent of ISD is

to continually remain open to revision, there is a tendency to avoid questioning the appropriateness

of the lesson objectives after they have been identified. Instructional design models provide a

systematic approach of implementing the instructional design process for a specific educational

initiative (Morrison, Ross & Kemp, 2004).

Cennamo and Kalk (2005) stated that the job of an instructional designer is to work with

subject matter experts to translate “their needs and desires into the design specifications that will

yield a successful product”. According to (Suciati, 2015), most academics will need to consult

with instructional designers to ensure that the technologies they choose and use will teach the

concepts effectively and meet their students’ needs. So, the instructional designer is to observe

students' early reactions to the materials. Only the major weaknesses of the design can be identified

at this stage. All along the way, feedback from each field test is used to successively revise the

design from which new materials are produced.

Rapid prototyping refers to a class of technologies that can automatically construct physical

models from Computer-Aided-Design (CAD) (Stan (2006), Biswanath (2004), Grifoni & Patrizia

(2009),) data describes a design philosophy based on the idea that design, production, and

implementation can never be separated and distinguished from one another. Rapid prototyping

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presumes that most important aspects of design, including even a complete understanding of the

problem (and therefore, the identification of the lesson objectives), can only be determined as a

consequence of constructing and testing prototypes. In this way, design and development become

in a sense, one process, though perhaps separated into individual activities and tasks to simplify

managing the process. If design and development act as one process, the final definition of the

lesson objectives can only be accomplished as a result of the prototyping phase (Rieber, 2000).

Development phase:

Development Steps

In this stage Beattie (1999) also proposed that there are four major development steps that

must be considered when embarking on a project involving the production of instructional media:

i. Identify Need

ii. What course will the instructional medium be used in?

iii. What instructional objectives will be achieved?

iv. Is there a comparable commercially available software? There is no point in investing a lot

of time, energy, and creativity into designing a media that is already available

commercially.

v. What are the instructor's goals for the use of the program?

In the development phase, instructional designers and developers create and assemble

content assets blueprinted in the design phase. In this phase, the designers create storyboards

and graphics (Wikipedia, 2016). Storyboarding and prototyping are key parts of the

instructional design process that should not be skipped. Starting the overall design process

with a storyboard provides a high-level outline of the intended outcomes of the module, and
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is an effective way to gather ideas in a graphical format before moving on the physical

prototype. Interface prototyping then allows instructional designers to map out the navigation

of a training module and garner feedback from stakeholders and users early in the design

process. Gathering this information helps designers make decisions about the layout and

placement of elements, such as buttons, images, and clickable interactions within the overall

arrangement of an interface (Sean, 2014).

Implementation phase:

The implementation phase develops procedures for training facilitators and learners.

Training facilitators cover the course curriculum, learning outcomes, method of delivery, and

testing procedures. Preparation for learners includes training them on new tools (software or

hardware) and student registration. Implementation includes evaluation of the design (Khanifatur,

2014).

Evaluation phase:

The evaluation phase consists of two aspects: formative and summative. Formative

evaluation is present in each stage of the ADDIE process, while summative evaluation is

conducted on finished instructional programs or products Wikipedia (2016), Beattie, (1999) also

emphasized this by stating that It is important that the instructional media include some form of

evaluation. Assessment techniques should be chosen based on their appropriateness in evaluating

the stated goals for the use of the program. These techniques could include: • Pre / post testing to

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assess student learning • Administration of student opinion surveys • Documenting instructor

observations and reactions

Clynes and Rafferty (2008) affirmed that Feedback is an essential element, therefore, users

need simple and direct feedback as they interact with the instructional medium (Softwares) to let

them know if the intended action has been completed, in most cases this is usually achieved with

a Programmed Instruction. Once users complete some action sequence, the system must tell the

users if they have been successful. Instructional Softwares should take into account a variety of

learners with a variety of needs and situational conditions and should also reward users for an

exploratory attitude. Likewise, software should not penalize users for making mistakes in their

attempts to questions.

Following the establishment of the ADDIE model, Rieber (2000) at the same time

attested that one can produce computer graphics on microcomputer (personal computers)

systems in essentially one of three ways:

i. Command-based approach

ii. GUI-based approach

iii. Use of "second-hand" graphics (clip art, scanned/digitized images, etc.)

The command-based approach involves algorithmic processes for defining a graphic,

such as the writing of programming code using special graphics commands particular to the

programming language (e.g., PASCAL, C, BASIC, and LOGO) (Rieber, 2000).

The GUI-based approach is based on the graphical user interface and involves graphic

tools such as "pencils," "brushes," "fill buckets," "box makers," etc.

(www.nowhereroad.com). GUIbased approaches most commonly use input devices such as a

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mouse, light pens, and graphic tablets, although some of the earliest GUI-based approaches

used the keyboard. microcomputer systems now use the GUI-based approach as their status

quo.

The Similarity between static graphics and animated graphics is that an animated graphics

can be produced either by a command-based or GUI-based approach. The Production of animated

displays with command-based approaches are really just extensions of the techniques discussed in

relation to static graphics. On the other hand, GUI-based approaches vary greatly from one

animation package to another. It is useful to understand development issues of animated displays

in terms of two animation designs: fixed-path and data-driven (Rieber, 2000).

Fixed-path animation is analogous to choreographing a movie sequence. The same exact

animation is supposed to happen the same way, in the same place, at the same time, each and every

time the sequence is executed. Fixed-path animation, therefore, is a good technique when a design

calls for a specific presentation of an animated sequence. However, many GUI animation packages

offer the ability to record the real-time motion of a screen object while a user simply moves it

around the screen. The software can then play back the animation just as it was "performed." The

software does all the dirty work for the developer, such as storing and processing all of the

mathematical operations actually responsible for the animation to take place (Rieber, 2000).

Rieber (2000) findings reported that visually based simulations, such as flight simulators

and video games, are good examples of what we will call data-driven animation. By Lloyd’s

definition, animation is produced in real-time, or in the actual time that the user watches the

display. In this manner, the animation gives the students a visual feedback so they interact with

the simulation moment to moment. Obviously, there is no way to anticipate when or if a particular

student will "dive" or "climb." Instead, a mathematical model of the physical environment being

35
simulated should be programmed into the computer so as to refresh the graphics realistically in

order to create the illusion that the student is actually controlling the "plane." Whereas fixed-path

animation does only one thing, data-driven animation, theoretically, can produce an infinite

number of displays with a finite amount of information. Both fixed-path and data-driven animation

can be manipulated in one, two, or three dimensions on most microcomputer systems. For

simplicity, the next several sections will deal exclusively with one or two dimensions (Rieber,

2000).

The computer screen acts as the only “doorway” to the rest of the software. Screen design

walks a fine line between incompleteness and excessiveness. The design of any one computer

frame is defined as Frame Protocol. The design of two or more related frames, as well as how two

or more lesson parts are related or bridged, is defined as Procedural Protocol (Rieber, 2000).

A fundamental principle of frame design is step size, which is the amount of information

presented in any one frame according to Rieber (2000). Step size is an important consideration

when designing and producing a programmed instruction, given the tendency for instructional

software to teach with presentation techniques such as explanations (although some would argue

that presenting long, involved explanations is usually not considered a very appropriate use of the

computer and is probably better suited for print-based materials).

In a programmed Instruction, for instance, Rieber (2000) confirmed that whether designing

instructional question, or transitional frames, there will be a constant struggle to make the most

important information jump out at the user while having less important information remain

unobtrusive, yet supportive. Therefore, there will always be a strong need to effectively direct a

student's attention to the most relevant and salient information in the display.

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Question frames provide any assortment of interactive situations in which students practice

with the material at whatever level is appropriate (such as recall, recognition, or application).

Transitional frames frequently act as bridges between major parts of the instruction.

Rieber (2000) affirmed that the concept of distribution of emphasis refers to designing a

frame so that a user attends to the most important information and be distracted by other

information. Two approaches are typically used to increase a user's awareness of key information:

cosmetic-based and information-based amplification techniques. Sometimes, as in advertising,

these techniques are used in reverse to make critical information (such as the finance rate) as

difficult to notice as possible, while complying with federal or state laws that require such

information to be disclosed.

Two main types of GUI-based graphics packages are obtainable, painting packages and

drawing packages, which are named closely after the way the graphics are stored. Paint packages

are analogous to painting or printing directly on a sheet of paper with a pencil or pen. Graphics

produced by painting packages e.g. Autodesk Maya and Cinema 4D, for example, can only be

saved as a bitmap. as an artist working with traditional drawing materials, a computer graphic is

produced in a GUI-based approach by alternately selecting tools, functions, effects, and other

features (e.g. color). Most GUI packages are object-oriented, meaning that as objects are drawn

they retain their separate identities. This allows them to be moved, edited, and copied. Hence,

anyone drawing is comprised of a collection of individual objects (Rieber, 2000).

Rieber (2000) revealed that despite lots of features and effects that graphics applications

now provide and the much more they will provide in the future, there always will exist two inherent

user limitations related to creating an original computer graphic, talent and time. Educational

technologists should increasingly turn to two alternative methods to get high-quality computer

37
graphics in their materials. Neither method demands much talent because, instead of creating an

original graphic from scratch, you either find and borrow a graphic drawn by someone else or take

a photograph and convert the picture to digital form. We will refer to these as "second-hand"

graphics to distinguish them from the graphics a user draws from scratch.

According to Rieber (2000), the most popular form of second-hand graphics is called clip

art files. The idea is simple: instructional designers which are educational technologists, in this

case, are hired to draw a collection of graphics using common graphics applications (Corel draw,

Photoshop, Maya and so on. The files can be used in an instructional setting by students who can

load, use, and edit the files as if they had drawn the graphics themselves, the idea of clip art is not

new; it has been used for many years in the printing industry. Although many companies produce

and sell clip art, computer user groups frequently swap graphics files among member.

Animation is an illusion that tricks a person into seeing something that really isn’t there.

This trick is used to induce the perception of a moving object on the computer screen and involves

creating a series of carefully timed "draw, erase, move, draw" sequences. In order for a convincing

real-time animation to be produced, the computer must be able to complete about 16 of these

sequences in one second. The mathematical model is essentially the same behind both command-

based and GUI-based approaches. The difference is simply that in a command-based approach the

user must actually program the mathematics of the algorithm into the computer (Rieber, 2000).

Frame-by-frame animation, as the name insinuates, is when a successive frame is designed

in a progressive manner so that when shown in rapid succession at the right rate, one or more

objects appear to move. This is the same technique as the one used to create paper and pencil

animation where the object to be animated is drawn at slight variations from page to page.

Animation is produced by flipping through the pages at just the right speed with your thumb.

38
Frame-by-frame animation is the oldest form of animation and is the same technique used by the

most sophisticated examples of film animation, such as Disney, whether drawn by hand or by

computer (Rieber, 2000).

The place of Computer Graphics in Teaching and Learning of Educational Technology

The birth of pictorial forms of teaching has been observed to have developed as a

counterpart to verbal forms of teaching (Lowe, 2004; Lasseter, 2000; Mosenthal, 2000). Although

verbal ways of presentation have long dominated education, the addition of visual forms of

presentation has enhanced students’ understanding (Mayer, 1999; Sweller, 1999). In fact, some

disciplines are taught in universities which deal with dynamic subject matter, and animation or

graphic illustration is more favoured as a way of addressing the difficulties which arise when

presenting such matters verbally or numerically (Lowe, 2004).

(Lucia, et al…2007) The most popular software and tools available for special and

mainstream Education are based on 2D graphics and web pages, with interactive content organized

depending on the specific area of knowledge to work with. Most of these applications have

interactive games to work in most of the areas included in the school curriculum. In most of them,

you can find contents in these four topics: Tools to work on social skills: In this area, it is possible

to find games or interactive lessons to learn about personal cleanliness, products for personal

cleanliness, external appearance, clothes, kitchen utensils and the rules and usage of kitchen

utensils. Tools to work on cognitive skills: In this area, there are applications to learn about

colours, shapes, basic concepts, objects classification, order, likenesses and differences, Tools to

39
work on written language and tools to work on numeric skills: Where you can find concepts like

decimal numeration, addition, and subtraction.

Tversky (2002) reported that another of the newer, attractive graphic devices is animation.

By the Congruence Principle, it should be a natural for conveying concepts of change, just as space

in graphics is a natural for conveying actual space. Moreover, little is known about the way

animation needs to be designed in order to aid learning (Plötzner & Lowe, 2004) and not to act

solely as a way to gain aesthetic attraction. Animation should, in principle, be effective for

expressing processes such as weather patterns or circuit diagrams or the circulatory system or the

mechanics of a bicycle pump. And, just as real space is effective for conveying metaphoric space,

real change should be a natural for conveying metaphoric change, such as the spread of cultural

inventions like writing, agriculture or metallurgy, the transmission of control in an organization,

or the changes in production of various industries over time. Given the breadth of concepts for

which Animation seems appropriate and the increasing accessibility of computer tools for

animating, the enthusiasm for animation is understandable (Tversky, 2002).

Graphics have been used since ancient times to portray things that are inherently

spatiovisual, like maps and building plans. More recently, graphics have been used to portray

things that are metaphorically spatiovisual, like graphs and organizational charts. The Educational

Significance of graphic aids as enumerated by Mudasir and Aqueel, (2012) is to help in Showing

relationship by means of facts, figures, and statistics; understanding of abstract concepts and ideas

in visual form; securing the attention of the pupils by their attractive format and simplicity of

layout; Gaining of concepts of size, distance, space, location and direction by means of maps;

developing the power of analysis, synthesis and deriving conclusions from a data; and the grasping

40
of information easily. The inculcation of Graphics into teaching to achieve instructional objectives

would be helpful especially in the field of Educational technology.

According to AECT (2004) The history of Educational Technology as a field has recorded

the many research programs initiated in response to new technologies by investigating their best

design, development, utilization, and management. Galbraith (1967) stated that the word

“technological” is a shorthand term that describes an approach to human activity based on the

definition of technology as “the systematic application of scientific or other organized knowledge

to practical tasks”. Technological is a way of thinking that is neatly summarized in one word. The

term modifies both processes and resources. First, it modifies processes. There are “non-

technological” processes that could be used in planning and implementing instruction, such as the

everyday decision-making processes of teachers, which may be significantly different from those

advocated in Educational technology. The field advocates the use of processes that have some

claim of worthy results, based on research or reflective development. Without the “technological”

modifier, any sorts of models, protocols, or formulations could be included in the ambit of

educational technology, blurring the boundaries with Curriculum and Instruction or education in

general. Second, the term also modifies resources, the hardware and software entailed in

teaching—still or animated pictures, multimedia, audiocassettes, satellite uplinks and computer

programs etc. To ignore these definitions would be to create a greater communication gap between

specialists and non-specialist readers (AECT, 2004). Educational technologists often employ

specialized processes to design, develop, and produce learning resources, subsumed into a larger

process of instructional development. Individuals construct their own knowledge and gain

ownership based on their struggles to make sense of their experience. If teaching-learning

experience is abstracted from real-world application and limited to what is being controlled and

41
possessed by the teacher, it diminishes the likelihood of learner engagement, mastery, and transfer

of the skill. Resources are essential in Educational Technology as AECT (2004) defines Resources

as people, tools, technologies, and materials designed to help learners. Resources can include high-

tech ICT systems, community resources such as libraries, zoos, museums, and people with special

knowledge or expertise.

The computer is a great resource judging from how it can quickly carry out the calculations

and generate images (static or animated) that students can then observe. It also promotes

interactivity, for example, Bailey (2007) attested that the use of an interactive animation software

in a classroom, students can engage in inquiry based learning much more readily, as they can make

predictions and then examine immediately how changes in a chemical system will impact various

processes. Studying concepts becomes very dynamic. The result of changing variables is

immediately apparent

The assumption is that graphics can facilitate comprehension, learning, memory,

communication and inference. Assumptions aside, research on static graphics has shown that only

carefully designed and appropriate graphics prove to be beneficial for conveying complex systems

(Tversky, 2002). Effective graphics conform to the Congruence Principle according to which the

content and format of the graphic should correspond to the content and format of the concepts to

be conveyed. From this, it follows that animated graphics should be effective in portraying change

over time. Yet the research on the efficacy of animated over static graphics is not encouraging. In

cases where animated graphics seem superior to static ones, scrutiny reveals a lack of equivalence

between animated and static graphics in content or procedures; the animated graphics convey more

information or involve interactivity.

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Computer graphics is a very wide discipline, so we want to focus our attention on one type

of these kinds of applications, the Real Time ones. Their main characteristics are the use of 3D

graphics, a very important degree of interaction, a realistic answer to the user actions and

immersive possibilities, depending on the equipment used (Young scientist, 2015).

The functions of graphics in learning are not limited to presenting visual information to

students, but also asking them to create them. Creating visual artifacts or inscriptions appears to

be motivating to students, especially when they share their products with fellow students.

Furthermore, developing the visuals forces students to consider the important elements and

relationships in a topic and also to identify what information they understand and what they do not

(Roberson, 2012). Thus, the creation of graphics can be used to enhance comprehension and

memory for to-be-learned information.

(Faruk, 2015) Visual displays are frequently useful for representing relationships amongst

elements (e.g. a Venn diagram, a text-based graphic organizer, a scientific model). One benefit of

such representations is that they can facilitate problem-solving. Another benefit is that they provide

a concrete representation of key concepts or elements and their relationships. Again, graphic

organizers are often used to represent relationships among the main ideas in a text. For example,

information in a text can be summarized in a matrix form such that similar concepts are closer

together along one or more dimensions. Research has suggested that representations that group

relevant concepts, such as matrices, can significantly enhance memory for text compared to

representations that simply summarize materials, such as outlines.

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Appraisal of Reviewed literature

The literature reviewed so far revealed the works of past researchers in related topic. The

study is designed to investigate the Impact of computer graphics in the design and production of

instructional media by educational technology students, Research findings have proved the

tremendous help that computer graphics give in the design and production of instructional media

all over the world. For effective use of the media and for the realization of the advantages they can

offer, the proliferation of the virtual imagery created with computers into television and movies

has demanded a workforce of trained artists to produce it. The nature of the computer production

process demands that these artists work together in managed teams with a common goal for the

production (Gardner, 2002). Training to become a computer artist has meant learning the skills of

traditional graphic communication and expression, as well as developing traditional animation

skills and the requisite understanding of the tools of Computer Generated Imagery which is same

as Computer Graphics. Therefore, educational technologists must gear their efforts towards

improving on the techniques of media design utilization for global instructional development

According to Lloyd, (2000) he confirmed that the use of a computer for slide shows and

for graphic presentations using Microsoft Power Point programme, during seminars and

workshops are common in our tertiary institutions. In businesses, computer graphics are used to

display performance chart like income and expenditure for a given period of time. In education,

computer graphics is being frequently used to illustrate geometric mathematics and scientific

principles. Equations and physical laws can be easily translated into two and three-dimensional

animations that provide students with an alternative visual insight into the world of mathematical

symbols and also used in companies by operators to understand the Trends of their business by

Forecasting through statistical charts. Industrial designers, engineers, and architects also use

44
computer graphics to draw buildings, design engines, new cars through the use of computer

software known as Computer Aided Design or CAD. With the CAD multi-dimensional objects

could be designed.

The review has also shown Computer Graphics to be an information and communication

technology (ICT) in teaching and learning. Williams & Agbo (2013) indicated that there is scarcely

a field of human activity today that has not been touched by the dramatic changes in information

and communication technology (ICT) for the past 10-15 years, Evidence of this can be seen in the

process of learning in classrooms as it has been effective towards the betterment of Teaching

because students gain access to new and different types of information. Thus it enhances their

achievements and skills. Technology is strongly needed by students, makes instruction to be more

student-centered, encourages co-operative learning and increase student/student and

student/teacher interaction. It increases courses for which computer based instructions are used. It

was discovered that innovation of computer system has given rise to computer graphics learning

in the global society, as a result, enhancing teaching and learning in schools. Computer generated

media are effective in teaching and learning and their adoption for instructional use would enhance

learning for students of different ability Level. Computer graphics could introduce innovations and

spread ideas to a large audience within a short time. It could, therefore, be noted that effective

content integration takes time and new technology may have glitches (Allen, 2006).

The summary of the reviewed literature shows that previous research on Computer-

Assisted-Information CAI, CBI, CMI, CAD have been identified to have inherent capabilities and

attributes, which can be utilized to provide the learner with rich and simulating learning

experiences. Moreover, some researchers have established that no one mode of instructional

medium is more successful than another in transmitting information to be learned by all learners.

45
Most studies have revealed that computer generated media affects the achievements of the learner.

Studies have established that the richer and greater the degree of realism of information presented

to the learners, the greater the degree of acquisition, retention, recalling, transfer of learning events

by them (Allen, 2006).

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CHAPTER THREE

In this chapter, the research discusses the method and procedure used to carry out the study.
The details of the research methodology are being discussed under the following headings:

I. Research type
II. Sample and sampling technique
III. Research instrument
IV. Instrument validation
V. Procedure for data collection
VI. Data analysis

Research Type

The method adopted for the study was descriptive research of the survey type. More simply
put, Descriptive research is used to describe characteristics of a population or phenomenon being
studied. The idea of a descriptive survey is to collect data through an instrument and analyze the
collected data through the instrument.

Sample and Sampling Techniques

The population for this study consists of students in the department of Educational
Technology. The target population were all 200, 300 and 400 level of educational technology
students. 100 level students were exempted because they have little or no knowledge of computer
graphics.

Research Instrument

The research instrument that was an adapted questionnaire. It was constructed in such a way
that will elicit a direct answer from the respondents. The questionnaire consists of questions which

47
were discussed under three sections A, B, C and D based on the research questions. Section A:
focuses on the level of the respondents for the purpose of analysis, section B, C and D: consists of
statements to elucidate information from students on computer graphics. The items were rated on
a modified four-point Likert scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), disagree (D) and strongly
disagree (SD).

Instrument Validation

The questionnaire was given to the researcher’s supervisor and as further given to 3 other
lecturers in the department for further face and content validity together with the reliability
coefficient of 0.8.

Procedure for Data Collection

The researcher seeks for permission from the Head of Department of Educational
Technology. This gives the researcher the privilege to personally administer the questionnaire to
the students. The researcher was available to the students to give additional and necessary
information the students might need in filling the questionnaire and the instruments were collected
at the completion of the questionnaire.

Data Analysis Techniques

The analysis of data was carried out using descriptive statistics and all the data collected
were analysed using frequency count and percentages.

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CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND RESULTS

This chapter presents the analysis and results obtained from the data based on research

questions stated in chapter one. The results are preceded by the demographic information of the

respondents.

Demographic Table

The respondents’ demographic data are presented in Tables.

Table 1: Percentage Distribution of Respondents in Educational Technology

level Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

200 29 29.0 29.0 29.0

300 34 34.0 34.0 63.0

400 37 37.0 37.0 100.0

Total 100 100.0 100.0

As indicated in Table 1, respondents from 200 level Educational Technology students were

29 (29%), 300 level were 34 (34%), and 400 level were 37 (37%), respectively. In all, the total

number of respondents was 100.

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Analysis of Research Questions

This part presents the result of the analysis on the Instructional Computer Graphics Softwares

Usage by Educational Technology students.

Research Question 1:

Table 2: frequency use of Computer Graphics Softwares

I can use this I would need I have never Mean


S/n Softwares myself help to use used this type
(%) this of software
(%) (%)
1. Photoshop 59.0 37.0 4.0 1.4500

2. Maya 4.0 41.0 55.0 2.5100

3. Adobe Flash 73.0 20.0 7.0 1.3400

4. Toonboom 18.0 47.0 35.0 2.1700

5. CorelDraw 73.0 26.0 1.0 1.2800

Table 2 revealed that, item 1 showed that 59% of the respondents claimed that they can use

Photoshop while 37% of the respondents representing 37 claimed that they would need help to use

Photoshop with the mean of 1.450, item 2 showed that 4% of the respondents answered that

Autodesk Maya is used by them while 55% selected that they have never used Autodesk Maya

with mean of 2.510, this means that Educational Technology students needs to be introduced to

Autodesk Maya for the purpose of designing and producing instructional media and be tutored on

how to use it. Item 3, 73% showed that respondents approved that they can use Adobe Flash

50
Professional while 20% chose that they would need help to use Adobe Flash Professional with

mean of 1.340,

Item 4, showed that 18 of the respondents representing 18% of claimed that they can use

Toonboom themselves, 47% of the respondents representing 47 claimed that they would need help

to use Toonboom while 35 selected that they have never used Toonboom and the mean is 2.170,

Item 5, showed that 73 respondents with 73% of the respondents claimed that they can use

CorelDraw themselves, 26% of the respondents representing 26 claimed that they would need help

to use CorelDraw while 1% representing 1 of the respondents have never used CorelDraw and the

mean is 2.5.

Research Question 2: Does Computer graphics influence the design and production of

instructional media by educational technology students?

Table 3: Influence of computer graphics on the design and production of instructional media

Computer graphics,

S/n Statement SA A D SD Mean


(%) (%) (%) (%)
1. Provides an attractive learning environment 73.0 23.0 4.0 00.0 1.3100

2. Allows students to study learning contents 53.0 42.0 5.0 00.0 1.5200
flexibly and individually
3. Saves time in the design of instructional media 63.0 36.0 1.0 00.0
1.3800

4. provides motivation and promotes interactivity 56.0 44.0 00.0 00.0 1.4400

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5. Helps make my designing of instructional media 72.0 28.0 00.0 00.0 1.2800
real and concrete

6. Softwares are expensive to purchase 53.0 35.0 8.0 4.0 1.6300

7. Makes teaching and learning concepts dynamic 40.0 40.0 20.0 00.0 1.8000

8. Facilitates comprehension, learning, memory, 42.0 46.0 10.0 2.0 1.7200


communication
9. Consumes my time as a student through gaming, 45.0 22.0 21.0 12.0 2.0000
videos etc., and as a result affects my study time
10. Provides learners with rich and simulating 69.0 31.0 00.0 00.0 1.3100
learning experiences

Table 3 revealed the Influence of computer graphics on the design and production of

instructional media. Item 1 showed that 96 respondents representing 96% agreed that Computer

Graphics Provides an attractive learning environment while 4 respondents (4%) disagreed with the

statement and the mean is 1.31. This shows that the use Computer Graphics in the Design and

Production of Instructional Media provides an attractive learning environment for Educational

technologists. Item 2 revealed that 95 respondents representing 95% agreed that computer graphics

Allows students to study learning contents flexibly and individually while 5 respondents

representing (5%) disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.52. Item 3 showed that 99

respondents representing 99% agreed that computer graphics Saves time in the design of

instructional media while 1 respondent (1%) disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.38.

Item 4 showed that 100 respondents representing 100% agreed that computer graphics

provides motivation and promotes interactivity in the design and production of instructional media,

while 0 respondents (0%) disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.4400. Item 5 showed

52
100% of the total respondents agreed that computer graphics helps in the making of their designing

of instructional media real and concrete while 4% disagreed with the statement and the mean is

1.28. Item 6 showed 88 respondents representing 88% agreed that Softwares are expensive to

purchase, while 12 respondents (12%) disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.63, Item 7

on the table showed that 80% of respondents agreed that computer graphics makes teaching and

learning concepts dynamic, while 20% of the respondents disagreed with the statement and the

mean is 1.80. Item 8 showed that 88 respondents representing 88% agreed that computer graphics

facilitates comprehension, learning, memory, communication while 12 respondents representing

12% disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.72. Item 9 showed that 90 respondents

representing 67% agreed that computer graphics consumes their time as a student through gaming,

videos etc., and as a result affects their study time while 33 respondents representing 33%

disagreed with the statement and the mean is 2.00, Item 10 showed that 100 respondents

representing 100% agreed that computer graphics provides learners with rich and simulating

learning experiences while 0% of the respondents representing 0 respondents disagreed with the

statement and the mean is 1.31.

Table 3 also revealed that computer graphics have positive influence on the Design and

production of instructional media by Educational Technology Students in University of Ilorin.

Research Question 3: What is the relevance of computer graphics on the design and production

of instructional media?

53
S/n RELEVANCE OF COMPUTER SA A D SD Mean
GRAPHICS (%) (%) (%) (%)

1. Computer graphics is relevant in 71.0 26.0 1.0 2.0 1.3400


Educational Technology
2. For web designing and social 67.0 32.0 1.0 00.0 1.3400
networking

3. Pictorial forms of teaching is more 60.0 35.0 4.0 1.0 1.4600


effective than verbal forms of
teaching
4. Computer graphics allows access to 53.0 38.0 9.0 00.0 1.5600
the design of tools to work on
cognitive skills
5. Visual displays are frequently useful 57.0 36.0 6.0 1.0 1.5100
for representing relationships
amongst elements e.g. (Venn
diagram, a text-based graphic
organizer and scientific model)
6. Computer graphics portray things 48.0 42.0 9.0 1.0 1.6300
that are inherently spatiovisual e.g.
(maps and building plans)

7. Animation or graphic illustrations 62.0 31.0 4.0 3.0 1.4800


addresses difficulties in learning
thereby essential in the design and
production of instructional media

Table 4 revealed the Relevance of computer graphics on the design and production of

instructional media. Item 1 showed that 97% respondents representing 97 agreed that Computer

54
graphics is relevant in educational technology while 3 respondents (3%) disagreed with the

statement and the mean is 1.3400. This shows that the use of Computer Graphics in the Design

and Production of Instructional Media is relevant in Educational technology. Item 2, showed that

99 respondents representing 99% agreed that computer graphics can be used for web designing

and social networking while 1% of the respondents representing 1 respondent disagreed, the mean

is 1.3400, Item 3 on the table showed that 95% of respondents agreed that Pictorial forms of

teaching is more effective than verbal forms of teaching while 5% of the respondents disagreed

with the statement and the mean is 1.460.

Item 4 showed that 91 respondents representing 91% agreed that Computer graphics allows

access to the design of tools to work on cognitive skills while 9 respondents representing 9%

disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.56. Item 5 showed that 93 respondents representing

93% agreed that Visual displays are frequently useful for representing relationships amongst

elements e.g. (Venn diagram, a text-based graphic organizer and scientific model) while 7

respondents representing 7% disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.51, Item 6 showed

that 90 respondents representing 90% agreed that Computer graphics portray things that are

inherently spatiovisual e.g. (maps and building plans) while 10% of the respondents representing

0 respondents disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.63. Item 7 showed that 93

respondents representing 93% agreed that Animation or graphic illustrations addresses difficulties

in learning thereby essential in the design and production of instructional media while 7% of the

respondents representing 7 respondents disagreed with the statement and the mean is 1.48.

From table 3 it is revealed that computer graphics is relevant in the design and production

of instructional media by Educational Technology students in University of Ilorin.

55
Summary of Findings

The findings of this study were summarized as follows:

1. Educational Technology students are conversant with some and not all of the variety of

softwares available for the design and production of instructional media.

2. computer graphics have positive influence on the Design and production of instructional

media by Educational Technology Students.

3. computer graphics is relevant in the design and production of instructional media by

Educational Technology students.

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CHAPTER FIVE

DISCUSSIONS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter focused mainly on discussion of the findings, conclusions drawn from the

findings, and recommendations. Other aspects included are the limitation to the study and

suggestions for further research.

The findings of this study were discussed under the following headings;

i. Educational Technology students are not conversant with some of the variety of softwares

Available for the design and production of instructional media.

ii. computer graphics have positive influence on the Design and production of instructional

media by Educational Technology Students.

iii. computer graphics is relevant in the design and production of instructional media by

Educational Technology students.

The findings on the frequency of use of computer graphics by Educational technology

students in the design and production of instructional media was discussed in research question

one, it was indicated that Educational technology students make use of Adobe Flash professional,

CorelDraw and Adobe Photoshop in the design and production of instructional media while

Toonboom and Autodesk Maya were the least used graphics softwares. This finding lend support

to the existing body of literature such as, Siti, Azhar & Zali, (2015), stated that creating spaces

while sitting at their computer screens with digital tools at instructional designer’s disposal will

certainly make teaching and learning easier, faster, accurate and interesting and that graphics

software is very helpful to instructional designers in finishing up their design projects in

57
appropriate time constraint. Therefore, the use of computer graphics software for the design and

production of instructional media is essential.

Influence of computer graphics on the design and production of instructional media was

discussed in research question two, the influence was found out that computer graphics: provides

an attractive learning environment, allows students to study learning contents flexibly and

individually, Saves time in the design of instructional media, makes their lecture delivery

interesting, provides motivation and promotes interactivity, facilitates comprehension, learning,

memory, communication and provides learners with rich and simulating learning experiences.

These finding are in conformity with the findings of Mayer, (2001) who contributed to that by

explaining that graphics can make complex information easier to comprehend and also directly

enhance memory for assimilation of information, thus require less cognitive effort to understand

than text-based descriptions of the same information. Better comprehension, along with more

cognitive resources that can be allocated to learning and memory, will together enhance memory

for the information to be learned which is in line with the contributions of the findings of Roberson,

(2012)

Findings on the Relevance of computer graphics in the design and production of

instructional media revealed that computer graphics is relevant in Educational Technology,

computer graphics can be used for web designing and social networking, computer graphics

designs and at the same time portrays things that are inherently spatiovisual which agrees with the

findings of Bitner, N. & Bitner, J. (2002) which revealed that it is the relevance, rather than

quantity, of computer experience students bring to class that is most predictive of their

performance so as to achieve desired behaviour in them.

58
Implications of the findings

Based on the findings of this study, the following implications were drawn: This study has

strong implications on the design and production of instructional media; it is an indication that

there would be positive outcome if all Educational technology students use Computer graphics in

the design and production of instructional media.

Conclusions

This research examined the impact of computer graphics on the design and production of

instructional media by Educational Technology students. The results obtained from the data

gathered and analyzed in this study indicated that computer graphics softwares were available to

Educational technology students and they make use of some and not all of the available softwares,

though, a high percentage of the students do use Adobe Photoshop, CorelDraw and Adobe Flash

professional in the design and production of instructional media, most of them have never used the

software Autodesk Maya and Toonboom or would need help to use it in the design and production

of instructional media. The results further indicated that the use of computer graphics have positive

influence on the design and production of instructional media. The study also revealed that

computer graphics is relevant in the design and production of instructional media by educational

technology students.

Recommendations

Based on the findings and conclusions of this study, the following recommendations were

made;

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1. Educational institutions, governments and non-governmental organizations (NGO) should

organize conferences, seminars, workshops on the benefits of positive use computer

graphics in the design and production of instructional media for teaching and learning in

schools.

2. Educational technology students should work on how to improve in the use of computer

graphics softwares in the design and production of instructional media as it enhances and

beautifies their works.

3. Universities should improve on the infrastructural facilities by making workstations

available and accessible by all Educational technology students.

Suggestions for further studies

For successive research in this area, the following suggestions were made:

1. Efforts to carry out this type of research in other universities, regions of the country and

Africa should be considered.

2. Further studies should be replicated on undergraduate students and post graduate students.

60
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APPENDIX

QUESTIONNAIRE

University of Ilorin, Nigeria.

Faculty of Education

Department of Educational Technology

Impact of Computer Graphics on the Design and Production of Instructional Media by

Educational Technology Students

Dear Respondent,

This questionnaire was designed for the purpose of collecting information on the Impact of

computer graphics on the design and production of instructional media by Educational technology

students of University of Ilorin. Kindly assist in carrying out this survey by graciously filling the

questionnaire based on your opinion. All information provided would be confidentially treated and

used for the research purpose only.

Thanks

Openiyi Ibrahim

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SECTION A

Demographic Information

Instruction: please fill in the gap by ticking (√) against the information that is applicable to

complete the blank spaces where necessary

Level:

SECTION B

Instructional Computer Graphics Softwares Usage

what is your expertise in using the I can use I would need I have never used this

following softwares this myself help to use this type of software

1. Photoshop: (Adobe Systems) it

allows you to manipulate images

and add complex textures.

1. Maya (Autodesk) is currently

used in the film, television, and

gaming industry.

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2. Adobe Flash Professional: is

mostly used to design vector

graphics and animation, and

publish the same for television

programs, online video,

websites, web applications, rich

internet applications, and video

games

3. Toon Boom: develops animation

and storyboarding software

for film, television, web

animation, games, mobile

devices, training applications, and

education

4. CorelDraw: is a vector graphics

editor that also edits 2-

dimensional images e.g. Logos

and posters.

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SECTION C

Influence of computer graphics on the design and production of instructional media

SA- Strongly Agree, A- Agree, D- Disagree, SD- Strongly Disagree

Computer graphics,

Question SA A D SD

1. Provides an attractive learning environment

2. Allows students to study learning contents

flexibly and individually

3. Saves time in the design of instructional media

4. provides motivation and promotes interactivity

5. Helps make my designing of instructional media

real and concrete

6. Softwares are expensive to purchase

7. Makes teaching and learning concepts dynamic

8. Facilitates comprehension, learning, memory,

communication

9. Consumes my time as a student through gaming,

videos etc., and as a result affects my study time

10. Provides learners with rich and simulating

learning experiences

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SECTION D

Relevance of computer graphics on design and production of instructional media

SA- Strongly Agree, A- Agree, D- Disagree, SD- Strongly Disagree

S/N RELEVANCE OF COMPUTER GRAPHICS SA A D SD

1. Computer graphics is relevant in educational technology

2. For web designing and social networking

3. Pictorial forms of teaching is more effective than verbal

forms of teaching

4. Computer graphics allows access to the design of tools

to work on cognitive skills

5. Visual displays are frequently useful for representing

relationships amongst elements e.g. (Venn diagram, a

text-based graphic organizer and scientific model)

6. Computer graphics portray things that are inherently

spatiovisual e.g. (maps and building plans)

7. Animation or graphic illustrations addresses difficulties

in learning thereby essential in the design and production

of instructional media

75
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