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CARDIOVASCULAR REPORT Name:

BIOL 260

PART 1: CARDIAC CYCLE

1. (A) Which portion of an ECG corresponds to atrial systole? (B) Refer to Table 9.1 in
your lab manual. How does exercise affect the duration of atrial systole? Provide
quantitative data. (C) What is happening to blood flow through the heart during atrial
systole?

2. (A) Which portion of an ECG corresponds to ventricular diastole? Next, sketch a


normal ECG and label the periods of atrial diastole and ventricular diastole. (B) What is
happening to blood flow through the heart’s chambers during ventricular diastole? (C)
Refer to Table 9.1 in your lab manual. How does the duration of ventricular diastole
change from rest to exercise? Provide quantitative data.

3. (A) In your own words define: ischemia and myocardial infarction. (B) During
ventricular diastole, fresh oxygenated blood flows from the aorta through the coronary
arteries providing nourishment and oxygen to the myocardium. Given this
information, along with your answer to question 2c, explain why a MI is more likely to
occur in persons (especially those with coronary artery disease) during periods of
vigorous exercise.

PART 2: BLOOD PRESSURE & PULSE

1. (A) It is possible to measure a patient’s heart rate by either palpating their


peripheral pulse, by observing their ECG, or by listening for the lub-dup through a
stethoscope. However, patients with atherosclerosis of the femoral artery may not
have a pulse in the popliteal artery or dorsalis pedis of the foot. Does this mean that
they will also lack a heart beat (lub-dup) or QRS complex? Explain the relationship
between a heart beat, pulse, and QRS complex. (B) Why is there a delay between
systole of the ECG and the resulting pulse felt in the finger?

2. Refer to the ECG & Pulse lab when answering the following questions. (A)
What is the effect of cold temperature on cutaneous blood perfusion? (B) What
happened to the pulse rate and amplitude when you placed your non-recording arm in
cold water? Provide quantitative data. (C) What would you predict would happen to
blood perfusion and pulse amplitude if your hand were placed in hot water? Explain
your reasoning.

3. Refer to the ECG & Pulse lab when answering the following questions. (A)
What happened to the pulse rate and amplitude when your Subject stood up compared
to being seated with legs elevated? Provide quantitative data. (B) How might these
results help explain the effects on blood pressure/flow of rapidly standing up after
prolonged bed rest (orthostatic hypotension)? Explain your reasoning.

4. (A) What is actually causing the sounds of Korotkoff? (B) Why does sound
occur between systolic and diastolic pressures but no sound occurs below diastolic
pressure? That is, what is the relationship between cuff pressure, blood pressure, and
the cause of these sounds? (C) What is the difference between the terms “systole” and
“systolic pressure”?
PART 3: THE EFFECTS OF EXERCISE

1. From IP topic “Cardiac Output” construct a table that summarizes the effects of the ten
factors that alter cardiac output.

2. (A) Include a copy of Table 11.3 from the “Blood Pressure” lab. (B) Describe the
physiologic mechanisms that brought about the observed changes in MAP, HR, SV,
and PR.

3. Graph the data from Tables 10.2 and 10.3 of the “Aerobic Exercise” lab as follows:
construct a single XY graph for breathing rate that runs from 0-600 seconds along the
x-axis. You’ll have to add 300 seconds to each of the post-exercise times so that the
during exercise data is continuous with the post-exercise data. Repeat, making
separate graphs for airflow, skin temp, and heart rate. Include full captions for each
graph and attach all 4 graphs to this report.

4. (A) Qualitatively and quantitatively describe the changes in skin temperature that you
observed during exercise. (B) Skin temperature can be affected by blood distribution
(superficial vasoconstriction/dilation) and by evaporative cooling. Considering these
facts, propose a reasonable explanation for the changes in skin temperature you
observed during and after exercise. Hint: You may want to read portions of Ch. 25 in
Silverthorn as you consider your answer.

5. (A) Qualitatively and quantitatively describe the changes you observed in ventilation
(both breathing rate and airflow) during exercise. (B) Explain the physiologic reason
why ventilation temporarily remains elevated post-exercise. Hint: You may want to
read portions of Ch. 25 in Silverthorn as you consider your answer.

6. Include the summary (500 words) of your literature research post-exercise recovery
period for the cardiopulmonary systems. Summarize the background and hypothesis,
very briefly describe what was done, and summarize the major conclusions. Cite your
source using APA style.