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# Ues Patterns to Develop Fluency in Subtraction

Curriculum Areas:​ Math
Utah Core Standards & Objectives:
● Strand - Operations and algebraic thinking (K.OA): ​Understand addition as putting together and adding to, and
understand subtraction as taking apart and taking from ​(Standards K.OA.1–5)
○ Standard K.OA.1: ​Represent addition and subtraction with objects, fingers, mental images, simple drawings,
or sounds. ​For example, use clapping, act out situations, and use verbal explanations, expressions, or
equations.
○ Standard K.OA.5: ​Fluently add and subtract using numbers within 5​.
Personal Objective: ​By the end of the lesson students will be able to use blocks or pictures to fluently subtract numbers
within 5. They will also be able to identify patterns with the math problems, specifically number values becoming fewer and
greater.
Materials:
● Blocks (approximately 75; pre-stacked into groups/towers of 5)
● Math 7.8 worksheet
● Pencil
Essential Questions:​ Why is it important to identify patterns to help solve math problems?
● Fewer
● Greater
● Using supplementary materials to make lessons clear and meaningful.
● Provide meaningful and authentic activities that integrate lesson concepts with language practice opportunities.
● Clearly define content objectives.
● Emphasize key vocabulary.
● Use a variety of techniques to make content concepts clear.
● Consistently use scaffolding techniques throughout lesson.
● Supply lots of hands on materials.
● Engage students 90-100% of the lesson.
● EL students can work with a partner during Phase II and Phase III.
● Provide comprehensive review of key content concepts.
● Conduct assessment of student comprehension and learning.
Adaptations for Students with Special Needs:
● Minimal reading required.
● The lesson is not on a strict timeline, the pace of the class and Phases of the lesson are completely dependent on student
progress and task completion.
● No test is given at the end of the lesson. Grade will be evaluated by daily work and participation.
● Students with special needs can work with a partner during Phase II and Phase III.
● The student can use manipulatives if they struggle understanding subtraction.
● Illustrate the vocabulary.
● Use cooperative learning groups.
● Allow students to use teacher’s notes and overhead as an example.
● Preview vocabulary.
● Break multiple commands into step-by-step.
● Repeat instructions slowly whether requested or not.
● Ask the student to repeat instructions.
DAP:
● The guide incorporates multiple areas of the curriculum (integrated learning).
● Begins with an assessment of prior knowledge.
● Instruction is scaffolded from the zad to the zpd until the apd becomes part of the zad: Gradual Release of
Responsibility Model (I. Exploration and Explanation, II. Guided Practice/Differentiation, III. Independent
Practice/Assessment).
● Students express their understanding through multiple methods; concepts are taught using multiple techniques.
● Students from a wide range of abilities are able to participate successfully throughout. Accommodations are made to
include all students.
● Assessment drives the design, is ongoing, aligned with the curriculum, and completed in the context of authentic
problem solving
Before the lesson:
1. Give a summary of the lesson so that students can get an idea of the big picture.
2. Make sure that all students have a partner and that they are sitting in their assigned squares on the rug. I will assign
each column of students partner 1 (P1) and partner 2 (P2).
Phase I: Exploration and Explanation
1. I will hand each pair of students a tower of 5 blocks. I will make sure that each tower is composed of the same color of
blocks, so that students can focus on the subtraction, rather than what color of blocks they have.
2. While we are trading blocks back and forth, during the explanation and exploration portion of the assignment, I will be
filling out the first page of the worksheet. The math sentences reflect the block trades made between P1 and P2.
3. Once the students have their block tower I will have P1 hold up the tower. As a class we will count the number of
blocks in the tower. I will then have P1 give P2 3 blocks. I will emphasize that we have ​taken away ​3 blocks. I will
then ask P1 how many blocks they have left. The class will respond (2). P2 will give their blocks back to P1. P1 will
give the block tower to P2. P2 will hold the tower up in the air and we will count how many blocks are in the tower (5).
I will emphasize that the number of blocks in the tower at the beginning of our subtraction problem is always the same,
we always start with 5 blocks. P2 will then give 2 blocks to P1. I will then ask P2 how many blocks they have left, the
answer is 3! P1 will give all their blocks back to P2. P2 will give the block tower to P1. P1 will hold up their tower and
we will count the number of blocks in the tower, there should be 5. P1 will then give 1 block to P2. I will then ask P1
how many blocks they have left, the answer is 4. Students should start to see a pattern in the math sentences projected
on the dot cam. I will ask them what patterns they see. Are the number values in the take away portion of the math
sentence getting fewer or greater? They are getting fewer! Are the answer number values getting fewer or greater?
They are getting greater! We will then make one final trade. P2 will have the tower on the last problem we will be
solving using the blocks. I will have P2 hold their blocks in the air and we will count the number of blocks in the tower
(5). I will then have P2 give 0 blocks to P1. How many blocks do P2s have? 5!
4. I will then collect the manipulatives. While I am doing this the daily line leader will sit on the pink chair in front of the
rug and watch for two students that are being quiet and respectful. Once I have collected all the blocks I will give treats
to the students who are chosen by the line leader. The line leader will return to their square on the rug.
5. Students will then be given their math worksheet, go to a table, and fill out the first page of the worksheet using the
template I created while they were using the manipulatives as a guide.
6. Once students have finished filling out the first page of the worksheet they will raise their hands. I will walk around and
make sure that they have filled out the boxes properly. If they have I will tell them to fold and flip and quietly wait until
we begin the next problem.
7. I will then conduct a quick vocabulary lesson touching on fewer and greater one more time using the images on the top
of page 408. I will emphasize how they crossed out the blocks to show that they were taken away and that the first
number in the math equation remains the same. The numbers being taken away are getting greater and the answer
number value is getting fewer.
8. We will then move on to number 1. I will use a block tower of 4 projected through the dot cam to demonstrate how to
use the manipulatives to solve the simple subtraction problem. I will have a tower of 4, take away 0, then ask the
students how many blocks I have left (4). I will do this one more time taking way one block.
Transition to Phase II: Review and Give Explicit Directions for Phase II
1. I will then conduct a quick vocabulary lesson touching on fewer and greater one more time using the images on the top
of page 408. I will emphasize how they crossed out the blocks to show that they were taken away and that the first
number in the math equation remains the same. The numbers being taken away are getting greater and the answer
number value is getting fewer.
2. We will then move on to number 1. I will use a block tower of 4 projected through the dot cam to demonstrate how to
use the manipulatives to solve the simple subtraction problem. I will have a tower of 4, take away 0, then ask the
students how many blocks I have left (4). I will do this one more time taking way one block.
Phase II: Guided Practice/Differentiation
1. Students will then solve the remaining two math problems under number 1. Once they have completed these problems
they can continue to work independently until they finish solving the second problem.
2. While students work independently I will walk around and assist students and scaffold further if necessary.
3. Early finishers will be able to go back to the rug and build their own block towers. I will encourage them to build
towers of 5 and then 10 blocks.
Transition to Phase III: Review and Give Explicit Directions for Phase III
1. Once the class has completed the assignment they will place their math worksheet packet in their mailbox. They will
continue to practice simple subtraction focusing on patterns at home.
Phase III: Independent Practice and Assessment
1. Students will then fill out the remaining portion of the assignment independently as homework.
2. Formative assessment: I will look over the math worksheet packet when they turn it in the next day to assess student
understanding.