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2010-ck
010-ckEIduf? atmufwdkbmv
yxrBudrf tkyfa& 2000
Published

by
America-Burma Institute(A.B.I)



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

rsufESmzHk;'DZdkif;
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pmtkyfrSm,lEdkifa&eD&mrsm;
A. B. I
2230 Benson Ave Apt# A-1
Brooklyn, NY 11214
U. S. A
E-mail: sukhavati@verizon.net
Tel: 1-718 333 0801

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tcef ; (1)

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tcef ; (2)

ig&@dk ZmawmfveS &f ;D eef@ awmfveS u
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tcef ; (3)

&ckid t
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tcef ; (4)

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(i) t*kyikd pf yg;xGuEf e_ ;f av#meh pD mG Zma=umifah v;
(p) 1948-ckaemufyikd ;f &ckid af jyvufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ;D avmurSm

1
9
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14
24
29
30
31
33
38
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44
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57
64
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tcef ; (5)

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tcef ; (6)

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tcef ; (7)

aumufEw
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tcef ; (8)

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3

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4

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f m&a&? 1948-ckEpS f
vGwv
f yf&;D &+yD;aemufyikd ;f wajz;ajz; tE_u
d o
f m&uif;rJv
h ma&? ,if;orkid ;f ocFe;f pmudk wdik ;f &if;om;
acgi;f aqmifwikd ;f em;avoifyh ga&?
&ckid w
f ikd ;f &if;om;acgi;f aqmifjzpfaw tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f pGm ucsiaf cgi;f aqmifrsm;eef@ nDtudk
wdyikd f uaumif; &if;ES;D csKu
d cf ifav;pm;uwfyga&? 1970-ckEpS f azaz:0g&v
D 28 &ufeed @f rmS &efuek f
wuUov
kd u
f r[mrdwf “ucsifjynfvGwfvyfa&;tzGJ@(KIO)”eef@qufo,
G yf em (KIA) wyfr[m
(1) vGwaf jrmufe+D r/D vm;&_;d {&d,mod@k awmcdv
k m;cyem (KIA) awmifyikd ;f wdik ;f wkid ;f rSL; Adv
k rf LS ;aZmf'ef/
'k-wdik ;f rSL;aZmfrikd &f @kd . tultnDeef@ 1970-ck rwfv (3)&ufeed @f rmS +rDatmuftzG@J zG@J ap;uwfyga&?
“&ckdifjynfawmfvSefa&;tiftm;pk (ARF)” udk &ckdifjynfvGwfajrmufa&;tzGJ@ (AIO)tjzpf
wd;k acs@azG@ap;yga&? {+yv
D rSm tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f . vkyaf z:udik zf ufjzpfaw tudak usmv
f id_ f (AIO) wGzJ uf
taxGaxGtwGi;f a&;rSL;(1)a&/ a&;abmfwyfpyd w
f pdyef ef@twl xdik ;f Edik if H (KIO) Edik if jH cm;a&;Xm[d&mod@k
c&D;xGuv
f m;ca&? ,if;a'orSm (KIO)OuUX}uD; Adv
k cf sKyfaZmfqikd ;f eef@twl Edik if w
H uma&;&m quf
qHa&;udk wm0ef,cl a&? 1974-ckrmS ucsijf ynfo@kd jyefa&mufvma&? 1975-ck {+yDvrSm &cdik jf ynfo@kd
(AIA) 'kwd,ppfa=umif;tjzpf a&;abmf(70)cef@udk OD;aqmifyem qif;vm;ca&? (AIA) yxr
ppfa=umif;rSm 1971-ck Ed0k bFmvrSm ZkEw
< }f u;D xGe;f a&$armif (AIO-OuUX)u a&;abmf(50)avmufukd
OD;aqmifyem &ckid jf ynfo@kd qif;a&? (AIA) udk 1970-ck arv(20)&ufeed @f rmS (KIA) Akv
d rf LS ;}u;D aZmf'ef/
Akv
d rf LS ;aZmfrikd /f Adv
k rf LS ;aZmft/kH Adv
k }f uD;aemfcef;&d@k u }uD;=uyfyem azG@ap;yD;cyga&?
txufyg tcsut
f vuf&@kd a& wdik ;f &if;om;tcsi;f csi;f csKu
d cf if&if;ES;D r_[cd uwfa=umif;udk
oufoo
D m"utedeef ef@ xkwaf z:wifjy&jcif;+zKduyf ga&? tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f awmfveS &f ;D vkyef aD &tcsed rf mS
tu|eaf & Edik if jH cm;ynmawmfoiftjzpfeef@ =opaw;vsEikd if rH mS a&muf[ed yD ga&? tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f a&

5

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
olawmrcdck if 1968-ckEpS f ordik ;f aumvdy0f if;[d tu|et
f rd u
f kd a&mufvmyga&? tu|eef ef@ ausmif;om;
b0uyif aqG;aEG;ca& ta=umif;t&mwdukd qufyemaqG;aEG;uwfyga&? &efuek rf mS eDz@kd tu|eu
f t}uH
jyKyga&? olu &efuek rf mS eDv@kd rjzpf? pdu
k af wGukd jyef&zd@k v@kd ajymyga&? pdu
k af wG udak &mufv@kd r=umcifrmS
awmcdv
k m;ca&vd@k owif;=um;&yga&? tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f awmcdv
k m;vd@k ol@q&m&if;jzpfaw &ckid -f
jrefrm y¾dwf OD;ODomxGe;f udk pdu
k af wG+rKd@[d wyf&if;rS 'k-Akv
d rf LS ;}u;D wifv
h iG u
f q&m OD;OD;omxGe;f tm;
ESpyf wfavmufzrf;qD;xm;a&? q&m}u;D udk cef;r}u;D wckrmS cG;D +caGD xmufeef@ E_u
d yf wfww
d d xdik ;f cdik ;f xm;a&?
'k-Akv
d rf LS }uD;wifv
h iG af & aemiftcg rGejf ynfe,f armfv+rKdi+f rKd@rmS w&m; ol}uD;+zKduv
f m;ca&?
q&m}uD;OD;OD;omxGe;f udk 'k-Adv
k rf LS ;}uD;wifv
h iG u
f zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifpmG a& *syefEikd if o
H rkid ;f rSm
18 &mpkavmufu wynfah =umifh q&mudk tjypfy;D pGm/ om;awmcdv
k m;vd@k trduv
kd mzrf;pGm/ om;jypfr_
usL;vGev
f @kd tzudv
k mzrf;pGm&d@k a& uaumif;&S;D usa& ordik ;f +zKu
d &f yfw+d zKu
d yf ga&? tu|e&f @kd jrefrmjynfrmS
um; at+zKu
d &f yf&@kd a& t*kxd [deed o
f ahd &twGuef ef@ jrefrmEdik if aH & *syefEikd if .
H 18 &mpkacwf&m[doahd &?
q&m}u;D OD;OD;omxGe;f u ol@uzkd rf;a&udpeP ef@ywfoufv@kd tu|eu
f kd ajymjyyga&? vltrsm;oda& jrefrm
Edik if H rSww
f rf;wckrmS av; rif;'H;k rif;.vufxufu +zKduaf y:ca&? rif;om;&d@k ykeu
f efawmfveS rf r_ mS t
cgy;D a&vd@k qd+k yD;au uAsmvuFm&D;G pyf&mrSm uaumif;xifo#m;a& OD;yHn
k / yga&qdyk em +rKd@awmf0ef OD;
omtdu
k kd zrf;csKyfcikd ;f a&? OD;omtdu
k zrf;csKyf&rkH u OD;ykn
H udk uGurf #uyf u
kd af w? OD;yHn
k udk uGurf #u+f yD;
wvavmuft=umrSm rif;'H;k rif;}uD;u nDvmcHY OD;ykn
H ZmrSmav;vd@k OD;omtku
d rkd ;D a&? OD;omtdu
k
OD;yHn
k tm; tu|eu
f u
G rf #uv
f u
kd ,
f m+zKu
d af =umif; ao#mufwifvu
kd af w? a,cg rif;'H;k rif;}u;D u “vlukd
cG;D owfvu
kd af w”
w”vd@k rSwcf sucf sz;l yga&? ,if;ae;wl &ckid -f jrefrm y¾dwf q&m}uD; OD;OD;omxGe;f udk
'k-Adv
k rf LS ;}u;D wifv
h iG u
f rawmfrw&m; zrf;qD;csKyfaESmif;xm;pGma& rif;'H;k rif;}u;D pum;t& vluckd ;DG u
csKyfxm;a&ydik f ajym&zd@k jzpfyga&?
tu|eaf & tu|e.
f “b0twGdt}uKHrsm;”
;”pmtkyu
f kd &G;D om;jyKpkepD Okd f tu|et
f m; ulnD
yD;eDa& vlaicdik b
f cifu tifwmeufxrJ mS Zmol&;DG vd@k wifxm;a&rod/ tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f &G;D om;jyKpck a&
“Zmvkyfuwfzdk@av;”
v;”qdak & pmrluw
kd [
dG ad =umif; tu|e@f uakd jymyga&? tu|erf mS um; ausmif;eDzuf
oli,fcsi;f &G;D om;ca&pmwef;udk wG[
d &d vd@k 0rf;omrqH;k jzpfryd ga&? tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f &G;D xm;a& pmwrf;
um; zwfvaD umif;vD/ aumif;vDzwfvD pmwrf;wapmif+zKduyf ga&? atpmwrf;pGma& vGecf a&ESpaf ygi;f
av;q,fausmaf vmufuyif &G;D xm;ca& pmwrf;wapmif +zKu
d af uav; t*kvuf[u
d m. vlrb
_ 0t+cD
tewdeef@ qufpyfew
D ek ;f yif[yd goahd &? tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f &G;D om;a& wdv
k rD v
kd D aqmif;yg;&d@k u&kd m zwfz;l a&
tu|erf mS tcsut
f vuf tusK;d ata=umif; ,kww
f ,
d w
k w
f mcdik v
f akH & tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f .pmwrf;udk
zwf&a&tcg 0rf;omyuwdjzpfawtjyif tmZaeacgi;f aqmif udpk aH usmx
f eG ;f udk *k%jf yKa&teDeef@
atpmwrf;udk pmtkyt
f jzpfxw
k 0f zD @kd tu|eq
f ;kH jzwfvu
kd pf mG +zKduyf ga&? atpmwrf;a& &ckid pf myDt&G;D

6

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
tom; pmwrf;av;jzpfaw? &ckid af 0g [m& toH;k tE_e;f / &ckid 0f gusazG@ap;yHt
k wkid ;f &G;D om;xm;pGm+zKu
d v
f @kd
bmomaA"udk pdu
k 0f ifpm;a& tu|e@f rmS um; ta&mifwjzef;jzef;awmufeaD & ywWjrm;&Siw
f vH;k udk
aumuf&a&ydik f cHpm;rdyga&? &ckid af 0g[m&wd+zKduaf w “rdk;axmufapmapm”
pmapm”(Arm- eHeufapmapm)
'ga'gif (Arm-t=uG;) pa& a0g[m&trsm;tjym;udk wG&d yga&? ata0g[m&wda& rsK;d qufou
dk f blrd
&uQw
d yk=w&d@k twGuf wefz;kd rjzwfEikd af & ausmufrsu&f wemwdjzpfyga&? ordik ;f t&G;D tom;rSmav;
usK;d a=umif;cdik v
f ykH em ordik ;f okwaoe yDyjD yifjyif[yd ga&? ordik ;f okawoDwikd ;f a'pmwrf;udk cs;D r$e;f xd;k
yemjyKuwfz@kd +zKu
d yf ga&? ta=umif;t&m tcsut
f vuf&@kd ukd }uKu
d af w+zKu
d pf /D r}uKu
d af w+zKu
d pf D atpm
wrf;udk zwf&@_ ot
l wGuf tusK;d rsm;pGm +zKdux
f eG ;f Edik v
f rd afh rvd@k ,H=k unfryd ga&?
&ckid q
f pkd mG wrsK;d &m[dyga&? ajrmufyikd ;f &cdik /f awmifyikd ;f &ckid /f ta&S@yikd ;f &ckid /f taemufyikd ;f
&ckid v
f @kd r[d? &ckid &f @kd pmG &ckid t
f usK;d ud&k m vkyu
f wf&ygz@kd ? &ckid t
f usK;d udk &ckid o
f m;rvkyaf u Zmolav;
vmvkyyf ;D zd@k r[kw?f &ckid 'f a,mudk &ckid &f @kd 0wfuwf&ygz@kd ? &ckid 'f a,mudk &ckid &f @kd r0wfau &ckid 'f a,mudk
tjcm;vlrsK;d &d@k 0wfz@kd ta=umif;r[d? ,if;rSeu
f efa& todynmum; &ckid o
f m;wdik ;f rSm &d;k wGi;f jcifqx
D d
tjrpfw,
G [
f ed u
D wf&zd@k yifjzpfaw? om;pdOk +f r;D quf vufqifu
h rf;ycvd@k rm&,lrif;qufupvd@k 1784ck tcsKyt
f jcmtm%m usq;kH vm;ca&ede@f xd aw[decD yga&? 1784-ckEpS f bd;k awmfarmif;0dik ;f &ckid jf ynfukd
usL;d ausmo
f rd ;f ydu
k af wtcg yxrqH;k tcsKyftjcmtm%m jyefyem&[datmif wGe;f vSew
f u
kd cf u
kd f awmf
vSecf a& acgi;f aqmifum; awmifuw
k af epm; wef;avG;acsmif;pm; Adv
k af usmx
f ;DG +zKduyf ga&? ,if;a=umifh
tu|e&f @kd awmifuw
k ef ,foel ,fom; +rKd@o+l rKd@om;&d@k a& tu|e&f @kd . tzd;k tzD;jzpfca& Adv
k af usmx
f ;DG .
tpdik t
f vmaumif;udk xde;f odr;f apmifah &Smufuwf&zd@k / vufqifu
h rf;&zd@k +zKduyf ga&?
bd;k awmfarmif0ikd ;f a& ajrmufO;D eef;awmfukd rD;wdu
k zf suq
f ;D yem ausmif;uefb&k m;ykx;kd &d@k uakd v;
zsuq
f ;D ypfcuwfaw? &ckid o
f &l ckid o
f m; pkpak ygi;f towfc&H pGma& 236000-jzpfaw? atydik v
f t
l rsm;udk
owfyem ,dOk af us;r_wu
d zkd suq
f ;D / eef;awmfukd rD;wdu
k v
f u
dk af wtjyif vlaygi;f ajrmufrsm;pGmudak v;
zrf;qD;ac:vm;pGma& xdik ;f Edik if o
H rdik ;f t+zKdut
f ysuef ef@ tvm;wlyga&? uke;f abmifacwfb&k iftcsK@d a&
xdik ;f Edik if u
H v
kd m;yem usL;ausmw
f u
kd cf u
kd u
f wfyga&? a'bk&if&@kd ukd xdik ;f ordik ;f rSww
f rf;rSm ocd;k "g;jrtjzpf
owfrw
S x
f m;pGmudk wG&d yga&? xdik ;f eef;awmfurkd ;D wdu
k /f xdik ;f Edik if o
H El ikd if o
H m; ESpo
f ed ;f eef@ av;aomif;
ausmu
f kd pku
d o
f @kH yef;tjzpfac:vmpGmudk xdik ;f ordik ;f rSww
f rf;&d@k rmS wG&d yga&? ,if;twGuef ef@ ,d;k ',m;
ojcif;/ ,d;k ',m;[if;a&/ ,d;k 'tu pa&a0g[m&&d@k tckxufwikd f [depD mG udk wG&d ygz@kd ?
+Adwo
d #&@kd a& Armajyudk odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af wtcg rE aW v;eef;awmfukd rD;rwdu
k /f rzsuq
f ;D ypfc/
e*drk v
l twdik ;f xm;[dca&? a,eef@ t*kxd rE aW v;eef;awmfukd jrifwedG ed &f wH;k jzpfaw? a,awmif
Arm&d@k a& +Aw
d o
d #tpd;k &udk trsK;d rsK;d &d;k arazG@yem t*kxd qef@usif awmfveS ef ed w
f ek ;f yif+zKu
d af w? +Aw
d o
d #&@kd
um; rdrad ysmufaysmuf [dauav;/ Arm&d@k um; tckwikd rf rd Edik o
f rd ?hf xdik ;f Edik if u
H kd usL;ausmcf a&ta=umif;
t&mtcsut
f vufuu
kd m; tu|e&f @kd jrefrmEdik if rH mS rdrad ysmufaysmuf [dcauav; xdik ;f Edik if o
H l Edik if o
H m;

7

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&d@k um; “cGezf rm” vd@k ajymau &GrH ek ;f uwfyga&? tm,k',+rKd@ukd rjyKrjyab;xm;pGma& &Sad cwfordik ;f udk
touf0ifvy_ o
f #m;pDjcif;jzpfyga&? tu|e&f @kd ajrmufO;D eef;awmfukd acwf+yKdiyf *su
D m;cswf teDeef@&m
wGdjrifuwf&yga&? &ckdif&dk@a& ateef;awmfudk jrif&ol&ckdifwdkif;u pdwfrcsrf;rom jzpfuwf&yga&?
Arm&d@k um; rdrad ysmufaysmuf [duwfauav; &ckid &f @kd um; rdaysmufv@kd r&Edik ?f
tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f a& awmifuw
k ef ,fpm; awmifrif;}uD; Adv
k af usmx
f ;DG ta=umif;upvd@k &ckid f
Edik if aH &;tawG;tac:vky&f yf&@kd ukd qef;pdu
k af vhvm wifjycyga&? &ckid &f @kd a& 1948-ck vGwv
f yf&;D &a&txd
Armaemufr;D aqG;b0eef@&m &yfawcuwfaw? Adv
k af usmx
f ;DG . a&&G,cf suyf ef;wdik u
f m; aysmufvm;
c&a&? a,eef@ 1948-ckvw
G v
f yf&;D &cuavh ukv
d ekd u
D |eyf ek ;f b0eef@&m [dca=umif; tudpk aH usmx
f eG ;f u
axmufjyca&? olaxmufjypGmvnf; ordik ;f a=umif;t&rSeaf &? tusK;d ta=umif;vnf; nD!w
G af w?
&ckid o
f m;&d@k . vuf[t
d +cDteDeefa@v; wxyfaw;+zKduef aD &? t"dua&rSe;f csuf atmifjrifz@kd twGuf
&ckid &f @kd n!
D w
G &f zd@k ? pnf;urf;[duwf&zd@k ? tar#mt
f jrif }uD;uwf&zd@k qykd em wifjycyga&? ,if;tjyif/
yk*Kv
~d af &;&m udpu
P akd &S@wef;rwifab; trsK;d om;a&;udpu
P &kd m a&S@wef;wifuwf&zd@k +zKu
d af w? ,if;ydik rf &S m
yk*K~ v
d &f ;D &mu arS;rDv
S m;cyem/ trsK;d om;a&;u tcsed t
f 0gawmufajymifvmzd@k +zKduyf ga&? acgi;f aqmif&@kd
eef@ rsK;d qufopfval iao#&@kd a& pmrsm;rsm; zwfuwf&zd@k qpkd mG udak v; t}ujH yKcyga&? r[mAsL[mae;eef@
csrw
S x
f m;a& a&rSe;f csuf atmifjrifz@kd twGuf ae;AsL[mrsK;d pHu
k kd usio
hf ;kH vkyaf qmifuwfz@kd t}uHjyK
cyga&?
,au “ig&dkZmvkyfuwfzdk@av;” ig&@kd rmS ud,
k t
hf ;kd / ud,
k t
hf rd /f ud,
k +f cH0if;eef@eED ikd af & t+cDt
eDrsK;d [d,ufom;eef@ a,muQrtdrrf mS armif;umawG;yemeDpmG a& ud,
k &f @kd rmS [deaD & yifut
kd &DtoG;D udk
csK;d ESrd yf pf&ma&mufaw? ,if;ydik ;f a,muQrtdrrf mS armif;umawG;eDvmpGm ESpaf ygi;f ESp&f mausmv
f m,m
wckav; xl;jcm;r_r[d? ud,
k ahf rmif;umxJrmS ud,
k &hf ckid o
f rdik ;f udak wmif zwfyikd cf iG rhf [d/ ud,
k &f ckid pf myD
udv
k nf; oifyikd cf iG rf [d? a,eef@ ygarmuQ a'guw
f moef;xGe;f ajyma&ydik f “vlt””wdteDeef@&m tu|e&f @kd
qufvufev
D m;uwfz@kd vm;?
ygarmuQ a'guf w mat;ausmf
okc0wD (e,l;a,muf)


8

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

trS m pm
vlom;&dUk ajymqdak & pum;ajcmufrsKd;[d&mrSm jrwfpmG bk&m;um; ESprf sKd;ud&k majymyga&/
,if;um; taMumif;t&mrSeaf &? em;axmifvUkd aumif;a&? em;axmifot
l usKd;jzpfaw/ taMumif;
t&mrSeaf & em;axmifvUkd raumif; ,auavh em;axmifval & tusKd;NzKduaf w/ a'pmtkyf pGmav;
taMumif;t&mpGmrSefa&? zwfvdkUaumif; a&? zwfawvlpGm tusKd;NzKdufaw? a'pmtkyfpGma& t
aMumif;t&mrSeaf & zwfaw vlpmG rBuKduf a,av; zwfawvltwGuf tusKd;NzKduaf w/
a,eefU rdrt
d usKd;NzKduzf Ukd twGuf BuKduaf wNzKdupf /D rBuKduaf wNzKdupf /D rsKd;qufou
dk v
f al i
wdik ;f zwfoifah &? q&mBuD;a'gufwmoef;xGe;f trdeUf [dvm;a&ydik f ordik ;f udo
k ifa&qdpk mG vlt rNzKduf
atmifvUkd oifuwfpmG a,eefU rdr&d Ukd vl t wdrNzKduaf tmif a'pmtkyu
f kd zwfyg? rSwyf g? qef; pdu
k yf g?
a0zefyg? usifBh uHyg/
a'pmtkyfudk rdwfquf? aw;jzwf? atmufajcrSwfpk jyKvkyf&mrSm tultnDyD; uwfaw
cdik b
f cif? udx
k eG ;f atmifcikd ?f aermvGi?f udw
k ifah 0?(e,l;a,muf)/ q&mcif armifapm(bmvif)/ q&m
OD;aX;0if;? udkrsKd;om(befaumuf)/ OD;xGef;vif; (rav;&Sm;)/ a'gufwmcifarmif (b*Fvm;a'hcsf)
&dUk tm; txl;aus;Zl;Oyum& wif [daMumif; rSww
f rf;wiftyfyga&?

9

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )

tcef ; (1)
ZmvkyfuwfzkdUav;
1? o#Kdufaw &Jabmftaygif;&kd@ atedef@ig&kd@ Zmvkyfuwfzkd @av;
2? atEkid if &H ;D / awmfveS &f ;D / oHo&m0Judk pkid ;f pm;,if;/ pkid ;f pm;,if;/ atrD;cGe;f &mwpfck xGuaf y:vma&/
uk,
d zhf momuk,
d af vh t}udr}f udr/f rD;jref;rda&// uk,
d ahf &;abmfwu
d adk vh a'rD;cGe;f ukd pdwef ef@tacguf
acgut
f cgcg rD;jref@=unfah &// igpw
d u
f ;l =unfah &// pkid ;f pm;=unfah &// a0zefa=uha&//
ig&@dk Zmvky&f zk@d av; tajzum; ig&@dk vw
G v
f yf&;D &atmif vky&f zk@d // vGwv
f yf&;D &atmif baZmif
vky&f zk@d av; vGwv
f yf&;D &atmif awmfveS &f zk@d // [kw,
f m/ baZmifvw
G v
f yf&;D rsK;d ukd ig&@dk vadk &av;
zdEydS jf cif;uif;a& (vlrsK;d &D;t& zdEydS jf cif;uif;a&/ vlwef;pm;t& zdEydS jf cif;uif;a&) vGwv
f yf&;D rsK;d ukd ig&@dk
vkv
d m;a&// t*a,mifyh if pif=u,fjrifjh rwfaw/ zdEydS jf cif;uif;a& vGwv
f yf&;D twGuf ig&@dk awmfveS f
wku
d cf u
dk &f ar// a'umvrm vGwv
f yf&;D wku
d af yG;ukd jyKjyif&;D eef@prf;vk@d rwG@d // zufqpftm%mtwGi;f rm
jyKjyif&;D a& zsuq
f ;D a&;ud&,
d mwck òzduef u
D wfaw// awmfveS &f ;D atmifjrifvma&cg ae;AsL[mykid ;f rm
jyKjyif&;D ukv
d t
dk yfau axho;Hk &zk@d òzu
d af uavh a'tcsed rf m vGwv
f yf&;D atmifayG;ukd òyjyif&;D eef@r&,lEidk ?f
Oya'wGi;f v_y&f mS ;&D;ukv
d yk zf @dk qadk u òzu
d Ef idk af &// ,auavh Oya'wGi;f v_y&f mS ;&D;t+ct
D eDu&dk m yD;Ekid v
f rd hf
ar// tqk;H tjzwfuu
dk m; yD;Ekid zf @dk r[kw/f / ,if;eef@&m vGwv
f yf&;D twGuf awmfvw
S &f ;D &mt"du &ckid hf
vGwv
f yf&;D twGuf &ckid ahf wmfveS &f ;D &mt"du/ ,au baZmifawmfveS &f ;D vkyzf @dk av;// awmfveS &f ;D qkpd mG
tqif(h 3)qif[
h ad &//

10

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
ywrtqif h
trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D (National revolution)
'kwd,wef;tqifh
ajyol@'rD u
dk a&pD awmfveS &f ;D
wwd, tqifh
qkad csvpfawmfveS &f ;D (Socialist revolution) &k@d yifòzduu
f wfaw//
,au atedef@&ckdifajytrsKd;om;teDeef@ ZmawmfvSef&D;pcef;tqifhukd qifaEG;&zkdk@av;//
pmtky}f u;D rm pcef;qifu
h dk &Smvk@d rrSeu
f efEidk /f / Om%fynmxufjrufre_ ef@ &Smvk@d rrSeu
f efEidk /f / vuf0t
J pGe;f /
vuf,mtpGe;f &k@d rm &Smvk@d avhrrSeEf idk /f / ig&@dk &ckid &hf yk b
f 0 orkid ;f rm&m&Sm&zd@k // aemuf+rD;qG0J g'&k@d eef@ &Smvk@d
&zk@d r[kw/f / odyaH` e;us awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;eef@&m &Smvk@d &Ekid zf @dk // &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;. &kyb
f 0/
&kyo
f rkid ;f ukd vSn=hf unfah u ukv
d edk b
D 0/ ukv
d edk o
D rkid ;f ukd wG@d &zk@d trSe/f / ukv
d edk rD mawmifu zk;D uG,cf H u|ef
d edk D &ckid v
hf rl t
_ azG@tap;rm ukv
d edk &D ckid t
f rsK;d om;eef@
yke;f ukv
d edk D (Hidden colony) òzduef aD &// ukv
Arme,fcs@J &@dk . t"duyÉdyuQtòzduf wG@d &a&// yxrpcef;tqih+f zdKufaw trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D ukd
ukid w
f ,
G &f zk@d yif+zdKufaw// ,if;rSwyg; tjcm;r[d//
rsuaf rSmufumvrm Armzufqpfaeacs@&@dk udk trsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D eef@ &ckid +f ru
D ESix
f w
k yf u
dk f
&zk@d yifòzduaf w// a'pif=u,freG jf rwfawtvkyu
f dk ig&@dk vyk &f zk@d òzduaf w// ig&@dk ,&l zk@d wm0ef+zdKufaw// ukv
d dk
eDEidk if w
H pfcrk m trsKd ;om;vGwv
f yf&;D r[dab;/ vlwef;pm;vGwaf jrmufr_ r[dEidk ?f trsK;d om;vGwv
f yf&;D
r[dbJ Zmvlrw
_ ;dk wuf&;D ukrd S rvkyaf qmifEidk ?f ,if;eef@&m ukv
d edk &D ckid +f rDrm ig&@dk &ckid t
f rsK;d om;w&yf
vk;H taeeef@ yxrqk;H trsK;d om;vGwv
f yf&;D ukd qifaEG;vm;&zk@d ? wcsed af w;rm uk,
d &hf ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;
wGi;f yÉdyuQ/ vlwef;pm;csi;f yÉdyuQ/ rsK;d EG,pf ck si;f yÉdyuQ/ a'oE &W yÉdyuQ/ Ekid if &H ;D tkypf ck si;f yÉdyuQ/ tm;
vk;H a& vufatmufcyH ÉdyuQ òzu
d ef o
D v
d @dk/ ,if;yÉdyuQudk trsK;d om;&D;ukOd ;D wnfv@dk rdwq
f uftoGif ajz&Si;f
vm;&zk@d //


4

11

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )

tcef;(2)
ig&kdUZmawmfvSef&D;rsKd;eefU awmfvSefuwf&zkdUav;
csKu
d af w&D;az:taygi;f &k@d atedZmawmfveS &f ;D rsK;d eef@ awmfveS &f zk@d av;/ a'rD;cGe;f ukd txuf
uawm@cg wqdwaf uavmuf aqG;aEG;c,m+zKduaf w? a,au tausacs@v@dk raqG;EG;cif &S;D txufu
trsK;d om;acgi;f aqmif}uD;wd ZmawmfveS &f ;D rsK;d ukd vkycf uwfawav;qkpd mG ukd wcsuaf vmuf vdv
h m
a=uu
h wfO;D ar? ,if;apmf&@dk a& ZmawmfveS &f ;D rsK;d ukd vkycf uwfawav;? awmfveS &f ;D pcef;qifh (3)qif[
h d
pGmrm yxrpcef;qifu
h dk vkycf uwfawvm;// r[kwaf u 'kw,
d tqifu
h dk vkycf uwfawvm;? wwd,
qifu
h dk vkycf uwfawvm;? wae; trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D ukd vkycf uwfawvm;? r[kwaf u vlwef;pm;
awmfveS &f ;D udk vkycf uwfawvm;? r[kwaf u qkad ,Svw
d af wmfveS &f ;D ukd vkycf uwfawvm;? &ckid v
hf rl _
tazG@tap; &kyo
f rkid ;f eef@ &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f ukd vdvma=uhvu
dk af u yxrpcef;qif/h trsK;d om;
awmfveS &f ;D qifaEG;ca=umif; wd@G c&zk@d yif+zKduaf w? ig&@dk tz&ckid af jya& AD-1784 (AC.1146)uyif
vGwv
f yfaw/ rScd u
dk if;a&/ tcsKyftcsmtm%mykid q
f idk af &/ trsK;d om;Ekid if b
H 0u vGwv
f yfr_ rScD u
dk if;r_
tcsKyftmcsmtm%mykid q
f idk rf w
_ d vk;H 0qk;H ,SK;H vc+y;D au ukv
d edk u
D |eb
f 0ukd usa&mufvcpGm *edxufxd
vGwv
f yf&;D r&od// trSt
D cku
d if;a& tcsKyftcsmtm%mykid q
f idk af & trsK;d om;Ekid if b
H 0ukd ra&mufEidk o
f /d
,if;a=umifh u|e+f zKduv
f ca& “1146-ck jymokdvqkyf 7 &uf” eduyif ok@d r[kwf Armhya'o&ku
d f
aeacs@&@kd &ckid af jyukd pvk@d 0ifvma& 1146-ck ewfawmfvqef; (4) &ufeu
d yif awmfveS &f ;D . zcif}uD;
ausmx
f ;GD pwifqifaEG;ca& &ckid af jy trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D um; tqk;H owfatmifayG;ukd *edxrd a&mufo/d
,if;a=umifh trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D tqk;H owfatmifayG;+zKduaf w trsK;d om;vGwv
f yf&;D atmifayG;
twGuf &ckid af jy trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D ukd qufvufqifaEG;uwf&zk@d ?
Adv
k af usmx
f ;DG a& awmifuw
k ef ,fpm; wef;avG;acsmif;pm; awmifrif;}uD; Adv
k af usmx
f ;DG +zKduaf w?
uke;f abmifqufr[m&mZ0if 'kw,
d wG-J pm-4

51 2

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

tcef ; (3)
&ckdiftrsKd;om; awmfvSef&D;orkdif;aMumif;
(u) Armya'o&ku
d af eacs@udk awmfveS jf cif; yxrykid ;f (1784-1788- AD-1638 (&ckid Ef u
_d -f
1000-ajy@)ck/ oD&o
d "k rRb&k if uG,v
f eG v
f m;cau &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;rm ap;&k;H &D;tiftm; av#m@qif;p
jyKvmvwfaw ,if;tcsed x
f d &ckid yf a'o&ku
d f +rDo#ipf Eku
d rf m tm&pPwu
dk a&pD (ARIATOCRACY)
ac: “okcrdefxdef;uGyf&D;pEkduf” ckid af emif;auavh aemufyidk ;f umv vltyk 0f g'ac: “armfbkdua&pD”
(Mobcracy)xGe;f um;pjyKvma&? uk,
d &f aH wmfwyf&@kd u tcsKyt
f o#mtm%mukd }uK;d aqG;vmvwfaw?
d &f aH wmfwyf
+rKd@pm;/ &Gmpm;rsm; (Feurallordo)u eef;vkvmvwfaw// rif;rsK;d rif;aEGtrsm;pkeef@ uk,
om;trsm;pka& &ckid af jytpGet
f zsm;+zKduaf w uHom/ &Da=ua'ood@k wdr;f a,Smifvm;vwfaw// ,if;t
csed u
f m; &ckid t
hf ustqif;umvyif+zKu
d af w/ &ckid t
f rsK;d om;ap;&k;H &D; t+yKd tqif;umv+zKu
d af w? 1784
(AC.1146) txd qlqy
l yl /l v_yv
f y_ ,
f mS ;,Sm;+zdKufeaD &? &ckid +f rDo#if ya'o&ku
d pf E_u
d .
f tqk;d qk;H um
vyif+zKduaf w? AD.1784-u Armaeacs@ ya'o&ku
d b
f &k ifarmif0idk ;f a& &ckid af jyukd usL;ausmw
f u
dk f
cku
d +f yD;au odr;f ,lvaD &// tpu &ckid rf if;nDrif;om;tcsK@d eef@ armif0idk ;f &k@d r[mrdwaf zG@uwf+yD;au &ckid f
rif;om; “[&D”udk ajrmufO;D rSmeef;wifz@dk armif0idk ;f ukd tcGeb
f ¾mqufz@dk avmuf&m tpDtpkiD [
f cd a&?
,if;eef@Zk vuf[&d ckid rf if;ukd raxmufcaH b; rif;om; “[&D”udak xmufcaH & &ckid +f rKd@pm;/ &Gmpm;tcsK@d
armif0idk ;f wyf usL;ausmv
f mpGmukd }uKq
d cdk uwfoad &? aemuf+y;D rS&m armif0idk ;f .r[mrdwf oku
d pf mazmuf
zsuaf =umif;ukd &ckid af cgi;f aqmifwd &dyrf u
d wfaw? ,if;ykid &f yd rf v
d ma& acgi;f aqmifwad x;u Akv
d cf si;f
jyef.tz +rKd@o}l uD;OD;oHa'avh tygt0if+zKduaf w? ,if;tcguum; armif0idk ;f wyf&@dk vufO;D r_&vm;
y'H+k rKd@upkd m;&vd@k y'Hrk if;vd@k vnf;ac:a&/ bd;k awmf awmfpyfawtwGuaf =umifh bd;k awmfv@kd ac: jcif;jzpfaw?

6

13

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
c,m+zKduaf w? aemuf+rD;aqG;pdwef ef@ olwyg;tm;uk;d pdw[
f ad & vlwidk ;f a'trSm;rsK;d ukd usL;vGeu
f wf
awacs;yif+zKu
d af w? a'cku
d v
f }l u;D / vlaiwd =uyf=uyfowdxm;p&myif+zKu
d af w? Armarmif0idk ;f a& &ckid af jy
ajrmufO;D +rKd@udk atmifjrifauav@ &ckid w
f ajyvk;H uku
d m; rodr;f ,lEidk cf ? wpdyw
f a'ouk&d m odr;f ,lEidk cf
a&? ewf+rKu
d t
f aemufzuf b*F g 12 +rK@d / Akv
d rf if;axmif/ zvHaxmif/ +rKaH xmif&@dk uu
dk m; olr&vD? t*Fvyd f
oHwrH uy`wed u
f efeed ;f (captain canning) tif;0+rK@d udk a&mufawtcg armif0idk ;f a& &ckid af jy uset
f pdyf
tykid ;f +zKduaf w b*Fvm;a'oudk wku
d cf u
dk o
f rd ;f ,lz@dk }uHpeD aD =umif; wGcD &a&vk@d “uy`wed f uefeed ;f ””.
rSww
f rf;rSmwG@d &a&? a,auavh armif0idk ;f a& ewf+rKu
d t
f aemufzufudk vk;H 0r&c/ ol+rKu
d u
f u
dk ;l zk@d =uw
H idk ;f
&ckid af wmfveS &f ;D acgi;f aqmif&@dk . ckcw
H u
dk cf u
dk pf mG ukd tvSL;tavS;cHpm;c&a&? armif0idk ;f wyf&@dk a& &ckid +f ru
D dk
vkcd sipf mG xuf ,if;a'orm ckad tmif;eDa& &ckid w
f u
d v
kd cdk sipf mG u tm;}uD;vk@d +zKduaf w? ,if;&ckid w
f u
d dk
xkwyf ;D zk@d pmG ukad vh t*Fvyd ef ef@ qufqv
H m&a&tcg armif0idk ;f &k@d t}udr}f udraf wmif;cHcuwfaw?
,if;tcg Armaeacs@&@dk . a=uG;a=umfou
H “usLyifckwf usLikwfr#rusefapeef@”vk@d qadk & aqmify'k f
+zKduaf w?

(u) r[mya'o&kdufaeacsUudk awmfvSefjcif;/

&ckdifajyukdusL;ausmfzkd@ Armaeacs@&kd@ &ckdifajyem;okd@ 0ifvma&cg awmifukwfaeu
wef;avG;pm; usm;&D0wf awmifrif;}uD;ausmx
f ;DG pwifcck w
H u
dk x
f w
k cf a&? 1146-ck/ ewfawmfvqef;
4-&ufu Armaeacs@wyfa& &ckid af jyukd xk;d azgu0f ifa&mufvma&? ,if;E_u
d f ,if;v/ vqef; 9-&uf
peDedu awmifrif;}uD;ausmfxGD; ckcHwdkufxkwfvkdufaw? aemufwacguf ,_difvma&tcgavh
wkdufzsufvkdufaw? 1146-ck ewfawmfvqef;u Armaeacs@ tvkH;t&if;eef@ 0if vma&cg
awmifrif;}uD;a& ajrmufO;D / rif;jym;u4if;/ &rf;ajy@u|e;f u tdr&f rdS if;a[mif; oufpaH &$&@dk yg; u4if;/
rmefatmif+rKd@pm; AdkvfxGef;atmifausmf&kd@yg;u4if;/ pkdufulawmif;vkdufaw? a,tcg tcsif;csif;
oHo,0ifeu
D wfv@dk pkpak p;ap; aeacs@ucdk ck zH @pdk w
d "f mwf ra&mufEidk cf uwf? wauG;wjym;pD +zKduef D
uwfaw?
(1) ajrmufO;D bk&if r[morRw&mZm tjyif
(2) ia=u;awmifu "g;rEkid w
f rif;
(3) yaEM;acsmif;u|e;f u aumif;nGe@f &efwidk w
f rif;
(4) =uyfpifu|e;f u "g;ykid =f uD; oHa'wrif;
(5) &k;d u|e;f u ukvm;a&$pmwrif;
(6) wef;avG;u awmifrif;}uD; ausmx
f ;DG wrif;
(7) rmefatmifu|e;f u owk;d jzLwrif;&k@d yif+zKduaf w//
ukvm;qdka& toHk;E_ef;rSm ukvm;ydkiftom;ar;a&vludk ac:pGmjzpfaw?
rlqvifukvm;udk qdkvdkpGmr[kwf?

71 4

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
tpktai trsm;tjym;yif [deu
D wfaw? ,if;eef@Zk Armaeacs@&@dk a& wck+y;D wck wku
d cf u
dk cf sK;d ESrd @f z@dk avGul
vm;ca&// Armaeacs@ ya'o&ku
d u
f m; y&da,t&mu ajywef;qmykid f avS@zsm;wwfawtwkid ;f / &ckid o
f u
dk f
pmazmufwu
d dk &Su
d wif,cl +yD;au ajyolvx
l u
k dk wywf&u
dk cf oda&? ,if;eef@Zk tcsK@d tcsK@d &mG Zm;&d@k
oDrif;}uKdqadk yG;wdudk vkyrf cd uwfoad &? awmifrif;}uD;a& &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f a=umif;u
aeacs@udk yxrqk;H ayG;OD;eif; wku
d x
f w
k cf ol+zKu
d af w? pku
d t
f iftm;rr#v@dk wef;avG;acsmif;u qkw+f y;D au
&rf;ajy@/ oHawG;/ rmefatmifaeu acgi;f aqmifwu
d dk wyfaygi;f pkz@dk / Armaeacs@udk wku
d x
f w
k zf @kd }uKd;pm;c
a&? rSeu
f efa&r[mAsL[m/ ae;AsL[myifjzKufaw? awmifrif;}u;D a& aemifawmf"g;ykid }f u;D pHay:&D/$ &rf;ajy@
pm;Akv
d af ygv;Hk / vrkpm;Akv
d v
f cS idk /f &rf;ajy@pm;Akv
d x
f eG ;f atmif&@dk eef@ vltiftm;oH;k aomif;ausmf pkap;+yD;
au wk;H ausmufqyd w
f u
dk af yG;u Armaeacs@udk tEkid ,
f v
l u
dk af w? 'kw,
d w}udrf jyif;jyif;xefxefwu
dk f
&a&// ,_;H edrv
hf kd@ ,if;uwzefqw
k +f yD;au ya*;acsmif;u|e;f u acgi;f aqmifaumif;nGe@f &efwidk /f Akv
d x
f eG ;f
ay:a0&k@d eef@ yl;aygijf yefa&// ,if;utm;eef Armaeacs@uw
dk u
dk cf u
dk v
f aD &? ,if;wcg tm;rr#v@dk r,lurf;
ok@d qw
k cf &H a&? ,if;aemufyidk ;f E_u
d u
f yif r[m"rR&mZmrif;/ om;awmftrd &f rdS if; armifoufp&H a$D & a,muf
zawmf pku
d u
f yG Af v
dk af cs@apGeef@twl &rf;ajy@+rKdu0f wku
d af yG;u Armaeacs@wyfwu
d kd jyif;jyif;xef;xef;
wku
d x
f w
k cf uwfaw? ,if;wku
d af yG;u Akv
d af cs@apGusq;Hk vk@d &ckid w
f yfysuu
f m aemufqw
k f vD&a&?
Armaeacs@&@dk avh ,if;tcg tdr&f rdS if;oufp&H .
D$ Zifacsmif;aeukd odr;f yku
d v
f u
dk u
f wfaw?
awmifyidk ;f u &cdik Af v
dk rf if;/wyfrif;&k@d z&kzd &D;+yKad uG;vDau Armaeacs@&@dk a& &ckid af jyajrmufyidk ;f ok@d
cs;D wufvmuwf+y;D au 1146-ck/ jymokv
d v
f qkwf 6-&ufu avmif;=uuf+rKd@a[mif;u wyfaw+y;D au
ajrmufO;D +rK@d awmfudk wdu
k cf u
dk v
f aD &? ,if;eduyif &ckid Af v
dk rf if;wyfrif;&k@d avh avmif;=uufwyfudk xGuw
f u
dk f
vDa&tcg ,_;H edr@f ca&? ,if;eef@Zk wku
d *f saD wmf 30-eef@ ajrmufO;D bk&if r[morRw&mZmrif;a& ,if;ed
okid ;f acgit
f csed u
f &rf;ajy@u|e;f udq
k w
k v
f &D a&? aemufw&uf jymokv
d qkwf 7-&uf peDeu
d 1784-ck/
'DZbFmv/ ajrmufO;D &$+D rKd@awmfudk Armaeacs@&@dk odr;f yku
d v
f aD &? jymokv
d auG we*FEeDG d 1785-ck/ jymokv
d /
u|e;f om,mu &ckid rf if;w&m;ukd Armaeacs@&@dk vuf&zrf;qD;rdv@dk tr&yl&+rKd@awmfo@dk yk@d vu
dk u
f wfaw?
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8

15

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
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10

17

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
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1 11 8

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1. "P.R.Pearn," King Bering, J.B.R.S, Vol. xxIII, 11,. 1913 P. 445 udka=u@?
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12

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14

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f rsK;d om;udk rsK;d jyKwfatmifowf+y;D au rGeaf jyukd
Armajyvkyyf u
dk v
f u
dk af wykid f &ckid af jyukv
d yk zf @dk }uKd;pm;vDa& +Aw
d o
d #&@dk um; attuGuu
f jdk rif+y;D om;+zKduf
aw? &ckid af jy jrefrmajyudk ol&@dk ord ;f yku
d zf @dk }uKd;pm;eDuwfaw? &ckid t
f iftm; xGm;xGm;ysuv
f @dk evefr
xlEidk af tmifxd ol&@kd apmifah =u@ecD a&? ,if;+yD;rS&m &ckid u
f t
dk &Htiftm; rD;G Zyf+yD;au Armajyudo
k rd ;f zk@d
tm;xkwx
f m;a&// ,if;ykid t
f m;xkw}f upH cD suu
f dk t*Fvyd -f jrefrm pku
d af yG; 3 ayG;pvk;H rSm oufot
D +zKd uf
wG&d a&// ,if;pku
d af yG;wd +zdKufvwfaw? &ckid pf u
dk w
f yf&@kd (Magh Corpo) azG@+yD;au ap;&k;H odr;f oGi;f
,lvm;ca& +Adwo
d #t&if;o#iaf eacs@&@dk . y&da,um; azG;rD;eef@avhwal &? wazG@azG@avhavmifa&? 3yGiq
hf idk &f ef ok;H OD;rSm tm;ae;qk;H +zKduaf w? &cdik u
f dk &ckid t
f z+rjD yifrmS yif Armaeacs@vufcsuef ef@ xGux
f u
G f
}uDatmif rodrom r[kwaf u odoo
d mom uZwfxm;ca&? a,+yD;au &ckid u
f t
dk &Htiftm;vky+f yD;
au Armudw
k u
dk cf u
dk o
f rd ;f ,la&;? &k;d ajzmifo
h al & aumufusKu
d af w t=uHorm;yg;rSm ,m,Dus&pajr;?
AD.1813-ck/ o&ufcsKd cHwyf+rK@d uqkw+f y;D au pku
d w
f aumif; awmif&;dk aeuk0d ifvm;ca&? Akv
d cf si;f jyefa&
+rKHaxmif (Tripura State)jyefa& awmif&;dk wcGirf mS wyfpcef;wd jzef@aqmuf+yD;au &dumQ vufeuf
pkaqmif;xm;vDa&// *sLvkid v
f rSm [&bif;uk0d ifp;D +yD;au rdr.
d orD;awmfai 2 yg;udk ,lvm;ca& rdcif
'*grmS tzrf;cHe&D a&// &ckid t
f abmifr&k@d eef@ twlwel x
D idk af & ,if;orD;awmf 2 yg;ukd awmfveS &f ;D eD+ru
D yif
rdred ef@twlex
D idk pf aD &? atmufwb
dk mvrSm Akv
d cf si;f jyefa& ukr%
` t
D pk;d &yg;ok@d pm&D;+yD;au rdru
d ,
dk f
raESmif,
h u
S zf @dk &ckid af jyukd &ckid &f atmif}uKd;pm; tm;xkwaf w awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;ukd raESmif,
h u
S zf @dk
ta=umif;=um;vku
d af w? ,if;tcsed rf mS ukr%
` t
D pk;d &ukd w&m;ol}uD; rpPwmyDacvfu Armpku
d w
f yf
eef@yl;aygif;vkd@ &ckdifhawmfvSef&D;ukd t+rKdwfjzKwfzkd@}uHpDxm;a&? Armeef@qufqH&D; tqifrajya&cg
ukr%
` pD u
dk o
f m;wcsK@d udk wyfuxGu+f yD;a&ykid v
f yk +f yD;au Akv
d cf si;f jyefudk owfz@dk wifjyvDa&// ,if;w
&m;ol}u;D u &ckid &f @dk a& uk,
d af jyuk,
d jf yef&&D;rSm aumif;aumif; nDnw
G u
f wfawtwGuaf =umif; &ckid u
f dk
vk;H 0tultnDryD;zk@d pku
d &f ;D t& tquftoGurf vkyzf @dk uadk vh xyfrw
H ifjyxm;cvDa&? Akv
d cf si;f jyefum;
&ckid af jyukd &ckid jf yef&atmif toufuykd ;D qyf+yD;au toufxufq;Hk }uKd;pm;ca&? r,l+rKduaf =umif;u
wku
d cf u
dk v
f @dk ratmifjrifEidk af &cg ukvm;wef+rdKwf!mS u pkeq
f if;+yD;au ajrmufO;D +rKd@awmfukd jyeford ;f zk@d
16

23

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
}uKd;pm;ca&? aemufq;Hk rSm AD.1815-ck/ *seef 0g&v
D 25 &ufrmS "rRwmoabmtwkid ;f Akv
d cf si;f jyef
auGveG v
f aD &? 28 &uferd mS tavmif;awmfudk aumif;pGmrD;oif+*v
õ v
f aD &? Akv
d cf si;f jyefauGveG +f y;D aemuf
&ckid v
f rl t
l azG;tap;rSm wpwp tiftm;qkw,
f w
k v
f m;ca&// useaf &acgi;f aqmifwu
d akd vh +Adwo
d #
aeacs@&@dk u wa,mufcsi;f / wa,mufcsi;f ESrd ef if;yku
d v
f u
dk af w? ewf+rKduu
f xufjcrf; tpdycf &H a&// &ckid f
ajyrSm Armaeacs@&@dk vufcsuaf =umif; &ckid o
hf ;DG yifavxGe;f eDca&? &ckid t
f &k;d awmifyidk yf eHk aD &// wajyvk;H
rSmum; rD;ck;D wvlv/l cG;D wtlt/l rsuaf &wokwo
f w
k Ef y_ af & w,Sy,
f yS f +zKd uef cD &a&? Zmykid yf if Armaeacs@
d af ygi;f 40 wdwd u|eb
f 0.
ya'o&ku
d f vufatmufrmS 1146-u 1186-txd (AD.1784-1824) E_u
'kut
Q aygi;f ukd u|eb
f 0. tqk;H 0ef'%fudk i&JwiG ;f qk;H usatmifcpH m;cuwf&a&?

(c) NAdwdoQt&if;oQifaeacsUudkawmfvSefjcif;
19
19-- &mpk & ck d i f a wmf v S e f & D ;

&ckid af jytwGi;f rSm 3-yGiq
hf idk f &efol 3 OD;teuf &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D tiftm;rSm Akv
d f
csi;f jyef auGveG u
f aw;u w&G@d &@Gd usqif;vm;c,m+zKdwaf w? t*ktcgrm +Adwo
d #t&if;o#if aeacs@eef@
Armya'o&ku
d af eacs@&@dk tif;tm;+ydKifqidk rf _ tpjyKvm,m+zKduaf w? +Adwo
d #&@dk rmS usqif;+ydKysuef ,
D m
+zdKwfaw? &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D tiftm;ukd t&Ht+zdKuford ;f oGi;f ,lz@dk }uKd;pm;vma&// +Adwo
d #&@dk
y&da,ukd Ak'b
< mom0if &ckid af cgi;f aqmif}uD;&k@d u *wdpum;/ oku
d pf mpum;vk@d ,kaH =uxm;uwfaw?
,if;eef@Zk +Adwo
d #&@dk ,_Od ;f uyfvma&tcg "g;ykid }f uD;ausmyf o
Hk m/ trf;pm;ajypk;d }uD;/ u|e;f tkyAf v
dk af tmif
ZH&@kd u tavGwul oabmwlvu
dk af w? tjcm;ta=umif;wcsuu
f avh &ckid af jyukd "g;rk;d tkycf sKyfeaD &
Armya'o&ku
d af eacs@vufatmufu vGwv
f yfcsiaf &qEN jyif;jypGm+zKd wfaw// Armaeacs@ukd wku
d x
f w
k f
+yD;au uk,
d ahf jyukjd yeftyk cf sKyfz@dk vGwv
f yfaw&ckid af jyt+zdKwf xlaxmifEidk zf @dk twGuf qENapmcpGm&m
+zdKwfaw// &ckid ef ef@ ukv
d ekd t
D pk;d &rSm rdwaf zG@+yD;au Armaeacs@udk wdu
k x
f w
k Ef rdS ef if;zk@d twGuu
f &dk m jyifyHk
ayguaf w? +Adwo
d #aeacs@&@dk a& &ckid af jyukd qufvufaeacs@Eidk pf mG udk t"duxm;vk@d pdik ;f pm;yHrk ay:c?
,if;twGuw
f meef@ &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D tiftm;pka& Akv
d af usmx
f ;DG / Akv
d cf si;f jyef&@dk OD;aqmifa&
tcguykdif ukd,fykdifjyXmef;cGifh (Self-ifantification) eef@ r&yfawEkdifcab; +Adwdo#aeacs@&kd@.
t&Htiftm;pkt+zdKufu&dk m a&mufreS ;f roda&mufvm;ca&? ckyidk t
f +zdKufrsK;d ukd zqAveef@ awG;zufc
uwfaw &ckid t
f rsK;d om; tazG@tap;&k@d }uKH}uKducf uwfaw?
AD.1823-ckrm
S pku
d w
f aumif;+rKd@0ef *gwmowfeef@ "g;ykid }f uD;ausmyf &Hk @dk Armaeacs@ukd &ckid f
ajyu wku
d zf @dk twGuf oabmwlncD supf mcsKyfwckukd csKyfqEdk idk cf a&?

16

1 72 4

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

,if;oabmwlnDcsuft&

(1) Arm&k@d ukd &ckid af jyuwku
d x
f w
k &f ef?
(2) vufeufeef@ pku
d o
f m;wd tultnDy;D &ef?
(3) pku
d u
f mvtwGi;f pku
d pf &dwu
f dk +Adwo
d # ukr%
` t
D pk;d &u wm0ef,&l ef?
(4) &efox
l u
G v
f m;+y;D &ckid w
f ajyvk;H ukd odr;f yku
d +f y;D au &ckid af jyukd &ckid rf if;om;rsm; vufujdk yef
vDy;D tyf&ef?
(5) +Adwo
d #urk %
` D tpk;d &uk&d ckid &f @dk u pku
d pf &dwf 2 qwdwyd ;D tyf&ef?
(6) +Adwo
d # ukr%
` t
D pk;d &a& &ckid af jyu vk;H 0Ookex
f u
G cf mG vm;&ef?
(7) +Adwo
d # tpk;d &a& &ckid af jy olrsm;yg;rSm uwdou
dk pf maw&ef ajyol&@dk ukd r&ufpufrapmf
um;&ef?
(*) pku
d cf s/D pku
d w
f u
dk &f m&k@d rm &cdik &f @kd u OD;aqmifv@dk vrf;nGejf y&ef?

trSefrkcs? oufpGefUMuavmU?

"rRwmvrf;rSe/f qk;d a=umif;=uHv#u/f
wHq;dk ukpd m;/ vdraf vhxm;aomf/
aemufom;wzef/ ao;rcHEiS ?hf
Ekid if w
H um/ [l&m&mY/
ynmESiOhf m%f/ oifph mG zefI/
wm0efrysu/f oku
d pf m&Guv
f su/f
toufuv
dk ;DS / oD;G acsmif;pD;rS/
tjyD;=uH@cidk /f Ekid if w
H idk ;f +rKd@/
tpk@d p@dk eef@/ uk,
d +f rKd@u,
dk af jy/
uk,
d Xf maeuk/d &vDz;l w/
atavmuonf?
atmufus rcHcsiaf oma=umif;?
a';0ef}uD;u wkid ;f ajy. vGwv
f yf&;D vrf;a=umif;twGuf toufpeG @f z@dk udk rawGa0uwfauh?
aeacs@&@dk . aumufusKu
d pf idk ;f av;a& rw&m;zdEySd rf u
l dk awmfveS w
f u
dk cf u
kd u
f wf? vGwv
f yf&;D ukd oD;G eef@
&if;vk@d ,u
l wf? wkid ;f ajywm0efuo
dk u
d wf? oku
d pf m[duwfv@dk rSm=um;xm;ca&? ol@u|erf cHpw
d u
f dk a&;a&;
awmufawmuf jyoazG@qx
dk m;ca&?

18

1275

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
“NrKd U ol B uD ; oD w rf ; pm&wk”
O'ge;f rusD / +zdKuf&vDjcif;/
wkid ;f ajyuk=d uH/ atmifausmZf rH mS /
=uHur$aD ESmuf/ wusyd af jcmuf&@dk /
,Gi;f azmufou
dk pf m/ ol&@dk rmS um;/
0rf;pmpm;cGu/f wxyfwu
G u
f /dk
woufpmxif/ cG;D tjrifa=umif/h
wkid ;f cGio
f map/ ig&@dk ajyavh
olajy+zdKuf&/ 0rf;ae;pGaw;?
rdzq&m/ ayg&%m&k@d /
a0g[mxk;H a[mif;/ vlA;l a'gi;f uk/d
raygi;f azmf&m/ qkw
d yHk gav;/
,Gi;f umowd/ aygi;f azmfrI
d /
vuf['d u
k /Q ig}uKH&.?
b0wpku
d /f vljyef+zKd ufu/
toku
d cf yk if/ =uHpcD sio
f nf?
atwGif rrDEidk af oma=umif?h
+rKd@o}l uD;u tacsmiform; oku
d pf mazmuf&@dk a=umifh olu|e+f zdKuf&auavh b0toku
d /f
vljyef+zKd ufau/ qufv@dk trsK;d om;twGuf awmfveS zf @dk ta=umif;ukd azG@qrdk mS =um;xm;ca&? ,if;awmf
vSe&f ;D aemufyidk ;f rSm av;+rKd@acsmif;u Akv
d cf sKu
d pf u
H av@ av;+rKd@acsmif; awmifov
l ,form;&k@d udk ap;&k;H
+yD;au vlusirhf usiahf &aeacs@udk awmfveS af rmif;xkwzf @dk twGuf wku
d af yG;oku
d /f vrf;pkid o
f u
dk w
f &yfukd
csrw
S v
f u
dk af w? ,if;aewcGiu
f dk ap;&k;H +y;D au tckid t
f rmwyfapG;xm;vDa&? vufeuftiftm;csi;f rr#v@dk
&ckid rf sK;d csKu
d /f ajycsKu
d t
f ajrmuftrsm; usq;Hk vm;ca&? Akv
d cf sKu
d pf u
H avh &ckid af jyuqkwcf mG +y;D au Arm
ajyod@k c0dk ifvaD &? ,if;tcg Armbk&ifrmS armifviG +f zKu
d af w? +Aw
d o
d #urk %
` t
D pk;d &u armifviG b
f &k ifyg;wk@d
oHpm&G;D +yD;au &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D acgi;f aqmif Akv
d cf sKu
d pf u
H dk awmif;cHvaD &? bk&ifarmifviG rf mS +Adwo
d #ukd
a=umufy&Hk a&? r[kwaf u tdref ;D csi;f Ekid if o
H m;csi;f csi;f tmCww&m; }uD;rmykaH yguaf w? tm&Swu
dk f
wwku
d v
f ;Hk udk u|ejf yKvkyzf @dk vma& +Aw
d o
d #&@dk &ef}u;D rm;yku
H dk rjrifEikd af b; &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D acgi;f aqmif.
vGwv
f yf&;D }uKd;yef;rlukd remvk0d efwpdk w
d f xm;ykaH yguaf w? ,if;a=umifh &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D acgi;f aqmif
1? armifviG /f b}uD;awmf 1819-13

18

1 26
9

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
r[mrdwt
f +zdKuf a=u@&zk@d tpm; ajymif;jyefa=u@+yD;au ayguq
f ed &f ;dk vkycf a&? Akv
d cf sKu
d Zf u
H dk zrf;+yD;au
+Adwo
d #urk %
` t
D pk;d &ukd qufovku
d af w? bk&ifarmifviG .
f tjrifwrdk /l tjrifusKOd ;f rla& Armorkid ;f ukd
ykv
d @dk nduyf wfpaD &?
Akv
d cf sKu
d pf u
H kd +Adwo
d #&@dk u pku
d af wG tusKid ;f axmifrmS csKyfxm;vku
d af wcg axmifwiG ;f rSmyif
tusKid ;f om;&k@d uakd p;&k;H +y;D au axmifwiG ;f awmfveS &f ;D vkyjf yefvaD &? ,if;a=umif; trsK;d om;vGwv
f yf&;D
twGuf usL;ausmo
f al eacs@ukd armif;xkww
f u
dk x
f w
k zf @dk }uKd;pm;vk@d Akv
d cf sKu
d pf u
H kd usL;ausmaf &aeacs@&@dk u
w&m;pD&ifjyefa&? }uKd;rde@f csrw
S u
f m owfjzwfjyefa&? AD. 1829 azazmf0g&v
D rSm oHawG;aeu tav
ausmo
f }l u;D Akv
d af tmifomOD;a& awmifov
l ,form;&k@d ukd ap;&k;H +y;D au &ckid af jyol&@dk udk oD;G pkwaf csavSeD
a& +Aw
d o
d #aeacs@udk wku
d cf u
dk af w? uk,
d w
hf yftiftm;eef@ oHawG;+rKd@udk csw
D ufwu
dk cf u
dk af wtcg aeacs@
t&m[d+zKu
d af w uy`wed af *:'if (Captain Gordon) usq;Hk vDa&? a,auavh oHawG;+rK@d uu
kd m; rodr;f
yku
d Ef idk cf // a,+yD; rt/D ykvyd pf cef;ukd 0ifp;D +yD;au ykvyd t
f m;vk;H ukd uGyyf suv
f u
dk af w? +Adwo
d #wyf&@kd u
xyfqifh zdwu
dk v
f ma&cg tiftm;rr#v@dk Armajyax;od@k qkwv
f &D a&// ,if;rSmyif Akv
d af tmifomOD;
auGveG v
f aD &? AD.1831-rSm }udro
f vDq&mawmfa& +Adwo
d #aeacs@&@dk ukd armif;xkwzf @dk twGuf trsK;d
om;awmfveS &f ;D w&yfudk vkyaf qmifca&// awmifyidk ;f aewcGirf mS q&mawmf. vkyaf qmifcsuw
f ad &
aumif;aumif;xda&mufca&// aemufq;kH rm ESrd ef if;pGmudk cHvu
dk &f a&/?
AD. 1870-71rSm ajrmufO;D +rK@d aeu Akv
d af rmifO;D jzLa& &ckid rf if;qufou
dk w
f &yfudk xlaxmifz@dk
vk@d awmifov
l ,form;&d@k ukd ap;&k;H +y;D au trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D w&yfudk vkyaf qmifvaD &? usL;ausmo
f l
aeacs@&@dk um; vufeuftiftm;eef@ Akv
d af rmifO;D jzLukd wku
d cf u
dk zf rf;qD;+yD;au owfjzwfvu
dk af w? AD.
1890-oHawG; }uDovDu ausmufprd ;f Akv
d f x=uGawmfveS af &? ,if;E_u
d rf mS yif oHawG;q&mawmfO;D
aqmif+y;D au oCFmawmftrsm;u Ak'o
< moemawmfudk rdpm> +Aw
d o
d #aeacs@ vufatmufuauwifz@dk
awmfveS u
f wfaw// oHawG;+rdKufw&k;d u vlo&l @dk uakd p;&k;H +yD;au +rKd@u0dk ifp;D a&// ,if;wku
d af yG;rSm q&m
awmfeef@wuG &[ef;awmft&dk usq;Hk ysv
H eG v
f m;&a&/ use&f [ef;awmf&@kd rmS avh tzrf;tcsKyfcu
H wf&a&?
,if;E_u
d rf mS yif ajrmufO;D +rKd@ae ausmufawmf+rKd@ae/ &aohawmif+rKd@ae&k@d rmS awmfveS x
f =uGrl trsm;
tjym; ay:aygucf a&? Akv
d =f umxGe;f / Akv
d af &$v/S Akv
d b
f &k@d a&/ +Adwo
d #aeacs@udk awmfveS w
f u
dk cf u
dk f
uwfaw? oHawG;aeu Akv
d af usm0f uavh awmifyidk ;f uyif ajrmufyidk ;f txd a'guaf csmufawmfveS f
wku
d cf u
dk v
f aD &// ajrmufO;D +rKd@ae/ ausmufawmf+rKd@ae&k@d rmS av; t}uD;taus awmfveS w
f u
dk cf u
dk ef aD &//
aemufq;Hk rSm usL;ausmo
f &l @dk u zrf;qD;owfjzwfvu
dk af w? AD.1891-ck/ pufwifbmvrSm &aohawmif
+rKd@ae/ ulawmif&mG . 3 qufajrmuf u|e;f tky+f zKduaf w Akv
d cf si;f zk@d eef@ om;armifazmfatmif&@dk a& r,l
urf;wcGif awmifov
l ,form;&k@d ukd ap;&k;H +y;D au/ r*Fvm}u;D awmifeef@ qdy}f u;D csKid rf m wyfpcef;aqmuf
vkyx
f m;uwfaw? +Aw
d o
d #aeacs@&@dk udk armif;xkw+f y;D au rif;qufou
dk x
f al wmifz@dk }uKd;pm;cuwfaw?
1892-ck/ azazmf0g&v
D rSm om;tzESpaf ,mufpvH;k udk zrf;qD;rdv@kd pdu
k af wGtusKid ;f axmifrmS wdu
k f
20

1 92 7

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
ydu
k x
f m;vdu
k o
f nf? a,tcg tusKd if;om;w&mavmuf axmifwiG ;f x=uGawmfveS +f yD;au Adv
k cf si;f zdk
om;tzudk wdu
k u
f v$wv
f u
kd u
f wfaw? ,+yD;au axmifuakd zmufxiG ;f zd@k wdu
k cf u
kd u
f wfaw? aemuf
qH;k rSm e,fcs@J &@kd . wefjyefwu
kd cf u
kd rf a_ =umifh trsm;usq;kH +y;D au +ird u
f svm;c&a&? Adv
k cf si;f zd&k @kd om;tzudk
e,fcs@J &@kd u }udK;rdy;D +yD;au owfjzwfvu
kd af w? t*kyikd f awmfveS &f ;D wdu
k cf u
kd f x=uGrr_ sKd ;udk +Adwo
d #
e,fcs@J &@kd u &ckid af jyudk rw&m;vdraf v odr;f ydu
k +f yD;au 1826-ck/uyifpvDpmG 1916-ckx+d zdKufaw?
wap;w&H;k aw;/ wajyvH;k / wrsK;d om;vH;k awmfveS &f ;D rsK;d / ray:ayguEf ikd cf auavh wyg;u|epf epfuu
kd m;
wcgav;acgi;f iH@k rcHcuwf? trsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;udak vh wcgavhravG;cuwf? ud,
k ahf jyudk
ud,
k jf yef&&D;twGuf tjrJwrf;}udK;yrf;cuwfaw? ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGih(f Self Indentily)udk toufy;D vd@k
toufxufq;kH wdu
k v
f m;cuwfaw? 1916-ckEpS f aemufyikd ;f rSmum; &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@tap; tawG;ac:
topftqef;wd odjrifvmuwfv@kd &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D a& umvwckukd jzwfoef;eDca&?
+Adwdo#aecsJ@ t&if;o#ifwdk@udk trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;ESifh wdkufcdkufarmif;xkwfaw? &cdkiftrsdK;om;
acgi;f aqmif}uD;&d@k a& Zma=umihw
f ,H;_ aw; ,_;H eD&av;qdpk mG udk ateD&mrSm wqdwaf uavmuf qef;
pdu
k +f yD;au aumufcsux
f w
k =f unfv
h u
kd af wtcgrmS atmufygtwdik ;f wd&G a&//
1? ,if;tcgu +Adwo
d #e,fcs@J w@kd usio
hf ;kH eDa&pepfrmS t&if;&Sipf epf+zdKufaw? awmfveS &f ;D
acgi;f aqmiftrsm; udik q
f x
JG m;a&pepfrm ya'o&du
k pf epf+zKd ufaw? ,if;a=umifh pepfcsi;f t
& awmfveS &f ;D bufu wqifeh ed cD a&?
(2) +Aw
d o#aecs@J &@kd udik pf x
JG m;a&pGmu acwfrv
D ufeuf+zKd uaf w? awmfveS &f ;D orm;&d@k udik pf x
JG m;
a&pGmu omrmef &D;S vufeuf+zdKufaw?
(3) +Adwo
d #aecs@J &@kd pdu
k af p;urf;/ pdu
k yf nm/ pdu
k o
f ;kH qD;0g;eef@ cku
d rf OD ya't& ap;&H;k xm;a&
wyfazG@&@kd [ad &// ,if;wyfazG@tm;vH;k rm avhusi+hf yD;om;+zdKufaw? awmfveS &f ;D orm;&d@k rm
,if;ydik f t*F g&yfeef@ ajyhpakH &wyfazG@r[dc?
(4) ,if;tjyif &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D orm;rsm;rSm ap;&H;k &D;/ ap;urf;xdr;f odr;f &D;/ pa&
awmfveS &f ;D . t"dut*F g&yfrsm; csKd @awhecD &a&? xyfv@kd &cdik t
hf rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f
a=umif;wckv;kH (18 &mpk awmfveS &f ;D eef@ 19 &mpkawmf vSe&f ;D ( 1784-1916)udk jyefav
oH;k oyfa=uhygau
(u) Armya'&mZfaecs@J ukd awmfveS &f mrm +zdKuf+zdKuf (1784- 1824)
(c) +Adwo
d # t&if;o#iaf ecs@J ukd awmfveS pf mG rm +zdKuf+zdKuf (1824- 1916) t,H;_ aygi;f ajrmufrsm;pGmudk
&ifqikd cf pGmudw
k @Gd &a&? Zma=umihf ,if;ydik q
f ;kH ,H;_ pGm xyfe&D a&av;qdpk mG udk okawoevkyaf =u&h zd@k yif+zKd uf
aw? &oavmuf tcsut
f vufwu
d kd qef;pdu
k af =uh&zd@k yif+zdKufaw? ,if; 18 &mpk/ 19-&mpkawmf
vSe&f ;D rm
(1) awmfveS &f ;D . t"du0if&;kd +zdKufaw ap;&H;k &D;tiftm;ae;yg;jcif;?
20

2 12 8

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
(2) awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&yf ckid cf ikd /f aESmif;aESmif;r[djcif;?
(3) &efot
l ajctae/ ud,
k t
f ajctae/ ajyoltajcaet&yf&yfukd pdp/d pyfpyf rqef;pdu
k af u
awmfveS &f ;D umv &ifusuaf tmifxd rapmifq
h ikd ;f ab; awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd jf cif;?
(4) pdu
k &f ;D / pdu
k &f m/ wdu
k af e;/ wdu
k ef m/ vkyaf e;/ vkyef m ae;jcif;?
(5) r[mrdwt
f iftm;pk/ t&Htiftm;pk&@kd ukd pepfwusrudik w
f ,
G jf cif;
(6) aecs@J ESpw
f ikd t
f =um;rSm &ke;f uefr&jcif;? pa& tcsut
f vufwad =umifh t,H;_ aygi;f rsm;pGm
eef@ &ifqikd cf uwf&a&? ,auav; ,if;acwfu awmfveS &f ;D rSm aumif;rGejf ywfom;a&tcsuw
f d trsm;
}u;D [dpmG udak v;wd@G &a&?

,if ; &d k U um;—

(1) cH,cl suf cdik cf ikd af emif;aemif;[djcif;/ &ckid af jyudk Edik if w
H Ekid if v
H @kd twdtusc,
H jl cif;/ &ckid hf
vl@tazG@tap;udk woD;wjcm; vl@tazG@tap;t+zdKuf cH,jl cif;?
(2) &efou
l kd oabmxm;jywfom;jcif;/ &cdik u
f u
kd |ejf yKxm;ol aecs@J tm;vH;k udk cg;cg;/ oD;oD;/
jywfjywf/ om;om;qef@usijf cif;?
(3)olu|erf cHpw
d f tajyht0[djcif;/ &ckid Ef ikd if eH ef@ trsKd ;om;vyfvw
G &f ;D udk tjywftom;vdk
vm;jcif;?
trSeyf if ,if;acwfu awmfveS &f ;D rSm aecs@J qef@usi&f ;D / trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D yif+zdKufaw?
ya'o&mZfpepfukd vufcx
H m;auavh aecs@J pepfuu
kd m; jywfjywfom;om; qef@usiw
f u
kd cf u
kd cf uwfaw?
vyfvw
G &f ;D wdu
k af yG;twGuf toufuykd ;D tyf+y;D au toufxufq;kH wdu
k cf u
kd cf uwfaw? tz&cdik v
f yG f
vwf&;D twGuf toufeef@o;GD udk +r}D u;D rSm yEMuaf usmuf+rKd ucf s+y;D au awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd v
f m;uwfaw?
,if;awmfveS &f ;D ausmuf+rdKufukd tqifq
h ifjh rSiw
hf if+yD;au &cdik v
f yG v
f wf&;D udk wnfaqmuf&zd@k yif+zdKuf
aw? a'trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f trGq
D ufukd t*kacwf &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH qufvufc,
H &l zd@k
yif+zKd uaf w? a'ordik ;f quf&m ig&@kd twGurf eS u
f efa& ordik ;f quf&m+zKd uaf w? obm0usa& ordik ;f quf
&m+zdKufaw? a,au ig&@kd Zmvkyu
f zf @kd av;qdak u a'trsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f qufukd qufvuf
wm0ef,&l zd@k v@kd ajym&zd@k yif+zdKufaw?

(*) NAd w d o QtdENEd,Ed
N,EdkifiHqdka& pD;yGm&D;pm;usufBuD;udk azGUap;jcif ;

AD. 1885 rm +Aw
d o
d #t&if;o#iaf ecs@J &@kd Armbk&ifoaD ygrif;udk zrf;qD;vdu
k +f y;D au ol@yikd ef uf

tm;vH;k udk odr;f ,lvu
kd af w? ,+yD;au &ckid f/ o#r;f / ucsi/f u&if/ rGe/f csi;f / u,m;/ Arm tm;vH;k udk
d #Am;rm;”
pkaygi;f vdu
k +f y;D au “+Adwo
m;rm;”vd@k ajyaewpfcak zG@vu
kd af w? ,if;ajyaeudk +Aw
d o
d #tEd ,
dN txJrmS
aygi;f pyf+yD;au pD;yGm;&D;pm;usu}f uD;wcktjzpf azG@ap;ydu
k v
f u
kd af w? t&if;o#if aecs@J &@kd a& a&muf&m
22
2 21 9

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
t&yfrmS ol&@kd . pD;yGm;/ Edik if &H ;D / vlrsK;d =oZmanmif;atmif pdu
k &f ;D t& tEdik w
f u
kd cf u
kd +f yD;au taumif
txnf azmfvmuwfaw? ,if;ydik v
f yk v
f mvyfpmG rSm Edik if aH iwdukd ol&@kd pw
d }f udKuftwdik ;f xifa&ydik f
vlrqefbJ vkyyf u
d cf uwfaw? oufqikd &f mEdik if .
H qENv;kH 0rygyJ ol&@kd twGuf (IC.ol&@kd . udv
k ekd aD ecs@J
tusKd ;pD;yGm; oufouftwGu)f tqifajyydik f vkyyf u
kd cf uwfaw? jyifopfaecs@J &@kd a& AD,ufemrf/ vmtd/k
uarBm'D;,m;&d@k ukd aygi;f csiyf ikd af ygi;f vd@k pyfcsiyf ikd pf yfyu
kd cf uwfaw? vl@oabmvl@qENukd *&kpu
kd &f rSe;f udk
ol&@kd *&kpu
kd cf uwf? &cdik /f o#r;f / rGe/f ucsi/f u&if/ u,m;/ rGe/f Arm&d@k uakd vh +Adwo
d #aecs@J &@kd u ol&@kd aygi;f
csiyf ikd af ygi;f vd@k pyfcsiyf ikd pf yfyu
d cf a&? wjcm;urBmt&yf&yfrmS av; ol&@dk qENt& aygi;f ydu
k cf pGm/ pyfyu
kd f
cpGmwdtrsm;}uD;yif+zdKufaw// ol&@kd rmum;-ol&@kd twGuf aiG&mt"du+zdKufaw? vlopD mG ol&@kd twGuf
t"dur[kw/f wjcm;vlrsKd ; vlpikd rf rD+S zKd uv
f m;pGm ol&@kdtwGuf pdik ;f pm;p&mr[kw/f ol&@kdtwGuf vl@usi0hf wf/
vl@ou
d mQ qdpk mG vluv
kd cl si;f *&kpu
kd &f a&qdpk mG udek m;rav? em;avauav; ol&@kd twGuf t&mcyford ;f um;
aiG&m+zdKufaw? wajyeef@wajy/ wvlrsdK;eef@wvlrsKd; aygif;pyfvdkufawqdkpGma& omrHudpPr[kwf?
vl@tazG@tap;. tjrifq
h ;kH vkyif ef; txGËt
f xdyf tusq;kH vkyif ef;+zdKufaw// *kyikd v
f @l upd }P uD;wckukd
vkyaf qmifz@kd twGuf oufqikd &f m ajyol&@kd .qEN tajy@t0ygz@kd vakd &? vlrsKd ;wrsKd ;eef@wrsKd ;/ wajyeef@w
ajyaygi;f ap;zd@k twGuf bH&k efow
l u
kd af yG;rSm tcsi;f csi;f / ap;vH;k nDnw
G +f y;D au aygi;f ap;vm;cpGmrsKd ;[da&?
wcgwcg trsKd ;om;pD;yGm;&D;t& aygi;f ap;pGmrm ajyolqEN tajyht0ygau w&m;a&/ rSeu
f efa&//
twif;tm;"rRvyk af u wdu
k &f u
kd +f zdKuf+zdKuf/ oG,0f u
Sd v
f @kd +zdKuf+zdKuf/ vdraf vusvm;+yD;au vlrsK;d wrsK;d
aw;udk A[kx
d m;vd@k aygi;f ap;cau rw&m;/ rrSeu
f ef// ,if;ydik q
f akd u trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D a& rkcsay:
ayguv
f m&zd@k ? t*k+Adwo
d #t&if;o#if aecs@J &@kd azG@ap;vdu
k af w +Adwo
d # -Am;rm;eef@/ +Adwo# -tEN,
d &d@k
=um;rm &cdik af & =um;ysKd ufygvm;ca&? ,if;ydik f pD;yGm;&D;pm;usuf azG@ap;&pGma& ol&@kd .tkycf sKyf&;D twGuf
aiGuek o
f ufom&D;+zKd uaf w? uke=f urf;odr;f usKH ;0,f,pl mG vG,u
f &l ;D ESihf ukeaf csmjh zef@jzL;pGmav; vG,u
f &l ;D
a=umif+h zdKufaw? &ckid t
f usKd ;qEN vH;k 0rygau tm;eef@zEd ydS cf sKyfcs,v
f m;pGm&m+zdKufaw// vlom;qENukd
vHk;0jyXmef;cGifhrjyKbJeef@ ol&dk@acsvS,fcsifa&ydkif cs,fvS,fvm;cvdk@ igh&dk@trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;
ESrd ef if;cHvm;&a&? z&dzk &J+zdKufvm;c&a&?
(C) 1937-ck NAdwdoQ- Am;rm; cGJxkwfjcif;eefU rwf(uf) rdk[ef aeerdwfrsOf;aMumif;owf rSwfjcif;?
NAw
d o
d #Am;rm;udk +Aw
d o
d #tEd ,
dN eef@ waygi;f aw; azG@ap;xm;a&tcg &cdik o
f rdik ;f tqufquf
owfrw
S x
f m;ca&? &ckid af jyrSm wpyfaw;/ wjyifaw; ul;vl;qufqEH ikd cf a&? Armya'o&mZfaecs@J
csKyfuikd x
f m;ca&? &cdik af jywpdyw
f a'oeef@ +Adwo
d #t&if;o#if aecs@J &@kd csKyfuikd x
f m;a& tpdyt
f ydik ;f &d@k rm
qdck a&twdik ;f wpyfaw; ul;vl;vm;vmEdik cf a&? 1935-ck +Adwo
d #-Am;rm;udk acG;xkwzf @kd Oya't
wnf+zdKufaw? 1934-ckrSm ,if;Oya't& +Adwdo#Am;rm;vkd@ oD;jcm;udkvdkeDwckt+zdKuf +Adwdo#
k ef”
tifyg,mrSm &yfwnfciG &hf vma&? ,if;twGuef ef@ oD;jcm;aeedrw
d f owfrw
S v
f m&a&// “rwf(uf) rd[
22

2 33 0

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
qdak & +Adwo
d #vrl sKd ;wpfO;D u tpk;d &trdtwdik ;f aeedrw
d rf sO;f a=umif;ukd &D;qGv
J aD &tcg +Adwo
d #Am;rm;
aeedrw
d u
f kd t*kvuf[d aeerdwt
f wdik ;f ewf+rKd ut
f v,fu rsO;f cGv
J aD &? ,if;twGuw
f meef@ &ckid af jyrSm
xufjcrf;tpdycf v
H &D a&? Armaecs@J odr;f ydu
k cf a&tydik ;f udk +Aw
d o
d #Am;rm;txJrmS axhvu
kd af w? awmif
cGicf &dik f oHawG;c&dik /f ausmufjzLc&dik /f pdu
k af wGc&dik /f &ckid af wmif&;kd a'o&d@k rm qdck a&twdik ;f +Adwo
d #Am;rm;xJrmS ygvm;ca&? b*F g 12 +rdK@/ Adv
k rf if;axmif/ oufaxmif/ zvHaxmif/ +rHKaxmif&@kd ukd +Adwo
d #tdE,
dN rm axhyu
kd v
f u
kd af w? t*kyikd &f cdik af jy xufjcrf; tpdycf &H vdu
k af wtcgrmS q&mawmf OD;OwWrax&f/
w&m;ol }uD;OD;aratmif/ OD;pdev
f aS tmif/ qm&fay:xGe;f / qm&fxeG ;f atmifausm/f a'guw
f mpHa&$atmif/
eef@wuG &cdik rf sKd ;csp/f ajycsp/f &[ef;yk*Kd~ vf/ vly*k Kd~ vf&@kd / ,if;acwfu xif&mS ;ausm=f um;ca& Edik if &H ;D tazG@
tap;toD;oD;&d@k ruef@ruGub
f J eDcpGmum;/ wdu
k af yG;r0ifbeJ cD pGmum;/ ig&h @kd &ckid af jytrsKd ;om;twGuf
aumif;aumif;&Suzf @kd aumif;a&// &ckid o
f rdik ;f qufukd rsuu
f ,
G jf yK&musa&? Zmyif+zdKuf+zdKuf vlrsKd ;wrsKd ;/
Edik if w
H Edik if .
H oufqikd af &aeedrw
d rf sO;f a=umif;a&/ ,if;trsKd ;om;&d@k . vufxrJ mS yif[ed aD &? ,if;t
rsKd ;om;&d@k . rsKd ;csppf w
d /f ajycsppf w
d /f owW/d ZG/J vH;k v/ 0d&,
d tay:rmaweDa&?

(i)&cdkifeDNrD tjcrf;jcrf; cGJpdyfcH&jcif; ZmaMumihfav;

aumZmouU&mZf/ 1146 ckEpS /f wyg;u|ef +zdKufvmuaw;u &cdik +f rDa& tjcrf;jcrf;cGpJ yd cf &H pGma&
20 &mpktv,fyikd ;f umv/ Arm/ tdE,
dN / ygupd w
P ef/ vGwv
f yf&;D &a& txd+zdKufaw? &ckid af jytjcrf;jcrf;
cGpJ w
d cf &H jcif; (Partition of Arakan)a& ykv
d efEikd if H cGpJ yd cf &H pGmxufq;kd oda&? ,if;ydik f tjcrf;jcrf; cGpJ yd cf H
&vGr;f vd@k u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd b
D 0txd xd;k qif;vm;c&a&? +Adwo
d #Am;rm;rmyga& &ckid af jya'oudk +Adwo
d #
tpd;k &u 1853-rSm &cdik w
f ikd ;f vd@k owfrw
S yf u
kd v
f u
kd af w? {&m0wD +rKd uf0u|e;f ay:udk +Aw
d o
d #&@kd odr;f ydu
k f
vdu
k +f yD;aemuf AD.1853 ckrm ausmufc|eaf csmif;uyif armfwifpeG ;f txd awmifciG cf &dik ef ef@ [dik ;f }uD;
u|e;f &d@k ukd ykord cf &dik rf m aygi;f awhvu
kd af w? ,if;eef@Zk ,if;a'orSm &cdik w
f ikd ;f u ayhxu
G v
f m;c&a&?
'kw,
d urBmpdu
k }f u;D +y;D qH;k a&cg tdE,
dN / ygupd w
P ef/ Armajy&d@k vGwv
f yf&;D &uwfaw// a,tcg
jrHKaxmifrm tdE,
dN ajyxJrmS ygvm;ca&? Adv
k rf if;axmif/ oufaxmif/ zvHaxmifeef@ b*F g 12-+rdK@&@kd rmS
“&cd
i
k
w
f
i
k
d
;
f

ygupd w
P ef xJygvm;c&a&//
ArmajyxJrmS yg0ifvm;c&a&? wcg Armtpd;k &u yvuf0g;c&dik f
(Northen Arakan Hill Cracks)udk csi;f 0daoowdi
k ;f xJrmS 1952 ckrm aygi;f pyfvu
kd af w? 20 &mpk
yxrydik ;f acwf &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;a& vGwv
f yf&;D qdak & atmifayG;eef@ tqH;k rowf
cbJeef@ vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D (0g)ajyol'rD u
kd a&pD awmfveS &f ;D qdak & 'kw,
d pcef;qifo
h @kd ckew
f ufvm;pGm
udk wG@d &a&? ,if;twGuef ef@ &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH . awmfveS &f ;D yef;wdik jf y\emrSm tjiif;yGm;&a&?
*kydkif awmfvSef&D;vrf;a=umif; avG;acsmfvm;&pGma& &cdkifajy.ordkif;udk rsufuG,fjyKvdk@+zdKufaw?
[dik ;f }uD;u|e;f tjyif udu
k ;kd u|eaf v; &ckid yf ikd ef ufxrJ mS yga&?

2 33 1

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&cdik af jy. &kyw
f &m;udk rsuu
f ,
G jf yKvd@k +zdKufaw? &cdik af jy. &ky0f g'v
D @kd emrnfcaH &vlwd &cdik &hf yk w
f &m;udk
rudik af qmifbJ aemufvu
kd 0f g'udk udik q
f x
JG m;uwfv@kd +zdKufaw? ,if;0g'a=umihf ygwpD 0JG g'/ *d%
k ;f pG0J g'
(Factionalism) 0ifvmvwfv@kd &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; vl@tazG@tap;rSm u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd b
D 0rm E_u
d rf eG ;f eD&a&?
&cdik ef +D rt
D jcrf;jcrf; cGpJ yd cf &H jcif;a=umifh &cdik w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k rm u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd b
D 0udk a&mufvm;c
&a&? awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif; vGaJ csmv
f m;cuwf&a&? awmfveS &f ;D wpcef; vGev
f m;c&a&? *kyikd +f zKd u&f pGm
Zma=umifv
h /J trsKd ;om;ap;vH;k nDnw
G &f ;D +yKd uv
JG @kd +zKd uaf w? ya'o&mZf +ro
D #iaf cwfuqdak u trsKd ;om;
ap;vH;k nDnw
G &f ;D +ydKuG&J jcif;. t"duta=umif;w&m;rSmum; a'opGpJ w
d /f *d%
k ;f *%pGpJ w
d /f ud,
k u
f sKd ;
qefpw
d &f @kd a=umifh +zdKufc&a&? 20-&mpkumvrmum; ygwpD pJG w
d /f vrf;vGaJ csmrf /_ pcef;vG/J pcef;vGerf _
&d@k yv
kd ma&? tEkwv
f uQ%mtwGuf ta=umif;w&m; rsm;vmpGmyif+zKd uaf w? &cdik t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D
udk tzsut
f qD; vkyv
f u
kd pf mG yif+zdKufaw?



24

2 35 2

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

tcef ; (4)
&ckdifhtrsKd;om; awmfvSef&D;vrf;aMumif; a&mxGD;vm;jcif;
(u)yxr 0HomEkacwfZmykdifav;/

+Adwo
d #Am;rm;udk oD;jcm;razG@ap;cifuyif tdE,
dN ukr%
` t
D pd;k &a& &cdik af jyudk udv
k ekd ED ikd if H
wpwp oGwo
f iG ;f ,lvma&? &cdik af jy tazG@tap;.yHpk rH mS +rDo#iyf a'o&mZfpepf+zdKufeaD &? t&if;
o#ipf ;D yGm;&D;pm;usuf azG@ap;a&tcgrmS v,f,mvkyif ef;udk t+ct
D +rKd ufxm;vk@d azG@ap;vDa&? v,f,m
vkyif ef;rSmav; vufrv
_ ,f,m vkyif ef;+zKd ufaw? wHigvyk if ef;eef@ tjcm;v,f,mvkyif ef;rSmav; pepf
a[mif;u twdik ;f &m+zKd ufaw? ukr%
` t
D pd;k &a& pD;yGm;&D;pm;usu+f zKd ufaw &cdik af jyudk t&if;o#ipf epf.
tvkyt
f au|;+zdKufvmatmif yHo
k iG ;f ,lvma&? vrf;yef;qufo,
G &f ;D udk jrifw
h ify;D vma&? ynm&D;/
tkycf sKyf&;D / w&m;Oya'pD&if&;D &d@k ukd jyKjyify;D a&? *kyikd v
f yk pf mG a& udv
k ekd t
D yk cf sKyf&;D udk taxmuftul+zdKuf
vmatmif vkyyf ;D jcif;&m+zdKufaw? a&xGuyf apP&@kd ukd tvG,w
f ul o,f,El ikd af tmiftwGu+f zdKufp/D
ol&@kd tyk cf sKyf&;D xda&mufz@dk twGu+f zdKufp/D vrf;yef;qufo,
G &f ;D rSm oabFm/ armfawmfum;/ oH}udK;
pa&pGmwdukd toH;k jyKvma&? tkycf sKyf&;D / w&m;pD&if&;D &d@k rmS av; vctae;eef@ wdik ;f &if;om;&d@k ukd toH;k
csEikd af tmif bke;f }u;D ausmif;ynm&D;tpm; udv
k ekd yD nm&D;udk vkyaf qmify;D a&? pufrv
_ yk if ef;qdv
k @kd qefpuf
rSwyg; tjcm;pufum; &Sm;&Sm;yg;yg;yif+zKd ufaw? qefpufuakd w&pGmuavh ol&@kd p;D yGm;&D;twGuyf if+zKd uf
aw? &cdik w
f ikd ;f &if;om;&d@k u t&if;o#i/f "eo#iq
f v
kd @kd rdom;pko;kH av;pkavmuf&m[da&? ,if;"eo#if
wda& &cdik af jy. trsm;qH;k v,f,mwduykd ikd q
f ikd cf uwfaw? b%fvyk if ef;udk vkyu
f ikd cf uwfaw? w&kw/f
ukvm;/ "eo#irf o
d m;pk oH;k av;pkavmuf&m[da&? yifv,fa=umif; ul;oef;a&mif;0,f&;D ESihf v,f,m
+rDtcsKd @ukd ol&@kd }udK;udik cf uwfaw? +Adwo
d #trsKd ;om;&d@k u oabmFurk %
` /D &Deu
H rk %
` ED iS hf tjcm;pufr_
vkyif ef;udk }uKd ;pm;vkyu
f idk cf uwfauav; oabFmukr%
` w
D ckaw;&m atmifjrifca&? &cdik w
f ikd ;f &if;om;
"eo#iaf x;rS ig;vkyif ef;eef@ wjcm;vkyif ef;wdudk vkyzf @kd }uKd ;pm;cuwfauav; ratmifjrifc? tcsKyftm;
2 53 3
26

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
jzihq
f akd u &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;rSmqdak u Armaecs@J +rDo#iyf a'o&du
k v
f ufatmufu +Adwo
d #t&if;
o#i.
f udv
k ekd v
D ufatmufc/H tazG@tap;vufatmufw@kd wqufquf ul;ajymif;eD,m+zdKufaw?
Armaecs@J ya'o&mZfvufatmufrm aqmufaw&mr& w&m;rJ@"m;rJh cHpm;eDc&a&b0u t&if;o#if
aecs@J &@kd . w&m;Oya'pd;k rd;k &D;/ +ird 0f yfyjd ym;&D;/ &yf&mG tD;o#r;f &D;atmufo@kd a&mufvmcuwf,m+zKd ufaw?
,if;ydik f ul;ajymif;vwfawtcg Armaecs@J vufatmufrmS ya'o&mZf pepfq;kd a=umihf ysupf ;D qH;k &SLH ;
cpGmwda& t&if;o#iu
f v
kd ekd D tkycf sKyf&;D ,E &W m;atmufrm udv
k ekd yD nm&D;/ vrf;yef;qufo,
G &f ;D / vlr&_ ;D
&d@k a& ya'o&mZfvufatmufrmS xuf wd;k wufr[
_ cd &mum; &cdik v
fh @l tazG@tap;a& umvwckukd jzwf
oef;eDc,m+zKd uaf w? +Aw
d o
d #urk %
` t
D pd;k & &cdik af jyudo
k rd ;f ,la& 1826-cku tpjyKv@kd t&if;o#iu
f v
kd ekd D
,E &W m;atmufrmS umvwckukd jzwfoef;eDc,m+zdKufaw? &cdik af jyudk ,if; 1826-ckEpS u
f vufw
vH;k jcm; vdrv
f @kd ord ;f +y;D au ,if;a'oudk b*Fvm;tkycf sKy&f ;D atmufrmS tdE,
dN tkycf sKy&f ;D yHpk t
H wdik ;f tkycf sKyf
aw? ,if;tcgu &cdik af jyrSm &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;wode;f &m[da&? +Adwo
d # tpd;k &a& &cdik af jyudk trsKd ;rsKd ;
vdrfavzdESdrftkyfcsKyfvdk@ trsKd;om;awmfvSef&D;aygif; tajrmuftrsm; ay:aygufca&? 1852-ckrm
t*Fvyd /f jrefrm qufq&H ;D wif;rmvm+yD;au 'kw,
d t}udrf pdu
k +f zdKufuwfaw? atmufArmajy yJc;l /
rkwrW &d@k ukd pmcsKyzf t
d m;eef@ odr;f ,lvu
kd af w? 1862-ckrmS &cdik af jy (yvuf0g;c&dik /f pdu
k af wGc&dik /f ausmjf zLc
&dik /f oHawG;c&dik /f awmifciG cf &dik )f yJc;l / rkwrW / weoFm&D&@kd aygi;f pyf+yD;au +Adwo
d #Am;rm;vd@k pwifazG@
ap;vdu
k af w? r[m0efo#iaf wmfrif;}uD;wpfO;D u yJc;l eef@&efuek u
f kd A[dx
k m;+yD;autkycf sKyfaw? wcg
c&d@k i/f +rdK@ae/ wdu
k af e&d@k c+JG yD;au c&dik 0f ef/ +rdK@tyk /f wdu
k o
f }l uD;&d@k u tqifq
h ift
h yk cf sKyfaw? wdu
k o
f }l uD;
vufatmufrmS &Gmacgi;f aqmif&@kd eef@ a=u;xrf;}uD;&d@k [ad &? *kyikd t
f yk cf sKyf&;D udk &D+rDa'otvdu
k f csrw
S cf
auavh pD;yGm;&D;atmufusr/_ vrf;yef;qufo,
G &f ;D nHzh si;f r_ bmompum;cufac;r_&@kd u xda&muf r_r
[dc? tcGeaf wmf&@kd uzkd ad umufv@kd ajyol&@kd rmS arG;jymus&a&? v,form;awmfveS rf _ trsm; tjym;ay:
aygucf &a&? &cdik rf if;qufopfxal xmifz@kd t}udr}f udr}f udK;pm;cuwfaw? pdu
k af wGrmS +cDcsv@kd Edik if jH cm;
om;ukr%
` &D @kd / wdik ;f &if;om;ukr%
` &D @kd / x&D;'de;f &d@k / aumfy&kd ;D &Se;f &d@k / cspw
f ;D ukvm;olaX;&d@k / qefpyg;eef@
tjcm;vkyif ef;&d@k ukd vkyu
f ikd cf uwfaw? ,if;Edik if jH cm;"eo#i&f @kd / vuf0cD H wdik ;f &if;om;"eo#i&f @kd / &cdik v
f ,f
orm;&d@k .v,f,m ud;k q,f&mcdik Ef e_ ;f a&muf[v
d m;ca&? pdu
k af wG+rKd @rmS av; Edik if jH cm;om;OD;a& ig;q,f
&mcdik Ef e_ ;f avmuf [dvm;ca&? OD;a&$omukr%
` &D @kd yikd /f ukr%
` w
D v
d yk t
f m;c tae;eef@ vkyt
f m;trsm;
yD;Edik af &? pyg;&du
k o
f m;ukr%
` w
D u
d kd ajyoltusKd ;pD;yGm; wckax;ud&k m=unf+h yD;au ajAmufaomufoiG ;f
hf sm” ac: pyg;&dwo
,lcvd@k &cdik af jynfrmS “&Giu
f m;ukvm;OD;a& wESpx
f ufwESpf ruefruef wd;k yGm;c&a&?
1885-ckrmS oDaygrif;udzk rf;+yD;au txufArmajyudk +Adwo
d #urk %
` t
D pd;k &u odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af w?
+Aw
d o
d #Am;rm;ax;rSm txufArmajyudk oGi;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af w? r[m0efo#iaf wmfrif;}u;D u tkycf sKyfaw?
1? &cdik -f jrefrmy¾dq&m}uD; OD;OD;omxGe;f u pmaw;udk &Giu
hf smrS &d[
k if*smod@k ajymif;vmonf[k
ajymzl;yga&/ bmomaA'ae;pedut
f & toHajymif;av;vmEdik yf ga&

26

2 73 4

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
1897-ckrmS bk&ifcu
H tkycf sKyaf w? vuf[&d cdik af jyudk Armajyrm aygi;f axh+y;D au 0efo#iaf wmfrif;}u;D u
tkycf sKyfaw? pdu
k af wGrmS &H;k pdu
k af w/ wcgyvuf0g;c&dik /f pdu
k af wGc&dik /f ausmufjzLc&dik /f oHawG;c&dik &f @kd ukd
c&dkif0ef}uD;wOD;utkyfcsKyfaw? awmifcGifc&dkifudkum; ykodrfc&dkifeef@ aygif;pyfvdkuf,m+zdKufaw?
,if;Oya'topft& c&dik 0f efatmufrmS aeydik /f +rdK@yikd /f &Gmol}uD;&d@k u tqifq
h ift
h yk cf sKyf&a&? wcg
c&dik 0f efatmufrm c&dik &f ;D 0ef/ opfawm0efaxmuf/ pdu
k yf sKd ;0efaxmuf/ vrf;yef;0wfaxmuf/ ynm0ef
axmuf/ aiGwu
kd 0f efaxmuf/ v,f0ef/ axmifyikd }f u;D / pufo#iw
f &m;ol}u;D toD;oD; Xmeqdik &f m pDrt
H yk f
csKyu
f wf&auavh &efuek rf m &H;k pdu
k af uawmh bk&ifcv
H ufatmufrmS [duwf&a&? ,if;&d@k tjyif &efuek f
A[dt
k yk cf sKy&f ;D XmerSm opfawmrif;}u;D / b¾m&D;rif;}u;D / taumufceG Xf merif;}u;D / wd&p>mefq;D ukeXf me
nGe=f um;&D;0ef}uD;/ use;f rm&D;Xme nGe=f um;&D;0ef ,du
k rf sKd ;rif;}uD;/ tde*f sed ef ,
D mcsKyf/ qdyu
f rf;rif;}uD;
pol&@kd yg0ifa&? a'XmetoD;oD;u oufqikd o
f r# tr_xrf;&d@k a& &cdik af jyod@k vma&mufpD rHtyk cf sKyfuwf
aw?
t*kyikd f tkycf sKyfxm;vdu
k pf mG avh 1927-ck wdik af tmif+zKd ufaw? udv
k ekd t
D yk cf sKyfa&;,E &W m;rSm
yg0ifeaD &? qdik &f mqdik &f mXmewdrmS udv
k ekd yD nmwwf &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; vlai&G,&f @kd twGuf v#ma&usp&m
+zdKufev
D aD &? ,if;a=umifh &cdik yf nmwwf vlai&d@k tax;rSm &mxl;&l;0g'apG;eD&a&? t*kxufx+d zdKuf
aw? &mxl;vdi_ ;f om; }u;D }u;D rm;rm;wufvykd gau rdr/ a,mcreef@ vlayG;pm;&d@k . vla&mif;vla0 arSmif
cdpk s;D rSm ps;D aumif;aumif;eef@&Edik af & t*kx+d zKd uaf w? vifa&mif;vifa0;pEdu
k af & trSeu
f &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;
,diS af us;r_rmS r[dc// t&if;o#ipf ;D yGm;&D;. yumoeavmurSm ay:vma& pepfq;kd &m+zdKufaw?
qdck a& 1826-ckuyif 1916 ckxd &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& +Aw
d o
d #t&if;o#iaf ecs@J ukd ae;rsK;d pHek ef@
awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd f cuwfaweD&mrSm t,H;_ eef@csn;f yif &ifqikd cf auavh ud,
k t
hf csKyftcsmtm%m
ykid q
f ikd rf t
_ wGuf rsKd ;qufrjywf awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd cf uwfv@kd &cdik t
hf rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;a&
qufav#mufe&D wke;f +zKd ufaaw? ,if;ydik u
f mvrsKd ;rSm &cdik t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D atmifvu
H kd vGix
hf +l y;D
au av#mufew
D ;kH +zdKufaw? 1900-ck aemufyidk ;f udk usvwfawtcg txl;ojzifh qdck a& 1916-ck
aemufyidk ;f udk usvwfawtcg &cdik af jyrSm +Aw
d o
d #uv
kd ekd u
D |eo
f uf 100 eD;eD; [dvwf,m+zKd uaf w? ,if;
tcsed rf mS +Aw
d o
d #t&if;o#ipf epfrmS t&deS t
f 0g wd;k wufwek ;f +zKd uaf w? tjcm;wbufrmS +Aw
d o
d #t&if;o#if
aecs@J eef@wuG t&if;o#if wavmuvH;k ukd odyaH` e;us qdak csvpf0g'u xd;k ESuw
f u
kd cf u
kd w
f ek ;f +zdKufaw?
*smr%Deef@ *syef&@kd uav; wpcef;xvmwke;f +zdKufaw? a'tcsed u
f mvrSm &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH a&
acwfopfurBm}u;D udk wd@G xv
d mpjyKwek ;f yif+zKd uaf w? txl;ojzifh &cdik yf nmwwf vlwef;pm;a& urBmeef@
txdw@Gd q;kH +zdKufeaD &? &cdik &f [ef;ynmwwf vlynmwwf&@kd &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;rm OD;aqmifre_ &D mudk
,lvmwke;f tcg+zdKufaw? txufuwifjyca&twdik ;f &cdik +f rDrm t&if;o#ipf epf xGe;f xGe;f ayguaf yguf
r[dcvd@k puf&/kH tvky&f }kH uD;wdr[dc? ,if;eef@ t*kpuf&t
kH vkyo
f rm; tvky&f /kH tvkyo
f rm;wdqv
kd @kd
aumif;aumif;r[d/ qefpuftvkyo
f rm;&m tae;acs[ad &? rif;r_xrf;/ tpd;k &vcpm;&d@k &m[da&? a&S@ae
a&S@&yfav; oufatmifacs[ad &? rdom;pkav;pkavmuf[ad &? wdik ;f &if;om;t&if;o#i&f @kd rm b%fvyk f
28
2 73 5

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
ief;eef@ aiGcs;D pm;v,fu oD;pm;caumufeef@ toufr;GD +rL vdr,
f el u
D wfaw? aecs@J vuf0cD H "eo#if
(uGezf &m'd)k tqifrh m&m [decD a&? &cdik af jy. vlO;D &Dtrsm;rm v,form;+zKd uaf w? v,form;rm qif;&J
a&v,form;/ tv,ftvwfv,form;/ csr;f oma&v,form;vd@k oH;k rsKd ;oH;k pm;[da&/ tm;vH;k a&
vufwqkypf m &ckid "hf eo#if rdom;pkvufatmufcb
H 0u tae;eef@trsm; ruif;vGwu
f wf? ukeo
f ,
G f
vlwef;pm; awmfoif&h [
kH ad uav; w&kw/f ukvm;ukeo
f nfwad vmufrrsm;/ ol&@kd avmuf avywfrr_ [d?
atydik t
f eDtxm;rSm[da& ig&h @kd vrl t
_ azG@tap;udk Edik if &H ;D t&/ pD;yGm;&D;t& pkap;zd@k a&rvG,cf ? Edik if &H ;D t
& pkap;zd@k qakd u trsKd ;om; acgi;f aqmifru
_ &kd atmif tazG@tap;wckcu
k v_y&f mS ;yD;&zd@k yif+zdKufaw?
,if;ydik v
f y_ &f mS ;r_vyk zf @kd qakd u urBmordik ;f pOf twdik ;f qdak u ynmwwfvw
l ef;pm;u acwfrpD epfvy_ &f mS ;r_
yD;&zd@k yif+zdKufaw? a,au &cdik yf nmwwf&@kd eef@ &cdik t
f &if;o#i&f @kd a& 1960-ck ywf0ef;usiaf vmufrmS
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D wm0efukd &,lz@kd yif+zKd uaf w? ,auavh ,if;ydik rf +zKd ucf ? pD;yGm;&D;t& pkap;zd@k qakd u
pD;yGm;&D;A[dXk mewckck &cdik +f rrD mS ay:ayguzf @kd vakd &? pdu
k af wG+rKd @ukd pD;yGm;&D;A[dXk met+zKd uf ukr%
` t
D pd;k &u
jyKvkycf auavh b*Fvm; pD;yGm;&D;atmufurv$wcf ? ukr%
` yD ikd pf acwfO;D ydik ;f rSm b*Fvm;pD;yGm;&D;
vufatmufrmS [decD a&? 1937-ck +Adwo
d #Am;rm;udk oD;jcm;cGx
J w
k v
f u
kd af wtcg &cdik t
f &S;D bufjcrf;
(pdu
k af wG/ ausmufjzL/ oHawG;/ yvuf0g;)a& &efuek u
f rkd suEf mS rle&D a&// &cdik t
f aemufbufjcrf; (b*F g
12 +rdK@/ Adv
k rf if;axmif/ oufaxmif/ zvHaxmif/ +rHKaxmif)a& b*Fvm;udk rsuEf mS rlvm&a&? +Adwo
d #
Am;rm;udk oD;jcm;azG@ap;+yD;aemuf &efuek u
f kd yxr+rdK@awmf/ rE aW v;udk 'kw,
d +rdK@awmft+zdKuf owf
rSwv
f u
kd af w? &efuek af & tkycf sKyf&;D / w&m;pD&if&;D / w&m;jyKvky&f ;D / A[d&k ;kH pdu
k &f m +zdKufvma&? pD;yGm;&D;
ynm&D;/ tcsut
f csmaw&m +zdKufvma&? ,if;tcgrmS &ckid t
f a&S@bufjcrf; (&cdik w
f ikd ;f )a& tkycf sKyf&;D /
w&m;pD&if&;D / w&m;Oya'jyKvky&f ;D / pD;yGm;&D;/ ynm&D;t& &efuek .
f wqifch +H zdKufvma&// wae; Arm.
wqifch +H zKd ufvmc&a&? ,+y;D au t*Fvyd pf mudk &H;k oH;k / Armpmudk +Aw
d o
d #-Am;rm; ajywGi;f oH;k vd@k owf
rSwv
f u
kd af w? ,if;tjyif +Adwo
d #-Am;rm;. trsKd ;om;toGiv
f uQ%mudk aumuf,&l mrSmavh Arm
trsKd ;om;toGif vuQ%mudk aumuf,x
l m;ca&? ,if;a=umifh &cdik ef ef@wuG rGe/f u&if/ u,m;/ o#r;f /
ucsi/f csi;f / trsKd ;om; toGiv
f uQ%mwdrm wqufquf wdraf umvm;uwfv&D a&?
,if;ydik f &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;toGif vuQ%mwdwrd af um+y;D au ordik ;f a=umif; r_e0f g;vm;vwftcgrm
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f a=umif;avh r_e0f g;vm;c&a&? *kyikd t
f csed af vmufrm to#iOf wWr
rax&fa& 0HomEk&uQw
d trsKd ;om;&D;w&m;udk ArmajywcGirf mS wGiw
f iG }f u;D a[m=um;vma&? aecs@J qef@
usi&f ;D / trsKd ;om;nDnw
G &f ;D w&m;udk &J&aJ wmufa[m=um;yga&? atto#iaf & &cdik t
f rsKd ;om; &[ef;
awmfwpfyg;yif +zdKufauavh tdE,
dN ajy Armajy&d@k rm&m Edik if &H ;D w&m; trsKd ;om;Ed;k =um;&D;w&m;&d@k ukd
&J&aJ wmuf a[m=um;ca&? ,if;ajywdrm&m tESu
d pf uftrsKd ;rsKd ;cHv@kd v_y&f mS ;ca&? &ckid af jybufo@kd
ta&muftayguaf e;yg;ca&? ,if;q&mawmfum; aecs@J qef@usi&f ;D / tm&S0o
H mEkacgi;f aqmif wpfyg;
yif+zdKufaw? &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif; (0g)&ckid v
f w
G v
f yf&;D vrf;a=umif; r_e0f g;vm;pGm
28

2 936

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
q&mawmfb&k m;u aecs@J qef@usi&f ;D / 0efomEktrsKd ;csp0f g' xm;[d&;D &d@k ukd tdE,
dN ajy ArmajytES@H tjym;
rm a[m=um;eDca& tcsed w
f rd m w&kwEf iS t
hf Ed ,
dN ajywdrm wdik ;f &if;om; rsKd ;csKd ufajycsKd uf/ ynmwwfvl
wef;pm;rsm;/ v_y&f mS ;eDwek ;f +zKd uaf w// w&kw+f rrD mS a'guw
f m qGe,
f ufqif. ulrefwt
H azG@}u;D v_y&f mS ;eD
wke;f +zdKufaw? (Dr-Sung Yed Sen Kuomintang) tdE,
dN +rDrm uGeu
f &ufygw}D uD; v_y&f mS ;eDwek ;f
r[wWr*ENd v_y&f mS ;eDwek ;f +zKd uaf w? Arm+rrD m(Y.N.B.A)toif;&d@k aemuf G.C.B.A toif; v_y&f mS ;eDwek ;f
+zdKufaw? &cdik +f rDrmum; a'tcsed rf m &ckid ef ikd if &H ;D vrf;a=umif;udk +Adwo
d #/ Am;rm;ax;rSm cif;usi;f zd@k
}uKd ;pm;eDwek ;f +zKd uaf w? r_e0f g;vm;ca& &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;udk &ckid rf sKd ;csKd u/f ajycsKd u&f @kd /
&ckid t
f a=umif;udk pdw0f ifpm;a& &ckid t
f rsK;d om;&d@k &cdik t
f usK;d udpu
P kd jrSiw
hf ifvakd & &ckid f t&m[dw&d @kd a&
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om;&D; v_y&f mS ;r_ukd &efuek o
f @kd OD;aw,lvm;cuwfaw? ArmrsKd ;csKd ufajycsKd uf 0HomEkacgi;f
aqmif&@kd eef@ ,if;acwfu &ckid rf if;wdik yf if trwfwd yl;aygi;f aqmif&u
G pf mG utp &cdik t
f rsK;d om; awmf
vSef&D;vrf;a=umif;a& a&mxGD;vm;c&a&? &cdkiftrsdK;om;wd+zdKufaw OD;aratmif/ qm&fay:xGef;/
qm&fxGef;atmifausmf/ a'gufwma&$pHatmif/ OD;pdefvSatmif/ OD;pdefxGef;atmif pa& yk*~dKvf&dk@a&
+Aw
d o
d #Am;rm;ukv
d ekd t
D azG@rmS 0ifa&mufvy_ &f mS ;&if; &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif; a&mxG;D vm;
ca&? xdyk *k Kd~ vf&@kd a& &cdik af jyt+cDteDukd aumif;rGew
f ;kd wufatmif vkyaf qmifcuwfpmG udak wmcg t
rsm;todyif+zdKufaw? &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;udk ArmawmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;eef@ abmifujJG ym;
atmif rvkycf pGmudak vh trsm;todyif+zdKufaw? ,if;tcsed Yf r&drS aESmif;tcsed af vmufu &ckid af jyrm
&ckid w
f ikd ;f toif; vli,fwEd ;kd =um;&D;toif;/ &ckid w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m pD;yGm;&D;tazG@csKyf/ wdik ;f &if;om;t
ap;tvH;k &d@k ay:ayguv
f m;+yD;au &ckid t
f &D;tcif; (Arakan Affair) wd;k wufvmatmif }udK;pm;v_yf
&Sm;cuwfaw?
at'D 1937-ck 'DZifbmvrm &ckid w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m pD;yGm;&D;tazG@csKyfeef@ wdik ;f &if;om; tap;t
vH;k &d@k a& pdu
k af wG@ wef;cd;k q&mawmfausmif;rm rsuEf mS pHn
k aD qG;aEG;+yD;au &cdik w
f ikd ;f vH;k qkid &f m wdik ;f &if;
om;tap;t&H;k udk wnDwnGwaf w; awaxmifvu
kd af w? OuUXrSm OD;ompHvS 'k-OuUXrSm OD;atmifxeG ;f
OD;+zKd ufaw? a'umvrm &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D jzwfvm;ca& umvwpfcyk if+zKd ufaw? trsKd ;om;
0HomEkumv v_y&f mS ;r_wv
d yk ef aD & 0HomEkumvudk jzwfoef;eDc&pGmyif+zKd uaf w? wae; trsKd ;om;awmf
vSe&f ;D . t}uKd umvwckukd (0g)trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . ap;&H;k &D;umvwckukd jzwfoef;eDcpGmyif+zKd uf
aw? 0HomEkumv (0g) trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D . ap;&H;k &D;umva& ajy@0r_/ &ifu
h surf r_ [dau trsKd ;om;
awmfveS &f ;D a& a,mhusvm;wwfaw? avG;acsmv
f m;wwfaw? atmifayG;r[dyJ qH;k &SL;vm;wwfaw?
Edik if w
H um0HomEkumvudk avhvm=unfv
h u
kd af u ,if;acwfumvrm ud,
k q
f ikd &f m trsKd ;om;vuQ%m
udak zmfxw
k jf cif;/ trsKo
d m;vuQ%m jyefavqef;opf&;D jyKvyk jf cif;/ trsK;d om;vuQ%m jyefavyGiv
hf if;&D;
vkyjf cif;&d@k uw
kd @dG &a&? trsKd ;om;&D;v_y&f mS ;r_/ Edik if &H ;D v_y&f mS ;r_&@kd ukd rsKd ;csKd ufajycsKd uf vlvwfwef;pm;u
OD;aqmifpmG udw
k @Gd &a&? w&kwaf jy 0HomEkumvrSm a'guw
f mqGe,
f ufqifyikd f w&kwyf nmwwf&@kd um;
30

2 93 7

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
OD;aqmifpmG udw
k @Gd &a&// tdE,
dN ajy 0HomEkumvrSm r[wWr*EN&D @kd OD;aqmifca&? Armajy0HomEkumvudk
to#iOf ;D OwWrrax&f/ ocifu,
kd af wmfri_d ;f / a'guw
f mbarmf&@kd yikd f ynmwwf&@kd OD;aqmifpmG udw
k @dG &a&?
t*,ifyh if 0HomEkumvrm aecs@J uq
kd ef@usi+f yD;au trsKd ;om;vuQ%m t&yf&yfukd azmfxw
k &f a&?
aecs&J @kd . 0g;rsKzd ;kH vGr;f zd@k }uKd ;pm;csuf t&yf&yfuu
kd muG,&f a&? ud,
k t
hf rsKd ;om;,Ofaus;r_abmif/ trsKd ;om;
abmif&@kd ukd azmfxw
k &f a&// jriS w
hf if&a&// ud,
k Ef ikd if /H ud,
k t
hf rsK;d om;,Ofaus;r_/ ud,
k phf myDqakd & a=u;G a=umf
oH&@kd ukd ajymifajymifajrmufajrmuf azmfxw
k yf ;D &a&// trsK;d om;&D;pdw"f gwef ef@ ,Ofaus;r_tiftm;
(National Spirit and Cultural)&d@k ukd trsK;d om;w&yfv;kH rSm ajy0
h &ifu
h suv
f matmif ckid rf mvmatmif/
vkyaf qmify;D &a&? ,if;uwqifh Edik if &H ;D tiftm; Political Forceudk odyaH` e;ususweG ;f yD;&a&? txl;
rSwo
f m;p&m a'ydik t
f iftm;udk wGe;f yD;a&tcg a&;&ifjh ywfom;&a&? wcgwcg vufeufuikd af wmfveS f
&D;xd awmufav#mufvyk af qmifvm;&pGmudk urBmordik ;f t&yf&yfrmS odEikd af &? attydik ;f eef@ywfowfv@kd
ajrmufu&kd ;D ,m;ordik ;f rm yHpk jH yp&m erlem,lp&maumif;wckyif+zdKufaw?

(c),au &ckdif0HomEkumvuZmydkifav;

pD;yGm;&D;/ Ekid if &H ;D / yx0Dt& a&mxD;G eD,m+zKd ufaw// &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& a'tcdseu
f mvrm
taysmph m;tcsed u
f akd &mufeaD &? trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;avh a&mxG;D eD,m+zdKufaw? a'ydik f
tajctaersK;d rm 0HomEkvyk &f yfa& pdpyfaocsmeDz@kd vakd &? jywfom;zd@k v@kd a&? ,if;acwf/ ,if;tcgu
&cdik v
hf y_ &f mS ;r_u=kd unfv
h u
kd af u &cdik &f mZ0ifukd ArmpmyDrmjyKvkyjf cif;/ &cdik t
f a=umif;udk t*Fvyd pf myDrmS
azmfxw
k jf cif;/ &cdik &f ;DS a[mif;pmyDukd ArmpmyDavmurmazmfxw
k jf cif; vkyef cD uwfpmG udw
k @dG &a&? &cdik f
r_t&yf&yfukd azmfxw
k af &tydik ;f udk ,if;ydik w
f @dG &+yD;aemufyikd ;f rm jrSiw
hf ifa&tydik ;f udrk wG@d &? v_y&f mS ;a&
tydik ;f udrk wG@d &/ &cdik Ef ikd if u
H kd ud,
k Ef ikd if /H &cdik t
f rsK;d om;a& ud,
k t
hf rsKd ;om;/ &cdik ,
f Ofaus;r_a& ud,
k ,
f Okd f
aus;r_/ &cdik pf myDa& ud,
k phf myDv@kd a=uG;a=umfcpGmudrk wG@d &? ,if;acwfuynmo#i&f @kd vkyaf qmif}udK;
yrf;cuwfpmG a& trSeyf iftusKd ;[dyga&? ,auavh trsKd ;om;abmifukd jywfjywfom;om; rvkycf uwf
awtwGuef ef@ &cdik af bmifeef@ Armabmif a&mxD;G vm;cuwfaw? a&mxD;G vm;pGmrSmawmif wef;wl&,
G f
wl a&mxD;G vm;pGmr[kwb
f /J wqifch H vufatmufct
H eDeef@&m a&mxD;G vm;cuwfpmG +zdKufaw? 0g;rsKcd H
&pGmxufq;kd oda&?
,if;eef@Zk t*kig&h @kd acwfrm &cdik rf m pm[d,ifv
h m;/ &ckid rf m *Dw[d,ifv
h m;/ &cdik rf m aw;jcif;
[d,ifv
h m;/ &cdik rf m trsK;d om;0wfp[
kH ,
d ifv
h m; pa& &Suaf umif;xref; ar;cGe;f wd ay:vm&a&r[kwv
f m;?
Zmavmufxdav;qdkygau “&cdkifa& vlrsdK;wrsKd;vm;” “&cdkifajyvm;/ &ckdifwdkif;vm;” “&ckdifa&
Armajy. tpdyftydkif;wckr[kwfvm;”“&cdkifajya& udkvdkeDwydkif;&m+zdKufaw? vHk;0udkvkd
eDr[kwf” “&cdkif trsdK;om;&D;vkyfau usdKif;ajrmif;a&/ &cdkif,dkOfaus;r_udk jrSifhwifhazmfxkwf
pGma& acwfaemufjyefqaJG &” pa& ar;cGe;f wd pum;wd ay:ayguv
f mc&a&r[kwv
f m;? Zmavmufxd
30

3 13 8

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
&Suzf @kd aumif;a&av;// a'&cdik 0f o
H mEkacwfrmS xda&mufawajy0h r_/ &ifu
h surf /_ jywfom;r_&@kd r[dcvd@k &ckid f
abmifeef@ Armabmif a&mxD;G vm;c&a&? trsK;d om;,Ofaus;r_ abmifawmifru Edik if &H ;D abmif/ awmf
vSe&f ;D abmifrmyg a&mxD;G vm;c&a&? trsK;d om;,SOd af us;r_abmifjywfom;rS trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D
abmifjywfom;zd@k / a,rS jywfom;a& trsK;d om;atmifayG;ud&k zd@k ? trsKd ;om;&D;abmifjywfom;rS trsKd ;
om;atmifayG;udjk ywfom;zd@k ? t*kyikd f abmifa&mxD;G pGm. ta=umif;w&m;udk rsuaf rSmufuvuyif
twdwu
f mvtxd jyefavoH;k owfa=uhau atmufygtwdik ;f wG@d [&d a&?
(1) 20-&mpk yxrydik ;f &cdik Ef ikd if &H ;D acgi;f aqmif pmyD,Odk af us;r_acgi;f aqmif&@kd &cdik t
f rsK;d om;
awmfveS f &D;vrf;a=uif;udk *&krpdu
k jf cif;?
(2) 19-&mpkumvu +Adwo
d #t&if;o#iaf eacs@&@kd &ckid pf ;D yGm;&D;/ Edik if &H ;D / ,Ofaus;r_/ vlr&_ ;D /
wdukd a&mxD;G ydu
k jf cif;/ &cdik af jyudk cGpJ yd cf siyf ikd f cGpJ yd v
f @kd aygi;f pyfcsiyf ikd f aygi;f pyfyu
kd jf cif;?
(3) 18-&mpkumvu Armya'o&mZfaeacs@&@kd &ckid t
f rsK;d om; vuQ%mt&yf&yfukd zsuq
f ;D
ydu
k jf cif; wajyvH;k udk aqmufaw&mr&atmif ESyd pf ufowfjzwfjcif;//
(4) 17-&mpk &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;tcsi;f csi;f a'opGt
J &/ *d%
k ;f pGt
J & cGjJ cm;cuwfjcif;/ trsKd ;om;ap;
&H;k &D; +ydKuGyJ supf ;D jcif;&d@k +zdKufaw?
*kyikd yf suq
f ;D eDpmG . o&kyu
f kd aecs@J tqufquf udik w
f ,
G zf suf qD;cauavh &cdik ahf cgi;f aqmif
tqufquf rudik w
f ,
G rf jyKjyifcuwfv@kd rawmfveS cf uwfv@kd ig&@kd t*kyikd t
f +zKd uq
f ;kd teDq;kd wdukd &ifqikd f
vm uwf&pGm+zdKufaw? t*kxd Armaecs@J &@kd a& &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;tax;udk *d%
k ;f *epGpJ w
d /f aopGpJ w
d &f @kd ukd
&ckid o
f pPmazmufwu
d wqif+h zKd uf+zKd uf/ wdu
k &f u
kd +f zKd uf+zKd uf owfoiG ;f eDwek ;f +zKd ufaw? ,if;eef@ t*kig&@kd
twGuf =uyf=uyfowdxm;p&m ocFe;f pm,lp&mav;+zKd ufaw?

(*) 20-&mpkyxrydkif; &cdkifawmfvSef&D;rsm;Zmydkifav;

19-&mpktukef 20 &mpktpydik ;f rm +Adwo
d #aecs@J &@kd a& txufuwifjyca&twdik ;f +Adwo
d #
tdE,
dN udk azG@ap;+yD;au udv
k ekd t
D +zdKufukd wqwfqwf oGwo
f iG ;f eDwek ;f +zdKufaw? udv
k ekd t
D yk cf sKyf&;D
,E mW ;xda&mufatmif +zKd uzf @kd twGuf udv
k ekd yD nm&D;udk ysK;d axmifatmifjrifew
D ek ;f +zKd uaf w? vGwv
f w
G f
vyfvyf ul;oef;a&mif;0D&;D qdak & udv
k ekd pD ;D yGm;&D; ausmuf+zKd uu
f kd wqwfqwfcsvma&? nDwn
l rD # w&m;
pD&if&;D qdak u udv
k ekd w
D &m;Oya' pD&ifx;kH udk ysKd ;axmify;D vma&// ,if;eef@ t*k&ckid rf sKd ;quf wquf+y;D w
quf udv
k ekd t
D &dyt
f m0goudk cdv
k v
_H muwf&a&? Armaecs@J ya'o&mZf}u;D wd &ufpuf,u
k rf mr_rsKd ;pHu
k kd
&ifqikd cf &a&? &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;twGuf +Aw
d o
d #t&if;pepfa& tyef;ajzpcef; +zKd ufcpGmudk qef;a&vd@k
qdzk @kd r[kw?f ,if;umvrm &ckid af jyrm pD;yGm;&D;A[djk yK&m oD;jcm;+rdK@awmfr[djcif;// vrf;yef;qufo,
G &f ;D
nHzh si;f jcif;/ *k%
d ;f *%pdw/f a'opGpJ w
d v
f r$ ;f rd;k eDjcif;/ Armaecs@J &@kd .'%fa=umif; evHrxlEidk o
f jhd cif;/ +Aw
d o
d #&@kd
3319
32

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
cGjJ cm;&D;pepf aESmif,
h u
S jf cif;&d@k a=umifh t&if;o#iu
f v
kd ekd b
D 0rm &cdik t
f rsK;d om;w&yfv;kH aumif;aumif;
}u;D =umatmif tdyaf rmusecD &a&? ,if;tcsed rf sKd ;rSm tdE,
dN rm trsKd ;om;ap;&H;k &D;vkyif ef; (0g) 0HomEkvyk f
ief; t[deaf umif;eDwek ;f +zdKufaw? ,if;tcsed af vmufrm Armynmwwfavmuudk tdE,
dN v_y&f mS ;&D;
*,uf&u
kd v
f ma&? Oa&mywdu
k o
f m; Ak'b
< mom0if/ taomubduKQ taomutoif;&d@k ta=umif;
jyKvd@k 1906-ckrm Y.M.B.A udk &efuek rf mazG@ap;vd@k eaD &? ,if;tazG@tap;rm &efuek af &muf &ckid yf nm
wwf&dk@yg0if+yD;au acgif;aqmifvmuwfaw? OD;azatmif/ a'gufwma&$pHatmif/ qm&fay:xGef;/
OD;pdev
f aS tmif&@kd yg0ifcuwfaw? 1919-ck/avmufrm to#iOf wWrax&fa& urBmt&yf&yfukd vSnahf v
+yD;au &efuek u
f akd &mufvma&? trsK;d om;&D;w&m;&d@k ukd a&;a&;awmufa[m=um;vma&? trsKd ;om;
omoemqdak & tcsu}f u;D oH;k csuu
f kd a=u;G a=umfvmuwfaw// a'umvrm q&mawmfeef@ tqdyk g&ckid hf
trsKd ;om;}u;D a& &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;}u;D udk omrntqifrh mS xm;+y;D au tvkyv
f yk af qmifcuwfaw?
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;udk OayuQmjyKuwfaw? ArmajyvGwv
f yf&;D udk t"duxm;vd@k
vkyaf qmifcuwfaw?
1920-ckrm Y.M.B.A udk G.C.B.A jrefrmhtoif;csKyf}uD;t+zdKuf ajymif;vJxal xmifvu
kd f
uwfaw? a'tcgrmavh &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;ynmwwf trsm;tjym; yg0ifO;D aqmifcuwfaw? 1920-ck
&efuek f aumvdyo
f ydww
f u
kd af yG;rm+zdKuf+zdKuf/ trsKd ;om;ausmif;vkyif ef;/ trsKd ;om;aumvdyf vkyif ef;
&d@k rm+zKd uf+zKd uf ,if;ynmwwf yk*Kd~ vf}u;D rsm;rm &cdik jhf y\emudk vufatmufcjH y\emt+zKd uf xm;c
uwfaw? &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;udk OayuQmjyKcuwfaw? &cdik af jybufrmum; &ckid f
ynmwwfrsm;u vlr&_ ;D / ynm&D;rsm;rm oifah tmifacs v_&mS ;cuwfaw? tpd;k &. jrLeDpyg,v
f yk if ef;rm
0ifa&muft&D;G cHcuwfaw? trsKd ;om;ausmif;vkyif ef;udk &efuek u
f *,uf&u
kd cf wfawtwdik ;f vkyf
aqmifcuwfaw? ,if;tjyif azmfjya&twdik ;f &cdik w
f ikd ;f toif; vlai&d@k E;kd =um;&D;toif;/ &cdik w
f ikd ;f
qdik &f m }uD;yGm;&D;tazG@csKyf wdik ;f &if;om;tap;t&H;k &d@k ay:ayguv
f m+yD;au v_y&f mS ;vmuwfaw? t
oif;tazG@&@kd . r[mAsL[mudk ,if;toif;tazG@&@kd .emarudk =unfv
h @kd oEd ikd af &? toif;tazG@wck.
emara& ,if;toif;. r[mAsL[mudk azmfneG ;f jya&? &cdik af jytpm; &ckid w
f ikd ;f vd@k o;kH xm;pGmudk =unfh
uaw;uyif &cdik af jyudk Armajy.tpdyt
f ydik ;f t+zKd uf cH,v
l m;c,m+zKd ufawqdpk mG udk odEikd af &/ ,if;t
oif;tazG@&@kd . pdwrf mZm[dca&qdpk mG xuf ,if;&d@k Zm ajymca&qdpk mG xuf Zmvkycf av;qdpk mG u ydv
k @kd
t&D;}uD;a&? ,if;toif;tazG@&@kd . &ckid af jytay:rm cH,cl suu
f =kd unfv
h u
kd af u ,if;&d@k .r[mAsL[m/
ae;AsL[m&d@k a& a&mxD;G eD,mqdpk mG udo
k Ed ikd af &? ,auavh ,if;yk*Kd~ vf&@kd a& &cdik rf sKd ;csKd uf/ ajycsKd ufpw
d u
f kd
arG;jrLcuwfaw? &ckdifudkjrSifhwifzdk@ }udK;pm;cuwfawqdkpGmudk rSwfwrf;&DG;xdk;xm;&zdk@yif+zdKufaw?
,if;yk*Kd~ vf&@kd a=umihaf vh t*ktajctaexd tqihq
f ifh wd;k wufajymif;vJvmpGm+zdKufaw?
1920-ck &efuek af umvdyf oydww
f u
kd af yG;acgi;f aqmifrmS &ckid t
f rsK;d om; oHawG;om; OD;bOD;jzpfaw?

32

3 43 0

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
1923-ck/ ZGeef 0g&v
D rm tdE,
dN tpd;k & a*Zwftrde@f trSwf 1192 t& Armajyudk bk&ifct
H yk f
csKyfaw ajyaet+zdKufu awaxmifvu
kd af =umif; a=umfjimvdu
k af w? ,if;+yD;au 'dik t
f mcD (The
kd af w? ,if;pepfa=umif; Armajyrm ygwED ikd if &H ;D ay:ayguv
f ma&
Dyarchy System)udk yD;tyfvu
G.C.B.A tjcr;fjcrf; +yKd uGv
J m;ca&?
(1) OD;o#pv
f i_d f G.C.B.A eef@
(2) OD;pd;k ode;f G.C.B.A
(3) OD;pG G.C.B.A
(4)21 OD;ygwD
(5) [kr&R yk gw/D
(6) ajyol@ygw/D
(7) o&pygwt
D rsm;ay:xGuv
f ma&//
,if;ydik f ArmhEikd if &H ;D avmurm q&may:xGe;f / qm&fxeG ;f atmifausm/f &rf;jAOJ ;D armifarmif pa& &cdik yhf nm
wwfrsm; Edik if &H ;D oHo&m a0hv@JS ecD uwfaw? &ckid &f @kd 'dik t
f mcDtyk cf sKy&f ;D tazG@rm tm%m&zd@k }uKd ;pm;eDwek ;f
&ckid t
hf rsKd ;om;&D;vrf;a=umif; aysmufu,
G pf mG xuf aysmufvm;c,m+zKd uaf w? pdu
k af wGuwcsKd @ b*Fvm;
jyef/ bdvyfjyef&@kd rmum; trsKd ;om;&D;udk "n0wDuvyf/ qef;a';uvyf/ +rKd @ruvyf&@kd avmufyif pdwrf 0if
pm;cuwf// Armajyutrde@f cs+yD;au ayG;w+cdr+hf cdrphf eJ u
D wfwek ;f +zdKufaw?
1917-ck rGew
f *l (Sir E.S.Montagu). tpD&ifcpH mt& +zdKuf+zdKuf 1927ck qdik rf eG f (Sir
Johnsimon) . tpDt&ifcp
H mt&+zdKuf+zdKuf/ Armajyudk tdE,
dN ucGx
J w
k zf @dk ukd vef'eftpd;k &u o
abmaygu+f y;D +zKd ufaw? ,auhavh Armajyrm cG&J ;D / awG;a&;jy\emay:aygucf a&? vdi_ /f jrwf/ay: tazG@
(OD;csKd ufvi_d /f OD;jrwfom'Ge;f / qm&fay:xGe;f )/ armf/ jrSi/hf ajyh tazG@(a'guw
f mbarmf/ ausmjf rif/h &rf;+AJO;D
armifarmif)/ ajyhoyl gw/D a&$awmif=um;ygwq
D +kd yD;au cGzJ @kd awG;zd@k pum;wd t+ydKiftqdik af [meDcuwf
aw? q&mawmfO;D OwWrax&frm a'cG&J ;D / awG;&D;jy\ema=umifh trsKd ;rsKd ;'kuaQ &mufawmfrcl a&// a'jy\
emrSmavh &cdik &f [ef;awmf&@kd &ckid yf nmwwf&@kd aumif;aumif; wufwuf=uG=uGyg0ifcuwfaw? &ckid f
ajyudk Zmeef@cpJG w
d x
f m;av;qdpk mG udk *&kjyKcuwfyrkH aygu/f &cdik jf y\emudk omrmefvufatmufcH jy\
emt+zKd ux
f m;cuwfaw? ,if;jy\ema=umihf ArmajytwGuf pm;ayG;0dik ;f aqG;aEG;ayG; (Round Cable
Conferance) udk 1931-Ed0
k ifbmv 25 &uferd mS vef'ef+rdK@ txufvw
G af wmfrmS usi;f yvDa&? ,if;
aqG;aEG;ayG;rm Armacgi;f aqmif&@kd eef@wuG OD;xGe;f atmifausm/f a': jrpde/f pa& &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;/ trdsK;
orD;&d@k wufa&mufca&? 1935-ck Armajytkycf sKyf&;D tufOya't& 1937-ckrm Armajya& tdE,
dN tkyf
csKy&f ;D pepfu cGx
J u
G +f y;D au oD;jcm;t+zKd uf +Aw
d o
d #tifyg,mtwGi;f rm ay:ayguv
f ma&? &cdik af jyrmum;
34

3431

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
txufuwifjyca&twdik ;f yif tpdypf yd u
f v
JG @kd yif [dew
d ek ;f +zdKufaw? Armajyrm xif&mS ;eDuwfaw
Zmaumif;aqmifuavh tuGu
J t
JG jym;jym; a&mufeu
D wf&a&// trsKd ;om;wdupkd ak p;zd@k tjcrf; jcrf;uGeJ aD &
&ckid af 'oudjk yefavpkap;zdrk }udK;pm;cuwf? ud,
k af jyjy\emudk vufatmufcH omrncsn;f xm;c
uwfaw? r[kwaf r/ *d%
k ;f apG;/ ygwaD pG;/ a'oapG;udk t"duxm;uwfaw? r[kwaf u ud,
k }f uKd ufpmG udk
v_y&f mS ;eDcuwfaw? ,if;a=umifh ig&h @kd acwfrmS trsKd ;om;Zmwferd fh (Degeneration) +zKd uef &D a&? ajymif;&$d
eDa&trsKd ;om; (0g) &$iu
hf smvlrsKd ; (Migrating Nation)+zdKufe&D a&? acG;&D;/ awG;&D;jy\em *,ufxeD
wkef;umv 1933-ckavmufrm “Armajyonf 'dk@ajy/ Armpum;onf 'dk@pum;/ Armpmonf
'dk@pm/ 'dk@ajyudkcsdKufyg/ 'dk@pmudkcsdD;jrihfyg/ 'dk@pum;udkav;pm;yg?”
v;pm;yg?”qdka& a=uG;a=umfoHeef@twl
ArmhrsKd ;csKd uf ajycsKd ufval irsm;. “Armhtap;t&H;k ””a& a&;a&;awmufawmuf/ xGe;f xGe;f ajymifajymif/
“ocif”qdak &bG@J ukd emrnf&rSd mwwfvmuwfaw? 'd@k Arm
ay:xGuv
f ma&? attazG@0ifval i&d@k a&“ocif
tap;t&H;k a&/ wd;k wufaw/ v_y&f mS ;a&/ Edik if eH ef@trsK;d om;twGuf b0udt
k yfv@kd }udK;yrf;cuwfaw?
a'tazG@0ifvlai&dk@um; ynmwwfvlaiwdyif+zdKufuwfaw? a'tazG@tap;.=oZma& &cdkifvl
aiynmwwf&@kd tay:rm txl;anmif;ca&? bdvyfjyef&cdik /f b*Fvm;jyef&ckid &f @kd a& t*Fvyd q
f efuwfa&ydik f
a'acwf &efuek jf yef&cdik &f @kd avh Armqefuwfaw? a,awmifru tcsKd @&efuek af usmif;om; &cdik v
f l ai&d@krm
'd@k Armtap;t&H;k 0if ocifw+d zKd uv
f muwfaw? a'umvxd &cdik v
f @l tazG@tap;rSm aemufvu
kd 0f g'a& wku
d f
&du
k +f zKd u+f zKd u/f oG,0f u
Sd v
f @kd +zdKuf+zdKuf aqG;ajr;eD,m+zdKufaw? 1936-ck 'kw,
d wuUov
kd af usmif;om;
oydwaf rSmufawtcg &cdik af usmif;om;&d@k tax;u tud!
k x
kd eG ;f / tudak usm&f if/ tudb
k pH&@kd a& xif&mS ;
vma&? “u|efynmtvdkr[d”vd@k a=uG;a=umfvmuwfaw? a'&cdik af usmif;om;&d@k um; &ckid af jyod@k
jyefvmuwfawtcgrmS &ckid af jyrSm v_y&f mS ;r_tcsKd @ukd vkyaf qmifcuwfaw?
,if;umvrm “91 XmetkyfcsKyf&D;” pepfopftkyfcsKyf&D; ay:aygufvma&// ,if;tkyfcsKyf
&D;ed'ge;f tprm a&G;aumufayG;usi;f ya&tcgrmS ArmEdik if &H ;D ygww
D d rJ+zdKufuwf&a&? ,if;tcg “ig;yGifh
qdik yf gw”D twGuf q&mawmfto#if OwWrax&f yg0ifun
l cD uwfv@kd t}uD;tus,f ykwcf wfc&H awmf
rla&? a&G;aumufayG;t+yD;rm a'guw
f mbarmf. nGe@f aygi;f tpd;k &azG@a& ,if;tpd;k tazG@rm q&may:
xGe;f / q&mxGe;f atmifausm&f @kd yg0ifcuwfaw? *kyikd f ArmEdik if &H ;D +Adwo
d #t&if;o#i;f &d@k . vSnu
hf u
G t
f
wdik ;f &D0x
J ;kd eDc&a&? Armacgi;f aqmiftrsm;pkrm Armajy/ ArmtrsK;d om;twGuf arar&&/ xdxad &muf
a&muf rpGef;aqmifEdkifbJ EdkifiH&D;tyD;t,lvkyf&if; tcsdefjzKef;eDcuwf&a&? ,if;ydkif&DpHkarsmpGmrm
&ckid af cgi;f aqmiftrsm;jym;avh 0ifr@D$ ecD uwfaw? Armacgi;f aqmif&@kd um; Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D vrf;a=umif;udk
rsK;d qufwquf+yD;wquf twG@d t}uHK/ tawG;tac:wduo
kd ;kH oyf+yD;au &SmazGeu
D wfpmG +zdKufaw?
&cdkifacgif;aqmifwdum; baZmifygvJ? xdk&cdkifacgif;aqmif&dk@. v_yf&Sm;ca&ordkif;a=umif;udk
qef;pdkufa=uhau &cdkifvGwfvyf&D;vrf;a=umif;udk &SmeDcuwfawvdk@ajymzdk@ rvG,fpGmudkwGd@&a&?
&ckid jf y\emudk vufatmufcx
H m;jcif;udk ygw*D %
kd ;f *e tm%m&&D;ud&k m OD;pm;yD;cuwfpmG ud&k mwG@d &a&?
34

3 45 2

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
ygwED ikd if &H ;D &k@d ,if;acwfu &DpakH rsmc&a&ta=umif;udk a'guw
f mbarmfuw
kd ikd f ol. (Burma at the
H m;pGmudk zwf&E_ ikd af &?
beginning of the Second World War) twef;rm 0efcx
1938-39-avmufrm 'dk@Armtap;t&Hk;0if ocifrsdK;csdKuf Armvlai&dk@a& ArmvGwf
vyf&;D twGuf txl;}uKd ;yrf;vmuwfaw? tcuftcJ@rsK;dpu
kH kd &ifqikd v
f muwfaw? wuUov
kd af usmif;
om; ArmrsKd ;csKd uf&@kd a& tiwfiwf tjywfjywfcAH sm,f? Edik if &H ;D ud}k udK;pm;vmuwfaw? bHpk epfuakd w
aqmufz@kd twGuf Edik if v
H yG v
f yf&;D udk yxr}uKd ;pm;&zd@k pmG udk jrifvmuwfaw? ArmhtrsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D
ordik ;f a=umif;udk a&;a&;&if&h if/h awmufawmufxeG ;f xGe;f azmfaqmifEikd af tmif oufpeG @f }udK;yef;vm
uwfaw? Edik if jH cm;pdu
k u
f &l mS azGvmuwfaw? ,d;k ',m;/ w&kw/f *syefu+kd zdKufp/D tdE,
dN ud+k zdKufpD xGuf
vm+yD;au pGe@f peG @f pm;pm; tultnD&mS vmuwfaw? ,if;tcsed af vmufrm bpde/f xGe;f tkyf 'd@k Arm
tap;t&Hk;eef@ ocifudk,fawmfrd_if;. 'dk@Armtap;t&Hk;vdk@ ESpfjcrf;uGJeDa&? *kydkifuGJeDa&tcgrSmavh
&ckid v
f al iwd *k%
d ;f zufvu
kd v
f @kd yg0ifcuwfaw? 1939-ckrm trsKd ;om;wyfaygi;f pk oabm0ifvma&?
“ArmxGu&f yf*%
kd ;f ””udk a'guw
f mbarmfEiS hf ocifatmifqef;&d@k O;D pD;+yD;au xlaxmifcuwfaw? ,if;
aemufyikd ;f rm 'd@k Armtap;t&H;k ESpjf crf;uGu
J m ocifval irsm;&d@k a& ud,
k af e;ud,
k [
hf efEiS hf tquf&mS ,if;
*syefxad &mufvm;cuwfaw? ESpjf crf;vH;k u ArmvlaioH;k usyd af & yDeefu|e;f rm qH;k ap;vDuwfaw?
a&;abmfo;kH usyd v
f @kd aemifwiG v
f aD &? 1939 u 1945-ck twGi;f 'kw,
d urBmph u
kd }f u;D +zKd ufymG ;eDa&// emZD/
*smr%Dzufqpf/ tDwvDzufqpf *syef&@kd yg0ifa&? uGejf rLepfqef@usi&f ;D r[mrdwt
f azG@eef@ +Aw
d o
d #/ tar
&duef/ jyifopf/ qdAk ,
D ufyg0ifa&? r[mrdwt
f azG@&@kd wdu
k af yG;aygi;f ajrmufrm;pGmudk wdu
k cf u
kd v
f @kd [u
d wf
aw? “urBmvHk;. ajyol@pdkuf r[mAsL[ma& zufqpfEdkifiHwdudk wdkufcdkuf&zdk@+zdKufaw?”
w?”vkdk@
qdAk ,
D uf&&k mS ;u a=ujimvdu
k af w? ,if;a=umifh urBmv
h uf0t
J iftm;pktm;vH;k avh zufqpfpepfukd
jyif;jyif;xefxef qef@usiw
f u
kd cf u
kd v
f @dk [dev
D aD &? zufqw
d *f syefa& 1941-ck 'DZifbmv 26 &ufrm
f yf
a&;abmfo;kH usyd &f @kd a& ,d;k ',m;rm oD;G odu
k pf ma&aomufuwf+yD;au Adv
k b
f @JG cv
H @kd “Armajy vGwv
&D;wyfrawmf” (Burma Indenpendance Army) B.I.A udk azG@ap;vdu
k u
f wfaw? aumif;r=umcif
Armajyod@k 0ifa&mufvmuwfaw? ,if;pyf=um;umv tpydik ;f rm Armajyudk tdE,
dN pdu
k af oemywdu
xde;f odr;f xm;&a&? aemufyikd ;f tajctaeqd;k vwfawtcgrmS bk&ifcq
H m&fa':refprdof (Smith Sir
Reginald Dorman) eef;&if;0ef qm&fay:xGe;f eef@ tpd;k &wazG@v;kH tdE,
dN Edik if H qdrrf vm (Simlar)
+rdK@o@kd ajymif;&$v
d m;cuwfaw?
*syefeyH gwf 15 wyfrawmfu Armajywku
d af yG;udk wm0ef,&l a&? ,if;wyfukd qdik *f ;kH (Saigon)
+rdK@[d *syefpu
kd Xf mecsKyfu wm0ef,u
l u
G u
f &J a&? ,if;wyfrmS trSwf 33 wyfreef@ trSwf 55 wyfr
(33rd Division of 55th Division)&d@k yg0ifa& ,if;wyfu &efue
k rf mtajcpdu
k +f y;D au 1942-ck rwfv
15 &ufrm *syefpu
kd t
f yk cf sKyf&;D udk pwifa& B.I.A Arm 15 eHygwf vufatmufo@kd a&mufvm;ca&?
ateD&mrSm a&;abmfo;kH usyd &f @kd t+zKd uef ef@ "g;ydik }f u;D ausmyf /kH a';0efrif;}u;D atmifausm&f /D$ +rKd @o}l u;D atmif
36

43

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
ausmZf t
H +zdKufa& cyfqifqifwel aD &? 20 &mpkrm zufqw
d *f syefaecs@J &@kd . vSnu
hf u
G rf m a&;abmfo;kH
usyd cf &H a&ydik f 19 &mpku +Adwo
d # t&if;o#i&f @kd . vSnu
hf u
G rf m 'g;ydik }f uD;&d@k cu
H wf&a&? tEdik Ef ikd if o
H rdik ;f
rmavh *kyikd t
f uGurf sKd ;udw
k @dG &a&? aecs@J qo
kd r#/ vlrsKd ;}uD;0g'orm;qdo
k r#um; wyg;vluu
kd |ejf yKzd@k
}udK;pm;jrJ+zdKufpmG udk =uyf=uyf/ owdxm;&zd@k pmG yif+zdKufaw? B.I.A udak vh *syef{u&mZftrde@f t&
ArmhumuG,&f ;D wyfrawm
*syefpu
kd Af v
kd f tD;'g; (General Shajiro Sida ) u “Armh
awmf (Burma Defence
k af w? B.I.Audrk zsucf if B.I.Awyfwwyfukd Adv
k &f efatmif
Army BDA) t+zKd uf ajymif;vJazG@ap;vdu
OD;pD;+y;D au *syefwyfeef@twl &ckid af jyod@k 0ifvmvwfaw? Amrm/ *syef&@kd eef@ &ckid w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m wdik ;f &if;
om;tap;t&H;k eef@ qufo,
G rf u
d wfaw? &cdik af cgi;f aqmif&@kd +zdKufuwfaw q&mawmfto#if OD;pdEmN
ax&f/ to#iyf nmoD[ax&f/ to#iaf uo& "dywdax&f/ OD;ompHv/S OD;tmifxeG ;f OD;/ OD;atmifxeG ;f jr/
OD;atmifomOD;/ tudb
k pH/ tudak usmjf r/ tudn
k x
kd eG ;f / tudak rmifxeG ;f 0if;/ tudak rmife/D tudAk akH yguf
omausm&f @kd eef@ qufo,
G rf u
d wfaw? tqdyk gy*k Kd~ vf&@kd teuf t*Fvyd t
f r_xrf;tcsKd @&@kd *syefy;D a& tpd;k &
tr_xrf; t&m[dt+zdKuf vkyaf qmifuwfaw? +idr0f yfyjd ym;&D;udk aqmif&u
G u
f wfaw? c&dik 0f ef/ aeydik /f
+rdK@yikd /f w&m;ol}uD;/ toD;oD;+zdKufvmuwfaw? 1942-ck *sLvdi_ v
f avmufrm Adv
k &f efatmifwyf&if;
&efuek o
f @kd jyefvaD & ? 1942-ckrm bl;oD;awmif/ armifawma'orm &ckid /f ukvm;t"du&ke;f udk Adv
k &f ef
atmifzefw;D ca&? &ckid 'f u
k o
Q nf 1760 udw
k ifxm;a& oabFma& bl;oD;awmifqyd u
f rf;u *du
k f 50
tuGmrmjrKyfv@kd vlo;kH &mausmo
f cD &a&// ukvm;&efuakd =umufv@kd +yD;&mrm atmufom;pdu
k Af v
kd v
f uf
csuef ef@ oD;qH;k c&a&// atvlrsKd ;&D;t"du&ke;f rm ukvm;/ &ckid f pkpak ygi;f 7500 ausmo
f q
D ;kH c&a&?

(C) *syef a wmf v S e f a &;c&D ;

,if;tcsed af vmufrm *syefzufqpfaecs@J ukd awmfveS zf @kd uGejf rLepfygw0D if(Armajy) ocifp;kd /
ocifoed ;f azjrSi/hf ocifwifjr/ ocifwifa&$/ tdE,
dN [d &cdik af cgi;f aqmif&@kd eef@ v#Kd @0u
S af qG;aEG;+yD;au
ocifoed ;f azjrif/h ocifwifa&$&@kd &cdik af cgi;f aqmif&@kd . tultnDu,
kd +l yD;au tdE,
dN ajyod@k qufvuf
c&D;ESicf uwfaw? ,if;rmr[mrdw&f @kd . tm&Spu
kd rf suEf mS &d@k rm ajymufusm;pdu
k q
f ifa& 136-wyfazG@
eef@qufo,
G rf ad &? tdE,
dN uGejf rLepfygweD ef@av; qufo,
G rf u
d wfaw? tdE,
dN a&muf tjcm;a&;abmf&@kd
eef@av; tquftoG,v
f yk af w? ocifp;kd / ocifjr&d@k um; rif;jym;u oHawG;txd qufav#muf+yD;au
Armajyudjk yefvm;cuwfaw? vrf;rSmol&@kd ap;&k;H &D;udk csrw
S v
f m;cuwfaw? oHawG;rSm tudak usm&f if
&d@k eef@ qufo,
G rf u
d wfaw? 1947-ckrm *syefu Armajyudk vGwv
f yf&;D yD;zd@k q@kd v@kd a'guw
f mbarmf
OD;pD;+yD;au “qif;a&;om;ygw”D udk azG@ap;vDa&? &cdik w
f idk ;f vH;k qkid &f m wdik ;f &if;om;tap;tvH;k . OuU
}u;D OD;omZHvrS m tazG@0ifwpfO;D +zKd uaf w? ,if;tazG@.tap;ta0;udk wufa&mufz@kd vmvwfawtcg
rm ,if;E_u
d f &efuek af q;&Hk }uD;rm OuUX}uD;uG,v
f eG v
f aD &?
3 74 4

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
rSwfcsuf/
?*syefudkawmfvSefzdk@/ t*FvdyfudkqufoG,fzdk/@ yl;aygif;aqmif&Gufzdk@twGuf
&ckid af jyuawmfveS &f ;D acgi;f aqmifwed ef@ vma&mufw@dG qakH qG;aEG;a&tcg &cdik cf gi;f aqmif&@kd u +Adwo
d #
Am;rm;vGwv
f yfau &ckid af jyudk oD;jcm;vGwv
f yf&;D yD;&zd@k v@kd awmif;qdak &tcg Armud,
k phf m;vS,&f @kd u
tvG,w
f ul oabmwluwfaw? ,if;avmufeef@ rvHak vmufov
d @kd AHak yguo
f mausmu
f ,
kd w
f ikd f &efuek f
zqyvXmecsKyfrm aqG;aEG;cgavh ,if;twdik ;f oabmwlncD su&f ca&// ,if;eef@Zk bH&k efozl ufqw
d f
*syefukd awmfveS &f ;D twGuf &ckid af cgi;f aqmif&@kd Armacgi;f aqmifwed ef@ yl;aygi;f cuwfaw? (AHak yguf
omausmf awmfveS &f ;D c&D;a0 tawG; 11) 1943-ck =o*kwf v 1-&uferd m *syefpu
kd Af v
kd }f uD; tD;"g;u
*syef{u&mZftrde@f eef@ pdu
k t
f yk cf sKyf&;D udo
k rd ;f +yD;au Armajyudk vGwv
f yf&;D yD;a=umif;a=ujima&? a'guf
wmbarmf. qif;a&;om;ygwDeef@ 'dk@Armtap;t&Hk;&dk@a& yl;aygif;+yD;au “ 'dk@Armqif;a&;om;
tap;t&Hk;””udk xlaxmifvu
kd u
f wfaw?
r=umcifyif &ckid w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m wkid ;f &if;om;tap;t&H;k a& 'd@k Armqif;a&;om;tap;t&H;k
avmufrm v#Kd ;0ifvm;ca&? ,if;aemufyikd ;f rm ArmEdik if aH & *syefeef@ pdu
k rf [mrdwaf zG@+yD;au +Adwo
d #
r[mrdwt
f azG@ukd pdu
k af =ujima&? 1944-ckaemufwESpf =o*kwv
f yxrtywfrm Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;
OD;aqmif+yD;au *syefuakd wmfveS zf @kd tpDtpOfvyk x
f m;a&? Armwyfrawmf uGejf rLepfygwD ajyolt&D;
awmfyykH gw&D @kd yl;aygi;f +yD;au zufqw
d w
f u
kd zf su&f ;D ajyol@vw
G v
f yf&;D tazG@ (zwyv)udk awmfveS &f ;D
wyfO;D t+zKd uf azG@ap;vdu
k af w? a,tcg &cdik w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m wdik ;f &if;om;tap;t&H;k rm &efuek u
f nGef
=um;csut
f wdik ;f zwyv+zdKufvma&? aemuf&ckid w
f ikd ;f zqyv+zdKufvm;ca&? Zma=umifah v;qdak u
'd@k Armqif;a&;om;trsm;pkyif zwyvudk azG@ap;vdu
k v
f @kd +zKd ufaw? 'd@k Armqif;a&;om;tap;t&H;k (&ckid f
wdik ;f )acgi;f aqmifw+d zdKufuwfaw tudb
k pH/ tudpk w
H if/ tudak usmEf /k tudak rmife/D tudak tmifxeG ;f
0if;&d@k a& zqyvrm yg0ifO;D aqmifcuwfaw? ,if;tjyif uGejf rLepfygwD (Armajy)eef@av; qufo,
G rf d
uwfaw? tudAk akH yguo
f mausm/f tudv
k aS usmpf a& &ckid v
f al iwpkav; udak usm+f idr;f udb
k aqG&@kd .
ajyol@ t&D;awmfyykH gweD ef@ qufo,
G rf u
d wfaw? ,if;aemuf tudb
k pH/ tudak usmjf r/ tudak rmifapmOD;/
(Adv
k af tmifausm)f &d@k acgi;f aqmif+yD;au ajrmufO;D +rdK@rm wyfazG@wazG@ azG@uwfaw? c&dik 0f efO;D atmif
xGe;f OD; tultnDu,
kd +l yD;au *syefAv
kd u
f mevf rD,m0guu
D kd t*Fvyd u
f w
kd u
kd cf u
kd zf @kd v@kd tpDtpOfukd
vdraf vwifjyvdu
k u
f wfaw? ,if;twGuef ef@ *syefyg;u vufeuftcsKd @&a&? Adv
k w
f memumu ajymuf
usm;pdu
k yf nmudk ,if;wyfazG@uo
kd ifjya&? to#iyf nmoD[/ Adv
k =f umvSatmif OD;aqmifazG@ap;a&
wyfazG@a& yvuf0aeudk odr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af w? ,if;wyfazG@rmS Adv
k =f umvSatmif/ Adv
k af rmifapmOD;/
tudOk ;D ausm/f tudak rmife&D @dk O;D pD;ca&? ,if;aeudk odr;f &a&apmfu *syefuakd wmfveS zf @kd twGuf t[m
rdw&f @kd eef@ tquftoG,v
f yk zf @kd +zdKufaw? ,if;+yD;aemuf to#iOf pD Ed mN ax&f/ to#iyf nmoD[ax&f/
OD;atmifomOD;/ tudb
k pH/ tudak usmjf r&d@k A rmajyod@k vm;+yD;au zwyveef@*syef awmfveS &f ;D eef@
Burma During the Japanese occupation, simla, Intelligence Bureau, government
of Burma, 1st oct, 1943

38

udka=u@yg?

45

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
aqG;aEG;uwfaw? 1944-ck *|ev
f rm tdE,
dN rm r[mrdw&f @kd eef@ qufo,
G zf @kd upd u
P kd }udK;pm;vk@d [ed aD &?
udk!dkxGef;a& &ckdifajyodk@jyefa&mufvm+yD;au *syefawmfvSef&D;twGuf zwyv(&ckdifwdkif;)eef@
vma&mufaqG;aEG;a&? ,if;aemuf tud!
k x
dk eG ;f a& tudpk o
H mausm/f tudpk aH tmif&@kd uakd c:+yD;au
tdE,
dN od@k jyefvm;ca&?
,if;aemuf yvuf0ae umuG,&f ;D wyfazG@ukd Adv
k =f umvSatmif/ Adv
k af rmifapmOD;&d@k O;D pD;
&a& tudak usmjf r/ tudak rmife/D tudak rmifxeG ;f 0if;&d@k u tkycf sKyf&;D udk wm0ef,&l +y;D au aepyfuwqifh
vlai&d@k ukd tdE,
dN rm pdu
k o
f ifwef;wufz@kd y@kd y;D &a&? 1944-ck/ =o*kwv
f rm ,if;pdu
k o
f ifwef;twGuf
apvGwv
f u
kd af w yxrtazG@tap;rm yg0ifuwfaw vlaitrsm;eef@ tcsKd @rmS tudpk aH tmif&@kd +zKd uaf w?
tudAk akH yguo
f mausm&f @kd uav; tudx
k eG ;f atmifausm/f tudak tmifvaS usm&f @kd ukd ,if;rmod@k yif v$wf
vdu
k u
f wfaw? aemufwokwf ,if;wd@k vm;uwfawvl&@kdrmS to#iyf nmoD[ax&f/ Adv
k o
f mxGe;f atmif/
tudOk ;D ausm/f tudak tmifyef;/ tudjk ratmif/ tudx
k eG ;f vS/ tudak rmifapmjzL/ tudpk ed x
f eG ;f / tudk
csKdufvSjzL/ tudkapmxGef;/ tudka0vm/ tudkpHxGef;/ tudkomausmf/ tudkrdk;om/ tudkbodef;/
tudpk ed af rmif&@kd +zKd uu
f wfaw? ,if;ESu
d f ajrmufO;D +rKd @ae/ ysm;aw;udk to#iyf nmoD[u wm0ef,&l a&?
tudb
k pHu ajrmufO;D +rdK@/ armif;aqG;/ ayguaf wm/ pufom;&Gm/ rif;jym;/ pdu
k af wGwcGirf mS ap;&H;k v_yf
&Sm;&a&? to#ipf Ed aN x&f/ AHak yguo
f mausm&f @kd u ajryH/k ayguaf wmwcGirf mS ap;&H;k &D;v_y&f mS ;&a&? 1944ck 'DZifbmvqef;avmufrm tudck s;D wd;k udk &efuek zf wyvXmecsKyfukd v$w+f yD;au &ckid af jytajct
aeeef@ zufquf*syefukd awmfveS &f zd@k ta=umif;udk tpD&ifc&H a&? 1944-ck 'DZifbmv tv,favmuf
rm zufqw
d *f syefukd awmfveS zf @kd twGuf +Aw
d o
d # 136 wyfazG@ tdE,
dN rm pdu
k o
f ifwef;wuf+y;D au &ckid v
f l
ai&d@k ukd vDx;D eef@ wpk+y;D wpfpck sy;D a&? ausmufawmf+rKd @ae ig;a,mufuikd ;f &Gmtem;rSm ar*smw&l;/ tukd
!kx
d eG ;f / tudak rmifapmjzL/ tudo
k mxGe;f atmif&@kd ukd eDa,S&mG teD;rm Adv
k af rmifuav;/ tudo
k mausmf
“jcaoF

h
rpPwm*sed ;f &d@k u/kd ,if;&GmteD;rSmyif
emrnfcH w&kyaf r*smwpfO;D / tudck sKu
d v
f jS zL/ tudpk x
H eG ;f /
tudpk ed x
f eG ;f jzL/ Adv
k af 0vm&d@k uakd vhaumif;/ yef;az;acsmif;a'orSm ajrmufO;D +rKd @ae/ pufom;&Gmtem;rSm
vleef@vufeuf toD;oD;csy;D a&? jAef;*if;/ umbdik /f pwef;*if;/ ajcmufv;kH jAL;pa& vufeufrsKd ;pHk 500
ausmfcsyD;a&?
1944-ck 'DZifbmv tukeaf vmufrm vDx;D wyfazG@wd pHv
k ifa&tcg Adv
k =f umvSatmifeef@
Adv
k af rmifapmOD;&d@k wyfazsmuf+y;D au ausmufawmfo@kd qif;vmuwfaw? ausmufawmf+rKd @ae/ Zif;cgacs
aus;&GmrSm Adv
k af rmifapmOD;wyfazG@a& *syefzufqw
d w
f yfazG@ukd pwifawmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
dk af w? ,if;wdu
k f
ayG;rSm *syefo;kH OD;usq;kH a&? ,if;uwcg ,d;k acsmif;ok@d csw
D ufaw? 1945-ck *sE0M g&D 1-&uferd m to#if
ynmoD[eef@ tudAk akH yguo
f mausm&f @kd wyfu ysm;aw;wdu
k af yG;rSm *syefuw
kd u
kd cf u
kd f okwo
f ifvu
kd af w?
ar+rKd@ rd;k =unf/ Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;. rde;f cef;rsm; pmtkyw
f iG f Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;u zufqpf*syefukd &ckid &f @kd OD;pGmyxr
awmfveS cf pGmudak jym=um;ca&?

3 46
9

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
vufcyk yf if&if;uwqifh Adv
k =f umvSatmif/ tudak rmife/D tudak usmjf r&d@k u wyfeef@twl ,d;k acsmif;od@k
csw
D ufuwfaw? ,d;k acsmif;rSm tud!
k x
kd eG ;f &d@k wyfazG@eef@aygi;f +yD;au em&Duef&mG wcGirf m v_y&f mS ;ap;
&H;k uwfaw? Adv
k pf v
H w
S yfu ,d;k acsmif;wyfazG@rm *syefavmif;ig;pif;udk E_u
d +f rKyv
f u
kd af w? aemufw&ufrm
ykÀm;u|e;f +rdK@ae bJc;kd &GmrSm *syefig;a,mufukd okwo
f ifvu
kd af w// em&DuefuwyfazG@tm;vH;k a&
pufom;&Gmod@k csw
D ufvm+y;D au tudb
k pH&@kd wyfazG@eef@ yl;aygi;f a&? vD,mOfysu
H csy;D vdu
k af w vufeufwd
udpk +k yD;au ,if;&GmrSmyif “rsdK;csdKufArmhwyfrawmf” &ckid w
f ikd ;f (Patriot Burmese force ( PBF),
k =f umvSatmifukd Adv
k }f uD;t+zdKufwifajrmufaw?
Arakan Division) udak zG@ap;a&? Adv

wyf a zG U Ad k v f & d k U rS m

(1) Adv
k =f umeDatmif/
(2) Adv
k pf v
H /S
(3) Adv
k af pmxGe;f atmif/
(4) Adv
k af rmifapmOD; &d@k +zdKufuwfaw?
wyfacG;wckrmS vl 150 yga&// pdu
k w
f yfyikd f pepfwus azG@ap;a&? “rsdK;csdKufArmwyfrawmf” wHqyd w
f d
xkwyf ;D aa&?

EkdifiH&D;t& wyfeefUtwlvIyf&Sm;yD;a& acgif;aqmif&dkUrm

(1) q&mawmfto#if OD;pdEmN ax&f /
(2) q&mawmfto#if ynmoD[ax&f/
(3) tudak rmifvaS usmf
(4) tukad rmifeD
(5) tudk armifxeG ;f 0if;
(6) tudb
k pH
(7) tudpk o
H mausmf
(8) tudo
k mxGe;f atmif
(9) tudak &$om &d@k +zdKufuwfaw?
tudAk akH yguo
f mausm&f @kd uavh wyfazG@ap;a&qdck a& “jcaoFh” emarcH w&kyaf r*smwpfO;D .
emarud,
k +l y;D au “jcaoF”h ygwv
D @kd xal xmifa&? ayguaf wm/ rif;jym;/ ajryHw
k cGirf m awmfveS v
f y_ &f mS ;a&?
jcaoFyh gw0D ifval i&d@k rmS tudAk akH yguo
f mausm/f tudo
k mausm/f tudx
k eG ;f vdi_ /f Adv
k af rmifuav;/ Adv
k f
omausm/f Adv
k af 0vm/ tudb
k xGe;f &d@k +zdKufuwfaw? ajrmufO;D +rdK@ae/ ykÀm;u|e;f +rdK@ae/ ayguaf wm
+rKd @ae&d@k rmS v_y&f mS ;uwfaw? 1945 *seef 0g&v
D 1-&uferd m ysm;aw;wdu
k af yG;u pwifatmifayG;cH+y;D au
40
47

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
pif;jyGe;f yif&if;wdu
k af yG;rm *syefEpS af ,mufuzkd rf;&a&? pufom;&Gmwdu
k af yG;rSm *syefwpfa,mufusa&?
,if;uoJo&m/ ql;&du
k af csmif; od@k csw
D ufaw? ql;&du
k af csmif; anhwu
kd af yG;rSm *syeftrsm;tjym;usa&?
ewfacsmif;wku
d af yG;rSm *syefEpS q
f ,favmufusa&? vufeufac;,rf;rD;ausmuf&@kd odr;f ydu
k &f [da&?
“qif+cHwdkufayG;””rSm *syefwpfa,mufusq;kH a&// *syef&@kd xu
G +f yD;vGwaf jrmufvm;a&? ql;&du
k af csmif;/
ajrmif;jzm/ anmifyifv,fwcGirf mS ajymufusm;pduq
f if&;D twdik ;f yif wdu
k cf u
kd o
f #i;f vif;a&? olaiawmf
wku
d af yG;rSm &efot
l csKd @usq;kH a&? ud,
k v
hf w
l OD;usq;kH a&? ,if;&Gmrm &efot
l iftm;aumif;eDv@kd r[mrdwf
vDwyfukd owif;yD;vdu
k af wtcg vDwyfuvma&mufwu
kd cf u
kd v
f @kd &efot
l rsm; us&if;qkw+f y;D vm;ca&?
rif;jym;+rdK@ae/ ajryH+k rdK@aewcGirf m 1945-ck/ azazmf0g&v
D 14-&ufrm Adv
k pf v
H w
S yfcu
JG Adv
k o
f mausmf
OD;pD;a& wyfpw
k pk wdu
k cf u
kd v
f y_ &f mS ;a&? +cw
d af wmif&mG u ajryH+k rKd @aeod@k csw
D uf&m vr;fa=umif;wav#muf
wG@d or#&efow
l u
d kd ajymufusm;pdu
k af e;eef@ wdu
k cf u
dk o
f w
k o
f ifvm;ca&?
1945-ck/ azaz:0g&D 15-&ufrm jca&Sjyif&mG wku
d af yG;rm &efo&l @kd &;kH_ edrv
hf @kd xGu+f yD;vm;c
uwfaw? 17-&uferd m jca&Sjyif/ rvdaygu/f owfyek ;f / acsmif;aEG/ auovmr zavmif;jy&d@k ukd jzwf
av#mufcsw
D ufaw// 18-&uferd m qufvuf+y;D au ZD;yif}u;D / atmufzm;+yKd &mG udk jzwfacsmufcsw
D uf&m
awmif+cDem;rSm *syefig;a,mufeef@ wdu
k af yG;+zdKufaw? wpfa,mufusv@kd qkw+f yD;vm;cuwfaw// 21&uferd m arvGe;f &Gmwku
d af yG;rm *syefo;kH a,mufus/ 2-a,mufzrf;&/ vufeufrsm;odr;f rda&? pdu
k af wG
c&dik rf m rsKd ;csKd ufArmwyfrawmf (&ckid w
f ikd ;f ). &ckid af jymufusm;a&;abmf&@kd . v_y&f mS ;wdu
k cf u
dk rf a_ =umifh
r[mrdww
f yf&@kd 2-ESu
d w
f ikd w
f ikd f (1943-44)wdu
k cf u
kd rf &a&*syefwyfukd 2 vavmufrmyif r[mrdww
f yf
&d@k u odr;f ydu
k Ef ikd cf a&? ajymufusm;wyfom; 3000 yg0ifvy_ &f mS ;cuwfaw? ,if;aemuf ausmufjzLc&dik /f
ajryH+k rdK@ae +rdKufem;/ acsmif;em;/ awmawmifxx
l yf&mrm *syefwyfr[m 2 cku cHwyftcdik t
f rm aw
” u
aqmuf+y;D au ckcw
H u
kd cf u
kd ef aD &? “uHah umf0”wk
d af yG;vd@k wiG v
f aD &? azazmf0g&v
D 25 &ufuyif rwfv
2-&ufex
d d ig;&ufwikd w
f ikd f &Dwydik ;f uke;f wydik ;f pdu
k q
f ifwu
kd cf u
kd &f a&? r[mrdwv
f w
D yfuavh xd;k ESuf
wdu
k cf u
kd af w? ajymufusm;wyf/ r[mrdww
f yf/ yl;aygi;f wdu
k cf u
kd u
f wfaw? *syefwyfom;ESpaf xmif/
r[mrdww
f yfom; ajcmuf&mausmu
f sq;kH a&? ausmufjzLc&dik /f trf;+rdK@ae/ arvufarmif;&Gm &xk;d }uD;
awmifrm tudb
k apm/ Adv
k af &;atmif/ Adv
k af rmifapmjzL Adv
k af tmifapm/ ar*smurf;vJvef ef@ tjcm;
Adv
k w
f pfa,muf ajcmufa,muf vDx;D eef@qif;uwfaw? Adv
k af &$rif;OD;pD;a& ajymufusm;wyfazG@rmS
csi;f trsKd ;om; 73 OD;yga&? wdu
k ,
f if;cdu
k ,
f if; wyfom; 130-xdw;kd vma&/ ,if;wyfazG@a& 'vufaerSm
wyfawG;eDa&? *syef 6000 wyfukd xd;k azmufwu
dk cf u
kd af w// *syefwyftqkwrf m Zif;jyeG pf cef;/ =uufa&pcef;/
uke;f }uD;pcef;txd ajymufusm;wdu
k af e;eef@ wku
d cf u
kd af w? aemufpu
kd af =umif;wckrm vrf;eD/ trf;/
&xd;k awmif/ rJawmif+c&D if;/ eDumawmif/ 'vufaeuGe;f 0/ 0g;awmifaus;&Gm/ ud;k vH/ oifyek ;f awm0txd
*syef&@kd ukd vdu
k v
f w
H u
kd cf u
kd af w?
4 14 8

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
oHawG;c&dik rf m to#iaf uo&"dywdax&f/ OD;&ef}u;D atmif/ OD;a&G}uKd i/f OD;oef;armif/ OD;omxGe;f
atmif/ tudak usm&f if&@kd zufqw
d *f syef awmfveS w
f u
kd cf ikd &f ;D udk v_y&f mS ;ap;&H;k uwfaw? tudak usm&f ifrm
1945-ck 'DZifbmvavmufrm zwyvXmecsKyfo@kd vm;a&mufwm0ef,el &D vd@k useaf cgi;f aqmif&@kd u
wm0ef,u
l wfaw? zwyvnGe=f um;csut
f wdik ;f vkyaf qmifcuwfaw? vufeufwpd +k yD;au ajymuf
usm;wyf azG@uwfaw? &d;k awmifrmawaqmufxm;a& *syefvufeufwu
kd u
f kd azmufxiG ;f uwfaw?
udik ;f cH&k mG wdu
k af yG;rm *syef&@kd ud&k m vdu
k 0f ifp;D wdu
k cf u
kd v
f u
kd af w?

pd k u f B uD ; twG i f ; u *syef u d k a wmf v S e f wd k u f c k d u f z d k U azG U ap;ca& rsKd ; csd K uf A rmh
wyf r awmf (&ck d i f w d k i f ; )wyf a zG U acgif ; aqmif & d k U rm
(1) tudn
k x
Sd eG ;f
(2) Adv
k }f uD;=umvSatmif/
(3) Adv
k af pmxGe;f atmif
(4) Adv
k af pmomatmif
(5) Adv
k =f umeDatmif
(6) Adv
k pf v
H S
(7) Adv
k af tmifausmf (ac: ) Adv
k af rmifapm&D;
(*) Adv
k Of ;D ausmf
(9) AHak yguo
f mausmf
(10) Adv
k af rmifuav;
(11) Adv
k o
f mxGe;f atmif
(12) Adv
k o
f mausmf (qHjcL)
(13) Adv
k o
f mausmf (uef;oif;)
(14) Adv
k pf o
H mausmf &d@k +zdKufuwfaw?
pufom;&GmrSmazG@+y;D aemuf aemufxyftpHt
k vif azG@ap;vdu
k pf mG +zKd ufaw? txufuqdck a& ajrmufO;D
+rdK@ae olaiawmfwu
kd af yG;+yD;aemuf rsK;d csKd ufArmhwyfrawmf (&ckid w
f ikd ;f )udk ysm;aw;pcef;od@k qw
k cf mG zd@k
+Adwo
d #r[mrdw&f @kd u trde@f xw
k v
f ma&? +Adwo
d # 136 wyfazG@u vufeuftyfz@dk trde@f csvma&?
vufeuftyfrtyfupd t
P wGuf aumif;aumif;aqG;aEG;,l&a&? ,if;tcsed rf m Armajyrm zufquf
awmfveS &f ;D rpodv@kd t+cDteDt&yf&yfa=umifh qef+zdKufvm;zd@k pmG udk pd;k &drv
f @d (k z w y v )0if &ckid af cgi;f
aqmif&@kd vufeuftyfz@dk oabmwlvu
dk &f a&? 1945-ck azazmf0g&v
D aemufq;kH tywfrm ,if;upPukd
t+yD; aqmif&u
G v
f u
kd &f a&// ausmufjzLc&kid u
f ajymufusm;wyfazG@rm 1945-ck *|ev
f ukeaf vmufrm
ajryk+H rKd @ae urf;axmif;}u;D &Gmrm wyfzsuo
f rd ;f +y;D au vufeuftyf&a&? &ckid af cgi;f aqmif&@dk . r[mrdwf
42

4 49

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
Armacgi;f aqmifwt
d ay:rm r[mrdwyf o
D wfcuwfaw? awmfveS &f ;D ukd tjrifausauseef@ =unfah &vk@d
qk&d zd@k vm;rajymwwf? &ckid af jyrm pku
d Of ;D usK;d jy;D au qkwjf y;D vm;ca&// *syefwyftoD;oD;a& Armajyrm
av; awmfveS w
f u
dk cf u
dk jf cif;ukcd cH &a&// 1945-ck rwfv 27 &ufrm Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef; OD;aqmifa&
rsK;d csKu
d Af rmwyfrawmf pwifawmfveS w
f u
dk cf u
dk af &// av;vavmufa&S=uma&? ,if;aemuf r[m
rdww
f yf0ifvma& &ckid af jyrmykid f ajymufusm;wyfazG@tm;vk;H u vufeuftyf&a&//

(i) auh p f - bD vuf a tmuf &cd k i f a jy
(CAS -B) Regims)

1945-ck =o*kwv
f 19 &ufrm zwyv u aeol&rd af yG;&krH m vlxt
k ap;ta0;}uD;usi;f ya&
zufqw
d w
f u
dk zf su&f ;D / ArmvGwv
f yf&;D / Armxlaxmif&;D / ArmnDnw
G &f ;D a&a&Gcsuf 4-csuf csrw
S x
f m;a&?
zwyv. A[kOd ;D pD;tazG@ukd Akv
d cf sKyfatmifqef;OD;pD;vk@d azG@a& tm;vk;H 21-OD;yg0ifa&// &ckid t
f rsK;d om;
OD;atmifZaH 0 OD;zk;d jr (uou)OD;ausm&f if&@dk av yg0ifuwfaw? pufwifbmv 4 &ufrm t&Sad wmif
tmo# pku
d af oemywd “avm'farmifbwWe”f . zdwaf c:csut
f & oD[u
dk |e;f uE +DW rKd@o@dk Akv
d cf sKyfatmif
qef;tygt0if 11-OD;c&D;xGuu
f wfaw? &ckid t
f rsK;dom; OD;!Sx
d eG ;f wa,mufav;yg0ifa&// +Adwo
d #&@dk .
Armajyrm ArmwyfrawmfazG@ap;&D;ukd aqG;aEG;uwfaw? wyfom; 5000/ t&Hwyfom; 300 t&m[d
200&k@d udk ArmrsK;d csKu
d w
f yfrawmfudk zsuo
f rd ;f +y;D au ,if;u&G;D acscef@tyfz@dk udk oabmwluwfaw? qD;0g;
uko&D;utp wyfrawmfom;&k@d . tcGiv
hf pm pa& &oif&h xku
d af wtcGit
hf &D; udpw
P yd g0ifa&? a,au
avh uE pDW mcsKyft& &ckid w
f yfom;&d@k twGuf rxl;jcm;c// t*ktcsed x
f d &ckid af jy Armajytm;vk;H ukd
“au@pb
f D”(CAS-B, Civil Affair Staff Burma) pku
d t
f yk cf sKyf&;D tazG@u tkycf sKyfew
D ek ;f +zKduaf w?
1945-ck atmufwb
dk mv 15&ufrm&m pku
d t
f yk cf sKyf&;D uk&d yk o
f rd ;f vd@k t,ifb&k ifcH “qm&fa':ref
prdof”a&mufvma& ol@rm”qrR
”qrRvmpDrHudef;” (puULjzLpDru
H ed ;f )ygvma&? ,if;pmwrf;pDru
H ed ;f t&
Armajy &cdik af jy&d@k ukd jyefavxlaxmifz@kd }uKd ;pm;cauavh t&mra&mufc? ,if;ydik t
f csed t
f wd;k twGi;f rm
&ckid af jyum;azG;yH/k jrLyH+k zdKufe,
D m/ ia&;yH+k zdKufe,
D m? auhpb
f v
D ufatmuf wajyvH;k 'kurQ sKd ;pHu
k kd cHpm;
eDuwf,m? 1945-ck tpydik ;f avmufrm azmfjyca&twdik ;f *syefaecs@J ukd &ckid af jyu ESix
f w
k +f yD;au
r[mrdww
f yfwd 0ifvmEdik u
f wfaw? r[mwyfwyfwu
d kd +Adwo
d #uOD;pD;ygvma&? &ckid af jyudk pdu
k t
f yk f
csKy&f ;D eef@ tkycf sKyaf w? &cdik af jyu zwyv tazG@0ifw/d ajymufusm;a&;abmfa[mif;wdeef@ wrsKd ;om;vH;k
udk vlrqef/ olrqef zdEydS cf sKycf s,af &/ txl;ojzifh to#iOf ;D pdEmN udk +Aw
d o
d #&@kd rsurf ek ;f tusKd ;qH;k +zKd uaf w?
pdut
f wGi;f q&mawmfvufatmuf wyfom;&d@k u uy`wed rf wf(pf)wwf acgi;f aqmifa&? tkt
d wf(pf)
twf(pf)(OSS) tazG@uwqifh tar&duefpu
kd w
f yfeef@ qufo,
G cf vd@k q&mawmfudk &ef+idK;azG@+yD;au
zrf;qD;zd@k ap;cdik ;f vma&? q&mawmfwrd ;f a&Smifvm;a&tcg wG@d &mrmypfowfz@kd trde@f xw
k q
f ifv
h u
kd af w?
a,+yD;au &aohawmif+rdK@ae +ydKif;awmif&mG om; tudx
k eG ;f pde/f tudak rmifv;kH jzL to#ief &'ax&f
4 35 0

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
(aygufawm)pa& &ckdifrsdK;csdKuf/ ajycsdKuf &[ef;awmf&dk@udk ta=umif;rJhzrf;qD;+yD;au ajryHkrm 17
&ufcsKyfxm;a&? xrif;wxyf&mau|;xm;a&? Adkvf}uD;=umvSatmifnD Adkvf=umeDatmifudkav;
trsKd ;rsKd ;tjypf&mS +yD;au 0g&rf;xkwv
f u
kd af w? ,if;tcg Adv
k =f umeDatmifu to#iOf ;D pdEmN ax&feef@w@dG
qH+k y;D au t}u^H m%fawmif;cHa&? q&mawmfu Zmydik t
f csed rf sKd ;rm aecs@J &@kd u qlyx
l =uaG tmif baZmif
yifvyk v
f yk f awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
dk zf @dk r+zdKufEikd af =umif; txl;ojzifh *syefv;kH 0ruif;pifcif rawmfveS Ef ikd f
a=umif; awmfveS pf u
kd rf a&mufcif r#m;uke+f zdKufvm;Edik af =umif;/ r[kwrf rSeo
f wif;rsKd ;pHk xGuv
f mau
av; qifjcifoifah =umifh o#i;f vif;jyvdu
k af w?
,if;aemuf Adv
k =f umeDatmifu “0g&rf;+yD;or*~”udk awaxmif+yD;au &&mvufeufwu
d pkd k
aqmif;a&? ud,
k u
hf u
kd ,
kd u
f uG,&f ;D (Self-Sefence)twGuf jyifqifxm;a&? awmifarmf&mG tem;rm
pdu
k o
f m; 700 yg0ifa& +Aw
d o
d #wyfwwyfu vma&muf0ikd ;f 0ef;xm;ca&tcgrm 0g&rf;+y;D or*~ wyfom;&d@k
u ajymufusm;wyfae;eef@ ckcu
H muG,w
f yfcu
kd v
f u
kd v
f @kd tustqH;k r[d vGwaf jrmufca&? wdu
k af yG;rSm
oH;k em&D=uma&? &efob
l ufu oH;k a,mufusa&? q,fa,muf'%f&m&vm;ca&? vDwyftuln,
D +l y;D au
0g&rf;+yD;wyfom;wdukd wdu
k cf u
kd v
f muwfaw? ,if;tcg 0g&rf;+yD;wyfom;r[d,m+zdKufaw? ,if;ydik f
tcgrsKd ;rm zwyv &ckid af cgi;f aqmifwd 0ifa&mufjzef+zv
D @kd wqdwaf u tyD;t,l&ca&? aemuf0g&rf;+y;D
wd vufeuftyfvu
kd af w? 1946-ck azazmf0g&v
D 14 &ufeu
d yif pdu
k v
f ,
D mOfeef@ to#iyf nmoD[
ax&f (&ckid w
f ikd ;f / zwyv .=o0g'p&d,) Adv
k }f u;D =umvSatmif/ tudak usmjf r (twGi;f &D;rSL;)/ tudOk ;D apm/
ol&@kd uu
kd mvuwWm;od@k ac:,l+y;D au tus,cf sKyx
f m;a&? tpcg ( CAS -B),M.A(Civil Affair Staffk t
f yk cf sKyf&;D tazG@0if&@kd u aqG;aEG;zd@k v@kd ac:+yD;au *kyikd f
Burma Military Administration)ac: pdu
ysix
f m;ca&// 2 vcGaJ vmufxm;a&? aemufq&mawmfu ajAmifa=ujimcsux
f w
k zf @kd rde@f =um;+yD;rS&m
jyefy@kd vu
kd af w? q&mawmf&@kd umvrm &ckid af jytajctaea& aumif;aumif;qd;k 0g;eDa&?
q&mawmfjyefa&mufawaemufyikd ;f rm +idr;f csr;f om,m&D;twGuf pdu
k t
f pd;k &eef@ vufawG;vkyf
aqmifuwfaw? ,if;twGi;f uyif aecs@J &@kd bufu azmufzsuv
f muwfaw? 0g&rf;+yD;&d@k ukd +idr;f +idr;f /
csr;f csr;f usatmif q&mawmf&@kd upDpOfy;D a&? aecs@J &@kd um; 0g;&rf;+yD;wdukd rw&m;trde@f xw
k q
f if+h yD;au
zrf;qD;zd@k vyk v
f u
dk v
f @kd 0g&rf;+y;D &d@k vufeufcs tyfvu
kd jf yefauavh/ xyfrzH rf;qD;ESyd pf ufjyefa&? q&mawmf
ynmoD[rm pdu
k t
f pd;k &eef@ 0g&rf;+AD;=um;rm tm;}udK;rmefwuf pDpyf&;D vkyef cD &a&? pdu
k t
f pd;k &bm;u
uwdtrsKd ;rsKd ;awmif;cH+y;D au puULjzLuwdt&av;aumif;/ vDax;rSmaysmufu,
G af & pum;t&+zKd upf /D
0g&rf;+yD;eDuwfaw &cdik t
f rsK;d om;rsK;d csKd uf Armwyfrawmfom;&d@k ukd vm;ac:a&? acsmah rmhazsmif;zsa&
trsKd ;rsKd ;tmrcHv@kd ac:a&? vlai&d@k uav; acgi;f aqmifwu
d kd tm;ud;k +yD;au vufeufcstyfvu
kd u
f wf
aw? yvdy*f gwo
f @kd a&mufauvlaiwdrm ae;rsKd ;pHek ef@zEd ydS /f E_u
d pf ufc&H a&? vlprH rDatmif tESyd pf ufc&H a&?
q&mawmfrm wckavhrwwfEikd /f arwWm/ *&k%myGm;jcif;/ a'go/ rmefax;cif;rSwyg;/ wckacsavhrwwf
Edik cf a,cg &ckid af cgi;f aqmif&@kd tcsi;f csi;f aqG;aEG;uwfjyefa&// tajzaumif;udrk &? &cdik v
f al i&d@k rm
44

51

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
ud,
k Zf mudv
k ckd siaf &vd@k rajymwwf,m/ Zma=umifh ud,
k &f @kd Zmydik +f zKd uf&a&av;vd@k rjrifuwf,m? ajyol
av;rGJvm;c,m/ acgif;aqmifwdum; ZmydkifvJ “&ckdiftrsdK;om; awmfvSef&D;ordkif;udk owd&yHkr
ay:yg” +Aw
d o
d #Am;rm; rmY.M.B.A acwf G.C.B.A acwfrm Armt&if;o#iaf ygupf ynmwwfvw
l ef;
pm;&d@k trsKd ;om;&D;Ed;k =um;p 0HomEkvyk if ef;udk vkyaf qmifa&tcgrm &ckid yf nmwwf&@kd uavh a&m0if
vkyu
f wfaw? Armynmwwf&@kd rm ArmtrsK;d om;vGyv
f yf&;D yef;wdik u
f kd ypfrw
S x
f m;vd@k }udK;pm;a&tcg
&cdik yf nmwwf&@kd u ypfrw
S t
f rSeu
f kd &G;D cs,cf yHrk ayguf ? Edik if &H ;D wm0efukd &mxl;xifv@kd ief;ief;wufvu
kd f
eDcuwfaw? ,if;eef@Zk &cdik v
f }l u;D tcsKd @ ArmEdik if &H ;D orm;=um;rm a*smu
f m+zKd uef cD a&? tepfemcHvyk af w/
acgi;f aqmifwqdwaf u [dcauavh &cdik af jyolukd ud,
k pf m;rjyKcuwf? &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;ax;rSm
rv_y&f mS ;cuwf? ,if;eef@Zk &cdik Ef ikd if &H ;D vrf;a=umif; aysmufu,
G v
f m;cuwf&a&? &ckid yf nmwwf&@kd
&mxl;rufarmeDcuwfv@kd / vrf;av#myf pfcuwfv@kd Zmydik t
f usKd ;qufwd wwef;}u;D +zKd uv
f m;c&a&vJqkd
au ,if;ynmwwfwt
d v
kd mau 'kw,
d urBmph u
kd f c&D;twGi;f rm &ckid yf nmwwfval iwdtcsKd @ &cdik Ef idk if H
&D;udk vkyaf qmifvmuwfaw? ,if;vlai&d@k avh ArmEdik if &H ;D avmurm Ed;k =um;vmuwfaw vlaiwdrsm;
a&? ,if;vlaiwdeef@ Armajyu ynmwwfvw
l ef;pm; Edik if &H ;D orm;&d@k eef@ vufawG;vm;cuwfpmG udk
pdu
k }f u;D t}uKd umvrmwG@d &a&? pdu
k t
f wGi;f rm +Aw
d o
d #uq
kd ef@usiu
f wfaw ukvm;/ &cdik f t"du&ke;f rm
ydrk qd;k atmif vkycf uwfaw? &yf&mG +ird 0f yfyjd ym;&D;twGuf }uKd rf;yrf;cuwfaw? a,auavh aemufyikd ;f
umvrm *syefawmfveS &f ;D vkyaf wtcg &efuek o
f @kd vm;qufuwfaw? zwyvtazG@eef@ vm;qufuwf
aw? &ckid w
f ikd ;f qdik &f m wdik ;f &if;om;tap;t&H;k a& zwyv emrnfopfeef@ Arm*k%af qmif xGe;f ajymif
atmif }udK;pm;vmuwfaw? &ckid rf sKd ;csKd uf/ ajycsKd ufval iwdukd acgi;f aqmifwu
d rsKd ;csKd ufArmwyfr
awmfrmoGi;f +yD;au ArmvGwv
f yf&;D twGuf toufupkd aw;+yD;au wdu
k cf ikd cf uwfaw?
pdu
k t
f wGi;f rm *syefeef@aygi;f vk@d &mxl;,lo,
l /l +Adwo
d #qef@usi&f ;D pdu
k +f yD;csed af vmufrm
*syefuq
kd ef@usi/f +Adwo#eef@rw
d af zG@v@kd &mxl;,lv,
l /l +Adwo#pu
kd t
f yk cf sKyf&;D / &ckid af jyod@k a&mufa&tcg
&ckid af cgi;f aqmifwu
d kd pdu
k t
f yk cf sKy&f ;D uzdEydS v
f ma&? ajyolw&yfv;kH a&;abmftrsm;tjym;/ pdu
k t
f yk cf sKy&f ;D
atmufrm vlrqef/ olrqef Edu
S pf ufccH &a&? *syefawmfveS &f ;D eef@Cas-B vufatmufumv&d@k rm
&ckid rf sKd ;csKd ufval iwd Armajyod@k vm;vdv
k m;/ tdE,
dN odv
k m;vdv
k m;/ oD[o
dk @kd vm;vkv
d m;// ,if;ydik v
f m;
or#um; ap;arh/ urf;arhr[kw/f zqyvXmecsKyfu zdwv
f @kd vm;pGm? zqyv OD;pD;tazG@rmyg0ifv@kd Arm
vGwv
f yf&;D &cge;D ,m? ol@nD OD;!dx
k eG ;f u uE +DW rKd @o@kd Adv
k cf sKyaf tmifqef;eef@ twlygvm;cjyefa&? &ckid o
f m;
wdtwGuf *k%,
f pl &mr[kwv
f m;? Armwyfrawmfupd u
P kd aqG;aEG;cuwfaw? ,if;ydik t
f csed rf m +Aw
d o
d #
pdu
k t
f yk cf sKyf&;D u &cdik af jyudzk Ed ySd v
f @dk aumif;wke;f / t,ifu &ckid t
f &m[da[mif;wdukd toH;k csv@kd aumif;
wke;f / &ckid t
f &m[da[mif;wdavh oH;k ESpo
f ;kH rd;k tm%mrjyc&pGm/ yg0grjyc&pGmudk apmifeh &D vk@d aus;Zl;
o#iaf jyol&@kd ukd tm%mjyvmuwfaw? txl;ojzifh oH;k ESpo
f ;kH rd;k ol&@kd cadk tmifecD uwfaw u|e;f
&Gmv,form;&k@d ukd &uf&ufpufpuf vkycf uwfaw? aumif;aumif;&ifemzd@k aumif;a&? 'kw,
d urBm
4 55 2

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
pdu
k }f uD;a=umifh &ckid w
f ajyvH;k pD;yGm;&D;/ vlr&_ ;D / ynm&D;rm t}uD;tus,f usq;kH vm;ca&? ausmif;r[d/
uefr[deef@ vlaiwdvv
D iG u
hf ek af &// pm&dwyW suu
f ek af &// vlr&_ ;D rm&Suaf umif;xref; &kid ;f pdik ;f vma&//
&kww
f &uf iGpD uULwdukd +Adwo
d #&@kd u &kwo
f rd ;f ydu
k v
f u
kd v
f @kd av; v,form;&d@k rm vufeufz0g;&m usef
vdu
k af w// t0wftxnf/ tpm;tpm/ qD;0g;r[dv@kd oD}uDuwfpmG avh 'keef@a';? r,lurf;a'ou vl
wduq
kd akd u uk,
d af 'ood@k rjyefEikd ,
f m ukvm;&cdik t
f "du&ke;f cgu +AD;vwfcuwfaw &cdik t
f rsK;d om;&d@k
ud,
k af 'ood@k rjyefuwfab; ukvm;wefw&d;k rm av;+rKd @+rKd uw
f &d;k rm tajcpdu
k v
f muwfaw? &yf&mG +ird f
0yf&;D av; tysuyf sut
f ,Gi;f ,Gi;f +zdKufvmc&a&? &Gmwdik ;f / &Gmwdik ;f rm "jr&efa=umifrh awh+idrv
f @kd +rdK@o@kd
ajymif;vm;&a&? ,if;eef@Zk aus;&Gmv,f,mvkyif ef; ysupf ;D qkw,
f w
k v
f m;c&a&?
+rdK@&@kd rmavh r+idrrf ouf edwikd ;f txdyw
f vef@eef@ +rdK@aeuvlwd c&dik +f rdK@o@kd a&mufvm
uwfaw? c&dik +f rdK@}uD;wdrmuav; t,ifuydik f pD;yGm;racsmif ukev
f yk if ef;/ b%fvyk if ef;uav;rpm;
om? v,f,mtaumufceG u
f av;r& ,if;eef@Zk +rKd @uvlvwfwef;pm; ynmwwfwd ola=u/G olaX;wd
&ckid af jyrmeDv@kd r+zdKuf,m? &efuek o
f @kd ajymif;&$v
d m;c&jyefa&? +Adwo
d #pu
kd t
f yk cf sKyf&;D atmuf &ckid af jyrm
ia&;bHyk ikd af csmif,m &cdik v
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46

53

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
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f ifjh cif;cHe&D uwfv@kd nDvmcHobif}uD;ok@d yGiyhf iG fh
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tm; pHpk v
kH ifvif wufa&mufEikd u
f wfaw? pdu
k }f uD;twGi;f tdE,
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a&mufuwfaw? aus;&Gmaygif;ESpfaxmifausmfu vlaygif;ESpfodef;cGJ wufa&mufawvdk@ rSwfwrf;
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4 75 4

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
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zd@k pa& tqdu
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jy\emudk OD;aqmifajzo#i;f vk@d [ed cD a&? pdu
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ausmif;rvHrk avmuf/ q&mrvHrk avmuf/ y&dabm*rajyhrpH/k tpd;k &uwckav;jyefrajz@? at*kyikd f
48

55

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
u|e;f eDajyol vlxrk ma&m/ +rKd @ev
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&ckid af jyrm taxGaxGuyfq;kd }uD;wd &ifqikd ef u
D wf&a&? ,if;tcsed rf m ukepf s;D E_e;f u wufvma&?
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&a&? avu&d,mwd pHpk v
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f ma=umifh ,if;Edu
_ u
f
&Spq
f ,f&mE_e;f avorm;&d@k &@kd rm 0rf;pmrvH+k zdKufe&D a&? ,if;ESpw
f vif;odr;f csed af vmufrm &ckid af jy.
av,mtm;vH;k ud;k q,f&mcdik Ef e_ ;f udk ydik q
f ikd u
f wfaw OD;a&;ausmo
f u
l rk %
` /D oE mW jzLukr%
` /D OD;a&$
omukr%
` /D OD;ay:xGe;f atmifurk %
` &D @kd ay:ayguv
f muwfaw? tpd;k &eef@avorm;&d@k uakd v; oifah tmif
acs aphpyf,u
l wfv@kd wrde@f vyk o
f ifvu
dk af w// ,if;a=umifh zqyveef@ awmifoal vorm;or*~u tpd;k &
eef@ avydik o
f #i&f @kd ukd ,if;Edu
_ rf m tcGerf aumufz@kd / avcraumufz@kd ukd awmif;yefvu
kd &f a&? atmifjrif
oif&h akH vmuf[cd a&? ,if;tcg zqyveef@ awmifoal vorm;or*~&@kd . cef@reS ;f +ct
D & &ckid af jyvlO;D &Deef@
pyg;txGurf m csed rf udu
k +f zdKufecD a&/ pyg;ydek aD &? pdu
k af wGc&dik rf m ,if;E_u
d u
f 0rf;pmrvH+k zdKufe&D a&?
pyg;ae;yg;a&// ausmufjzLc&dik /f oHawG;/ yvuf0 c&dik &f @kd rmqdak uum; ydrk q
kd ;kd 0g;vmzd@k pmG yif+zdKufaw?
wajyvH;k twdik ;f twmt& o#pq
f ,f&mcdik Ef e_ ;f avorm;&d@k rmS 0rf;pmrvHak vmuf +zKd ufe&D a&? ,if;t
csed rf m +Adwo
d #ae@cs@J tpd;k &eef@ taygi;f tyg pD;yGm;&D;aomif;use;f a& ukr%
` w
D d vlxyk *k Kd~ vfwd v'fpm;t
&m[dwu
d awmifoal vorm;wdukd ydv
k @kd q;kd 0g;pDa&?
1945-ck/ 'DZbFmvrm tpd;k &u pyg;ps;D awmif;w&mudk 85d usyEf e_ ;f oufrw
S v
f u
kd +f yD; &cdik f
wajyvH;k twGuf pyg;t0,fXmewckwnf;udk pdu
k af wGrmzGiv
hf u
d_ x
f m;a&? trSerf m tpd;k &pyg;t0,f
50

57

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
Xmea& pwD;bk&m;om;ukr%
` /D bHak bbm;rm;ukr%
` /D x&D;'de;f ukr%
R w
D /d aumfy&kd ;D &Se;f wd pkaygi;f xm;
a&Xmewck+zKd ufaw? aiGuakd vh ,if;ukr%
R w
D b
d m;u&m xkwyf ;D xm;a&? ,if;t0,fXme. t&m[dwd
rSmav; xkdukrR%Da[mif;wd. vkyfom;a[mif;wdyif+zdKufaw// yHkpHwckjy&zdk@qdkau ,if;tcgu
tpd;k &t&m[d }uD;+zdKufaw “ar*smrm,m”
rm,m”rm ,if;ukr%
R .
D vkyo
f m;a[mif;}uD; wpfa,mufyif
+zdKufaw// ,if;a=umifh ,if;ukr%
` aD & ud,
k &f @kd . vkyo
f m;a[mif;}uD;wdyg;uwqifh tpd;k &udak csv,
S f
Edik af &? tpd;k &rm pyg;ps;D E_e;f udk owfrw
S &f mrm pedwrf us tae;qH;k ps;D E_e;f udak v; owfrw
S rf yD;/ ,if;Zkeef@
trsKd ;rsK;d u&du
k u
f xdu
k +f zdKuf&a&// avorm;&[da& pyg;ps;D rSm owfrw
S x
f m;a& ps;D E_e;f twdik ;f r[kwf
w0ufausmrf uae;eDa&? pyg;w&mudk 25d rS 45d rm&m[duwfaw? tpd;k &tzG@J uYkd rm trsK;drsK;d vkyef D
uwfaw? ud,
k &f @kd vuf0cD H +rGyD ;GD vufyg;pD&@kd ukd vufowf+yD;au ps;D trsKd ;rsKd ;eef@ pyg;0,feaD &? yHpk jH y&zd@k
qdak u pdu
k af wGom;Zmwd (,if;tcgu ajrmufO;D rmeDa&) ayG;pm;OD;armifv;kH jzLqdo
k u
l kd tpd;k &Xmeu
aiGxw
k yf ;D a& ausmufawmfae/ ajrmufO;D ae&d@k rmS pyg;w&mudk 25-usyf 30d ps;D E_e;f eef@&m0,fa&? aiGt
=uyf&u
kd ef aD & avorm;wdbm;u pyg;udyk ifaxmif0,fpmG udak v;vkypf aD &? ,if;tcgu &vma&pyg;wdukd
OD;armifv;kH jzLu pyg;t0,fXmerSmoGi;f a&? t0,fXmeu t*Fvyd rf suEf mS jzLt&m[d&@kd a& (ukr%
R v
D l
a[mif;wd)t,ifu pyg;wdut
kd 0,fXmerm pyg;w&mudk 85dps;D E_e;f eef@ toGi;f jyvdu
k jf yefa&? OD;armif
vH;k jzLudk ayG;pm;cyD;vdu
k af w? *kyikd +f zKd ufeaD & Edik if jH cm;ukr%
R }D u;D &d@k u tpd;k &udk }uKd ;qG+J y;D au ayguq
f ed &f ;kd
&ckid af yG;pm;ukeo
f nfrsm;udk cg;ydu
k af qmifxm;ca&? a,+yD;au avorm;&d@k . ac|;aEG;pmvkyt
f m;cudk
tjrwf}u;D pm;acgi;f yHjk zwfvu
kd af w/ t&mavhwrsKd ;[djyefoad & ,if;tcgu &ckid af jyrm ao,ly@kd aqmif&;D
uraumif; pdu
k rf +zdKufab; oabFmarmif;wduo
dk ;Hk +yD;au ajywGi;f rmvm;vmeD&a& oabFmc&D;pkid u
f
avhrrSe/f avorm;pyg;wduadk vhrwif/ ,ift
h +zKd uf *syefcu
dk w
f cku
d v
f ;Hk u avorm;&k@d rm [doavmuf
avmif;*sw
D u
d avh ysuq
f ;D qk;H &S;H / uke;f vrf;uav@raygu/f "g;jr/ocl ;dk / vlq;dk uavhaomif;usr;f / *kyidk pf mG rm
avorm;qif;a&;om;&k@d rm pdu
k af wGo@dk yapmifa&mufz;l uwfz@dk av;? aw;zk@d / ckzd @dk e&D m0g uk,
d &f @dk u *syef
wcdu
k v
f ;Hk rm ulnv
D u
dk af w +rK@d ut&m[d t&mcHwu
d adk v; ,kpH mG r[kw?f a=umufv@dk yife&D oda&? ,if;ykid f
tajctaeqk;d ukd csuaf umif;csuef pD mG u cku
d yf suo
f al X;wd/ ukvm;/ w&kwf olaX;wd/ uGeyf &m'kd vuf0cD H
ayG;pm;ukeaf owd/ ol&@dk o&l @dk a& avmif;}uD;/ pyf}uD;/ orŠmef}uD;wdeef@ u|e;f urf;tES@H av@+S yD;au pyg;wd
ukv
d u
dk af 0a& tae;qk;H aps;eef@vu
dk af 0a&? avorm;&k@d rm 0wfz@dk /pm;zk@d u tylwjyif;vkv
d ma& yif
axmifa&mif;olua&mif;/ 0rf;pma&mif;olua&mif;/ r[du[du +cKd uAf smvf,mAsmvf a&mif;csvu
dk af w?
ol&@dk &vma&pyg;wdudk tpk;d &yg;rm 85 ps;D eef@oiG ;f +yD;au 1-jyef2-jyefjrwfaw/ bl;oD;awmif
armif;awmukd 100-ps;D eef@vm;a&mif;au oH;k av;jyefjrwfaw// pdu
k w
f aumif;ok@d vm;+yD;au 125ps;D eef@a&mif;auav; 4-5 jyefjrwfaw// wcsK@d upyg;ukad vSmifxm;a& ajywGi;f rm pyg;o#m;eDa&tcg
tjrwf}u;D pm;eef@ a&mif;zk@d avSmifxm;uwfaw/? *kyidk t
f iwfz;D eef@&ifqidk v
f @dk vma&tcg pD;yGm;&D;orm;
&k@d um; vkypf m;aumif;wke;f avorm;&k@d rmum; uk,
d v
f yk pf mG udk uk,
d rf pm;& tjrwf&zk@d pmG ukx
d m; iwfjyef
5 15 8

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
odrf;a&tcg aemufESpfpyg;twGuf 'ga'gifcs+yD;au pyg;avSmifxm;a&vlwdyg;u pyg;jyef+yD;au
a0&jyefoad &? &cdik w
f ajyvH;k . pdu
k zf ;D '%ftm;vH;k udk uke;f jymatmifcpH m;eDuwf&a&// avorm;vkypf mudk
+Adwo
d #/w&kw/f ukvm;uav; oH;k ESpo
f ;kH rd;k twGuf t+idK;ESit
hf jrwf,al &// &ckid pf ;D yGm;&D;orm; ud,
k cf si;f
rnSm tjrwf,al &? ol@&@kd o@l &@kd rm ysuv
f cor#p;D yGm;&D;udk tzwfq,fEikd af tmif acgi;f yHjk zwfeu
D wfaw?
ol@&@kd o&l @kd tzwfaqvm;pGmu avorm;.vkyt
f m;ud;k ?
t*kyikd f &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH udk vlprH rDaS tmif +Aw
d o
d #t&if;o#if aecs@J tpd;k &a& pD;yGm;&D;t
&av;aumif;/ vlr&_ ;D t&av;aumif;/ Edik if &H ;D t&av;aumif; zdEu
_d cf sKyfacsa&twGuaf =umifh &cdik af jyrm
atmufus/aemufus ajywajyt+zKd ufo@kd aZmufx;kd usqif;&jyefa&? jyefvx
D al xmif&;D vkyif ef;udak v;
waphauhavhrvkyyf ;D // +Adwo
d #t&if;o#iaf ecs@J um; &ckid af jyudk ESpcf gvrd v
f @kd ESpcf gtyk cf sKyfv,
D m// 19&mpk tpykid ;f uwcg &ckid t
f m;udk t&Htm;t+zKd ufo;kH +y;D au &wemydpk mcsKyft& &ckid af jyudo
k rd ;f ydu
k cf a&?
“+Ad
w
o
d
#
a
&
u,f
w
if
&
i
S
r
f
[mrd
w

f
&ckid &f @kd xifpmG u
+zdKufaw? 20-&mpkrmwcg &ckid t
f m;udk t&Htm;
oH;k +y;D au zufqpf*syefukd wdu
k x
f w
k cf a&// &ckid af jyudk 'kw,
d t}urd f vmtkycf sKyfjyefa&// a'w acgurf m
&ckid af &t&Htm;t+zdKuf toH;k cH&apmfrmawmif &ckid t
f +zdKufeef@ toH;k cHpmG r[kwf &ckid af cgi;f aqmifwd
azmufjyefcvd@k Armt+zdKufeef@ toH;k csc&H pGm+zdKufaw? ,if;eef@Zk pdu
k 'f %fuakd v;cH/ pdu
k +f yD;jyefau
r[mrdw&f @kd . tEdu
_ t
f pufuakd v;cH/ ,if;eef@Zk &ckid af jyol&@kd u +Aw
d o
d #ukd xyfraH wmfveS cf siu
f wfaw?
acgi;f aqmifwrd m aeacs@uakd wmfveS zf @kd awmif;qdek u
D wfaw? ajyol&@kd um; acgi;f aqmifwad vmuf
tjrifraus/ acgi;f aqmifwjd rifa&ydik rf jrif/ acgi;f aqmifwjd rifepD mG udk ajyolwed m;rav acgi;f aqmif
wdjrifepD mG u Armajyu zqyvtazG@csKyfukd aqG;aEG;csKyfqkd }udK;yrf;a=uhvm&zd@k // ArmvGwv
f yf&;D udk
&cdik af jyolwd rD;ydik yf el &D a&b0udk u,fEikd zf @kd wdu
k af yG;0if&zd@k / vrf;!$eyf ;D zd@k wm0efum; zqyv(&ckid w
f ikd ;f )
rSm wm0ef[v
d aD &? ,if;a=umihf t*kEu
Sd t
f pnf;ta0; awmuefnv
D mcHa& emrnf}uD;a&?

awmuefnDvmcHu 5? 4? 46-rS 9? 4? 46 qHk;jzwfcsufrsm;-

(1) to#iOf ;D pdEmN udk ab;rJah =ujimyD;&ef?
(2) zdEydS cf sKyfcs,rf u
_ kd &yfap;&ef?
(3) t*kEpS rf m avcGeef ef@+rDceG f raumufc&H ef?
(4) Armajyudk vH;k 0vGwv
f yf&;D yD;&ef?
(5) &yf&mG umauG&;D tazG@eef@ ajyola&;abmftazG@wu
d kd vufeufxw
k yf ;D &ef?
(6) &ckid af jyrm vrf;yef;azmufaoG&;D eef@ tvm;tvm vHjk cHK&D;twGuf aqmif&u
G yf ;D &ef?
(7) iwfrw
G af cgi;f yg;&D;udk umauG&ef?
(8) Edik if jH cm;eef@ qufaoG&ef?

52

59

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
(9) ynm&D;?
(10) Edik if &H ;D tusO;f orm;wdukd v$w&f efeef@ tcsKyfacsukd z,fzsu&f ef?
(11) awmifoal vorm; oufoma&Smifcspd &D ef?
(12) &ckid Af 'k b
< momeef@ &cdik rf q
l vifrsm;wd@k &if;ES;D pGmaygi;f oif;qufqH csKu
d af =uph mG eDxikd =f u&ef/
(13) wdik ;f ajy jyefavxlaxmif&;D pDr&H ef
(14) auGveG o
f l Edik if &H ;D orm;acgi;f aqmif}uD;rsm;udk owd&eDatmif ausmuf&yk af w&ef?
(15) wdik ;f ajytwGuf toufpeG @f ca& ola&;aumif; ajymufusm;rsm;udp&P @kd yif+zdKufaw?
1906-ck 0dik t
f rfabDat tazG@ tap;ta0; pdu
k af wGaus;vufa'o&Gmrm zqyv nDvm
cH}uD;usi;f ya& 1946-ckxd &cdik Ef ikd if &H ;D a& aemufvu
kd 0f g'+zdKufpmG udk ,if;twd;k twGi;f v_y,
f mS ;cuwf
aw? yk*Kd~ vfwa,mufcsi;f vkyaf qmifcsu/f Edik if &H ;D tazG@tap; toD;oD;&d@k vkyaf qmifcsu&f @dk uakd =uhau
xifxif&mS ;&Sm;wd@G [Ed ikd af &? +Adwo
d #ut
kd m;ud;k vd@k +Adwo
d #u|eEf pS cf g+zdKufc&a&ydik f Armud,
k rkH mS ;vd@k Arm
u|eEf pS cf g +zdKufe,
D m+zdKufaw? aemufvu
kd 0f g'eef@ aemufvu
kd 0f g'&D @kd ig&@kd vt
l azG@tap;rSm qdwo
f Ok ;f
vm;atmif wku
d zf surf &S m vrf;rSepf cef;rSeef ef@ ydu
k rf w
S t
f rSeu
f kd &Edik u
f wfz@kd +zdKufaw? 1945/ 46-ckrmS
ArmEdik if &H ;D *d%
k ;f *%udp/P yk*v
d~ udp&P @kd u wqufquf jyif;xefvma&? ,auavh ArmtrsK;d om;&d@k .
ydurf w
S u
f m;raysmuf/ a&a&Gcsuu
f m;raysmuf/ ud,
k ,
f akH =uhcsu/f a&a&Gcsuu
f kd b0ukt
d ESu
d ef mcHv@kd
aqmif&u
G ef u
D wfwek ;f yif+zKd ufaw? 1945-ckavmufrm ocifp;kd / ocifoef;xGe;f &d@k a& uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gwu
D kd
Am;u&mrm qdik ;f bkww
f ifxm;uwfaw? udak usm+f ird ;f / udb
k aqG&@kduavh ajyolvw
G v
f yf&;D / qdak csvpfygwD
,cif ajyolt&D;awmfyykH gwu
D kd qdik ;f bkww
f ifvmuwfaw? Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;uavh awmfveS &f ;D
a&;abmfa[mif;wdupkd +k yD;au ajyola&;abmftazG@ukd qdik ;f bkww
f ifvu
kd af w?
1946-ck ZGE0M g&v
D rm zqyv ajyvH;k u|wn
f v
D mcH}u;D udk a&$w*d b
kH &k m; taemufbufuek ;f rm
usi;f yvku
d af w? vGwv
f yf&;D twGuf awmif;qkcd suw
f u
d kd csrw
S u
f wfaw? ,if;aemuf OuUXt+zdKuf
Adv
k cf sKyftmifqef;udak v;aumif;/ twGi;f &D;r_;t+zdKuf OD;ausm+f idr;f udak v;aumif;/ awG;buftwGi;f &D;
r_;t+zKd uf ocifoed ;f azjrihf (uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gw)D udak v;aumif; toD;oD;wifajrmufvu
kd u
f wfaw? 1946ck azazmf0g&v
D rm uGejf rLEdu
S yf gwD uGt
J ufjyefa&? ocifp;kd / ocifjr/ a':apmjr pa& a&;eDcEk pS Of ;D cGx
J u
G +f y;D
au uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gwD (Armajy) tvHeyD gwu
D kd xlaxmifvu
kd u
f wfaw? ocifoef;xGe;f uavh useaf &
ygweD ef@ ArmajyeG jf rLEdu
S yf gwD (0g) tvHjzLygwu
D kd xlaxmifvu
kd af w? t*kyikd f ArmEdik if &H ;D ygww
D d uGt
J ufyg
vwfawtcg &cdik af cgi;f aqmif&@kd avh vdu
k v
f @kd ujJG ym;uwfaw? acgi;f aqmifujJG yefau aemuf vku
d w
f ad vh
uGjJ ym;uwfaw// acgi;f aqmifwd wdu
k u
f wfau aemufvu
kd af &;abmfwd oD}uDusKd ;yJu
h wf&a&?
(1) OD;ndx
k eG ;f / Adv
k }f uD;=umvSatmif/ Adv
k pf o
H mausm/f OD;omxGe;f / Adv
k af rmifuav;/
Adv
k af tmifausm&f @kd ajyol@a&;abmftazG@o@kd ygvm;cuwfaw?
5 360

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
(2) to#iyf nmoD[&d@k rm zqyv OD;ausm+f idr;f / OD;baqG&@kd eef@ wbufaw; OD;bpH&@kd avh
ajyolvw
G v
f yf&;D qdak csvpfygwu
D kd pdu
k af wG&yl &GmrSm vdu
k v
f @kd xal xmifvu
dk jf yefa&?
(3)AHak yguo
f mausm&f @kd u tvHeu
D eG jf rLEdu
_ yf gwb
D ufo@kd ygvm;ca&?
(4) OD;ausmjf r&d@k u tvHjzL uGejf rLEdu
S yf gwb
D ufo@kd ygvm;ca&?
q&mawmf to#iOf ;D pdEmN um; 0g&rf;+AD;eD,if;yif qdak csvpfygw0D if ocifjr/ OD;baqG/ OD;ausmf
+ird ;f &d@k eef@ wd@G qakH qG;aEG;+y;D auaemufyikd ;f A[k=d o0g'tmp&d, tazG@csKyu
f kd xlaxmifvu
kd af w? ,if;ESprf mS
yif q&mawmfu &ckid af jyvuf0n
J n
D w
G &f ;D udk ac:qdv
k u
kd af w? uydik af csmif;&Gm awmpcef;weD&mrSm
csKd @0u
S u
f si;f ya&? OD;!kx
d eG ;f / OD;omxGe;f &d@k ajyol@a&;abmftazG@ ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f +zKd ufav;aumif;/ OD;b
apmu uGejf rLEdu
S yf gwD ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f +zKd uaf v;aumif;/ zqyv ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f +zKd uf rsKd ;csKu
d af usmOf ;D
u ajyolvw
G v
f yf&;D qdak csvpfygwD ud,
k pf m;vS,t
f +zdKuf OD;omausmu
f av;aumif;/ toD;oD;wuf
a&mufvmuwfaw// tppt&m&mudk aqG;aEG;!dE_ i_d ;f uwfaw? vuf0n
J n
D w
G &f ;D wyfaygi;f pk+zdKufEikd f
atmif tpDtpOfcsrw
S cf uwfaw?
aemufyikd ;f rm &ckid af jyrm zqyv/ uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gw/D ajyola&;abmftazG@/ ajyolvw
G v
f yf&;D /
qdak csvpfygw/D A[d=k o0g'tmp&d, tazG@csKyf&@kd tygt0if ajryH/k ayguaf wm nDnw
G &f ;D wyfaygi;f pk
nDvmcHukd atmifatmif/ jrifjrif vkyaf qmifvu
kd u
f wfaw? ,if;nDvmcHukd Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef;eef@
OD;baqG&@kd wufa&mufvmuwfaw? ,if;tcsed rf m Adv
k cf sKyfatmifqef; bk&ifco
H u
kd t
f pd;k &tazG@ acgi;f
aqmif+zKd ufe,
D m? zqyvtpd;k & 31 tm%m&eD,m? Adv
k cf sKyfzqyvtpd;k &azG@+y;D pu Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D
r&au wdu
k ,
f zl @kd ppD Ofxm;auavh bdvyfuv
kd m;vd@k atmifqef;twWvpD mcsKyu
f kd csKyq
f +kd y;D aemufyikd ;f rm
awmfveS &f ;D tpm; ajymif;vJr&_ @kd ukd vkyaf qmifvm&Asm,f? OD;atmifZaH 0wpfa,mufum; zqyv
tazG@rm yg0ife&D a&? ajryHn
k v
D mcHrm &ckid af cgi;f aqmifwed ef@ Adv
k cf sKyf&@kd tqifrajyc? +Adwo
d #vuf
atmuf &ckid af jya& zqyvvufatmuf &cdik af jyod@k ul;ajymif;pjyKvm,m+zKd uaf w? ,if;nDvmcHt+y;D
&rf;+AJu|e;f u a&;abmfb[efeef@ a&;abmfO;D aEG&@kd tzrf;cH&a&? q&mawmft&Siq
f ENmu ,if;udpP
twGuf vlxw
k u
kd af yG;0ifz@kd =uGvmawmfral &tcg zqyvtpd;k &u oabFmxufrmyif q&mawmfukd
zrf;qD;vdu
k af w? om,0wDaxmifrm csKyaf ESmifxm;vdu
k af w? q&mawmf xmifax;rSmoDwif;oH;k eDpikd f
&cdik af jyvuf0n
J n
D w
G &f ;D um; a,mh&;D &D;+zdKufvma&? wrsK;d om;vH;k udk acgi;f aqmifEikd pf rG ;f [da& q&m
awmfr[da&tcg ap;vH;k r_avhusqif;vma&? ,if;ydik pf mG rSm tqd;k qH;k um; ArmhEikd if &H ;D orm;wd *d%
k ;f cGJ
pGmudck eH u
D wfaw? &ckid v
f uf0aJ cgi;f aqmif&@kd a& Armvuf0XJ mecsKyf toD;oD;rm wuGw
J jym;yg0ifeD
uwfpmG a& ,if;tcguyif t*kx+d zdKufaw? tpdik t
f vmwckyif+zdKufeaD &? ol&@kd twGuq
f akd u ud,
k yf dkif
jyXmef;cGihf (Self Indetity) a& vH;k 0qdwo
f ek ;f eD,m+zKd uw
f ? usKd i;f ajrmif;/ arSmifru
kd v
f aS & aemufvu
dk 0f g'
wdu
k cf ef;usKd i;f rSm tydu
k cf eH &D uwfaw? ,if;yk*Kd~ v}f u;D ai&d@k ukd ig&h @kd &ckid t
f azG@tap;u =uyf=uyfoak woe
vky&f zd@k yif ol&@kd trSm;udk awmfveS &f ;D ocFe;f pmt+zdKuf rSwo
f m;xm;&zd@k yif+zdKufaw? Adv
k cf sKyfatmif
54

61

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
qef;a& zqyvtpd;k &udk azG@ap;+yD;aemuf 0ef}uD;csKyftwWv.
D zdw=f um;csut
f & vef'ifo@kd vu
kd v
f &D
a&? ,if;rm 1947-ck ZEM0g&D 12 &uferd m Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D tm&HOk ;D a&mifjcnfeef@wal & atmifqef;
twWvpD mcsKyfukd csKyfqEkd ikd cf a&? ,if;ujyefvm+yD;au &Sr;f ajyyifv+kH rdK@rmS &Sr;f / ucsif ud,
k pf m;vS,f
&d@k eef@twl“yif
k cf sKyftvky}f uHc&H a&?
“yifvHkpmcsKyf”udk 12/ 2/ 47 ckrm csKyfqEkd ikd cf a&? 19/ 7/ 47 ckrm Adv
olauGveG +f yD;aemuf ArmhEikd if &H ;D tajctae uaumif;qd;k 0g;vmvwfaw? ArmajyrmuGv
J @kd &cdik af jy
rmavh uGv
J muwfaw? ,if;u XmecsKyu
f nGe=f um;wdik ;f a'uXmecsKyu
f vku
d ef ma&? ,if;ydik u
f mvrm
q&mawmf. jy\em &cdik af jy.jy\emt&yf&yfrm r_e0f g;vm;ca&? wdraf umvm;ca&? vufatmufcH
omrn+zdKufvm;c&a&? ArmajyuGejf rLEdu
S yf gwXD mecsKyfu a&;abmfausmjf r&d@k O;D pD;xm;a& zqyv
(&cdik w
f ikd ;f )udk uk,
d t
hf iftm;pkt+zdKuf owfrw
S x
f m;a&? q&mawmfto#ipf Ed mN . ajyolvw
G af jrmuf
k w
f pfzef azG@ap;vdu
k af wygw)D udk
&D;ygwD (People’s liberation Party) (A[d=k o0g'tazG@ukd jyefv@kd todu
qdkacsvpfygwD (OD;ausmf+idrf;/ OD;baqG&dk@acgif;aqmif)u ol@tiftm;pk t+zdKufowfrSwfvdkufaw/
,if;a=umihf ArmajyuGejf rLEdu
k yf gwu
D kd zqyv tazG@csKyfu xkwyf u
kd v
f u
kd af w tcg &cdik w
f ikd ;f zqyv
uGejf rLEdu
k yf gwu
D kd rxkwEf ikd +f zdKufe&D a&? 1947-ck &aohawmifnv
D mcHrm uGejf rLEdu
k yf gwu
D ol@tvdk
wlxu
G v
f m;pGm&m? zqyvrm qdak csvpftiftm;pk +ydKifbufr[dbJ wd;k wufvmvwfaw// ,if;jyif
qdak csvpfygwaD & OD;ndx
k eG ;f acgi;f aqmifa& “ajyol@a&;abmfygwD”udak v; &cdik af jyqkid &f m qdak csvpf
tiftm;pkt+zKd uf owfrw
S jf yKvkyv
f o
kd ad &? t*if,
h ifyif &cdik ahf wmfveS &f ;D orm;/ Edik if &H ;D orm;wdukd Armh
Edik if &H ;D ygwt
D oD;oD;u cg;ydu
k af qmiftajrmif vkyx
f m;vmuwfaw// vuf atmufcw
H ynfv
h yk x
f m;
uwfaw// a,bk,stm;jzifh &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D orm;&d@k . aemufvu
kd 0f g'eef@ ArmEdik if &H ;D orm;&d@k . vlrsK;d }uD;
0g'rm aumif;aumif;tqifajyeDca&? ,if;eef@ vifr,m;ydik /f &dv
S m;aemufvu
kd n
f eD cD a&? ocifeef@
u|eyf ikd /f txufatmufnn
D w
G cf a&? tjcm;wbufrm pdu
k rf eS af &acgi;f aqmif (uaumif;/ ,Sm;,Sm;/
yg;yg;) tcsKd @um; awmfveS &f ;D orm;tcsi;f csi;f &cdik /f ArmrcJjG cm;bJ odu
k pf mxm;cuwfaw// a&;abmf/
a&;bufou
kd pf mudk Zmolzsuzf suf ol@&@kd rysuaf b; cdik rf meDcuwfaw// awmfveS &f ;D .t"du&efo+l zKd uf
aw +Adwo#t&if;o#if aecs@J bm;ok@d &m r[mAsL[mr#m;OD; awxm;cuwfaw? ,if;tcsed rf m EktwW
vDpmcsKyfukd 17/ 10/ 1947-ckrmS csKyfv@kd atmifjrifvm;c,m+zdKufaw// ,if;aemuf 4/ 1/ 1948-ckrm
ArmhvGwfvyf&D;yef;wdkifudk Armhvl@tazG@tap;a& tcuftcJhaygif; axmifaomif;udkausmfjzwfvdk@
atmifatmifjrifjrif a&mufvm;cuwfaw// +Adwdo#Am;rm;udk “ajyaxmifpk orRwjrefrmEdkifiH”
t+zKd uf a=ujimvdu
k af w// atmifayG;obifusi;f yuwfaw? uAsmazG@uwfaw? ,if;umvrm Armhvw
G f
vyf&;D armfueG ;f 0if &cdik af cgi;f aqmif}uD;ai&d@k rmum; tcsKd @tm%m& zqyvygwaD emuf vdu
k v
f m;cvd@k
vGwv
f yf&;D t&omudpk m;vd@k / wcsKd @um;awmcdv
k @kd wcsKd @um;=um;xkid v
f @kd ? ArmhtrsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D um;
Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D eef@ wpcef;owfvm;c,m? oDaygrif;tzrf;cH&a& 1885-cku 1948-cktxd Edu
k af ygi;f
62-Edu
_ t
f =umrm udv
k ekd u
D |eb
f 0u vGwaf jrmufvm;ca&? &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D um; baZmif
5 562

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
av;? &cdik o
f rRw&mZmtzrf;cH&a& 1786-p+yD;au u|e+f zdKufvmvwfpmG t*kxufwikd rf vGwo
f /d /
&ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;rm &cdik v
f w
G v
f yf&;D atmifayG;yef;wdik rf a&mufo?d ArmvGwf
vyf&;D atmifayG;udk &cdik v
f w
G v
f yf&;D atmifayG;vd@k ajymvd@k r&? wdik ;f ajyvuf[&d yk w
f &m;u Zmudt
k
ajzyD;eDa&av;? &ckid t
f vkyo
f rm;xk/ avorm;xk/ ynmwwf "eo#iaf ygupf xk/ wdik ;f &if;om;"eo#ix
f k
Zmydik cf pH m;eD&pGmav;// jywfjywfajym&zd@k qakd u &cdik t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;eef@ ArmtrsKd ;
om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;od@k a&mxD;G vm;cvd@k atmifayG;rcHEikd o
f ?d a&mxD;G pGmrmwcg wef;wla&
wl a&mxD;G pGmr[kwaf b;/ wqifch H vufatmufct
H +zdKufeef@ a&mxD;G vm;&pGm+zdKufv@kd &cdik t
f rsK;d om;
awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif; tazsmufcv
H m;c&a&// vGr;f rd;k cHvm;c&a&// zH;k auGcv
H m;c&a&// ,if;eef@Zk
raoGz/D rwdr;f apmif;uwfauh? ravG;racsmu
f wfauh/ trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D udk odu
k pf mrazmufuwf
auh? ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiu
hf kd OD;xdyx
f m;uwf&zd@k / ArmvGwv
f yf&;D &+y;D aemufyikd ;f rm Armvlrt
_ azG@tap;a&
ajyol@'rD u
kd a&pDpcef;qifh (0g) awmfveS &f ;D . 'kw,
d pcef;qihf wd;k wufvm;c&a&? &cdik v
f rl @_ tazG@tap;
um; trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D pcef;qifrh m umvwckukd jzwfoef;eD&wke;f +zKd uaf w? ,if;tcsed af vmufrm
*syefcu
kd u
f pkap;nDnw
G &f ;D &cdik ahf cgi;f aqmif&@kd a& wuGw
J jym;pDeef@ 'kw,
d pcef;qifu
h q
kd ifaEG;zd@k vufeuf
udik af wmcd+k yD;au Armygwt
D oD;oD;rSm yg0ifyem awmfveS v
f m;cuwfaw// wcsKd @avh zqyveef@
awG;eDvu
kd af w// =um;xdik v
f m;cuwfaw?
Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D &vkvu
k mvrm ocifp;kd acgi;f aqmifa& uGejf rLEdu
k yf gwD (Armajy)0g tvHeyD g
wD awmcd+k yD;au &ckid af jya&;eD AHak yguo
f mausm&f @kd avh awmcdak &// tvHeyD gwD nGe=f um;csut
f wdik ;f
uGejf rLEku
d yf gwD (&cdik af jy)xlaxmifvu
dk af w// tvHeyD gwv
D @kdwiG v
f aD &// Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D &+y;D ,if;Edu
_ rf wfv
28 &uferd mS ocifoef;xGe;f acgi;f aqmifa& ArmajyuGejf rLedwyf gwaD wmckad &// &cdik af jyu a&;abmfausmf
jrav; ,if;ygw0D ifteDeef@ awmcdak &// Auy &cdik w
f ikd ;f udak zG@ap;vku
d af w// &wn ajyaeawmif;+y;D aemuf
a&;abmfausmjf rtqifrh m ajyaewm0efct
H qifx
h d wd;k vma&? Auy(&cdik af jyae)vd@k av;ajymif;vJvu
kd f
aw// 1948-ck/ ar 5 &uferd m Armajy0ef}u;D csKyfOED u
k vuf0n
J n
D w
G &f ;D rl 14 csuu
f akd =ujik ma&? aemuf
14-csuf +zKd uv
f m;c&a&// q&mawmf to#io
f [
D acgi;f aqmifa& &cdik w
f ikd ;f zqyvuavh ,if;rltwdik ;f
vdu
k ef ma[m=um;a&// 1948-ck *sKefv 26 &uferd m ajyol@a&;abmfEpS jf crf;uGaJ &? Adv
k zf ;kd uGe;f acgi;f
aqmifa&wjcrf;u a&;abmfjzLvk@d emrnfcaH &// Adv
k rf LS ;atmifausmf acgi;f aqmifa&tjcrf;u a&;abmf0g
vd@k emrnfcaH &? a&;abmfjzL&d@k awmcdak &? a&;abmf0gu zqyveef@usev
f u
dk af w? a&;abmfjzLawmcdak &
tcg &cdik af jyu a&;abmfwazG@v;kH awmcdak &? Adv
k }f uD;=umvSatmif/ Adv
k pf o
H mausm/f Adv
k af tmifausm/f
Adv
k af rmifuav; &k@d yg0ifa&// q&mawmf to#ipf Ed mN vGwv
f m+yD;au ajyol@vw
G af jrmuf&;D ygwaD v;
awmcdka&?

56

63

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
(q) 1948-ckaemufydkif; &cdkifajy vufeufudkifawmfvSef&Davmu

(1) to#if OD;pdEmN acgi;f aqmifa& ajyhov
l w
G af jrmuf&;D ygw/D
(2) a&;abmfausmfjracgif;aqmifa& “Armajy uGefjrLEd_ufygwD
gwD”&ckdifwdkif;/
(3) a&;eD bHak yguo
f mausmf acgi;f aqmifa& “uGefjrLEd_ufygwD” &ckid af jy/
(4) Adv
k }f uD;=umvSatmif OD;aqmifa& “ajyola&;abmfygwD’’’vdk@ ygwaD v;ygwD ay:ayguf
eDa&// av;ygwpD vH;k . r[mAsL[mrm ajyol@'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D / (0g)vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D yifjzpfaw?
&ckid af jyudAk rmajy. udv
k ekd w
D ydik ;f vd@k cH,x
l m;uwfaw// pifpu
kd af & a'r[mAsL[mrm Armacgi;f aqmif
&d@k u Armajy.&kyw
f &m;t& ol&@kd c,
H cl sut
f & cif;usi;f xm;a& r[mAsL[myif+zdKufaw// &ckid af jy.
vuf[d &kyw
f &m;eef@um; vH;k 0r[yfpyfoad & r[mAsL[myif+zdKufaw//
atudprP mS &ckid af cgi;f aqmifwed ef@ Armacgi;f aqmifwu
d kd Edi_ ;f ,di_ af =uhz@kd vv
kd rd ahf r? Armacgi;f
aqmif&@kd a& rsKd ;quftqufqufrmS udv
k ekd u
D |eb
f 0udk tvdrk [duwf? tqufquf aecs@J qef@usi&f ;D
pdkufudk qifaEG;cuwfaw? trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;vrf;a=umif;udk rdrd&&qkyfudkifxm;uwfaw//
Adv
k rf if;a&mifawmfveS &f ;D / q&mpHawmfveS &f ;D &d@k ukd ordik ;f rSww
f idk t
f +zdKuf udik af qmifxm;uwfaw?
'kw,
d awmfveS &f ;D twGi;f rmav; *syefaecs@J u+kd zKd u+f zKd u/f +Aw
d o
d #aecs@J u+kd zKd u+f zKd uf cH,cl su/f &yfawcsu/f
OD;awcsuf/ rSefrSefuefuefeef@ awmfvSefwdkufckdufuwfaw// aemufqHk; trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;.
ydu
k rf w
S t
f a&muf csw
D ufvmuwfaw? vGwv
f yf&;D atmifayG;udk qifEEJG ikd u
f wfaw?
ig&h @kd &cdik af cgi;f aqmif&@kd rmum; trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f a=umif;udk *&krpdu
k /f t"durxm;/
cH,cl su/f &yfawcsu/f OD;awcsurf jywfom;/ awGa0,dr;f ,dik v
f muwfaw// awmifrif;}uD;/ Akv
d cf si;f jyef/
"g;ydik }f u;D / rif;om;}u;D &d@k awmfveS &f ;D udk ordik ;f rSww
f idk t
f +zKd uf rudik af qmifcab; aemufq;kH rm trsKd ;om;
awmfveS &f ;D yku
d rf w
S f aysmufvm;cuwfaw? Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D aemufrm ud,
k t
hf rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D
ratmifjrifab;eef@ 'kw,
d pcef;qifh ajyol@'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D udk ckeaf usmw
f ufvm;uwfaw? Arm
ajyol 'Dru
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D abmifrm a&mygvm;cuwfaw? ArmhtrsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D uavh ,if;Arm
abmifrma&mygvm;cpGma& t,ifuav;a&m t*kav;a&m/ a&mygzefrsm;au ud,
k ahf bmifurkd jrif
Edik u
f wf,m// Arm/ csi;f / ucsi/f o#r;f acgi;f aqmif&@kd a& yifvpkH mcsKyfrcsKyfqrkd D rdr&d @kd ajyeef@ trsK;d om;&d@k t
wGuf tmrcHcsuu
f &kd [datmif }uKd ;pm;cuwfaw// 1947 ck/ azazmf0g&D 6 &uf/ rGe;f vGJ 2 em&D cGt
J csed rf m
yifv+kH rdK@rmusi;f ya& o#r;f eef@ucsif aumfrwDtap;ta0;. qH;k jzwfcsuif g;csuf tcdik t
f rmcsrw
S f
xm;cuwfaw//
yxrwcsurf m jrefrm&d@k eef@ tqift
h wef; tcGit
hf &D;/ wef;wl&ydik cf iG [
hf &d ;D / wef;wl'rD u
kd a&pD
usus cHpm;cGi[
hf &d ;D / yOPrwcsurf m vGwv
f yf&;D &[d+yD;a&aemuf jrefrmajyaxmifprk S u|Eykf &f @kd tcsed rf
&D;G cGx
J u
G cf iG [
hf ad rqdak & tcsuw
f u
d kd tmrcHcsu&f atmif }udK;yrf;uwfaw// azazmf0g&v
D 7 &ufed
5 764

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
rd;k axmuf 9 em&Dtcsed rf m yifv+kH rKd @rm usi;f ya& csi;f / ucsi/f o#r;f yl;awG;aumfrwD. qH;k jzwfcsuu
f akd =uh
1?(u) o#r;f / ucsi/f csi;f / ud,
k pf m;vS,w
f yd g0ifa& awmifwef;om;&d@k ap;vH;k nDnw
G &f ;D tr_aqmif aumfr
wDw&yfukd azG@ap;awaxmif&ar// 4if;tr_aqmifaumfrwDrm awmifwef;om;&d@k eef@ jrefrm ajytpd;k &&d@k
t=um;rm ay:ayguo
f r#aom ay:vpDqidk &f mudpP tm;vH;k eef@pyfvsOv
f @dk tqH;k tjzwfy;D Edik af & tm%m
tajyh tpH[
k &d ar? (ul;/ abmf/ vS/ rsK;d / ajyaxmifpk jrefrmEdik if 0H if pmcsKyfpmwrf;rsm; 1968-ckEu
d_ f
247/ 248/ 249)// ,if;aemuf Armud,
k pf m;vS,&f @kd eef@ “awmifwef;om;&dk@ ap;vHk;nDnGwf &D;t
azG@’’ (wpnz)eef@ azazmf0g&D 12 &uferd m yifvpHk mcsKyfukd csKyfqu
kd wfaw// ,if;pmcsKyf csKyfq+kd yD;
rS&m csi;f / ucsi/f o#r;f &du
k Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D awmif;qdck suu
f kd axmufcu
H wfaw// ,auavh txufazmf
jyyg qH;k jzwfcsu&f @kd u ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGihf (Self-identity)jywfjywfom;om; azmfxw
k jf yoxm;a&// 20
&mpkyxrydik ;f &ckid af cgi;f aqmif&@kd rm ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiu
hf kd wcgacsavh w&m;0ifajymqdpk mG udrk wd@G c&//
aemufu,m;ajyuavh ol&@dk u,
dk yf idk jf yXmef;cGiu
hf dk ajyaxmifpjk refrmEkid if aH wmf azG@ap;tkycf sKyfyt
Hk ajccH
Oya'rm twdtusaz:xkwx
f m;a&? u&iftrsK;d om;&k@dk qadk u 1948-ck azaz:&Dv 5/ 6/ 7-&ufrm
nDvmcHobif}uD; usi;f y+yD;au u&ifu,
dk yf idk f jyXmef;cGiu
hf &dk [dv@dk ? &ckid af jyum; uk,
d yf idk jf yXmef;cGiehf ef@
tcsKyftcsmtm%mykid q
f idk rf _ qk;H eDpmG a& ESpaf ygi;f 200 [dz@dk &m? 18-&mpk ukv
d edk u
D |eb
f 0ok@d trsK;d om;
ap;vk;H nD!w
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f mpGm 19-&mpkwav#muf
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d yf idk jf yXmef;
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ArmvufatmufcH &ckid af jy+zdKufvma&? u|eyf ek ;f ukv
d edk ED idk if H +zdKufvm&a&? ,if;a=umifh csi;f / ucsi/f
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aumif;,m// uk,
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tm%mukd atmifjrifpmG csrw
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vltazG@tap;w&yfrm uk,
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D ESpw
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f rsK;d om;rm tem*wfr[dEidk ?f a'eD &ckid t
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qdwo
f Ok ;f &zk@d ? &ckid v
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H Ekid if rH m Ekid if &H ;D twGuf
rSm;au xkEd idk if .
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f rkid ;f ukd *&krpku
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oluef 0g'0ifvma& &ckid af jyrm ,if;ykid +f zKdu&f a&? t*ktcgrmqkad u &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D ygw&D @kd rm pdu
k &f ;D
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58

65

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
vk;H yg;yg;vma&? trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D twGuf ap;&k;H &D;vky&f zk@d umvrm 0HomEkvyk if ef;wd vkyaf qmif&zk@d
tcsed u
f mvrm awmfveS &f ;D r&ifu
h suab;eef@ ajyol'rD u
dk a&pDawmfveS &f ;D ukd ,if;20-&mpkyxrykid ;f &ckid f
awmfveS &f ;D wd vkyyf u
dk cf vk@d awmfveS &f ;D om; acsmvm;&a&? 1949-ckEpS af vmufrm Armajy uGejf rLE_u
d yf g
wDu OD;aqmif+yD;au ajyol'rD u
dk a&pD nDnw
G &f ;D wyfaygi;f pk A[kad p;&k;H &D;aumfrwD azG@ap;vku
d af w?
,if;ap;&k;H &D;atmufrm &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D ygwD yg0ifvcjyefa&? &ckid af jytwGi;f rmavh ajyol'rD u
dk a&
pDwyfaygi;f pk ay:ayguv
f ma&? yvuf0/ ausmufjzL/ oHawG;c&kid &f @dk rm &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D wyfaygi;f pku
odr;f vku
d jf yefa&? pdu
k af wG+rKd@uadk yvk@d pdu
k af wGwckv;Hk ukad vh odr;f vku
d jf yefa&? 1950-ckrmqkad u pdu
k f
awG+rK@d rt
S y wajyvk;H ukd &ckid af wmfveS &f ;Fd ygww
D d odr;f yku
d v
f u
dk af w? &ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D +zKu
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uk,
d yf idk jf yXmef;cGirhf t
l wGuf tcsKyt
f csmtm%mtwGuf a&;a&;awmufawmuf wku
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d f
aw? u&ifajy u&iftrsK;d om;twGuf tcGit
hf &D;wd rSerf eS u
f efuef awmif;qkd wku
d af yG;0ifew
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,if;ykid t
f csed rf m &ckid af jyrm &ckid af cgi;f aqmif&@dk u ygwD 3-4 ckeef@ ajyol@'rD u
dk a&pDawmfveS &f ;D ukd
ArmXmecsKyfo;D oD;&d@k . nGe=f um;csut
f wdik ;f a&;a&;awmufawmuf wku
d af yG;0ifaewke;f +zKduaf w?
aemufwcku ygupd w
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P efuv
k m;wdu tpPvefbmom&D;ukd tajc
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< m
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,if;awmfveS &f ;D ygwrD m “rl*sm['f”ygwv
D @dk emarcHa&? &ckid u
f adk &m ukvm;ukyd g ESyd pf ufapmfum;a&//

rl*sm[d'af cgi;f aqmif “umqdrf;”rmqk
ad u r,lurf;/ r*Fvm}uD;awmifrm cHwyf}uD;aqmufv@dk &$o
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&zlaqmif;jy;D au &m*smbG@J ucdk aH & aemufr*l sm[d'f ya'o&ku
d af wmfveS &f ;D ysupf ;D vm;ca&? umqdraf v;
ygupd w
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H wfjzwfjcif;ukcd v
H &D a&? &ckid af jywyfaygi;f
pkav; Armajyuwyfaygi;f pk+ydKuGaJ &cg +ydKuGjJ yefa&// &cdik rf if;tqufquf ydik q
f ikd x
f m; cor#aeajrwdudk
vufvw
G cf &a&// aemufq;Hk rm acgi;f aqmiftcsi;f csi;f ruku
d v
f @dk Arma&;abmftrsm;tjym; oDq;Hk c&a&?
usK;d uef;ysupf ;D uwfvaD &? vlr&l ;D / pD;yGm;&D;usqif;vmca&? ,if;eef@ 1985-ckrm usev
f u
dk u
f wfaw
rl*sm[d'f t=uiG ;f tusew
f u
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dk u
f wfaw? 1958-ckrm q&mawmfO;D pdEmN . “ajyol@
vGwfajrmuf&D;ygwD” Adv
k }f uD;=umvSatmif&@kd OD;aqmifa& “ajyhol@a&;abmfygwD’’ a&;eD AHak yguo
f m
ausm&f @kd acgi;f aqmifa& “tvHeDygwD”trsm;pk/ ArmajyuGejf rLEdu
_ yf gw0D if trsm;pk&@kd zqyv tpd;k &
yg;rm tvif;0ifvu
dk u
f wfaw// awmwGi;f rmqdak u ArmajyuGejf rLEdu
_ yf gwD (&cdik w
f ikd ;f )eef@ tvHeyD gwD
csK@d &@kd &m usev
f u
kd u
f wfaw// rl*sm['f t=uGi;f tusew
f u
d av; vufeufcsvu
kd u
f wfaw//


566
9

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

tcef ; (5)
uWef ; yk e f ; cd k u f
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20-&mpk 'kw,
d ydik ;f od@k a&mufawtcg &cdik v
f @l rt
_ azG@tap;a& ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiehf ef@ tcsKyf
tcsmtm%mydik q
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hf @l rt
_ azG@tap;.
&kyv
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vuQ%m+zdKuf aw/ ap;urf;rJjh cif;/ pkaygi;f vkyu
f ikd rf a_ e;yg;jcif;/ woD;yk8v
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k rf rDjcif;qdak &
raumif;r_wad jyheaD &? txufuatmufut
kd Edik cf jH cif;/ ajympGmud*k &krpdu
k jf cif;/ trsm;qENu*kd &krpdu
k f
jcif;qdak & AsL&du
k a&pDq;kd wdajyheaD &? ap;urf;rvdu
k ef mjcif;/ trde@f tm%mudk *&krpdu
k jf cif;qdak & rif;arh
0g'. vuQ%mqd;k wdajyheaD &? cH,cl su/f &yfawcsu/f OD;awcsuef ef@ ud,
k &f yk ef ef@uu
kd n
f aD & oabm
w&m;udrk udik pf b
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k t
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&if;om;t+zdKufp&k ;kH +yD; &ckid af jyEdik if u
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60

67

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
uwfoda&// ,if;ydkiftedXm&Hkwd ajyheDa&// EdkifiHjcm;om;wOD;u wdkif;&if;om;t+zdKufcH,l+yD;aemuf
ud,
k cf ,
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k pf mapmifh &a&// ,if;Edik if o
H m;rsm;eef@ qd;k twlaumifzufc&H a&// t,ifu
ud,
k rf cd ifEikd if t
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kd ef aD & Edik if t
H usKd ;,kwpf zD @kd tvkyv
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H kd
odu
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f yk if ef;qd;k wdav;ajyeh aD &// &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;rSmavh trsKd ;om;&D;udk
udik pf &JG zd@k tpm; vlrsK;d &D;udu
k ikd pf x
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k efeu
D wfoad &?
awmfveS &f ;D pcef;vGerf a_ & tqd;k qH;k +zKd ufaw? &cdik t
f rsK;d om;udk &cdik af jyrmqdwo
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G &f ;D eef@
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k rf w
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ajyudk tqH;k owfe&D a&vd@k rSwcf sucf s&zd@k +zKd uaf w// *kyikd t
f +zKd ut
f ysuq
f ;kd wd ajyeh aD &ydik f tcsed t
f cgr[kwf
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f ck+zKd ufeaD &// ,if;tjyif awmfveS &f ;D
pcef;vGerf a_ =umifh rdwzf ufywdyuQeef@ &efbufywdyuQ ruGjJ ym;+zKd uv
f m;c&a&// trsKd ;om;ap;&k;H &D; vkyrf &
+zdKufe&D a&// trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D u &ckid +f rDo#iyf a'o&du
k u
f kd rdwzf ufywdyuQ/ aecs@J ,id_ af us;r_ukd
&efbufywdyuQv@kd csvma&tcg vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D u 'kw,
d pcef;qifv
h yk af e;twdik ;f &cdik yf a'o
&du
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auavh aecs@J qef@usi&f ;D twGuf &cdik t
f csi;f csi;f nDnw
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rwdu
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tac:cHvw
l u
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pm;av;&yfukd ap;vH;k ,la&tcg vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D u vlwef;pm; E_u
d w
f ef;pm;udak p;vH;k vd@k useEf u
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f rsKd ;om;wmfveS &f ;D twGuf ap;vH;k nDnw
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aemufpcef;vGeo
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f rdik ;f / &cdik ,
f ikd af us;r_/ &cdik v
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hf ifa&eD&mrm+zdKuf+zdKuf/ wdu
k af yG;0ifeu
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a'umvrmY.M.B.Acdu
6 68
1

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
&d@k (0g)zqyv &cdik w
f ikd ;f acgi;f aqmif&@kd tax;u trsm;pk&@kd rm ajyoleef@uif;vGwpf mG udk wd@G &a&// ,if;
acgi;f aqmiftcsKd @rm &ckid af jyudk pGe@f yu
kd x
f m;c,m+zdKufaw// wcsKd @rm vlxq
k ef@usirf u
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vm;c&a&// ajyolou
kd pf mazmuf p&if;0ifwv
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k @Gd &a&//
awmwGi;f acgi;f aqmif&@kd rmum;/ ygww
D iG ;f wku
d af yG;/ wyfaygi;f pkwiG ;f wdu
k af yG;/ +rKd@ord ;f wdu
k f
ayG;udk qifaEG;uwf+y;D au vufeufcs tvif;0ifuwfawtcgrm ajyoleef@uif;uGmvm;pGmudw
k @Gd &a&?
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a&G;aumufayG;Edik ef aD &// &wntazG@eef@ xdyw
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d @kd rpm;om,m+zdKufvm;ca&// &wnum;
&ckid yf gvrD eftrwfwd xlaxmifvu
kd af wtazG@+zdKufaw// 1951-ckrm ajyaxmifpo
k rw jrefrmEdik if H
awmfrm 'kw,
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k si;f ya&// ,if;tcgu 1947-ck yxrt}udrf
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f rwfwd t&D;G cHc&a&// ,if;trwfwu
d “&ckid af jy ygvrD eftrwf rsm;t
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“&cdkifajyvHk;qdkif&m wkdif;&if;om; nDnGwf&D;tazG@csKyf(&wn)”
&wn)”udk 0wDav;&yfv;kH qdik &f m nDvmcH
}u;D u azG@ap;vdu
k af w// &wn. r[mAsL[mrm a'otvku
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k yf ikd t
f yk cf sKy&f ;D (Regional Autonomal) +zdKufaw// ae;AsL[mrm ygvr
D efwiG ;f wdu
k af yG;0ifz@kd yif+zdKufaw// &wnudk OD;ausmrf if;f / OD;b+rdKif/
OD;armifausmZf pH a& wdik ;f &if;om;rsKd ;csKu
d /f ajycsKu
d f "eo#i/f ynmwwf "eo#iaf ygupf &d@k u OD;aqmifc
auavh trsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH udk Edik if &H ;D oabmw&m;w&yfukd csrw
S +f yD;au ydik yf ikd Ef ikd Ef ikd rf pkap;Edik cf //
&cdik &f yk b
f 0eef@uu
kd n
f aD & trsK;d om;&D;udk a=uG;a=umfcvd@k vlxak xmufcrH u
_ kd vdu
_ v
f u
_d v
f v
JS JS &[dEidk f
cpGm&m+zdKufaw// &wnay:ayguv
f m+yD;au &ckid af jyrm ajyaev_yo
f #m;&D;/ trsK;d om;&D; v_yo
f #m;&D;/
,dik af us;r_vy_ o
f #m;&D; tpysKd ;vma&// trsKd ;om;&D; v_yo
f #m;r_t&yf&yfrm Armaecs@J &@kd eef@ trsK;d om;&D;
abmif cGv
J muwfaw//

&cd k i f h t Ek y nmig;&yf N zd K uf a w

(1) ud;k auGrq
_ ikd &f m ,dik af us;r_/
(2) bmom pmyDqikd &f m ,dik af us;r_/
(3) okcrk tEkynmqkid &f m ,dik af us;r_/
(4) qif,if xH;k azG@rq
_ ikd &f m ,dik af us;r_/
(5) ydou
k mqdik &f m ,dik af us;r_ pa& &ckid t
hf rsKd ;om;vuQ%m t&yf&yf&@kd uakd vh wqufquf
ay:xGuv
f muwfaw//
62

69

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&ckid &f aD eqef/ &cdik t
f wfzavmf&q
D ef@ (Arakan renaissance and Rakhine afflorercance
) vkyv
f muwfaw// at'D 1788-ckrm &cdik v
hf uQ%mt&yf&yfukd Armbk&ifarmif0ikd ;f u tptqH;k zsuf
ydu
k cf a&avmufuyif wdraf umqdwo
f ek ;f vm;c&pGm t*ktcgrm wqdwaf uavmuf tnGe@f wuf
cGi&hf vma&// ajyolw&yfv;kH uavh tm;wwfoa&m yg0ifvy_ &f mS ;vmuwfaw// &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;&D;udk *&kr
pdu
k u
f wfab; pcef;vGerf S (Nibiliats) ty tm;vH;k &cdik t
f rsKd ;om; wd;k wd;k wdu
k w
f u
dk f vufcv
H muwfaw?
ajyaev_y&f mS ;&D;udk &wn uygvrD efrmS wdu
k af yG;0ifa&// ArmoHCmhor*~ aomwk*eftazG@csKyf &ckid af jy
trsKd ;om;wyfaygi;f pk (&rnw)&d@k uavh Oya'wGi;f wku
d af yG;rsKd ;pHek ef@ wdu
k af yG;0ifuwfaw// &rnw
a& 1958-ck ajyolvGwfajrmuf&D;ygwD/ tvHeDuGefjrLEd_ufygwD0iftrsm;pk/ ArmajyuGefjrLEd_ufygwD
0iftrsm;pk&@kd tvif;0if+yD;aemuf Oya'wGi;f rm azG@ap;vm&a& tazG@+zdKufaw// vlwef;pm;tod[ad &
wd;k wufawtazG@wck+zKd uaf w// awmfveS &f ;D pcef; tqifw
h qifq
h w
k v
f ma&// yk*Kd~ vw
f x
d al xmifvu
kd af w
tazG@tap;wckavh+zdKufaw// &wneef@ vufw@Gd wu
kd af yG;0ifv@kd “wdkif&if;om;vlaitazG@”[da&/
&rnweef@ vufw@Gd wu
kd af yG;0ifv@kd “wdk;wufvlaitazG@” [da&// &rnw acgi;f aqmifpek ef@ &wn
acgi;f aqmif&@kd rm cH,cl su/f &yfawcsu/f ,Hak =uhcsu/f OD;awcsu/f a&a&Gcsu&f @kd t& uGjJ ym;r_[ad &// vuf0/J
vuf,mtoGiu
f kd toD;oD;aqmifeu
D wfaw// ,if;ydik u
f mG jcm;r_[ad uavh a'wcgrmum; ig&h @kd acgi;f
aqmif&@kd a& vuf0/J vuf,m t"durwifxm;uwfab; “ajyae&,l&;D ’’
’’udk t"duwifxm; uwf+yD;
au twlwuG yl;aygi;f aumfrwDazG@v@kd tvkyv
f yk af qmifuwfaw// r[moHCmhor*~u
D m; em,utazG@
teDeef@ tppt&m&mrm }u;D rSL;yD;ca&// ,if;eef@Zk ygvrD efwiG ;f jyifwu
kd af yG;&d@k rm xGe;f ajymifca&// ,if;ydik f
v_y&f mS ;r_&@kd tzufzufu wd;k wufvma&twGuf a'cdu
k u
f dk &cdik 0f o
H mEkcu
kd f (0g) &cdik t
f rsK;d om; ap;&H;k &D;
cdu
k v
f @kd owfrw
S Ef idk af &// 'kw,
d urBmpdu
k rf +zKd ufcifu &ckid w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m wdik ;f &if;om;tap;tvH;k acwf
rmavh 0HomEkcu
kd w
f cdu
k f +zdKufay:eDca&twGuw
f ma=umifh &ckid af jyrm xl;xl;jcm;jcm; &ckid 0f o
H mEkcu
kd f
E_u
d cf u
kd f +zdKufay:eDca&// ,if;eef@Zk yxr0HomEkcu
kd /f 'kw,
d 0HomEkcu
kd v
f @kd owfrw
S &f zd@k yif+zdKufaw//
'kw,
d urBmpdu
k }f u;D *syefawmfveS &f ;D / +Aw
d o
d #awmfveS &f ;D &d@k ukd tav;xm;+y;D au wzufwcsurf m *syef0H
omEkcu
kd af [mif;eef@ cdu
k o
f pfv@kd ay:xGe;f uwfpmG &ckid o
hf rdik ;f rm xl;jcm;csuyf if+zdKufaw// yxr&cdik 0f H
omEkcu
kd af & Arm0HomEkcu
kd .
f =oZmruif;pGmudk ,if;cdu
k u
f pmtkypf mwrf;wd/ rSwpf w
k /d a[majym
csuw
f /d v_y&f mS ;r_wu
d kd avhvmokawoejyKvkyaf u aumif;aumif;odomEdik af &// jywfjywfa0zef&zd@k qkd
au ,if;0HomEkcu
kd af [mif;a& &ckid rf /l &ckid [
f efukd omreft+zKd uf vspv
f sLjyKcpGmudw
k @Gd &a&// txl;ojzifh
ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiu
hf kd t"durxm;ab; vkyaf qmifcuwfpmG udw
k @Gd &a&// 'kw,
d 0HomEkcu
kd rf m txufu
wifjyca&twdik ;f ta&twGuu
f ta&tcsi;f od@k wqufquf/ wufvrS ;f vmuwfpmG udw
k @Gd &a&// &[ef;
oHCmh / ausmif;om;/ vl}u;D / vlai/ trsK;d om;/ trsK;d orD;/ vuf0/J vuf,m/ crD;/ ouf/ +rKd / csi;f / r&mrm}u;D /
'dik ;f euf/ rcGjJ cm;ab; tm;vH;k ap;ap;vH;k vH;k / v_y&f mS ;vmpGmudw
k @Gd &a&// txl;ojzifh &ckifd t
f rsKd ;om;
673 0

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
awmfveS &f ;D udk OD;awv_y&f mS ;eDa&twGi;f ud,
k yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiehf ef@ tcsKyftcsmtm%mtwGuf v_y&f mS ;
vmr_a=umif+h zdKufaw// xl;jcm;a&cdu
k o
f pf+zdKufaw//
Edik if w
H Edik if .
H 0HomEkcu
kd af & trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . ywdoaE< aweDa&tcsed rf m+zdKufaw//
awmfveS cf &H zk@d aecs@J 0rf;wGi;f ax;rSm trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D ywdoaE< qG,
J jl cif;+zKd ufaw// a'0HomEkcu
kd f
ywdoaE<umvud,
k rf /l ud,
k [
hf ef+zKd uzf @kd t&D;}u;D a&// trsKd ;om;pdw/f Edik if &H ;D pdwf Ed;k =um;vmzd@k t&D;}u;D a&?
,if;ydik +f zKd uEf idk cf au ,if;ydik rf Ed;k =um;Ekid cf au awmfveS &f ;D orm; av#mv
h m;wwfaw// awmfveS &f ;D wydik ;f
olyek af x;cif;wydik ;f (0g) bHrk [kwf ywfr[kwf awmfveS &f ;D rsK;d +zKd uv
f m;wwfaw// ud,
k &hf yk w
f &m;udk rudik f
pGaJ b; wyg;aemufvu
kd f awmfveS &f ;D vkyaf u ,if;awmfveS &f ;D wyfrm cg;ydu
k af qmiftar#mifwyf +zKd uv
f m;
&a&// ig&h @kd .yxr0HomEkcu
kd rf m ta&tajy0h r&ifu
h suaf b;eef@ 'kw,
d urBmph u
kd }f u;D udk &ifqikd v
f u
kd &f a&?
zufqw
d *f syefaeacs@ukd awmfveS v
f u
kd &f a&// +Adwo
d #aeacs@ukd awmfveS v
f u
kd &f a&// ,if;aemuf +Adwo
d #
udv
k ekd b
D 0u Armhuv
kd edk u
D |eyf ek ;f +zdKufvm;&a&// ,if;a=umifh Armaecs@J uw
kd cg qef@usiv
f m&a&?
a'umvrmqdak u 0HomEkcu
kd o
f u
kd f xGe;f um;vma&// ,if;uwcg trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D udk OD;awvm
&a&// trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D +y;D rS&m vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D wufvrS ;f &zd@k yif+zKd uaf w// urBmyh apP;arh acgi;f
aqmif}uD;&d@k uav; trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D r[dau qdak csvpfawmfveS &f ;D r+zdKufEikd v
f @kd twdtusqkd
xm;a&// &ckid 0hf efomEkcu
kd rf m aemufx;l jcm;csuw
f csu[
f o
d ad &/ ,if;tcsuu
f m; +rKd @xufOya'wGi;f rm
ajyaev_yo
f #m;&D;+zdKufay:eD&a&tcg awmwGi;f rm vlwef;pm;v_yo
f #m;&D; +zdKufeo
D ad &// atv_yo
f #m;
r_Eu
d_ cf ak & xdyw
f u
dk +f ydKifqidk v
f m&a&// wbufrm zqyv ta,Smiform;wdu “Armajyaxmifpk”
pdw"f gwef ef@ rdi_ ;f csvmuwfaw// aecs@J eef@u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd D &ckid af jyol&@kd t=um;[d trsK;d om;ywdyuQukd
zH;k auGz@kd }uKd ;pm;uwfaw// awmwGi;f ygw&D @kd uav; a'oapG;pdw/f ygwaD pG;pdwu
f kd &uf&ufpufpuf ukid x
f m;
+y;D au trsK;d om;ywdyuQukd r_e0f g;pDca&// aecs@J &@kd uwcg ukvm;Armt"du&ke;f udk zefw;D +y;D au &ckid af jy
olnn
D w
G &f ;D udk +zKd cyJG u
kd zf @kd }uKd ;pm;vmoda&// ,if;jy\ema& &ckid v
hf rl t
_ azG@tap;rSm aumif;aumif;}u;D
taESmift
h ,Suyf ;D ca&// *kyikd t
f csed rf sKd ;rm 1958-ck Armtpd;k & tm%m& zqyvtazG@csKyf +yKd uGv
J ma&?
Ek/ wif/ oef@/ vdi_ f zqyv eef@ aqG/ +ird ;f (zqyv)vd@k E_u
d jf crf;uGv
J m;a&// &ckid zf qyvuav; vdu
k v
f @kd uJG
a&// “Ekwifuajyaxmifpyk gw’D ’’(yxp)vd@k azG@vu
dk af w// &ckid u
f avh yxpvd@k ay:vmjyefa&// qdik ;f bkwf
teDt0g/ xrdet
f eDt0g/ trsKd ;rsKd ;ajymif;uwfaw// ygvrD efwiG ;f rm OD;baqGu OD;Ektpd;k &udk t,Ht
k
a=ur[d tqdo
k iG ;f a&tcg aqG+ird ;f trwfrJ 100 &eDa&// OD;Ek. Ek/ wif (zqyv) rJ 50 &m&a&? yrnw
rJ 45 rJ@eef@ woD;yk*v
~ rJ 26 rJ/ (&wn)rJ 6 rJaygi;f 77 rJu 0ifuv
l u
dk v
f @kd OD;Ekqufvuftm%mjrv
J m;
a&? ,if;tcg ajyae&,l&;D twGuf o#r;f / csi;f / ucsi/f u&if/ u,m;/ rGe/f trwf&@kd rsuaf rSmufrm &ckid f
ajyae oabmwlncD suu
f kd OD;Ekeef@ &wn trwf&@kd vufrw
S x
f ;kd xm;uwfaw// oHawG;/ ausmufjzL/
pdu
k af wG/ oH;k c&dik v
f ;kH rm ajyaeqENjyrJwd tk@H t@kH / ususf u+f zKd ufvma&// 1960-ckrm (yxp)rJtjywfEikd v
f @kd
OD;Ektpd;k & xyfrw
H ufvma&// &ckid af jyrmav; &wntazG@tap; tjywftowfEikd v
f @kd ajyaev_y&f mS ;
64

71

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&D;rm wd;k wufwifw
h if;vma&// {+yv
D 5-&ufrm 0ef}u;D csKyfO;D Eku tpd;k &rl0g'udw
k ifjya&tcgrm “ouf
qdkif&m wkdif;&if;om;awG&J@pdwfrm ajyaevdkcsifwJhpdwf wu,hfEd_ufE_dufcgcg &dS=uw,fqdk&if
&ckdifjy,faeESifh rGefajyaeudk pDpOfay;yghr,f// u|efawmfwdk@ uwday;zl;ygw,f// 'Drdkua&pDae;
ESifhtnDav;aumif;/ a'otwGif;aexdkif=uwJh ajyolvlxktwGuf at;at;csrf;csrf;/ cspfcspf
cif c if / aysmf a ysmf & G i f & G i /f tusd K ;&d S & d S +zd K uf a prnf h enf ; ES i f h t nD v nf ; aumif ; / ouf q k d i f & m
wkdif;&if;om; ajyolvlxk&J@ wu,fhqENudk od&atmif jyK+yD;wJhaemuf od&wJhtcsufudkrlwnf+yD;
uwdtwdkif; tapmqHk;pDrHaqmif&Gufay;ygr,f? oufqdkif&mjynfolvlxk&J@ qENudkodatmif
jyKrlwJhudpPrm jyKyHkjyKenf;udkowfrSwf+yD; u|efawmfwdk@rm oufqkdif&m acgif;aqmifrsm;ESifh
wdik yf ifygr,f” ajyaeopfrsm; xlaxmify;D &D;udpu
P kd wifjyvm;ca&// &cdik af jyae/ rGeaf jyae xlaxmif&;D
twGuf 0ef}uD;csKyf. ajyaexlaxmif&;D aumfr,Siu
f kd azG@ap;+yD;au tajctaet&yf&yfukd pHpk rf;a&?
ArmEdik if H tajccHOya'udjk yifqifz@kd &ckid t
f rwfwd }udK;pm;uwfaw// ,if;ydik t
f cgrm 0ef}uD;&mxl;udpP
a=umihf &wneef@tazG@uGJ&a&// ODb}udKiftkyfpk/ OD;ausmf+idrf;tkyfpkvdk@ ay:aygufvma&// 1962-ck/
azazmf0g&v
D 25 &uferd m o#r;f ajyawmif}uD;+rdK@rm ajyvH;k u|wn
f v
D mcHu tawjyKcsut
f & o#r;f
ajyuwifoiG ;f a& ajyaxmifpjk refrmEkid if H azG@ap;tkycf sKyyf t
kH ajccHOya' jyifqif&;D pmwrf; xGuaf y:vma&/
“z'&,fvrf ”l vd@k trsm;ac:wGiaf &// vuf[ad jyaxmifp.
k azG@ap;tkycf sKyfyt
kH ajccHOya'rm ajyaeeef@
vlrsKd ;pktwGuf wef;wlnrD #&;D twGuf vHak vmufpmG jyXmef;xm;jcif; r[da&twGuaf =umifh ajyaeeef@
k pf u
kd rf ”l eef@ jyefvjD yKjyif&;D qGzJ @kd atz'
vlrsKd ;pk wef;wlnrD #pzD @kd twGuf tajccHOya'udk “ajyaxmifpk pdu
&,fru
l kd wifjyvm&a&//

,if ; rl r m

(1) ArmajyaeazG@ap;&D;/
(2) ajyaxmifpk ygvrD efvw
G af wmf 2-ckukd tm%mwly;D &D;/
(3) vlrsKd ;pkvw
G af wmfo@kd ajyaewdik ;f u nDr#a&ud,
k pf m;vS,v
f w
$ &f ;D /
(4) A[dak jyaxmifpt
k m; atmufygXmeudv
k t
J$ yf+yD; use[
f ad &/ tm%mrsm;eef@ tcGit
hf &D;
wdukd ajyaersm;od@k vt
J$ yf&ef?
(u) Edik if jH cm;qufq&H ;D ?
(c) ajyaxmifpu
k mauG&;D ?
(*) ajyaxmifpb
k ¾m&D;?
(C) aiG'*F g;eef@ aiGpuULxkwv
f yk &f ;D ?
(i) pmwdu
k ef ef@ a=u;eef;qufaoG&;D ?
675 2

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
(p) rD;&xm;vrf;/ &Dvrf;a=umif; qufaoGEidk &f ;D ?
(q) ajyaxmifpk w&m;pD&if&;D ?
(Z) yifavqdyu
f rf; tcGeaf umuf&;D ?
(ps) ajyaxmifpk b¾mawmfukd r#wpGm cGaJ 0&D;&d@k +zdKufaw//
a'awmif}uD;nDvmcHo@kd OD;armifO;D ausm/f OD; omxGe;f OD;/ udo
k mausm(f AHak ygu)f pol&@kd wufcu
D wfaw?
,if;o#r;f rl (0g)ajyaxmifppk u
kd pf u
kd rf u
l kd wifjyvku
d af wtcg Armaecs@J &@kd zdzw
d ek v
f y_ v
f m;cuwfaw//
vlrsKd ;}u;D 0g'[da& Armwkid ;f / ArmajyaeazG@z@kd pmG udk r}uKd uu
f wf/ ajyaxmifppk w
d "f gwu
f kd wGiw
f iG }f u;D [du
k f
atmfeaD &// Armaecs@J &@kd u ajyaxmifppk u
kd pf u
kd rf u
l kd vH;k 0raxmufcEH idk u
f wf// vlrsKd ;}uD;acsmifyikd 0f g'udk
udik af pG;xm;a&// Armhwyfrawmfqakd u vH;k 0rcHEikd /f / ,if;a=umihf o#r;f rlukd ta=umif;jy+yD;au 1962ckrwfv 23 &ufecd g Adv
k cf sKyfae0if;acgi;f aqmifa& Armhwyfrawmfu tm%modr;f ydu
k v
f u
kd af w// o#r;f
acgi;f aqmiftm;vH;k udak vh zrf;csKyfvu
kd af w// &ckid 0f ef}uD; OD;b}udKifudkavh zrf;csKyfvu
kd af w// 1962-ck/
rwfv 2 &uferd m &ckid af jya& Armzufqw
d af ecs@J . u|e;f yke;f udv
k ekd b
D 0od@k a&mufvm;&jyefa&// &ckid f
ajyum; vH;k 0udv
k ekd +D zKd uv
f @kd &cdik t
f rsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D eef@ &ckid v
f w
G v
f yf&;D udk t&,lz@kd yif+zKd uaf w// vGwf
vyf&;D qdpk mG a& trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . atmifayG;&m vGwv
f yf&;D +zdKufaw// pdu
k t
f m%m&Sif Adv
k cf sKyf
ae0if;u awmfveS &f ;D aumifpu
D kd azG@ap;vku
d af w// jrefrmqdak csvpfvrf;pOfygwD (rqv)udk xlaxmifvu
kd f
aw/ &ckid af jyudw
k ikd ;f cGJ 13 vd@k owfrw
S v
f u
kd af w// &efuek w
f ikd ;f vH+k cHK&D;eef@ tkycf sKyfra_ umfrwD (wvu)
,if;aemuf evu/ rvu/ &vu tqifq
h ifah zG@+yD;au tkycf sKyfaw// jrefrmae;/ jrefrm[efeef@ qkad cs
vpfpEdu
_ o
f @kd csw
D ufuwfaw// wwd,awmfveS &f ;D pcef;qifo
h @kd csw
D ufeu
D wfpmG yif+zKd ufaw// &ckid u
f ,
kd f
ydkifjyXmef;cGiu
hf kd *&krpdu
k u
f wfab; &cdik v
f }l u;D wd rqvygwu
D kd 0ifvm;uwfjyefa&// u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd b
D 0rm
aw[deaD & &ckid af jytm%mudk pdu
k t
f m%meef@ qdak csvpfpcef;od@k a&mufatmif Armaemufucsyd +f y;D au
armif;ESiu
f wfjyefa&// zufqw
d 0f g'&D @kd a& &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;v_y&f mS ;&D;udk yku
d pf yd w
f u
kd v
f u
kd v
f @kd ESrd Ef iS ;f eDa&//
1967-ck =o*kwv
f 13 &uferd m pdu
k af wGqENjyayG;}u;D udk pdu
k v
f ufeufeef@ ajyol@tiwfxu
k kd ydu
k cf wfv@kd
twH;k t&H;k oDq;kH &a&// trSeaf jym&zd@k qakd u a'umvrm &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;ap;&H;k &D; ydrk &kd ifu
h suv
f ma&//
zdErdS pf mG jyif;xefoavmuf wGe;f uefpmG avh jyif;xefvma&// ,if;ydik w
f u
kd af yG;wGi;f rm&mavh trsKd ;om;
w&yf &ifu
h suv
f mzd@k +zdKufaw//

(c)&cdkiftrsdK;om; awmfvSef&D;ygwD tazGUtap;wd ay:aygufvmjcif;

20-&mpk 'kw,
d ydik ;f od@k a&mufvwfawtcg &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D avmurm ta&tcsi;f ajymif;av;&D;
w&yf+zKd ufay:vma&// trsK;d om;&D;v_y&f mS ;r_ t&yf&yfa=umifh trsKd ;om;&D;pdw"f gw/f awmfveS &f ;D pdw"f gw/f
&ifo
h efvma&// Armaecs@J vuf0cD H "eo#iyf gvrD eftpd;k &wd (zqyvtpd;k &/ yxptpd;k &). 0rf;Adu
k f
ax;rm &cdik 0f o
H mEkpu
kd f ywdoaE< wqufquf&ifrh mvma&// wqifq
h ifah jymif;vJ wd;k wufvmvwfaw?
66

73

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . ap;&H;k &D;umv &if;usuv
f mpGm+zKd uaf w// 1952-cku 1962-ck twd;k twGi;f rm
(0g) &wn tazG@tap;udak zG@v@kd ajyaev_y&f mS ;&D;udpk a& 1962-ck Armzufqw
d af eacs@ ae0if;tpd;k &
tm%modr;f a&// 1962-ck twd;k twGi;f &ckid w
f ajyvH;k v_y&f mS ;&D;rm yg0ifcuwfaw// trSerf m trsKd ;om;
ap;&Hn
k n
D w
G &f ;D twGuf }udK;yrf;cuwfpmG yif+zdKufaw// ,if;umvrm ygvrD efwiG ;f wku
d af yG;a& tqH;k
tjzwf tjzpfq;kH rm[da&// wjcm;v_yo
f #m;r_wu
d m; t+cDteDy;D a& tydik ;f rm[deaD &vd@k trsm;u,lq
uwfaw//
1958-ckrm &ckid af jywGi;f ygw&D @kd tvif;0ifuwf+y;D au xuf/ av/ atmufa&;abmftoD;oD;&d@k
Oya'wGi;f v_y&f mS ;&D;&d@k rm yg0ifaqmif&u
G v
f muwfaw// tm;vH;k yif &ckid t
f rsK;d ;om;&D;udk *&kxm;+y;D au
aqmif&u
G v
f muwfaw// a'umvrm &cdik af jyawmwGi;f t+ct
F eF ajymif;vJvmvwfaw// 1960-ck *|ev
f
10 &uferd m &aohawmif+rdK@aerm ajyol@rsKd ;csKu
d t
f azG@ay:vma&// 1962-ckrm ayguaf wm+rdK@aerm
“&ckdifajyuGefjrLEd_ufygwD” “&uy
“&uy””ay:ayguv
f ma&// a'E_u
d af zG@pvH;k tvHeu
D eG jf rLEdu
_ yf gwD (Arm
ajy)yg;u acG;xGuv
f muwfpmG yif+zdKufaw// a'tazG@Eu
d_ af zG@a& &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;abmifrm &yfawvm
uwfpmG av aumif;aumif;rGejf rwfaw// ,if;E_u
d f rwfv 2 &uferd m ae0if;tpd;k &wufvma&// ,if;tpd;k
a& ajyol@qENt& wifajrmufxm;a& tpd;k &tazG@eef@ ygvrD efuzkd suo
f rd ;f ydu
k v
f u
dk af w// ajAmifvo
l wf
vma&// tm%meef@zEd rdS cf sKyfacsr&_ @kd vkyv
f ma&// ,if;twGuef ef@ a'tpd;k &a& zufqw
d t
f pd;k &+zKd ufaw?
ygvrD efwiG ;f jyif v_y&f mS ;r_qadk u vH;k 0r[dvu
kd ,
f m+zdKufaw// qdwo
f ek ;f vm;c,m+zdKufaw//
a,tcg &cdik rf sK;d csKu
d /f ajycsKu
d f vlaitrsm;pkuvyf azG@ap;+y;D au trsKd ;om;v_y&f mS ;&D;twGuf ae;rsKd ;pHek ef@
}uKd ;pm;vmuwfaw// t,ifawmfveS &f ;D a&;abmfa[mif;&d@k wufval i&d@k tygt0if tm;vH;k csKd @0u
S u
f vyf
ap;wd azG@ap;+y;D au vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ;D twGuf v_y&f mS ;vmuwfaw// ,if;ydik t
f csed rf sKd ;rm trsLd ;
om;pdwjf yif;xefvma& vlaiwcsKd @u tcsed w
f akd wmfveS &f ;D w&yfukd jyKvkyv
f u
kd u
f wfaw? pdwq
f EN
apmr_a=umihf +zdKufay:vma& ,if;awmfveS &f ;D u wrsKd ;om;vH;k udk ausausjyef@jyef@ ap;&H;k v_y&f mS ;zd@k r&
vdu
k af b; &efo.
l vufO;D r_u&kd m cHvm;uwf&a&// vdsK@0u
S af &;abmftrsm;pkrm rouFmr_a=umihf oHo
,eef@eDvmuwf&a&// t"dutpDtpdkifwd aESmifhaES;&yfqdkif;vm;c&a&// *kydkifaygufuGJvm;&pGma&
awmfveS &f ;D oabm t&yf&yfurkd udik pf v
JG @kd ocFe;f pm,l&zd@k yif+zKd ufaw/ a,auavh +rKd @wiG ;f uvyfap;wd
v_y&f mS ;r_um; t[derf avsmh wae;r[kw/f wae;}uKd ;pm;uwfaw// awmwGi;f vufeufuidk f tiftm;pk&@kd
eef@ aqG;aEG;uwfjcif;/ u&if/ rGe/f o#r;f / awmfveS &f ;D tiftm;pkwed ef@ qufaoGjcif;&d@k ukd pGe@f pm;vkyaf qmif
cuwfaw// tpd;k &uif;*wf&@kd / aiGwu
kd &f @kd / 0g,mvuf&;kH &d@k ukd 0ifp;D zd@k tpDtpOfwu
d kd wm0eftvdu
k f
csrw
S x
f m;uwfaw//
,if;ydik pf mG rm taygu0f uif;wyfeef@ ausmufawmf+rKd @ukd 0ifp;D zd@k tpDtpOfwad &// wm0efusa&
tao#miform; wdu
k Of ;D E_u
d Of ;D a=umihf owif;aygu=f um;vm;&a&// *d%
k ;f *%qefa& vuf0u
J |e/f pGe@f pm;
&D;0g'D vlaiwpka=umifah vh rvdv
k m;csuw
f d ay:ayguv
f m;&a&// u&if/ rGe/f o#r;f &d@k eef@ qufaoG&;D rmav;
6774

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
tao#miform; vuf,m0g'w
D csKd @a=umifh uarmufur+zKd ufvm;&a&// a'ydik t
f csut
f vufwad =umifh
&cdik t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D a&;abmftrsm;tjym; tzrf;tqD;cHvm;uwf&a&// ,if;ydik t
f +zdKufq;kd
}uKH }uKd u&f a&tcgrm tcsKd @a&;abmfwd vGwaf jrmufvm;cuwfaw// OuUXt+zKd uf Adv
k }f u;D =umvSatmif/
twGi;f &D;rSL;t+zdKuf a&;abmfxeG ;f a&$0g&@kd u wm0ef,al qmif&u
G u
f wfaw// tdE,
dN u rDZakd wmfveS &f ;D /
&cdik f
em*awmfveS &f ;D eef@ qufaoGuwfaw// +rdK@wiG ;f uvGwaf jrmufvm;a& aemuftiftm;pkwpku “&cd
trsdK;om; vGwfajrmuf&D;wyfOD;” (&vw)emareef@ &aohawmifaeod@k awmcdv
k m;+yD;au “ajyol@
rdsK;csKduftazG@”eef@ yl;aygi;f vdu
k af w// 1962 ck pufwifbmv 9 &uferd m atE_u
d af zG@aygi;f um “&ckdif
ajy trsdK;om;vGwfajrmuf&D;tazG@csKyf” &rvzudk xlaxmifvu
kd u
f wfaw// a'ydik f &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;
awmfveS &f ;D E_u
d af zG@aygi;f Edik u
f wfpmG a& aumif;jrwfaw tvkyw
f ckyif+zdKufaw//

&rv tazGUcsKyf\ cH,lcsufrm

(1) &ckikd af jya& oD;jcm;Ekid if w
H Ekid if H &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& oD;jcm;trsKd ;om;w&yf?
(2) &cdik w
f ajyvH;k udv
k ekd eD ef@ ya'o&du
k f wydik ;f Edifk if b
H 0u vGwaf jrmufa&;?
(3) Arma& ae@acs@yif+zdKufaw// r[mAsL[mrm trsKd ;om;vGwaf jrmuf&;D / ae;AsL[mrSm
vlwef;pm;av;&yf(tvkyo
f rm;/ avorm;/ "eo#iaf ygupf / rsKd ;csKu
d /f ajycsKu
d "f eo#i)f yg0ifa&// wyfaygi;f
pkazG@ap;&D; udik af qmifxm;a& oabmw&m;vufeufrm rmufp0f g'. uGejf rLEdu
_ 0f g'yif+zdKufaw//

&ckdifajy uGefjrLEdIufygwD\ cH,lcsufrm

(1) &cdik af jya& oD;jcm;Edik if w
H Edik if /H &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& oD;jcm;trsKd ;om;w&yf
(2) &ckid af jya& vH;k 0udv
k ekd ED idk if eH ef@ ya'o&du
k w
f ykid ;f Edik if H
(3) Arma& vH;k 0vlrsKd ;}uD;0g'udk usio
hf ;kH a&// r[mArmyif+zdKufaw//
(Armudk r[mArmvd@k owfrw
S v
f u
kd af w// &cdik af & vlrsKd ;ai (Minority) +zKd uv
f m;&a&// &ckid af &vlrsKd ;ai/
Arma& yifrvlrsKd ;}uD;vd@k qd&k ma&mufaw// &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& Armhvrl t
_ azG@tap;. tpdyt
f ydik ;f
vd@k cH,&l ma&mufaw// ,if;ydik q
f akd u &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& oD;jcm;toGiu
f kd raqmifEikd ,
f m// &cdik Ef ikd f
iHavh oD;jcm;Ekid if w
H pfEikd if t
H oGiu
f kd raqmif,m// ,if;ee@Zf k a'tcsurf m cH,cl suf t+r;D tajrmufrawh
+zKd ufe&D a&// &daS emufrnDrnGw+f zKd ufe&D a&// r[mAsL[mrm ajyol@'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D (0g)vlwef;pm;
awmfveS &f ;D ('kw,
d pcef;qif)h +zdKufaw// ae;AsL[mrm &ckid af jyol@orRwEdik if H xlaxmif&;D yif+zdKufaw?
(r[mAsL[meef@ ae;AsL[mrmavh rjywfom;/ &daS emufrnDrnGwf +zdKufe&D a&//) aemufc,
H cl suf rjywf
om;r_wcsu[
f ed aD &// &cdik af jya& vH;k 0udv
k ekd v
D @kd owfrw
S x
f m;au aeacs@ut
kd wdtusazmf&vdrrhf ,f//
t*kaeacs@aysmufeaD &ydik +f zKd ufeaD &// vH;k 0udv
k ekd q
D akd u trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D udw
k qifh qifaEG;&vdrrhf ,f/
*kvw
l ef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D ud&k m r[mAsL[mcif;xm;a&// ,if;tjyif Akv
d }f uD;=umvSatmifO;D aqmifa&
68

75

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
“&ckid af jy trsKd ;om;nDnw
G &f ;D tazG@’ &rnz/ u&ifawmfveS &f ;D eef@ qufaoG+yD;au tiftm;pkap;vd@k
xlaxmifvu
kd af w// “&ckdifajyvGwfvyf&D;wyfOD;’’
’’&vw&d@k avh trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D abmifrm ay:
ayguv
f muwfaw// &rvz rm ajyol@'rD u
kdf a&pDawmfveS &f ;D u wpcef;qkwv
f ma& tazG@+zdKufaw?
tvHeu
D eG jf rLEdu
_ yf gw(D Armajy)u xGuv
f ma&tazG@wazG@+zKd ufaw &rnzeef@ &vw&d@k rm 0HomEkum
vwvSr;f wd;k +y;D au trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D udk a&mufvmuwfaw tazG@ 2-azG@+zKd uaf w// oH;k azG@pvH;k rm
&if;ES;D u|r;f 0ifuwfaw// rdwaf qGtazG@&@kd +zKd uu
f wfaw// &rvz/ &rnz/ &vwqdak &oH;k ygwrD m Edik if &H ;D t&
eD;pyfuwfawtazG@wd +zdKufuwfawtwdkif; 8/ 12/ 1967 rm “Armaeacs@qef@usif&D;/ &ckdifajy
trsdK;om;vGwfajrmuf&D;wyfaygif;pk”azG@ap;xlaxmifvdkufuwfaw// ,if;aemuf-

wyf a ygif ; pk \ cH , l c suf & d k U rS m um;

1? &cdik af jya& Edik if w
H Edik if .
H t*F g&yfeef@ajy@pakH & wdik ;f ajywajy+zdKufaw//
2? &cdik af jy vl@tazG@tap; vuQ%ma& vH;k 0udv
k ekd eD ef@ ya'o&du
k w
f ydik ;f vl@tazG@tap;
+zdKufaw//
3? &ckid jf y. vl@tazG@tap; vuQ%ma& vH;k 0udv
k ekd eD ef@ ya'o&du
k w
f ydik ;f vl@tazG@tap;+zKd uf
a=umif; &cdik af jyolvx
l .
k t"duawmif;qdck surf m trsK;d om;vGwaf jrmuf&;D yif+zKd ufaaw
vd@k wnDwnGwaf w; cH,u
l wfaw//
4? ,if;a=umihf &ckid af jy. awmfveS &f ;D vuQ%ma& trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D (awmfveS &f ;D . yxr
pcef;qifh vuQ%m+zdKufaw//
5? &cdik af jy. t"du&eforl m vuf[u
d mvrm Armaeacs@ zufqw
d f ae0if;tpd;k &+zKd uaf wvd@k
wnDwnGwaf w; cH,u
l wfaw//
6? wdu
k af yG;vrf;pdik ef ef@ywfowfv@dk Oya'wGi;f wdu
k af yG;a& t+cDteDu&kd myD;+yD;au vufeuf
udik af wmfveS &f ;D wdu
k af yG;rmum; tqH;k tjzwfuykd ;D a&vd@k wnDwnGwaf w; cH,u
l wfaw/
kd ”f wlnpD mG cH,u
7? a'aeacs@ya'o&du
k f qef@usi&f ;D pdu
k u
f kd “ajyol@pu
l wfawyif+zdKufaw?
wyfaygi;f pka& t+cDteDeef@ tvm;tvmaumif;wdudk zefw;D Edik cf auavh wyfaygi;f pkaw
aqmuf&mrm tpraumif;vd@k taESmif;raocsmc// yHpk jH y&zd@k qakd u &vw OuUXa[mif; a&;abmf udk
omEd;k eef@ OuUXodu
k f udak tmifausmo
f m&d@k rm &rvz. tazG@0ifw+d zdKufygv#uef ef@ &vwudk oD;jcm;
xlaxmifjcif;// &vwrm oHawG;c&dik u
f yif ayguu
f v
JG mpGmudk zdz;kH xm;+y;D au a'rmwyfaygi;f pkvmaazG@
jcif;/ &rnzrmqdak u &uy. wyfaygi;f pk0if+zKd ufe+D y;D rS a'rmvmvk@d wyfaygi;f pktodu
k rf m yg0ifazG@ap;
jcif;/ &rvz rmavh E_u
d jf crf;uGeJ jD cif;&d@k a=umifh a'wyfaygi;f pkrm oH;k vom;avmuf&mcHca&// 1968-ck
ZEM0g&v
D avmufrm wyfaygi;f pku &rnz Ekwx
f u
G cf a&// ta=umif;jypGmuawmhcg wyfaygi;f pkEu
d_ af zG@
0if +zKd uef aD &twGuw
f ma=umifv
h @kd qakd &// azazmf0g&v
D aemufyikd ;f rm &rvzeef@ &vw&d@k a& wyfaygi;f pkudk
676
9

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
+zdKufajrmuf&;D tqifo
h @kd csxm;vdu
k u
f wfaw// 1968-ck/ {+yDv 15-&uferd m &rvzeef@ &vw&d@k y;l
aygi;f vdu
k +f yD;au “ &ckdifajytrsdK;om; nDnGwf&D;wyfOD;” (&rnw)udk azG@ap;xlaxmifvu
kd af w?
&ckdifajyuGefjrLEd_ufygwDuavh “zufqdwfwdkufzsuf&D;/ trsdK;om;nDnGwf&D;wyfaygif;pk
(&ckdifajy)”
jy)”udk OD;aqmif+yD;au xlaxmifxm;a&// ,if;wyfaygi;f pkEu
d_ w
f yfeef@ &rnz&d@k yl;awG;ap;&H;k
“zufqw
d w
f u
kd zf su&f ;D wyfaygi;f pk”eef@ “Arm
&D;aumfrwDw&yfukd azG@ap;vdu
k u
f wfaw// &rnz u“zuf
ajyaecsJ@qef@usif&D; wyfaygif;pk” ESpcf pk vH;k rm yg0ifxm;vd@k ESpcf pk vH;k u Ekwx
d f
f u
G +f yD;au “zufqw
aecsJ@qef@usif&D; wyfaygif;pk”rm0ifzdk@vdk@od&a&// vufwdG@rmum; ArmaecsJ@qef@usif&D; wyfaygif;
pkuxGuv
f m;a& xdw
k yfaygi;f pkum; t*kxrd xGuo
f ?d ,if;+yD;au zufqw
d w
f u
kd zf su&f ;D wyfaygi;f pkrm
rif;jym;+rdK@aerm &uyeef@ “&ckdifajy csif;trsdK;om;vGwfajrmuf&D;tazG@” yl;aygi;f ap;vH;k &D;aumfr
wDw&yfukd azG@ap;vdu
k u
f wfaw// &aohawmif +rdK@aermavh &uyeef@ “&ckdifajy rlqviftrsdK;om;
vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@” yl;awG;ap;&H;k &D;/ aumfrwDw&yfukd azG@ap;vdu
k u
f wfaw// ArmajyuGejf rLEdu
_ yf gwD
Auy u “trsKd;om;'Drdkua&pD nDnGwf&D;wyfaygif;pk” (r'nw)udk Armajyrm xlaxmifvu
kd af w?
“vlrsdK;pktazG@” (vrp) eef@ vufawG;+yD;au r'nwabmifrm
(Auy) &ckid af jyaeuavh &ckid af jyrm“vl
twlw&l yfuwfaw// ,if;eef@Zk 20 &mpk 'kw,
d ydik ;f wd@k 0ifa&mufvma&tcg &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D
a& Edik if u
H *kd &kpu
kd v
f mpGmudw
k @Gd &a&// ,if;Edik if .
H &kyo
f rdik ;f udk *&kpu
kd v
f mpGmudw
k @Gd &a&//
atcd k u f r m trsd K ;om;awmf v S e f & D ; ud k r[mAsL[mcif ; +yD ; au ay:ayguf v ma&t
azG @ tap;eef @ &cd k i f a jyol @ orR w Ek d i f i H x l a xmif z d k @ ae;AsL[mcif ; usif ; xm;+yD ;
ay:ayguf v ma& tazG @ tap;&d k @ um;
(1) &ckid af jy vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@csKyf (&rvz) 1960-ck/
(2) &ckid af jy uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gw(D &uy) 1962-ck/
(3) &ckid af jy vGwaf jrmuf&;D wyfO;D (&vw) 1962-ck/
(4) &cdik af jy trsK;d om;nDnw
G &f ;D tazG@ (&rnz) 1964-ck/ &d@k yif+zdKufaw//

,if;&dkUtjyif &ckdiftrsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;atmufrm wdkif;&if;om; (trSefuEkdifiHom;)
tazGU tap;eefU olUvlrsKd;pktazGUtap;
(1) &cdik af jy csi;f trsKd ;om; vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@ (acG;eDatmif acgi;f aqmifa&)?
(2) vlrsKd ;pktazG@ (a&;abmf armifped jf zLacgi;f aqmifa&)?
(3) &cdik af jy rlqviftrsKd ;om; vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@?

70

77

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&ckdifajyrm ajyol'Drdkua&pD awmfvSef&D;udk r[mAsL[mrm cif;usif;xm;a& ygwDwGif;
rmum;
(1) uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gwD (&ckid af jyaumfr,Si/f tvHeyD gw)D atygwaD & rsuaf rSmufumvrm &ckid af jy
rmr[d,m?
(2) Armajy uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gwD (&ckid af jyae)
(3) &ckid af jy uGejf rLEdu
_ yf gw&D @kd yif+zdKufaw//
,if;+yD;au &cdik t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D udOk ;D awvd@k rsKd ;csKu
d af jycsKu
d f tazG@tap;&d@k / tiftm;pk&@kd / woD;
yk*v
~ &d@k / rsm;jym;pGmay:ayguv
f @kd [ad &// ,if;twGuef ef@ a'umvudk trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . ap;&H;k &D;um
vvd@k owfrw
S x
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

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wdu
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4/ oD;jcm;trsKd;om;,dkifaus;rI[djcif;/

trsK;d om;,dik af us;r_w&yfukd t*F gig;&yfeef@ axmufcsed Ef ikd af &/ ,if;ig;&yfrm
(1) ud;k auGrq
_ ikd &f m ,dik af us;r_
(2) bmompmyD;qdik &f m ,dik af us;r_
(3) okcrk tEkynmqdik &f m ,dik af us;r_
(4) qif,ifx;kH azG@rq
_ ikd &f m ,dik af us;r_
(5) ydou
k mqkid &f m ,dik af us;r_yif+zdKufaw//

76

83

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
1/ udk;auGrIqdkif&m ,dkifaus;rI

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7 87 4

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2/ bmompmyDqkdif&m ,dkiifaus;rI

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3/ tEkokckrynmqdkif&m ,dkifaus;rI

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78

85

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
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4/ qif,ifxHk;azGUrIqkdif&m ,dkifaus;rI

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5/ Adokumqkdif&m ,dkifaus;rI

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86

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//
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k ekd +D zdKufeaD u
av; tzH;k t0du
S cf eH &D jyefoad &// wae; u|e;f yke;f udv
k ekd D +zdKufe&D a&//

87

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
ated urBmt&yf&yf u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd t
D rsm;tjym; awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd ef u
D wf,m+zdKufaw//
bD,mz&mawmfvSef&D;/ em*awmfvSef&D;/ rDZdkwmfvSef&D;/ ucsifawmfvSef&D;/ u&ifawmfvSef&D;/ rGef
awmfveS &f ;D / o#r;f awmfveS &f ;D / &cdik af wmfveS &f ;D (ygupPwefrmS abvlcspD wefawmfveS &f ;D ) aeacs@qef@
usi&f ;D trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D &d@k yif+zdKufaw// vGwv
f yf&;D twGuf awmfveS &f ;D pdwef ef@ wdu
k cf u
kd ef u
D wf
pGmyif+zdKufaw// &cdik o
f uU&u
kd f at'D 1784-ck avmufrm &cdik v
f @l rt
_ azG@tap;. tcsKyftcsmtm%m
udk rw&m;odr;f ydu
k x
f m;uwfpmG a& atedtxd+zKd ufaw// aeacs@Arm/ aeacs@+Aw
d o
d #/ aeacs@*syef/ aeacs@
+Adwo
d #/ aeacs@Armh&@kd rm vufajymif;/ vufjyef &cdik t
f csKyftcsmtm%mudk rw&m;odr;f ydu
k x
f m;uwf
aw// ig&h @kd .+rDay:+rDatmuf pD;yGm;&D;wdukd ol&@kd vuf0g;}uD;tkyf oD;G pkwaf csavSxm;a&// &cdik u
f u
dk ek ;f =urf;
ajywajyt+zKd uf zefw;D +y;D au Armhuukeaf csmxkwf ajywajyt+zKd uf zefw;D eDa&// *kyikd &f ckid u
f kd ArmupD;
yGm;&D;wzufapmif;eif; zdEydS +f yD;auqufqaH &// ol@&@kd .ukeaf csmwdukd a0,lo;kH apG;a&// a'ydik +f zdKufatmif
zefw;D eDa&/ zefw;D xm; a&// wae; Edik if &H ;D t&‚if;/ pD;yGm;&D;t&‚if;/ &ckid u
f kd Armuudv
k ekd v
D yk x
f m;a&//
aemufArmtpd;k &. pdu
k &f ;D tm%mudak v; &ckid w
f ajyvH;k rm jzef@=uwfxm;a&// pdu
k &f ;D t& &cdik v
f rl t
_ azG@
tap;wckv;kH udk zdEu
d_ af w/ ajAmifvo
l wfaw/ awmyefZif;/ ref;yifZif;/ rus;D uke;f / pGe&f ;D / pdu
k af wG&@kd rm
tpkvu
kd t
f +yHKvdu
k f ajAmifvo
l wfaw//
&ckid w
f OD;csi;f vGwv
f yfr/_ &ckid w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k vGwv
f yfru
_ kd zdEydS cf sKyfacsxm;a&// &cdik rf m ud,
k f
ydik jf yXmef;cGihf (Self Indentity)vH;k 0r[d/ ud,
k phf myDukd ud,
k rf oif=um;&// ud,
fk t
hf pd;k &udk uk,
d &f ;GD acsciG rhf &/
xlaxmifciG rhf &/ ud,
k yf ikd pf u
kd w
f yf xlaxmifciG rhf &/ ud,
k yf ikd yf nm&D;/ use;f rm&D;/ vlr&_ ;D t&yf&yf&@kd rm ud,
k &f @kd
obm0eef@uu
kd n
f aD tmif vkycf iG rhf &// Edik if jH cm;eef@vw
G v
f yfpmG pdu
k &f ;D / Edik if &H ;D / pD;yGm;&D;t& rqufaoG&?
&cdik Ef ikd if .
H ukvor*~0ifEikd if H tcGit
hf &D;udak v; ol&@kd zEd u
dS x
f m;a&// &cdik af eerdwu
f akd v; ol&@kd o#iaf &ydik f
owfrw
S jf cm;eDa&// tcsKyftm;jzifah jym&au &cdik u
f o
kd @l &@kd vufatmufcH u|et
f +zdKuf zdEu
dS x
f m;a&//
,if;tjyif &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;rm pD;yGm;&D;t&+zdKuf+zdKuf/ Edik if &H ;D t&+zdKuf+zdKuf/ pdu
k &f ;D t&+zdKuf+zdKuf/
,dik af us;r_t&+zdKuf+zdKuf/ vlr&_ ;D t&+zdKuf+zdKuf zdEu
dS cf eH &D a&// ig&@kd u,
kd yf ikd jf yXmef;cGiu
hf kd ol&@kd csKyfuikd af cs
avSxm;a&// ig&h @kd tcsKyftcsmtm%m ig&h @kd vw
G v
f yfru
_ kd ol&@kd rw&m;odr;f ydu
k x
f m;a&// ,if;aemuf ig&h @kd
Armaeacs@vufatmufrm vH;k 0udv
k ekd +D zdKufe&D a&// rsuaf rSmufcu
kd f &cdik af jyrm +rDo#iyf a'o&du
k pf Edu
_ f
tajyht0r[d,m// &ckid +f ro#iyf a'o&du
k }f uD;wd+zdKufaw +rdK@pm;/ &Gmpm;/ acsmif;pm;/ u|e;f pm;/ u|e;f &yf
&d@k r[d,m// 'kw,
d pdu
k rf +zdKufcifu [dca&// Edik if jH cm;om; +rDo#i}f uD;wda& wdik ;f &if;om;+rDo#i}f uD;wd/
jyKaumif;wd/ csyd yf ikd w
f ad v; r[dvu
kd ,
f m? a,auavh +Adwo
d #ya'o&du
k pf Edu
_ f t=uGi;f tusew
f [
d d
oda&// ,if;eef@Zk &ckid rf m +rDo#iyf a'o&du
k w
f ydik ;f &kyu
f susowfrw
S x
f m;jcif;+zdKufaw// aeacs@uakd wmf
vSeef aD &umvrm a'+rDo#ipf Edu
_ f t=uGi;f tuseu
f kd ig&h @kd a& t"duxm;vd@k r&/ av,m+rDawmfveS &f ;D udk
trsK;d om;ap;&H;k &D; umvrm+zdKuf+zdKu/f trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm+zdKuf+zdKuf t"duxm;vd@k r&/
,if;eef@Zk trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm av,m+rDjyKjyifajymif;av&D;udk vkyaf qmif&zk@kd +zdKufaw//

88

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm udv
k ekd aD jyoleef@ aeacs@.yÉdyuQ&m t"du ywdyuQ+zKd uaf w// vH;k 0udv
k kd
eDeef@ ya'o&du
k w
f ydik ;f Edik if rH m+zKd uf+zKd uf/ udv
k ekd w
D ydik ;f eef@ ya'o&du
k w
f ydik ;f Ekid if rH m+zKd uf+zKd uf/ trsKd ;om;
awmfveS &f ;D vkycf sed rf m +ro
D #ief ef@avvkyo
f m;&d@k . yÉdyuQrm vufatmufcH yÉdyuQ+zKd ufaw// ,if;eef@Zk
t"duudk t"duxm;vd@k / vufatmufcu
H kd vufatmufcx
H m;&zd@k // t"duwdyuQukd awmfveS &f zd@k vuf
atmufcyH wdyuQukd jyKjyifajymif;vJ&zk@d a,au vH;k 0udv
k ekd eD ef@ ya'o&du
k w
f ydik ;f [da& ihg&@kd &cdik af jyrm
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D udk qifaEG;,if; av,m +rjD yKjyifajymif;vJ&;D udk tcuftvuf t+zKd ufxm;+y;D au
vkyaf qmif&zd@k +zKd ufaw// tu,kwyf if av,m+rD jyKjyifajymif;av;&D;udak wG;+y;D au trsKd ;om;awmfveS f
&D;udk vkyaf qmifvm;jcif;a& tem*wfumvrm wd;k wufawavmuudk wufvrS ;f Edik zf @kdtwGuf +cv
D rS ;f opf
wvSr;f vSr;f xm;pGm+zKd ufaw// awmfveS &f ;D w&yf qifaEG;a&tcgrm Edik if &H ;D / pD;yGm;&D;/ ,dik af us;r_qikd &f mrSm
armif;ESi;f &D;tiftm; oH;k &yfyg0if&a&// Ekid if &H ;D t& awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd ef aD &eD&mrSm pD;yGm;&D;t&awmfveS &f
jcif;/ ,dik af us;r_t&awmfveS &f jcif;&d@k ukd +yKd iw
f v
l yk v
f m;vd@k r&// tEdik Ef ikd if H awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f rm oufo[
D d
a&// ZmEdik if rH mav; awmfveS &f ;D oH;k &yfukd a&ma&mxD;G xG;D vkyaf qmifvm;vd@k atmifayG;qifca&vd@k r[dz;l ?
,if;ydik v
f yk af vhrvkycf uwf// ,if;twGuw
f ma=umifh pD;yGm&D;/ awmfveS &f ;D . ed'ge;f +zdKufaw av,m
+rjD yKjyifajymif;av;&D;udak wG;vd@k vkyaf qmif&a&ae;wl ,dik af us;r_awmfveS &f ;D . ed'ge;f tp+zKd ufaw Edik if H
jcm;,dik af us;r_ukd qef@usi+f y;D au trsKd ;om;,dik af us;r_ jyKjyifajymif;av;&D; (&Dae;qef@/ twfzavmf&q
D ef@)
udk awG;vd@k vyk af qmif&a&//
&ckid af jyrm q&mawmf to#ipf Ed mW ax&f oufawmfxif&mS ;[dpikd u
f “&ufacsmif;nDvmcH”
rm &cdik af cgi;f aqmiftrsm;pku av,m+rDjyKjyif ajymif;av;&D;eef@ywfowfv@kd Oya't&yf&yfukd &D;qGcJ
uwfaw// ,if;av,m+rD Oya'udrk +SD y;D au rsuaf rSmufumv awmfveS &f ;D awmwGi;f ygww
D u
d topfjyKpk
vd@k toH;k jyKuwfaw// tcsKd @av; ,if;Oya'twdik ;f yif toH;k jyKuwfaw// av,m+rjD yKjyifajymif;vJ&;D eef@
ywfowfv@kd wqdwaf uavmuf qufvufaqG;aEG;yg&pD/ tajccHawmfveS &f ;D r[mAsL[meef@ awG;ajrmS if
+yD;au av,m+rDjy\emudk &cdik af wmfveS &f ;D ygww
D d Zmydik q
f mif&u
G af wqdpk mG udk tusO;f acsavmuf
aqG;aEG;wifjyyg&pD//

av,mNrDawmfvSef&D;\ t"dua&a&Gcsufrm

(1) av,mvkyo
f l av,mydik q
f ikd &f ;D /
(2) cdu
k rf rSaD & av,mvkyif ef;udk cdu
k rf aD & av,mvkyif ef;t+zdKuf ajymif;av;&D;/
(3) avxGuyf apP;wdukd avorm;tajyht0 cHpm;&D;yif+zdKufaw//

avorm; vlwef;pm; tvGmt&
(1) +rDo#i}f uD;

89

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
(2) csr;f oma& avorm;
(3) tavtvwfwef;pm; avorm;
(4) qif;a&;a& avorm;vl@tv$m av;v$mowfrw
S x
f m;a&//
,if;av;v$mtay: oabmxm;rmum; “+rDo#ifudkwdkuf/ csrf;omudk=um;xm;/ tavtvwf
udkrdwfazG@/ qif;a&;udktajccH” vdk@yif+zdKufaw//

NrD,mawmfvSef&D;\ t"dua&a&Gcsufwdudk taumiftaxazmfzdkUtwGuf
wk d u f a yG ; vrf ; pd k i f r mum;

(1) oD;pm;wdu
k af yG;/
(2) vufiw
k /f vuf&if;/ vufrjyKwf&;D wdu
k af yG;/
(3) av,m+rD/ ajyolyikd w
f u
kd af yG;/
(4) pkaygi;f av,m vkyif ef;wdu
k af yG; (0g) uGeyf sKef;wdu
k af yG;&d@k yif+zdKufaw//
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm oD;pm;wdu
k af yG;/ vufiw
k /f vuf&if;rjyKw&f ;D wdu
k af yG;udk qifE;GD uwfaw?
wae; v,f,m+rjD yKjyifajymif;av;&D;udk qifE;GD uwfaw// eDacs@qef@usi&f ;D wdu
k af yG;udk qifE;GD pdik u
f mvrm
avorm;atmufwef;tv$mwd. zdEydS rf '_ %favsmyh g;vmatmif jyKvkyyf ;D jcif;yif+zdKufaw// avorm;
atmufwef;v$m&d@k ukd trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D abmifo@kd odr;f oGi;f / ap;&H;k ,ljcif;yif+zKd ufaw// wbufwiG f
+ro
D #i}f u;D eef@ csr;f oma&avorm;&d@k uakd v; &efrjyKod// ap;&H;k &D;toGirf mxm;odah &// t"duOD;awwdu
k f
cdu
k ef pD mG um; eDacs@uykd if+zKduaf w//

a'awmf v S e f & D ; c&D ; pd k i f t wd k i f ; &cd k i f a jyrm

(u) &ckid af jy trsKd ;om;v$waf jrmuf&;D tazG@csKyf (&rvz)
(c) &cdik af jy trsKd ;om;nDnw
G &f w
D yfO;D (&rnw) (&rnw-&vw) &d@k yif+zdKufaw// a't
rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D tazG@(2)azG@a& trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm av,m+rDjyKjyifajymif;av;&D;eef@
,dik af us;r_ jyKjyifajymif;av;&D;&d@k ukd awG;+y;D au vkyaf qmifv@kd [u
d wfaw// &cdik v
hf w
G v
f yf&;D atmifayG;a&
xdEk pS af zG@twGuf trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . tqH;k tjzwf+zdKufaw// &ckid af jy uGerf sLedwyf gwD (&uy)/
ArmajyuGejf rLedwyf gwD (Auy)&d@k . awmfveS &f ;D tqH;k tjzwfcef;um; av,m+rD ajyolyikd v
f yk pf mG yif+zKd uf
aw// a'2 ygw.
D awmfveS &f ;D um; ajyol'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D ('kw,
d -pcef;qif)h +zdKufaw// &uy.
&cdik o
f rRwEdik if H awaqmuf&;D rm ae;AsL[m&m+zdKufaw// Auy. &cdik af jyeDrmav; ae;AsL[myif+zdKuf
aw// &uy/ Auy&d@k csw
D ufeu
D wfpmG um; ajyol'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D ajyolyikd w
f u
kd af yG;/ 'kw,
d pcef;qifh
rSwqifh qdak &SvpfawmfveS &f ;D uGejf rLedww
f u
kd af yG; (wwd, pcef;qif)h +zKd uu
f wfaw? &rvz/ &rnw&d@k .
csw
D ufeu
D wfpmG um; &ckid v
f w
G v
f yf&;D atmifayG;od@k (yxr pcef;qif)h rSwqifh qdak cs@vpfawmfveS &f ;D

90

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
uGerf sLESu
d w
f u
kd af yG; wwd,pcef;qifo
h @kd +zKd uaf w// ,edumv tEdik Ef ikd if .
H awmfveS &f ;D udk qef;pdu
k v
f v
hd m
a=u@z@kd vakd &// tdE,
dN / w&kw/f ud;k &D;,m;/ AD,ufemrf/ Arm/ tif'akd e;,Sm; awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f t& oH;k oyfqif
jcifa=u@z@kd vadk &// ,if;Edik if &H @kd . &kyb
f 0rm ig&h @kd &cdik Ef ikd if .
H &kyb
f 0eef@ eD;pyfaw/ ateDA,
D ufemrf trsKd ;om;
w&yfv;kH tar&duefaeacs@ukd qef@usiw
f u
kd cf u
kd v
f @kd [pd mG udk wajyvH;k u todyif+zdKufaw?

3/ (*)AD,ufemrfa& aeacsUudkqefUusif&mrm wrsdK;om;vHk;udk ap;&Hk;,la&/

(1) tvkyo
f rm;udk t+cDct
H m;?
(2) avorm;eef@ "eo#iaf ygupf ukd t"dutm;?
(3) rsKd ;csKd uf/ ajycsKd uf +rDo#i}f uD;/ "eo#i}f uD;wdukd t&Ht+zdKufxm;+yD;au/ trsKd ;om;awmf
vSef&D;udk jyif;jyif;xefxefqifEDG;eDa&/ twk,lp&myif+zdKufaw// xl;jcm;pGmwcku awmfvSef&D;'kuQd
wwd+zKd uaf w tusKd ;tuef;/ rdr@J / brJ/h vifr@J &@kd ukd qif;&Ja& avorm;wdeef@twlxm;+y;D au &efoyl g;u
odr;f aq;rda& av,mwdrm eD&mcsy;D a&// a'xl;jcm;a& vkyaf qmifcsurf sKd ;udk wEkid if rH mav; vkyaf qmif
pGmudrk wd[
G &d yg?
aemufw&kyaf jy av,m+rDjyKjyifajymif;av;&D;eef@ eD&mcsxm;yHu
k akd v; vdv
h ma=u@oihaf &//
ajywGi;f pdu
k u
f mvrm ajyol'rD u
d a&pDawmfveS &f ;D av,m+rD ajyolyikd w
f u
dk af yG;udk qifE;GD a&// *syefzuf
qdwaf eacs @usL;ausm0f ifa&mufvma&tcg ajyol'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D udk vufatmufcx
H m;vdu
k +f y;D
au trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D pdu
k u
f kd qifE;GD vma&// w&kyaf wmfveS &f ;D auG;aumufoavmuf r[mAsL[m
ajymif;av;Edik v
f @kd &m awmfveS &f ;D atmifayG;udk cHEikd jf cif;yif+zdKufaw// &efot
l eDtxm; ajymif;av;o
avmuf awmfveS &f ;D r[mAsL[mudak v; rajymif;av;au ,if;awmfveS &f ;D a& ydu
k u
f iG ;f avG;vm;zd@k a&a&G
csu/f OD;awcsuf aysmufvm;&zd@k yif+zdKufaw? r[kwaf u awmfveS &f ;D ysupf ;D qH;k &H;_ vm;&zd@k yif+zdKufaw?
,if;eef@Zk wdik ;f ajy.&kyv
f uQ%m/ wdik ;f ajy. &kyb
f 0awmif;qdck suef ef@ &efot
l eDtxm;&d@k ukd
txl;*&kpu
kd &f zd@k yif+zdKufaw// a,+yD;rS&m rSeu
f efa&r[mAsL[mudk cif;usi;f Edik zf @kd ae;AsL[mudk csrw
S f
Edik zf @kd +zdKufaw// ,if;a=umif; cH,cl su/f &yfawcsuf rSeu
f efjywfom;rS&m OD;awcsu/f a&a&Gcsuf r[mAsL
[m/ ae;AsL[m rSeu
f efjywfom;Ekid zf @kd +zdKufaw// a,+yD;rS&m atmifayG;qifEikd zf @kd +zdKufaw//

3?/ (C)igh&dkU\ t"du&efolrSm ArmeDacsUjzpfaw////

Edik if w
H Edik if .
H tcsKyftcsmtm%mudk tjcm;Edik if w
H Edik if u
H csKyfuikd o
f rd ;f ydu
k x
f m;au/ pD;yGm;
&D;t&+zdKuf+zdKuf/ Edik if &H ;D t&+zdKuf+zdKuf/ csKyfuikd o
f rd ;f ydu
k x
f m;au/ ,if;Edik if aH & xdEk ikd if u
H kd awmfveS w
f u
kd f
cdkuf&zdk@+zdKufaw// ,if;ydkifawmfvSefwdkufcdkufzdk@twGuf tzdESdyfcHajyolw&yfvHk; ap;&Hk;nDnGwf&zkd@
yif+zdKufaw// trsKd ;om;uGjJ ym;eDcsuf ywdyuQ+zdKufecD sut
f m;vH;k udk ,m,D&yfqikd ;f xm;+yD;au (0g)jyKjyif

91

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&D;tqifrh mxm;+yD;au t"dubH&k efo+l zdKufaw tEdik cf eH aD &Edik if u
H kd wku
d cf u
kd &f zk@d +zdKufaw// ,if;a=umifh
tzdEydS cf H trsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH u tEdik cf eH aD &Edik if u
H kd t"du&efot
l jzpf jywfjywfom;om;/ xifxif,mS ;
,Sm;jrif&zd@k +zdKufaw//
&cdik Ef ikd if .
H tcsKyftcsmtm%mudk ArmeDacs@u odr;f ydu
k x
f m;a&/ pD;yGm;&D;/ Edik if &H ;D / ,dik af us;r_
t& csKyfacsxm;a&// wae; u|ejf yKxm;a&// eDacs@xm;a&/ ,if;ArmeDacs@ukd &ckid w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k . ap;&H;k
nDnw
G &f ;D tiftm;eef@ awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd &f zd@k +zKd uaf w// ,if;ydik af wmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd &f zd@k twGuf wrsKd ;om;
vH;k ap;vH;k nDnw
G &f ;D udk t&,lz@kd+zKd uaf w// &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;ax;rm uGjJ ym;eDa& tcsut
f vufw[
d ad uav;
,if;tcsut
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f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH . Edik if aH &;/ vlr&_ ;D / bmom&D;up t00udk ArmeDacs@&@kd u zdEydS f
xm;a&// ig&h @kd vw
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ydu
k yf ifwm;qD; csKyfuikd x
f m;a&// ig&h @kd .ud,
k yf ikd t
f cGit
hf &D;udk zdEydS cf sKyfacsxm;a&// ig&h @kd wrsKd ;om;vH;k .
vGwv
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k &f ;D / ,dik af us;r_&@kd ukd ArmeDacs@u zdEydS cf sKyu
f ikd x
f m;a&?
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G &f ;D &d@k uakd v; ol&@kd csKyfuikd af csv,
S x
f m;a&//
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a&// ,if;eef@Zk ig&h @kd rmS vGwv
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udk pdwrf csEikd if /H ,if;ydik +f zdKufepD mG a& udv
k ekd u
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f rsKd ;om;&d@k . tqd;k qH;k vuQ%mw&yfyif+zdKufaw//
,if;eef@Zk &ckid w
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f [
d &d ;D / r[d&;D / &cdik af wwHah &; ysuq
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aw// a'jy\emudk t"du&efoAl rmeDacs@eef@ &ifqikd af jzo#i;f &zk@d +zdKufaw// ArmeDacs@u &ckid u
f ,
kd w
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f &d ;D / awwHah &;udk ArmeDacs@urvdv
k m;// &cdik f
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f ek ;f &D;/ jyKef;wD;&D;udk ArmeDacs@utEkae; t=urf;ae;/ rsKd ;pHek ef@vyk af qmifeaD &// ol&@kd twGuf &cdik f

92

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
vuQ%mt&yf&yfukd &cdik pf ;D yGm;&D;/ Edik if &H ;D / pdu
k &f ;D / vlr&_ ;D t&yf&yfukd rsKd ;yGm;yku
d zf @kd pmG a& t"duvkyif ef;
w&yf+zdKufaw// &cdik rf u
l kd Armrlvyk yf u
kd zf @kd (0g)&ckid u
f kd csK;d ydu
k zf @kd / vGiyhf u
kd zf @kd pmG a& ol&@kd .eDacs@ae;AsL[m
wd+zKd ufaw// ol&@kd utxufp;D ,l+y;D au &ckid Af rma&mxG;D ydu
k zf @kd tajr;}uKd pm;eDa&// ol&@kd . eDacs@r[mAsL
[mt& ol&@kd vufatmufcH trsKd ;om;&d@k ukd ajyaxmifppk w
d q
f akd & rwfv;kH eef@wu
kd +f yD;au pdu
k &f ;D t&
tEdik ,
f x
l m;zd@k Edik if &H ;D t& pD;yGm;&D;t& tEdik ,
f x
l m;zk@d aemufq;kH Armvkyyf u
kd zf @kd +zdKufaw// Armvkyaf e;
vkyif ef;ratmifjrifau xdcu
kd v
f mau/ ajyaxmifpu
k +kd zdKcGaJ & trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwu
f kd xdcu
kd v
f ma&vd@k
*a,mifuwef;xajyma&// &cdik &f @kd tzd@k rm trsKd ;om;vGwv
f yf&;D a& oD&;D o#i&f ;D +zdKufaw// trsKd ;om;
nDnw
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f yf&;D +zdKufaw// ae;AsL[mrm
&ckid w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k nDnw
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k &f u
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&cdik w
f rsK;d omvH;k twGuq
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f w
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&cdik [
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k ekd .
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aw?
u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd ED ikd if .
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Edik if rH qdwo
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k t
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,if; eef@Zk &ckid w
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t"du &efo+l zKd uaf w Armaeacs@&if0udk awxm;&zd@k +zKd uaf w// Armaeacs@q&kd mrm ArmtrsKd ;om;ryg0if?
aeacs@Eikd if w
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l ef;pm;u tvkyo
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+zKd uaf w? *edArmtpd;k & zufqw
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awh+zKd ufe&D a&? ajyolxw
k u
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f rkd ydu
k Ef ikd ?f
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f m;a&//
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f m;a&// vky&f ;D tm%m/ w&m;pD&if&;D tm%mudk ol&@kd csKyfuikd x
f m;a&?
ol&@kd .ygvrD efukd ajymif;vufeufeef@ odr;f ydu
k x
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zdEydS t
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f yfrt
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pdik rf m ajyolpm;0wfeaD &; usyaf w;eDa&qdpk m vufwdG ol&@kd qakd &Svpfvrf;a=umif;rm ukepf s;D E_e;f jrifw
h uf

93

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
eDpmG / wuUov
kd af usmif;om;wdukd ajAmifvo
l wfpmG / w&kw-f Arm t"du&ke;f rm vlowfpmG / qefjy\em
ay:ayguv
f m&pGm/ tvky&f /kH puf&}kH uD;wd (yHpk H pdu
k af wmif;puULpuf) uarmufur+zdKuf&pGm/ vufpm;r_
qxufwyd;k wd;k eD&pGm&d@k a& xifxif,mS ;,Sm;+zKd ufay:eDa&// ol&@kd vufwqkypf m zufqw
d 0f g'D tcGix
hf ;l cH
vlwef;pm;&m ol&@kd .qdak csvpft&omudk cHpm;eDuwfaw// wyfrawmfwckv;kH udak v; cg;ydu
k af qmif
vkyx
f m;a&// pdu
k t
f rde@f eef@ wyfrawmfwckv;kH udk udik x
f m;a&// qdck svpf0g'udk oGeo
f iG x
f m;a&// vlrsKd ;}u;D
pdw"f gwo
f iG ;f xm;a&// ,if;ydik t
f m;pk+y;D au ajyoluzkd Ed ydS af w? ausmif;om;wduo
kd wfaw? wkid ;f &if;om;
w&kww
f u
d o
kd wfaw? u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd u
D kd zdEydS af eacs@eaD &// ,if;eef@Zk zufqw
d t
f pd;k &rm cHpm;eD&a&
rmajyolw&yfv;kH rm ig&h @kd .r[mrdw+f zKd ufaw// tzdEydS cf AH rmajyol&@kd . vGyv
f yf&;D wdu
k af yG;eef@ &ckid w
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om;vH;k . vGwv
f yf&;D wdu
k af yG;udk *edb&kH efoAl rmeDacs@ zufqw
d t
f pd;k &udk awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd af weD&mrm
yl;aygi;f &zk@d +zdKufaw// Armajyol&@kd . ajyolpu
kd f ausqefeef@ zufqw
d ef aD cs@tpd;k &udk wdu
k &f zd@k +zdKufaw?
Armajyolu ajyol@pw
d /f jc,fre_ ;f &D;pdwu
f kd qifaEG;eDa&tcgrm &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH udk trsKd ;om;armif;
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f Armajyol@pw
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om;pdwf ra&mxD;G ydu
k zf @kd pmG yif+zKd uaf w// olpw
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l kd wdu
k cf u
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l rkd sujf c,frjywf&// aeacs@armif;
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l pkd mG udk rsujf c,frjywf&// &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f rm
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,if;&efou
l kd trsKd ;om;pdwef ef@ wdu
k cf u
kd Ef iS x
f w
k &f zk@+d zKd ufawqdpk mG udk =uyf=uyfowdxm;&zd@k pmG yif+zKd uf
aw//

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Oya'wGi;f *ed Armaeacs@tpd;k &a& *syefawmfveS af &;umveef@ +Adwo
d #qef@usi&f ;D umv
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f rsK;d om;wdukd u|ejf yKxm;,m+zKd uaf w?
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awmfveS w
f u
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kd &f zd@k yif+zKd uaf w// oabmw&m; vufeufuakd v; udik af pG;xm;&zd@k yif+zKd uaf w// ,if;ydik f
vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ;D eef@&m ig&h @kd &ckid v
f @l tazG@. tcsKyftcsmtm%mudk jyefavwdu
k cf u
kd o
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kd &f ;D t& Armaeacs@ukd &ckid af jywGi;f u awmfveS Ef iS x
f w
k f
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Oya'wGi;f wdu
k af yG;a& qdwo
f ek ;f vm;c,m// ygvrD eftwGi;f rm awmif;qdzk @kd av; ygvrD efr[d,m? pdu
k af wG
qefjy\emwdu
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l wfpmG uav; txift,Sm;,m// ,if;eef@Zk Oya'wGi;f wdu
k af yG;eef@
vGwv
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k af yG;wda& t+ct
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h u
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Edik if &H ;D tm%m jy\emyif+zKd ufaw// Edik if &H ;D tm%muav; aoeyfajymif;0u&mxGuv
f ma&/ a'tqdk

94

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
wda& awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& ordik ;f t&yf&yfrm Edik if aH &;tm%m jy\emtwGuf awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
dk cf uwf
&a&? Edik if &H ;D tm%mtwGuf vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ;D wdu
k cf u
kd cf uwfaw// vufeufeef@&m Ekid if aH &;
tm%mud&k ,lEikd af &// pmcsKyfpmwrf; oabmwlncD suq
f pkd mG u vufeufuikd f awmfveS &f ;D aemufyikd ;f rm
ay:ayguv
f m&pGmyif+zdKufaw// t*ki&d@k . trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D av; &ckid af jywGi;f rm/ &ckid Ef ikd if w
H iG ;f rm
&ckid Af rmjy\emyif+zdKufaw// &ckid Ef ikd if w
H iG ;f rm &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;. tcsKyftcsmtm%mudk &ckid yf ikd f
oifah &// Armrydik o
f ihv
f @dk wku
d ef &D a& Edik if &H ;D jy\emyif+zKd ufaw// Armaeacs@u pdu
k t
f iftm;/ Edik if &H ;D tif
tm;eef@ &ckid Ef ikd if w
H iG ;f rm tcsKyt
f csmtm%mudk usL;ausmo
f rd ;f ydu
k x
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vd@k r&// &cdik pf u
kd t
f iftm;eef@/ &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D tiftm;eef@ awmfveS w
f u
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awmfveS w
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Gd kd aygi;f pyfuwf
aw// &ifu
h suaf w awmfveS &f ;D orm;u&m qH;k jzwfEikd af &/ trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm pdu
k &f ;D *s;D w
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*edtrsKd;om;umvrm ygwDa&

(1) pif=u,freG jf rwfaw trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwv
f ufeuf?
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f efa& oabmw&m;vufeuf?
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awmfveS &f ;D w&yfu&m ta&;tcif;ajymif;av;r_ukd +zKd upf aD &// ta&twGuf ajymif;av;r_a& ta&tcif;
ajymif;av;r_twGuf taxmuftyH+h zdKufaw// Oya'wGi;f omrefwu
kd af yG;rsK;d a& vGwv
f yf&;D udk tqH;k
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rm;&d@k rm awmvufaus;&Gmrm eDxikd u
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f wf
aw// a'twef;pm;ESpcf u
k kd aygi;f +yD;au t"dutiftm;udk awaqmuf&zd@k +zdKufaw// ,if;ydik t
f "du
tiftm;udk awaqmufz@kd e&D ma& awmfveS &f ;D . t+cDcaH 'ousa& eD&m+zdKuf&zd@k ? &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmf

95

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
vSe&f ;D . t+cDcaH 'oudk umva'o obm0eef@tnD csrw
S zf @kd qakd u aus;vufa'oa& +rdK@a'oxuf
tzufzufu aumif;rGeaf &// t"dutiftm;w&yf+zKd uaf w// aus;vufut
kd +ccD +H y;D au +rK@d u0kd ikd ;f 0ef;wdu
k f
cdu
k f odr;f ydu
k &f zk@d +zKd uaf w// avorm;eef@ +rK@d eyD nmwwf "eo#iaf ygupf &d@k ukd pkap;+y;D au t"dutiftm;
udk vufeufwyfqifz@kd qakd uav; aus;vuft+ccD pH cef;a& taumif;qH;k +zKd uaf w// ,if;t"du tiftm;
tjyif t+cDct
H iftm;+zdKufaw tvkyo
f rm;/ t&Htiftm;+zdKufaw rsKd ;csKd ufajycsKd uf+rDo#i/f "eo#i&f @kd
udak v; awmfveS &f ;D abmifax;udk ap;&H;k ,l&zk@d +zdKufaw// a'ap;&H;k a&;tiftm;udk t+cDcAH [dpk cef;u
ap;&H;k &zd@k ? ,if;a=umifh t+cDcpH cef;. t"duv_y,
f mS ;r_+zdKufaw vufeufuikd af wmfveS rf a_ & vGwv
f yf
&D;. tqH;k tjzwf+zKd uf&a&// tjcm;t&yf&yf Oya'wGi;f v_y,
f mS ;r_a& ,if;awmfveS &f ;D . taxmuftyhH
+zdKuf&ar?
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . tiftm;oH;k &yf (0g) vlwef;pm;av;&yf tvkyo
f rm;/ avorm;/
"eo#iaf ygupf / rsKd ;csKd uf ajycsKd uf/ "eo#i/f +rDo#i&f @kd ukd ap;&H;k +yD;au ygwaD zmfxw
k af wtcg vufeuf
wyfqify;D zd@k pmG a& aumif;aumif;t&D;}u;D a& trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwv
f ufeuf/ oabmw&m;vufeuf/ acwf
rDpu
kd v
f ufeuf oH;k &yfeef@ wyfqify;D a&tcg umva'o obm0udk txl;*&kpu
kd &f a&// trsK;d om;pdwf
(National Spirit)a& vlrsK;d &D;pdwf (Racial Spirit)r[kw/f trsKd ;om;pdwaf & ausjyef@a&/ eufae;odrhf
arG@a&/ Zmwd*%
k rf mefwuf=upG aD &// oef@pifreG jf rwfaw rsKd ;csKd upf w
d /f ajycsKd upf w
d /f Ekid if w
H umcsKd ucf ifpw
d /f
vlom;tcsi;f csi;f csKd ufcifpw
d /f eDacs@qef@usipf w
d /f wyg;olatmufrm tvHrav; 'l;raxmufpw
d &f @dk
yg0ifa&// vlrsK;d &D;usKd i;f ajrmif;a&/ wdraf &/ Zmwd*%
k rf mef armufrmpDa&/ ,kwn
f o
hH rd if ,fa&/ vlrsK;d apG;pdw/f
a'oapG;pdw/f Edik if t
H csi;f csi;f usL;ausmv
f pdk w
d /f vltcsi;f csi;f zdEydS v
f pkd w
d /f aeacs@vpkd w
d /f wyg;olukd tEdik f
cHvpkd w
d /f wyg;olbm;rm t,SLv
H ,
G af &pdw&f @kd yg0ifa&// ,if;eef@Zk Armaeacs@ukd ig&h @kd a& trsKd ;om;pdwf
ajyah jy0h 0eef@ qef@usiw
f u
kd x
f w
k &f zk@d +zKd ufaw// vlrsKd ;&D;rke;f wDpw
d ef ef@ ykeu
f efwu
kd zf su&f zd@k r[kw/f acsre_ ;f
&D;pdwrf [kw/f armif;ESi&f ;D pdw&f m+zdKufaw// vlrsK;d &D;pdwu
f kd &ckid o
f m;wdik ;f ud,
k phf w
d t
f pdik u
f wdu
k cf |wf
ydu
k &f zd@k +zdKufaw// trsKd ;om;pdwu
f kd OD;xdyx
f m;&zd@k +zdKufaw// &cdik af vmurm aemuf+rD;qGyJ gww
D d trsKd ;
om;zsuq
f ;D &D;0g'w
D d pmtky}f u;D 0g'w
D &d @kd a& trsKd ;om;&D;eef@ vlrsK;d &D;udk rcGjJ cm;bJ &ckid t
f rsK;d om;&D;pdwu
f kd
rsKd ;qufEu
d_ q
f ufwikd w
f idk f ydu
k yf ,fxm;cuwfaw// 'kw,
d rsKd ;qufrm &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;&D;pdwu
f kd wku
d cf u
kd f
acsre_ ;f cuwfoahd &// t*k,if;rsKd ;qufEu
d_ q
f ufa& &cdik af vmurm wqufquf qdwo
f ek ;f vm;c,m+zKd uf
aw// &ckid yf nmwwfavmurm wqdwaf uavmuf&m[da&// tm;eef@tifeef@ r[d,m// ,if;a=umifh
&ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;. acwftqufquf jzwfavsmufvm;cyHk &kyyf ikd ;f ordik ;f pdik u
f akd v;aumif;/ awmfveS f
&D;ordik ;f pdik u
f akd v;aumif;/ tEkynm,dik af us;r_uakd v;aumif;/ &ckid v
f rl &_ ;D t&yf&yfuakd v;aumif;/
&ckid w
f ikd ;f txl;ojzifh &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D orm;wdik ;f pedww
f us od[x
d m;zd@k vakd &// “&ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D udk vkycf siaf u
&ck d i f a wmf v S e f & D ; ud k v k y f c sif a u &ck d i f t a=umif ; ud k o d z d k @ vd k a &// &cd k i f u d k r od a b;eef @ &ck d i f E d k i f

96

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
iH&D;orm;/ &ckdifawmfvSef&D;orm; +zdKufcsifa&vla&/ vlvdrfvl0gwa,mufvkd@ owfrSwf&zdk@/
ta&Smiform;wa,mufvdk@ owfrSwf&zdk@ ” tavGvrf;}udKuf/ t}udKufvrf;vkyf r[kww
f rf;w&m;
vufuikd x
f m;a&vlv@kd owfrw
S &f ar// ,if;ydik q
f jkd yefauav; &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D avmurm &ckid u
f rkd oda&vl
tuef[ed aD &// &ckid u
f rkd oda& a&;abmf/ &ckid u
f kd roda&acgi;f aqmif/ &ckid u
f rkd oda&ygwD tazG@tap;
toif;tyif;/ trsm;}uD;/ &cdkifudkokawoDwOD;ydkif od&zkd@vdk@rqdkvdk/ EdkifiH&D;orm;ydkif/ awmfvSef&D;
orm;wOD;ydik f od&zd@k uq
kd v
kd akd &// awmfveS af &;pcef;vGe/f pcef;acsm/f pcef;av$;&d@k .'g%af =umihf &ckid t
f rsKd ;
om;&D;udk vspv
f sLjyKcuwfawacwf/ &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;&D;udk ydu
k yf if+yD;au aemuf+rD;qGv
J yk ef cD uwfaw
acwf&@kd a& atedcg wqufqufcsKyf+ird ;f eD,m+zKd ufaw// wvdi_ ;f pD wvdi_ ;f pD ol&@kd o&l @kd csw
D ufvmauav;
aqmf'gjrKyef ef@ twlw,
l m+zKd uaf w// a,eef@Zk &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D twGuf vufeufwyg;+zKd uaf w
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om;&D;pdw"f gwu
f kd &ckid w
f ikd ;f wyfqifxm;&zd@k +zdKufaw// &ckid u
f kd &ckid o
f &d zd@k ? wae; &ckid &f yk yf ikd ;f
ordik ;f / &cdik af wmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f / &ckid v
f rl t
_ &yf&yfukd od&zd@k +zdKufaw// ,if;A[kow
k eef@ awmfveS af &o
abmw&m;eef@ aygi;f pyfjcif;eef@ trsK;d om;&D;pdwt
f pdik rf m vufeufwyfqifxm;&zd@k +zdKufaw// aemuf
wyg;um; awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;w&yf+zKd uaf w? oabmw&m;udk oabmw&m;twdik ;f twH;k vku
d f
twdu
k v
f u
kd f udik af pG;xm;zd@k r[kw?f oabmw&m;vdrmR r_eef@ ygww
D &yfukd cg;ydu
k af qmifxm;zk@d r[kw?f
rdwaf qG todik ;f t0dik ;f w&yfukd cg;ydu
k af qmif wayht+zKd uf arG;jrLxm;zdpk mG r[kw/f oabmw&m;w&yfukd
w&m;oDuikd af pG;xm;zd@k r[kw/f a=uh!ykd al Zmfxm;zd@k r[kw?f ynm[dczH @kd v@kd oabmw&m;udk aq;yl;&zk@d
r[kw?f oabmw&m;qdpk mG a& vlavmuudk tusK;d aqmifz@kdtwGuf tvkyv
f rf;nGe@f &m+zKd uaf w// ud,
k u
f
oabmw&m;udk tvkyv
f rf;nGe@f t+zdKuf udik af pG;+yD;au avmutusK;d / vlom;tudsK;udk aqmif&u
G f
zd@k +zdKufaw// avmuvl@tazG@tap;w&yf. tpdwt
f ydik ;f w&yf+zdKufaw ud,
k t
f rsKd ;om;tazG@tap;udk
tusKd ;aqmifz@kd twGuf oabmw&m;a& vrf;nGe&f m+zdKufaw// oabmw&m;w&yfukd vdv
h ma&tcg
,if;. &kyt
f E_u
d o
f m&udk azmufjrifz@kd vakd &// oabmw&m;eef@ ,if;.&kyyf wf0ef;usif ,if;&kyyf wf0ef;
usi.
f v_y,
f mS ;r_ukd tpdik t
f quf qufpyfEikd zf @kd vakd &// “vDeif”. &Daomufjrpf oH;k oG,u
f v
kd v
hd mau
rmufp”f . tawG;tac:udk +zKd upf aD &// &kyw
“rmuf
f &m;oH;k yg;udjk rifz@kd vakd &// ,if;&kyw
f &m;oH;k yg;. v_y,
f mS ;eDr_
“Ak
'
<

,if;v_y,
f mS ;r_. ordik ;f pdik u
f kd vl@obm0usus jrifwwfz@kd vakd &// aemufypkH w
H ck
.edrw
d }f uD;
av;yg;udak v; “Ak'“< . tawG;tac: ^m%fawmf+zdKufay:pD&m &kyt
f a=umif;w&m; av;yg;vd@k jrif&zd@k ?
,if;ta=umif;w&m; av;yg;a=umifh opPmw&m;av;yg;udk &awmfral &vd@k vl@obm0usus jrifwwf&zk@d ?
,if;eef@Zk oabmw&m;wdik ;f udk vdv
h mau w&m;oDrvdv
h moif/h wbufpeG ;f r+iw
d ,
G o
f if/h pdwu
f ;l r,dik f
oif/h vl^m%fu vlywf0ef;usit
f &/ vl@oabmw&m;udk awaqmufvu
kd pf mG udk owdjyKxm;&zk@d yif+zKd uf
aw// awmfveS &f ;D vkyaf wtcg awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;udk ukid af pG;&zk@d +zKd uaf w// bmom&D;tapG;tvrf;
0g'&D;tapG;tvrf;/ vlrsKd ;&D;tapG;tvrf;/ a'oapG; tapG;tvrf;wdukd rdru
d ,
kd w
f iG ;f u wdu
k cf |wyf u
kd f
&zk@d +zKd ufaw// ajy0h pHv
k ifa& oabmw&m;wcktwGuf awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f udak v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D eef@

97

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
oufqikd &f m 0wWKrw
S pf /k rSww
f rf;/ a[majymcsuf pa&apmfwu
d akd v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D acgi;f aqmif&@kd .
v_y,
f mS ;yHu
k akd v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D tawG;ac:wduakd v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;w&yfukd
av;aumif;/ pedww
f us vdv
h mzwf&&_ zk@d aq;yl;rSwo
f m;uwfz@kd v@kd a&// wyfEikd af u oifwef;wufy;D &zd@k ?
awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;qdpk mG rm awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& oabmw&m;udq
k v
kd akd &//
awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;w&yfukd aq;yl;rSwo
f m;a&tcg vGeu
f |erf w
_ d r=umr=um+zKd ufay:
wwfaw// wcgwcg t,rf;+zKd uv
f m;a&/ tcgwcg t+rKH +zKd uv
f m;a&// awmfveS &f ;D c&D;wav#muf t,rf;
wd/ tjrKH wd&mru tvGet
f u|w
H d tavG;tacsmw
f d tuef;toDwd trsm;tjym; ay:ayguv
f modah &?
Edik if w
H um awmfveS &f ;D wdrm ay:aygucf pGmudw
k EGd ikd af &// ,if;ydik +f zdKufpmG a& awmfveS &f ;D oabmyif+zdKuf
aw// vGaJ csmv
f @kd &apmfr[kw/f / ,if;a=umifh ,if;jy\emudk &ifqidk cf sw
D uf&pGm+zKd ufaw// ,if;t=um;rm
yif &ifu
h surf /_ ajyh0r_/ pHv
k ifrq
_ pkd mG +zdKufvma&// oabmw&m;eef@ vufwu
Gd kd aygi;f pyf&mu&vma&
awmfveS &f ;D / rSeu
f efa&oabmw&m;yif+zKd ufaw// a'awmfveS &f ;D rSeu
f efa&oabmw&m;&d@k ukd ud,
k rf m
wyfqif&zk@d +zKd uaf w// &ckid t
f rsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D rm wyfqif&zk@d +zKd uaf w a'oabmw&m;udk wyfqifpmG
rm edcsi;f &ufcsi;f / tavmw}uD;/ o&ke;f b&ke;f wyfqifv@kd r&// tcef;usKd if;rm wyfqifv@kd r&// pmtkyf
ax;rm wyfqifv@kd r&// v_y,
f mS ;r_tjyifrm wyfqifv@kd r&/ vufweGd ef@oabmw&m;udk aygi;f pyfaw
qkpd mG av; vky,
f if;oif oif,if;vky&f apmf+zdKufaw// ,if;tax;u&m tpdyt
f rSex
f u
G af y:vma&//
,if;tax;rm&m rdru
d ,
kd u
f kd oabmw&m; vufeufwyfqifv@kd ajy0h pHv
k ifEikd af &// oabmw&m; vuf
eufukd awmfveS &f ;D vkyif ef;ax;rm &ke;f uefvy_ ,
f mS ;,if;oif/ oif,if;vky+f yD;au wyfqifxm;&a&//
,if;ydik yf if tEdik Ef ikd if H trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D xufatmufa&;abmf&@kd tusKd ;aqmifvy_ ,
f mS ;vm;pGmudk
wd@G &a&// aemufvufeufwyg;a& pdu
k v
f ufeuf+zdKufaw// pdu
k v
f ufeufqpkd mG rm pdu
k .
f w&m;eef@ vuf
eufu&d ,
d m&d@k yg0ifa&// vlwikd ;f oduwfawtwdik ;f pdu
k .
f w&m;a& t&mcyf;odr;f twdik ;f yif wd;k wufeaD &
*edvlom;&dk@a& pdkufukdrvdkvm;auav; pdkufwdufeDuwf&a&? pdkufudkpdkufeef@ &ifqifeDuwf&a&//
pdu
k u
f pdk u
kd ef ef@tqH;k owfz@dk }uKd ;pm;eDuwfa&a&// *edavmuwckv;kH rm pdu
k ef ef@ruif; rw&m;a&pdu
k w
f /d
“pdkuftvHeuf”udk udkif
eD&mtESH@tjym;+zdKufay:eDa&// usL;ausmfolwdkif;/ zdESdyfolwdkif; rw&m;a&“pd
“pdu
k t
f vHe”D udk ukid af qmif+y;D au
aqmif+y;D au pdu
k w
f u
kd ef u
D wfaw// ,if;udk awmfveS o
f &l @kd u w&m;a&“pd
ckcw
H u
kd cf u
kd ef u
D wfaw// ,if;a=umif ph u
kd jf y\emwd pdu
k w
f &m;wdukd od[x
d m;&zd@k +zKd uaf w// *ed&ckid af jyudk
ArmeDacs@a& usL;ausmef aD & &ckid o
f m;&d@k ukd zdEydS ef aD & a'usL;ausm&f ;D pdu
k u
f kd usL;vGeef aD &// tvHeufukd
udik af qmifxm;a&// ArmeDcsJ @ukd &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D u tvHeu
D kd udik af qmif+y;D au awmfveS w
f u
kd f
cdu
k &f zk@d +zKd uaf w// &cdik o
f rdik ;f tqufqufu &J&ifjh cif;/ owWt
d wGuf teDa&mifujkd yXmef;xm;ca&// twdwf
u&ckid af wmfveS &f ;D uav; awmfveS jf cif;twGuf teDa&mifukd jyXmef;xm;ca&twdik ;f tvHeu
D kd a&;a&;
&if&h ifh udik af qmif+yD;au tvHeufukd udik af qmifxm;a& Armaeacs@ukd armif;xkwyf u
kd &f zd@k +zdKufaw?
pdu
k o
f abmw&m;t& trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D +zdKuf+zdKu/f vlwef;pm;awmvSe&f ;D +zdKuf+zdKu/f pdu
k .
f vuQ

98

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
%meef@ pdu
k .
f t+cDteD/ ud,
k &f @kd .xl;jcm;a& t+cDteDeef@ xl;jcm;a&vuQ%mudk pdppd yfpyfem;avrS&m
pdu
k u
f Ekd ikd af tmifwu
kd Ef ikd zf @kd +zKd uaf w// ,if;eef@Zk pdu
k yf nmudk w&m;oDrrSw&f / pdu
k .
f y&d,m,fukd w&m;oD
rSwv
f @kd r&// pdu
k .
f Oya'udk w&m;oDrw
S v
f @kd r&// ,if;&d@k a& pdu
k o
f rdik ;f tqufqufu oD;G eef@&if;vd@k ,l&pGm
+zdKufauavh ig&h @kd cu
dk f pdu
k t
f +cDteD/ pdu
k v
f uQ%m/ ud,
k &hf @kd a'o. t+cDteDx;l &d@k eef@ aygi;f pyfz@kd vo
kd ad &?
wwfEikd af u pdu
k t
f +ct
D eDw&yfv;kH eef@ oufqikd af & aoe*FAsL[m pdu
k yf nmudk pdu
k af usmif;rm+zKd uf+zKd uf/
oifwef;rm+zdKuf+zdKuf/ oif=um;Edik af u taumif;qH;k +zdKufaw// ,if;ydik v
f u
hd si&hf zk@d +zdKufaw// a,au
vdv
h mvd@k aumif;pGmu pdu
k yf nmudpk u
kd af yG;rm oif,pl mG &m taumif;qH;k +zKd ufaw// pdu
k w
f u
kd ,
f if;oif/
oif,if;wdu
k f vkyaf e;&m+zdKufaw// &ckid t
f rsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D rmavh &cdik t
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH eef@ ouf
qdik pf mG u pdu
k yf nmoif+y;D rS 0ifa&mufvyk u
f ikd Ef ikd jf cif;rjyKbJ/ vky,
f if;oif oif,if;vkyjf cif;&m+zKd ufaw?
ordik ;f t&yf&yfrmavh ,if;ydik yf if+zKd uaf w// a,au vufeufuikd af wmfveS &f ;D &m vGwv
f yf&;D udk tqH;k t
jzwfy;D zk@d +zdKufaw qdpk mG udk jyefa=u@uwfar// vufeufuikd q
f pkd mG a& trsKd ;om; pdw”f gwf vufeuf/
awmfveS &f ;D rSeu
f efa& oabmw&m;vufeuf/ pdu
k v
f ufeufo;kH yg;udk udik af qmifpmG udq
k v
kd akd &// ,if;ydik f
awmfveS &f ;D rsK;d &m vGwv
f yf&;D udk tqH;k tjzwfy;D zd@k +zdKufaw// ,if;ydik f vufeufo;kH &yfeef@ ap;&H;k ,lr&S m
ig&h @kd awmfveS &f ;D rm oHr%doo
H m;usus cdik rf mwifw
h if;zk@d +zdKufaw//

3/ (i) t*k aeacsUqefUusif&D;pdkufukd ajywGif;pdkufvdkUrcH,l?

ajyolpu
kd v
f @kd av;rcH,/l trsKd ;om;pdwv
f @kd &mcH,al &// trsm;oduwfawtwdik ;f ajywGi;f pdu
k f
(Civil War) qdp
k mG a& ud,
k Ef ikd if w
H iG ;f rm wdu
k cf u
kd af w pdu
k +f zKd uaf w// Edik if w
H iG ;f rm ud,
k t
hf csi;f csi;f xD;eef;
vkayG; ygwt
D m%mvkayG;&d@k ukd tajccH+yD;au wdu
k af wpdu
k +f zdKufaw// ajyol@pu
kd q
f pkd mG a& awmfveS &f ;D .
'kw,
d pcef;qif/h wwd,pcef;qif&h rkd m ay:ayguv
f mpGmpdu
k +f zdKufaw// avorm;eef@ tvkyo
f rm;&d@k t
ay:rm t"dutiftm;eef@ tajccHtiftm; toD;oD;xm;+y;D au qifaEG;a&pdu
k +f zKd ufaw// 'kw,
d / wwd
, pcef;qif&h @kd rm ud,
k Ef ikd if w
H iG ;f rm +zKd ufay:a&pdu
k u
f kd ajyol@pu
kd v
f @kd ac:a&// yxr pcef;qihrf maeacs@qef@
usi&hf ;D qifEaJG &pdu
k u
f kd trsKd ;om;pdwv
f @kd ac:uwfaw// *ed&ckid af jyrm t"duywdyuQa& Armaeacs@eef@
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om;&d@k . ywdyuQ+zdKufawqdpk mG udk wifjy+yD;,m// ,if;t"du ywdyuQukd awmfveS rf eS u
f efa&
trsK;d om;pdu
k ef ef@ qef@usiEf iS x
f w
k &f a&// ,if;a=umifh ,if;pdu
k af & ajywGi;f pdu
k af v;r[kw/f ajyolpu
kd af v;
r[kw/f ig&h @kd trsKd ;om;awmfv
f eS &f ;D a& Armaeacs@ukd &ckid Ef idk if u
H ESix
f w
k af w awmfveS &f ;D +zdKufaw// &ckid f
ajywGi;f udk usL;ausm0f ifa&mufvma& Armaeacs@ukd awmfveS Ef iS x
f w
k &f zd@k +zdKufaw// &ckid w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k
(vlwef;pm; av;&yfpvH;k )yg0ifqifE;GD a& rsKd ;csKd ufpu
kd af yG;}uD;+zdKufaw? trsKd ;om;pdu
k af yG;}uD;+zdKufaw?
Armajyaxmifpt
k wGi;f rm vlrsKd ;pkw/d tzdEydS cf AH rmajyolwd awmfveS af &pdu
k [
f ad &// ,if;pdu
k af & ajywGi;f
pdu
k +f zKd uaf w// ArmajywGi;f rm zdEydS ef aD &tpd;k &udk zdEydS cf aH jyol&@kd awmfveS af &;pdu
k +f zKd uv
f @dk ajywGi;f pdu
k +f zKd uf
aw// ajyol@'rD u
kd a&pDawmfveS &f ;D eef@ qdak csvpfawmfveS &f ;D ('kw,
d pcef;qifh wwd,pcef;qif)h umvrm

99

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
qifaEG;a&pdu
k u
f kd ajyol@pu
kd v
f @kd ac:a&// ,if;ajyol@pu
kd rf m twef;pm;vuQ%myga&// ajyolqakd &a0g[m&
rmav; avorm;/ tvkyo
f rm;&d@k u&kd mqdv
k akd &// ajyol@pu
kd t
f qH;k owfa& vlwef;pm;vGwaf jrmuf&;D
+zdKufaw// trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . tqH;k owfatmifayG;a& Edik if v
H w
G v
f yf&;D +zdKufaw//
ajyol@pu
kd rf mS twef;tpm;vuQ%myga&qdv
k @kd tcsKd @bufrpHk awmifrpHv
k @dk trsKd ;om;vuQ
%mpdwrf m twef;tpm;vuQ%mryg// ,if;a=umifh trsKd ;om;pdwu
f rkd qifaEG;&// trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D
orm;a& trsKd ;om;vuQ%mudk raqmifv@kd arSmufarSmufrmS ;rSm; ,lquwfaw// 0HomEkvyk if ef;(0g)
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D / ap;&H;k &D;/ trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D / vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D / qdak csvpfawmfveS &f ;D &d@k a&
ordik ;f acwfwav#muf tydik ;f tjcrf;&m+zdKufaw// tm;vH;k jzwfav#mufvm;&zd@k pcef;+zdKufaw// ,if;t
qifq
h ifu
h kd jzwfav#uaf weD&mrm t=uify*k Kd~ vfwOD;a& yHt
k rsKd ;rsKd ; oabmw&m;trsKd ;rdsK;eef@ yg0ifvm
a&qdak uav; xdyk *k Kd~ vfukd awmfveS &f ;D u pdu
k q
f ;D &zd@k +zdKufaw// awmfveS &f ;D u tm;vH;k olukd pdu
k af q;
&zd@k +zKd uaf w// (0g) awmfveS &f ;D a& oloil gigtm;vH;k . trsKd ;om;tnpftqd;k wdukd wdu
k zf suv
f u
kd &f zd@k +zKd uf
aw? wdu
k zf suv
f @kd r&a&vla& awmfveS &f ;D abmifu xGuv
f m;&zd@k yif+zKd uaf w/ awmfveS &f ;D orm;t+zKd uf
csKy+f ird ;f vm;&zd@k yif+zKd uaf w// ZmvlZmydik o
f o
D /D Zmydik +f zKd u+f zKd u/f awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif;um;[dajr; awmf
vSe&f ;D um; baZmifawmfveS &f ;D eef@wuG w&m;rSeu
f efa& awmfveS &f ;D wd&@kd um; csw
D uf+rJcsw
D ufv@kd yif
+zKd uaf w// ,if;ydik f awmfveS &f ;D wa=umif;aw;yif+zKd uaf uav; xl;jcm;a&vuQ%mtvdu
k f pcef;qifyh ikd ;f
xm;pGm&m+zKd ufaw// wqihx
f ufwqifh wku
d cf u
kd ef &D zk@d r[kw/f ysuq
f ;D eD&zd@k r[kw/f / ,if;eef@Zk ig&h @kd a&muf
atmif pcef;qifah &mufatmif awmfveS &f ;D umvudak v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D umv. pdu
k v
f uQ%mudk
av;aumif;/ wmfveS &f ;D . av,m+rDjy\emudak v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D ,dik af us;r_ jy\emudak v;
aumif;/ txufuqkcd a&twkid ;f vuQ%mxl;jcm;csut
f vdu
k f tqihq
f ifph pD Ofyikd ;f jcm; xm;pGm+zKd uaf w?
,if;ydik f ydik ;f jcm;xm;auav; aemufq;kH ed*;kH csKyfyef;wdik u
f wckaw;&m[da&// ,if;,Siu
fh m; vlom;t
aygi;f +idr;f +idr;f csr;f csr;f / pdu
k rf /hJ ab;rJeh x
D ikd Ef ikd &f ;D / avmuudck sw
D ufuwfpmG yif+zdKufaw//

(4) igh&dkU\ r[mAsL[ma& trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;NzKdufaw/
(5) igh&dkU\ ae;AsL[mrm trsKd;om;nDnGwf&D;NzKdufaw/
csd K uf a w&J a bmf t aygif ; &d k U ...

*ed&ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D xl;jcm;csuw
f /d yufyif;jy\emwdukd ordik ;f eef@cs+D y;D au odik ;f vd@k
0ef;vk@d txufuoihaf tmifacs o#i;f +yD;c,m+zdKufaw// ,if;ydik o
f #i;f vif;&pGmuav; xl;jcm;csuef ef@
yufyif;jy\emwdukd wifjycsiv
f @kd +zdKufaw// ,if;csiu
fh kd oabmaygupf cD siv
f +kd zdKufaw// ud,
k &hf ckid &f yk f
b0udk oabmaygupf cD siv
f @kd +zdKufaw// ,if;ydik +f yD;rS&m cH,cl su/f ,Hak =uhcsu/f OD;awcsu/f a&Ga&csu&f @kd
pedww
f us rSerf eS u
f efuef +zdKufay:vmzd@k +zdKufaw// cH,cl surf eS af u &dq
S ufz@dk twGurf eS u
f efa&// cH,l

100

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
csurf rSeaf u &dq
S ufz@kd twGuf rrSeu
f ef+zKd ufeaD &// cH,cl su/f &yfawcsu/f ,Hak =uch suw
f rd eS u
f efau OD;aw
csu/f &yfawcsuw
f rd eS u
f efa&// wcsuaf w;rm r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[m&d@k av; rSeu
f efEikd af &// ,if;&d@k rrSef
uefau OD;awcsu/f a&Ga&csu&f @kd rrSeu
f efEikd /f / wqufaw;rm r[mAsL[m/ ae;AsL[m&d@k av; rrSeu
f efEikd f
+zKd ufaw// r[mAsL[mqkpd mG a& vkyif ef;pdik pf rD u
H ed ;f +zKd ufaw// ae;AsL[mqdpk mG a&a&Svyk ;f ief;vky[
f ef+zKd uf
aw? r[mAsL[matmifjrifz@kd twGuf ae;AsL[mvkyaf e;vky[
f ef aumif;rGezf @kd vakd &// ae;AsL[maygi;f
axmifaomif;ruvd@k r[mAsL[ma& xl;xl;jcm;jcm; &kyb
f 0eef@ awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& oabmw&m;u&m
ay: xGuEf ikd af &// r[mAsL[mqdpk mG a& &kyb
f 0eef@ awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& oabmw&m;. t"dupdww
f &m;
tESpo
f m&w&m;yif+zKd ufaw// a'owck/ Edik if w
H cka& Edik if .
H tpdyt
f ydik ;f yif+zKd ufaw// ,if;a'o/ ,if;Edik f
iH. vl@rt
_ azG@tap;a& urBmvl@tazG@tap;. tpdyt
f ydik ;f yif+zKd uaf w// ,if;tpdyt
f ydik ;f wkid ;f rm xl;jcm;
csuu
f ,
kd pf [
D ad &// xl;jcm;csut
f vdu
k f r[mAsL[m[da&// ,if;AsL[ma& urBm.awmfveS f rSeu
f efa&
r[mAsL[mudk qef@usiv
f @kd r& tpdyt
f ydik ;f . r[mAsL[ma& urBmrh [mAsL[mrm tusK;H 0ifa&//
*ed&ckid Ef ikd if aH & urBmtpdyt
f ydik ;f wck+zKd ufaw// &ckid v
f @l tazG@tap;a& urBmv
h @l tazG@tap;.
tpdyt
f ydik ;f +zKd uaf w? &ckid o
f rkid ;f rSm wjcm;eef@rwla& uk,
d yf idk x
f ;l jcm;csu[
f ad &// ,if;uk,
d yf idk x
f ;l jcm;csuf
tvku
d f r[mAsL[m[da&// &cdik .
f r[mAsL[ma& urBm.awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& r[mAsL[mukq
d ef@
usiv
hf @dk r&/? *edurBmwpfcv
k ;Hk a& awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& awmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f ukd qufcseD aD &// &ckid af vhu,
dk hf
ae;uk,
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hf efeef@ qufcs&D zk@d +zdKufaw? urBm.tpdwt
f ykid ;f +zdKufaw uk,
d x
hf ;l jcm;csut
f wkid ;f uk,
d f
r[mAsL[ma& [d+yD;om;+zdKufaw? &ckid &f yk b
f 0twkid ;f r[mAsL[ma& [d+yD;om;+zdKufaw? r[mAsL
[ma& toDr[kwf xl;jcm;a& &kyw
f &m;t&ay:vma& r[mAsL[ma& toDr[kwf pcef;qift
h vku
d f
+zKd ufaw// &efot
l eDtxm;tvku
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au t"du&efo(l 0g) t"duywdyuQ ajymif;av;vk@d ajymif;av;&pGm+zKd ufaw// om;orif.teDtxm;
ukv
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l eDtxm;udv
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f @dk ajymif;av;&a&? ykpH jH y&zk@d qadk u w&kwf
awmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f yif+zKd ufaw? w&kyaf jyukd *syefzufqpfr0ifrD w&kwaf jyrSm ajyol'rD u
dk a&pDawmfveS &f ;D
(0g) vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D udk qifaEG;a&// *syef0ifvma&tcg trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D ukd qifaEG;vku
d af w?
*syefr0ifrSD t"du&efoal & w&kwaf zmufjyef&;D tpd;k &+zKd ufaw/ *syef0ifvma&tcg *syefaeacs@+zKd ufvm;
a&? t"du&efou
l dk ajymif;av;a&twkid ;f r[mAsL[mukd ajymif;av;yD;&a&// ,if;eef@Zk atmifayG;
tqifq
h ifch ,
H El idk cf a&/?
aemufypHk w
H ckjy&zk@d qakd u/ &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f yif+zKd uaf w// &ckid af jyrSm Armya'o&ku
d rf 0ifr/DS
&ckid af jro#ipf edwx
f eG ;f um;eDa&// ,if;tcguyif &ckid af jyrSm ajywGi;f pdu
k f tcsi;f csi;f +zdKufay:eD,m//
Armaeacs@0ifa&tcg trsK;d om;pdu
k u
f q
dk ifaEG;uwfaw/ Armya'o&ku
d rf 0ifcif t"du&efoal & &ckid af jr
o#if ya'o&ku
d +f zKd uaf w// Arm0ifvmvwfawtcg t"du&efoal & Armaeacs@jzpfaw// &efot
l eDtxm;
ajymif;vJwikd ;f r[mAsL[majymif;vJca&// a,auavh &ckid af wmfveS &f ;D rSm r[mAsL[matmifjrif&;D t

101

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
wGuf ae;AsL[mtiftm;/ nH@cvk@d atmifayG;rqifEidk cf jcif;/ t&Htiftm;aumif;r&Ekid cf jcif;/ pa&pa&
tcsut
f vuf&@dk a=umifh atmifayG;rcHEidk cf ? ,if;eef@Zk r[mAsL[mrSeu
f efz@dk t&D;}uD;oavmuf ae;AsL
[mrSeu
f ef aumifreG zf @dk trsm;}uD;vkad &? ae;AsL[mtrsm;}uD;vkad &qkpd mG xif&mS ;a&/ &ckid o
f rkid ;f rSm
+zdKufay:ca& r[mAsL[mjy\emwd/ ae;AsL[mjy\emwdudk qufvufypHk jH yEkid o
f ad &? r[mAsL[m
rSeu
f efauav@ ae;AsL[mt&/ r[mrdwt
f iftm; xm;pGmrSmav; ykid Ef idk jf ywfom;zk@d vadk &// ,if;eef@Zk
r[mAsL[mukd ukid af pG;xm;&mrSmyif +zdKuf+zdKuf/ ae;AsL[mukv
d yk af qmif&mrSmyif+zdKuf+zdKuf qENyidk ;f ukd
OD;pm;ryD;&/ vlom;&k@d a& uk,
d Ahf [kow
k / uk,
d t
hf wd@G t}uKH/ uk,
d t
hf awG;tac:/ uk,
d cf pH m;csut
f &/ qEN
ykid ;f qkid &f m v_y,
f mS ;vmuwfaw// ,if;qENapG;a=umifh aemufr;DS aqG;jcif;/ a0;,mvGeu
f |jH cif;/ &Sv
d eG f
uGseH jD cif;/ pmtky}f uD;qefjcif;/ pdwu
f ;l ,kid jf cif; pa&raumif;w&m;wd ay:ayguv
f muwfaw? ,if;w
&m;qk;d wda=umifh qENyidk ;f vly,
f mS ;vmau yuwdyidk ;f r_e0f g;vmuwfaw// ,if;ykid q
f EN}u;D pk;d vmvk@d &ckid f
r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[mykid ;f ratmifjrifpmG ukd om"uwdjyEkid af &? 18/ 19-&mpkwiG ;f u Armya' o&mZf
aeacs@eef@ +Aw
d o
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20 &mpkyxrydik ;f rmqdak u r[mAsL[ma&m ae;AsL[myg qENyikd ;f vGr;f rd;k csuw
f u
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kd &f mrm+zKd u+f zKd u/f zufqw
d *f syefaeacs@ukd wdu
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dk &f mrm+zKd u+f zKd uf qENyikd ;f pd;k rd;k pGm
udk trsm;}uD;wd@G &a&// ud,
k u
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0J,mvGeu
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k @Gd &a&// ,if;eef@Zk atmifayG;rcH&
ab; u|eyf ek ;f udv
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k ikd af pG;+y;D au &ckid t
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awmwGi;f rm vufeufuikd f awmfveS w
f u
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S x
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wpcef;vGeef aD &// &ckid &f yk b
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k pf yifvyk v
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,if;udu
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,if;udu
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f rsKd ;om;
toD;oD;&d@k a& &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D / awmfveS &f ;D tay:rm trsm;}u;D [duwfaw// a,bk,tm;jzifh ud,
k ahf e;ud,
k hf
[efeef@ trsm;}u;D vkyaf qmifv@kd [duwfaw// &ckid v
f @l rt
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,if;ydik af qmif&u
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f efz@kd aumif;aumif;t&D;}u;D a&// ,if;ydik t
f &D;}u;D a&
r[mAsL[m/ ae;AsL[mudk qENyikd ;f rm csrw
S v
f @kd rrSeu
f efEikd /f / qENyikd ;f qkpd mG udk txufuzGijhf yca&twdik ;f
tapG;tvrf; tvGet
f u|H t,dik ;f t,dik f trsm;}uD;yga&// ,if;eef@Zk yuwdyikd ;f udt
k "duxm;&a&//

102

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
a,au &cdik v
f @l tazG@tap;aumif;udsK;udk aqmif&u
G ef u
D wfaw tm;vH;k oloil gig&@kd a& yu"du&kd m
t"duxm;oifah &// ,if;yu"dyikd ;f u awmif;qdck suef ef@ awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& oabmw&m;ydik ;f udk aygi;f
pyf+y;D au ae;AsL[m/ r[mAsL[mudk azmfaqmifvyk u
f ikd &f zd@k +zKd ufaw// &ckid af umif;usKd ;udu
k pf udv
k yk af u
&ckid u
f u
kd pf t+ct
D eD/ &ckid u
f u
kd pf .vuQ%m/ &cku
d u
kd pf eef@ tjcm;udu
k pf &d@k . qufpyfeyD u
kH ekd m;rvnfygu
&ckdifudkufp. w&m;wdudkodzdk@r[kwf? &ckdifudkufpudk Zmydkifvkyf&zdk@qdkpGmudkav;odzdk@r[kwf// &cdkif
udu
k pf udak v; aumif;aumif;vkyEf ikd zf @kd r[kw/f ,if;ydik q
f akd u xdx
k &kd ckid yf *k Kd~ v&f @kd . Edik if &H ;D / awmfveS &f ;D &d@k a&
&ckid u
f u
kd pf t&yf&yf yuwdyikd ;f udyk w
d yf if+y;D qENyikd ;f udk t"duwifxm;au *d%
k ;f *%/ woD;yk*v
~ tvkyu
f kd
vkyef pD mG rSty atmifayG;udk a&S@&E_ ikd zf @kd r[kw/f / rSeu
f efa&r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[mudk csrw
S Ef ikd zf @kd r[kw/f /
wdu
k af yG;udak v; atmifjrifatmif wdu
k cf u
kd Ef ikd zf @kd r[kw/f / awmfveS &f ;D w&yf. r[mAsL[m/ ae;AsL[mudk
csrw
S af wtcgrm a,bk,tajcteDeef@ xl;jcm;a&vuQ%mudak v; *&kpu
kd zf @kd vakd &// &k,mS ;awmfveS &f ;D /
w&kyaf wmfveS &f ;D / ArmawmfveS &f ;D pa& Edik if w
H umawmfveS &f ;D tawG;tac:wd Oya'owdtwdik ;f
xyfwv
l yk v
f @kd r+zdKuf// ,if;ydik v
f yk af u avmif;tvdu
k f aygi;f qif&zk@d tpm;/ aygi;f tvdu
k f avmif;qif&
zd@k +zKd uef aD &// ,if;ydik q
f akd u orm;&k;d usaemufvu
kd af e;yif+zKd uaf wvd@k pdu
k af yG;wdik ;f rm qH;k ,H;_ +y;D au awmf
vSe&f ;D /Edik if &H ;D a,mhusvm;&zd@k / qH;k ,_;H vm;&zd@k yif+zdKufaw// ,if;twGuw
f ma=umifh ig&h @kd a& a,bk,
tajcteDeef@ vuQ%mudk *&kpu
kd &f a&ydik f ud,
k yf ikd t
f ajcteD xl;jcm;csuef ef@ vuQ%mxl;jcm;csu&f @kd
udak v; *&kpu
kd &f zd@k yif+zKd ufaw// a,+y;D rS&m tjyifa&mtESpyf g *&kpu
kd &f musa&// a,bk,oabmw&m;
oufoufuv
kd u
dk ef aD u tjyifukd udik ef aD &vd@k q&kd zd@k // &kyw
f &m; tESpo
f m&w&m;udk rudik rf v
d @dk qd&k zd@k +zKd uf
aw// pdu
k af tmif&;D vrf;a=umif;udk ydu
k yf ,f+y;D au atmifayG;[d&mvrf;a=umif;udk vrf;cG+J y;D au vltax;
u vlt+zdKufukd pGe@f +yD;au a,bk,oabmw&m;qdak &}udK;eef@ wdik ;f ajyudt
k wif;ezm;xd;k vd@k qG,
J zl @kd
}uKd ;pm;eDa&vd@k qd&k zd@k +zKd ufaw// ,if;ydik q
f akd u qENyikd ;f (rdr0d g'.tapG;tvrf;ydik ;f )twGuf yuwdyikd ;f udk
tvkyt
f au|;jyKzd@k ckid ;f eD&m+zKd ufaw// rdrt
d }uKd uf qENyikd ;f twGuf trsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH udk tvkyt
f au|;
jyKz@kd ap;&H;k odr;f oGi;f eDpmG wdu
k af yG;0ifepD mG +zKd uaf wvd@k q&kd zd@k / trSerf mS yuwdyikd ;f (ud,
k ahf jy.yuwdyikd ;f )a&
t"du ud,
k q
hf ENyikd ;f a& omrn+zdKuf&zd@k yif? ,if;ydik q
f adk u r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[mudk ud,
k t
hf }udKuf
ud,
k &hf ifwiG ;f ud,
k ahf csmif;wGi;f rSm usi;f y+y;D au ajyolw&yfv;kH udk trsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH udk ckw;kH vkyzf @kd }ueH &D m
usa&? ,au ud,
k w
f @Gd xm;a& 0g'w&yfeef@ ajyol@ut
dk usKd ;jyKzd@k tpm; ud,
k u
hf &kd mtrsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH u
tusK;d jyKatmif av;pm;eD&musvm;a&// *kyikd t
f +zKd uw
f u
d kd tEdik Ef ikd if H awmfveS &f ;D rm&m wd@G Eikd pf mG r[kw?f
&cdik af wmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f rmav; trsm;yifw@Gd &a&// txl;ojzifh 20 &mpkawmfveS &f ;D c&D;udk jyefa=u@auav;
wd@G Eikd af &? a'ed&ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap; &kyb
f 0awmif;qdck sut
f wdik ;f ay:ayguv
f ma& r[mAsL[mrSm
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D +zKd uaf w// a'r[mAsL[ma& w&m;a&/ rSeu
f efa&// a&a&Gcsurf mS udv
k ekd u
D |eb
f 0u
vGyv
f yf&;D +zdKufaw// ,if;a=umifh trsKd ;om;wefjyef awmfveS &f ;D pdu
k u
f kd trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D pdu
k ef ef@
wdu
k cf u
kd t
f Edik ,
f &l zd@k +zKd ufaw// ,if;pdu
k u
f kd tEdik w
f u
kd Ef ikd zf @kd twGuf pdu
k .
f a,bktajcteD vuQ%meef@

103

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
wuG ud,
k t
f ajcteDx;l eef@ vuQ%m&d@k ukd *&kpu
kd &f zk@d +zKd ufaw// &ckid af jyax;rSm +zKd ufay:ca& rwla&o
rdik ;f tqifw
h /d +zKd ufay:ca&pdu
k af yG;wd/ vuQ%mcsi;f rwla& pdu
k af yG;wd/ rwla&ya'o&du
k rf m +zKd ufymG ;a&
pdu
k af yG;wd/ rwla&aeacs@wed ef@ wdu
k cf u
kd &f a&wdu
k af yG;wd/ aoeuAsL[mwdukd pl;prf;vdv
h m ynm,l&zd@k
yif+zKd uaf w? &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D eef@ ArmawmfveS &f ;D abmif a&mxG;D vm;jcif;&d@k uakd v; pl;prf;vdv
h m
ynm,l&zd@k +zdKufaw// ,if;&d@k a& r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[m. jy\emwdukd pl;prf;vdv
h mjcif;yif+zdKufaw?
r[mAsL[mqdpk mG a& awmfveS &f ;D tajcteDw&yfv;kH . vkyif ef;tpDtpOf+zdKufaw// wurBmv
h ;kH . awmf
vSe&f ;D tjcteDeef@av;aumif;/ Edik if w
H Edik if .
H awmfveS &f ;D tajcteDeef@av;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D pcef;
qifh tajcteDeef@av;aumif;/ oufqikd af &// ,if;eef@Zk r[mAsL[mudk atmifayG;&atmif vkyaf qmif
a&tcgrm t&D;}u;D qH;k tcsuu
f m; vkyif ef;tpDtpOfwckv;kH udk txl;*&kpu
kd zf @kd vadk &// ,if;*&kwpdu
k f vkyf
aqmifa&tcgrm atmufygtcsut
f vufwu
d kd w@[
Gd &d a&// trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umv (txl;ojzifh
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D umvtwGi;f )rmqdak u ,if;tcsut
f vufwyd if t"du+zKd uaf wvd@k ,q
l a&?
(1)
(2)
(3)
(4)
(5)
(6)
(6)
(7)

awmfveS &f ;D pcef;qifw
h ck tpDtpOftwdik ;f qufpyfejD cif; (&ckid t
f rsKd ;om; wmfveS &f ;D .
yufyif;jy\em)
trsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D orm;eef@ aeacs@&@kd qufpyfejD cif;(&efbufywdyuQ)
awmfveS &f ;D wck t"duarmif;ESi&f ;D tm;oH;k &yf+zdKufaw pD;yGm;&D;/ Edik if &H ;D / ,dik af us;r_&@kd
qufpyfejD cif;/
trsKd ;om;pdw"f gw/f awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;/ aoe*FAsL[m pdu
k yf nm&d@k . qufpyfejD cif;
( yufyif;vkt
d yfcsu)f
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D . t&Htiftm;pk t"dutiftm;pk&@kd qufqyfejD cif;//
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D udk OD;aqmifry_ gpmG eef@ trsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH qufpyfejD cif;/
(t"duvkt
d yfcsu)f
r[mAsL[meef@ ae;AsL[m&d@k . qufpyfejD cif; //
attcsut
f vufwu
d kd wd[
G &d a&//

atjy\emwdukd pl;prf;qifjcifvv
hd ma=u@au em;vnfEikd af &? oabmayguEf ikd af &// em;vnf
&Hek ef@r+yD; oabmayguaf tmif pl;prf;qifjcif vdv
h m&zd@k +zdKufaw// pl;prf;qifjcif vdv
h mEdik af u aq;yl;zd@k
udu
k pf vS,v
f m;a&/ aq;yl;Edik af u toH;k csz@kd v,
G u
f v
l ma&// pedww
f us toH;k csjcif;a& ae;AsL[mydik ;f udk
rSeu
f efpmG pDrEH ikd af &// ae;AsL[mydik ;f udk rSerf eS u
f efuefprD EH ikd af u r[mAsL[mudk atmifatmifjrifjrif
vkyaf qmifEikd af &// r[mAsL[m atmifayG;cH&atmif vkyaf qmifEikd af &// a'acgi;f pdik .
f ed*;kH ydik ;f rm &ckid af jy
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D pdw.
f xl;jcm;csuw
f u
d kd tusKd if;csKyfwifjyvku
d af w//

104

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

,if ; &d k U rm
(1)

&ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D eef@ ArmEdik if &H ;D udk a&mxG;D Edik af &// pD;yGm;&D;t& csKd ;ESrd jf cif;cHe&D a&// ,SOaf us;r_t&
trsKd ;om;vuQ%mudk rsKd ;yGm;cHe&D a&// u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd ED ikd if w
H ck+zdKufaw//
(2)
&ckid Ef ikd if rH m pD;yGm;&D;t& ya'o&mZfpedwf t=uGi;f tusew
f d t+ydKtysuw
f d aw[deaD &
ya'o&mZf wydik ;f Edik if +H zdKufaw//
(3)
&efot
l iftm; }uD;rm;jcif;+zdKufaw/ &efo&l @kd twGuq
f akd u ol&@kd wu
kd cf u
kd &f zd@k pu
kd rf mS
wpdyw
f a'o pdu
k t
f iftm;udo
k ;kH vd@k wdu
k cf u
kd &f zd@k +zdKufaw// ig&h @kd twGuq
f adk u wrsKd ;om;vH;k
qifE;GD &zk@d pu
kd +f zdKufaw?
(4)
trsKd ;om;tiftm;pkwd odrihf ,ftm;nHeh aD &/ z&dzk &Jjyef@a=u;eDa&/ ta&twGuaf &m/
ta&tcsi;f yg &efox
l uf tm;nHeh aD &//
(5)
vuf[u
d mvrm trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D twGuf acgi;f aqmifry_ gwu
D kd }udK;pm;eDwek ;f +zdKuf
aw// ap;&H;k &D;rSmav; aumif;aumif;edusew
D ek ;f +zKd ufaw// attcsuif g;csuaf & xl;jcm;a&vd@k
,lqa&// atxl;jcm;csuw
f u
d kd txufu o#i;f jy+yD;c,m+zdKufawvd@k xyfv@kd wifjyzd@k v@kd z@kd
r[kw,
f m// a'xl;jcm;csuw
f rd myif r[mAsL[meef@ ae;AsL[m trsKd ;om;twGuf aoe*FAsL
[m pdu
k Af sL[meef@ pdu
k yf &d,m,f&@kd ay:ayguv
f mpGm+zdKufaw//
a'w&m;wduyif awmfveS &f ;D . vrf;nGe@f vrf;pdik f vkyaf e;vky[
f ef&@kd udk owfrw
S yf ;D vdu
k af w// &yfawcsu/f
,Hak =uhcsu/f OD;awcsu/f a&a&Gcsu&f @kd ukd rG;D xkwv
f u
kd pf mG av; xl;jcm;csuw
f yd if+zdKufaw//


105

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )

tcef;(8)
aumufEkwfcsufwd
csdKufawa&;abmftaygif;&dkU
“Zmvkyfuwfzdk@av;? (0g)&ckdifawmfvSef&D;. jy\emwd” pmwrf;udk a&;abmf&dk@udk
wifjyaqG;ED;G pGm tydik ;f }u;D (8)ydik ;f [d,m// a'tydik ;f qdak u (8)ydik ;f [dz@kd ? a'tydik ;f rm aumufpu
dk x
f w
k af =uh
uwfar// aemufqHk;ed*Hk;ydkif;rm aumufpdkufcsuf csrSwfpGmwfudkwcg vkyfief;ydkif;vufwdGoabm
csrw
S u
f wfar//

(1) ed'gef; “ZmvkyfuwfzdkUav;”//

&ckdifhtrsdK;om;wd Zmvkyfuwfzdk@av;// &ckdifEdkifiHeef@ trsdK;om;vGwfvyfatmif igh&dk@}udK;
yrf;uwf&zd@k ?

(2) igh&dkUZmawmfvSef&D;rsdK;eefU awmfvSefuwf&zdkav;//

ArmeDacs@ukd trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D eef@ ig&h @kd awmfveS u
f wf&zd@k //

(3) &ckdiftrsdK;om; awmfvSef&D;ordkif;aMumif;

(u) Armya'o&mZfaeacs@ukd awmfveS jf cif; &ckid Af rm oabmwlcsuu
f kd azmufzsu+f yD;au
usL;ausm0f ifa&mufvmjcif; yxrydik ;f (at'D-1&85- 1&88) usm;&D0wf awmifrif;}uD;/ Adv
k af usmif

106

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
xD;G . trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D 1788-ck &ckid t
f rsKd ;om; vuQ%mt&yf&yfukd Armaeacs@ya'o&mZfu
+cDre_ ;f zsuq
f ;D vdu
k jf cif;//

'kwd,ydkif; (at'D 1&84-1815 ) Adkvfcsif;ysH\ trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;//

(c) +Adwo
d #t&if;o#if eDacs@ukd awmfveS jf cif; (at'D 1826-&ckid f +Adwo
d #oabmwlcsuf
&E yW pkd mcsKyf (24 -2- 1826 )t& +Adwo
d #u &ckid af jyudk vufwvH;k jcm; vdrv
f @kd ord ;f ydu
k f
vdu
k jf cif;
'g;ydik }f uD;/ ajypd;k }ud;D / u|et
f yk -f trf;pm;/ rif;om;}uD;/ a';0ef}uD;/ +rdK@o}l uD;&d@k . trsKd ;om;
awmfveS &f ;D
Adv
k cf sKu
d pf H (av;+rdK@acsmif;). trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D
Adv
k af rmifomeD (oHawG;eD) }udro
f vDq&mawmf (oHawG;eD)
Adv
k af rmifO;D jzL (ajrmufO;D +rdK@e)D
ausmufprd ;f Adv
k f (oHawG;eD)
oHawG;q&mawmf (oHawG;eD )
Adv
k =f umxGe;f / Adv
k af &$v/S Adv
k v
f mb (pdu
k af wGc&dik )f
Adv
k af usm0f (oHawG;eD)
Adv
k cf si;f zd@k / Adv
k af rmifazmfatmif (&aohawmif)

oH k ; oyf c suf
(1) txufygawmfvSef&D;rSm

(u) awmfveS &f ;D . t"du0if&@kd +zdKufaw ap;&H;k r_tiftm;ae;yg;jcif;?
(c) awmfveS &f ;D oabmw&m;w&yf ckid cf ikd af emif;aemif; r[djcif;//
(*) &efol tajcteD/ ud,
k t
hf ajcteD/ ajyoltajcteD t&yf&yfukd pdppd yfpyf rqef;pdyaf b;
awmfveS &f ;D umv r&ifu
h suaf b; awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd jf cif;?
(C) pdu
k &f ;D / pdu
k &f m/ wdu
k af e;wdu
k [
f ef/ vkyaf e;vky[
f ef tm;ae;jcif;?
(i) r[mrdwt
f iftm;pk t&Htiftm;pk&@kd ukd pedww
f us rudik w
f ,
G cf jcif;?
(p) aeacs@ E_u
d w
f ikd =f um;u &ke;f uefe&D jcif;?

oH k ; oyf c suf
(2) txufygawmfvSef&D;. aumif;rGefjywfom;a& tcsuftvufwd
(u) cH,cl suf cdik cf ikd af emif;aemif;[djcif;?

107

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
(c) &efou
l kd oabmxm;jywfom;jcif;?
(*) ol@u|erf cHvpkd w
d t
f ajyht0[djcif;?
(C) +Adwo
d #tEd ,
dN qdak & pD;yGm;&D;pm;usu}f uD;udk azG@ap;jcif; ?
(i)1885 ckrm ucsi/f u,m;/ u&if/ &Sr;f /rGe/f Arm/ &cdik /f &Sr;f / tiftm;pktm;vH;k udk aygi;f ap;vd@k
d o
d #Am;rm;udk +Aw
d o
d #tEd ,
dN ax;rSm
+Aw
d o
d #bm;rm(British Burma)azG@ap;jcif;// aemuf+Aw
axhoiG ;f aygi;f ap;vdu
k jf cif;?

(p) 193&-ck NAdwdoQ Am;rm;ukd cGJxkwfjcif;eefU rwfrdk[wfaeerdwfrsOf;aMumif;owf
rS w f j cif ;
 +Adwo# -Am;rm;udk +Awdo#- tdE,
dN u acG;xkwjf cif;?
rwfr[
kd ef aeerdwf rsO;f a=umif;owfrw
S jf cif;?
&ckid &f [ef;yk*Kd~ vf vly*k Kd~ vfwd ,if;aeeedrw
d f jy\emudk rsuu
f ,
G jf yKwwfjcif;?

(q) &cdkifaeerdwf tjcr;fjcrf;cGJpdyfcH&jcif;/ ZmaMumifhav;

&ckid af jy tjcrf;jcrf; cGpJ yd cf &H jcif; (Partatain and Arakan)
u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd b
D 0udk usqif;vm;jcif;?
&ckid w
f ikd ;f (Arakan Division) vk@d owfrw
S cf &H jcif;?
AD -1853 ck awmifciG cf &kid ef ef@ [kid ;f }uD;d uGse;f &k@d udk &ckid af jyu zJ@xw
k v
f u
dk jf cif;?
Armhvw
G v
f yf&;D &+yD;aemuf yvuf0 c&kid u
f dk &ckid af jyu zJ@xw
k v
f u
dk jf cif;?
jAHKawmifukd tdE,
dN ax;rSmygvm;jcif;?
Akv
d rf if;axmif/ oufaxmif/ zvHaxmifeef@ b*F g 12 +rdK@a'o&k@d rmS yguu
kd pf wefax;rSmyg

vm;jcif;?
&ckid t
f rsK;d om; awmfveS &f ;D orkid ;f a=umif; a&mxG;D vm;jcif;?
yxr &ckid 0f o
H mEkacwf Zmykid af v;?
1826-ck p+yD;au +ADwo
d # ukrmR %Dtpk;d &u &ckid af jyukd ukv
d edk yD pHk t
H +zdKufow
G o
f iG ;f jcif;f ?
1852-ck rSm &ckid af jy (yvuf0/ ausmufjzL / pdu
k af wG/ oHawG;/ awmifciG cf &kid /f [kid ;f }u;D uGse;f )
yJc;l / rkwrW / weoFm&D&@dk udk +Adwo
d # ukr%
` t
D pk;d &u +Adwo
d #-Arm;ukd azG@ap;vku
d jf cif;/

108

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

r[m0efoQifawmfrif;BuD;u tkyfcsKyfjcif;

&ckid af jyrm vuf0cD (H 0g)uGeyf &m'kw
d ad y:ayguv
f mjcif;/ &k[
d if*sm(ac: )b*Fvu
D v
k m;wd

ajAmufaomuf 0ifvmuwfjcif;?
1885-ck Armbk&ifoaD yg@rif;ukd zrf;qD;jcif; &ckid af jyukd wkid ;f t+zdKufeef@ Armajyax;rm
axhvu
dk jf cif;
189& -ckrm bk&ifciH ,fwOD;u tkycf sKyjf cif; &ckid w
f idk ;f uku
d m; 0efo#iaf wmfrif;}u;D (Comm
issioner) tkyc
f sKyfjcif;?
AD 1826 -1916 ck twk;d twGi;f +Adwo
d #t&if;;o#iaf eacs@tpk;d &ukd &ckid t
f rsK;d om;
awmfveS &f ;D eef@ qefusiw
hf u
dk cf u
dk u
f wfjcif; //
AD 1937 ckrm +Adwo
d #Arm;ukcd x
JG w
k v
f u
dk jf cif;//
+Aw
d o
d #&@dk . vufatmufcb
H 0rm &ckid af jya& &efuek .
f wqifv
h ufatmufc+H zKd uv
f m;&jcif;/
&ckid Ehf idk if &H ;D acgi;f aqmifw/d &ckid pf myDorm;/ &ckid &f mZm0ifq&mwd/ ArmhEidk if &H ;D abmif/ Arm
pmyDabmif&@dk rm vly,
f mS ;eDuwfjcif;/
Ekid if &H ;D tazG@wad y:ayguv
f mjcif;
yxr&ckid 0f o
H mEkacwf abmifa&mxG;D vm;jcif;

ok H ; oyf c suf ( 3)

(1) 20-&mpkyxrykid ;f &ckid Ef idk if &H ;D acgi;f aqmif/ pmyDacgi;f aqmif&@dk / trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D
vrf;a=umif;ukd *&krpku
d jf cif;?
(2) +Aw
d o
d #t&if;o#iaf eacs@&@kd &ckid pf ;D yGm;&D;/ vlr&_ ;D / Edik if &H ;D &d@k u/kd ,dik af us;r_&@kd ukd a&mxG;D ydu
k jf cif;/
&ckid af jyudk cGpJ yd cf siyf ikd cf pJG yd v
f @kd aygi;f pyfcsiyf ikd f aygi;f pyfyu
kd jf cif;//
(3) Armya'o&mZfaeacs@&@kd &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;vuQ%mudk zsuq
f ;D ydu
k jf cif;/ wajyvH;k udk aqmuf
aw&mr&atmif ESu
d pf ufowfjzwfjcif;?
(4) &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;tcsi;f csi;f a'oapG;t&/ *d%
k ;f apG;t& cGjJ cm;uwfjcif;/ trsKd ;om;ap;&H;k &D;
+ydKuGyJ supf ;D jcif;?

20 &mpk yxrydkif; awmfvSef&D;wd Zmydkifav;

+Adwo
d # t&if;o#iaf eacs@ vufatmufrm tdyaf rmusecD jcif;?
0dik t
f rfbaD ttoif;/ *spD b
D aD ttoif;&d@k rm Armjynfa&muf &ckid yf nmwwfwd yg0ifvy_ f

,Sm;eDuwfjcif;

109

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D toif;tazG@tap;wd ay:ayguv
f mjcif;//
1923-ck 'dik t
f mcD pedwaf y:ayguv
f mjcif;/ &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;wd ,if;wGiv
f y_ ,
f mS ;eDuwfjcif;/
cG&J ;D /awG;&D;/ jy\emwd Armajy twGuf pm;ayG;0dik ;f aqG;ED;G ayG;wdrm v_y,
f mS ;eDuwfjcif;//
'd@k Armtap;t&H;k Armajyrmay:ayguv
f mjcif;//
&ckid v
f il ,ftcsKd @ aemuf+rD;qGu
J wfjcif;/
91-Xme tkycf sKyf&;D ay:aygujf cif;// &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;wd ,if;wGiv
f y_ ,
f mS ;eDuwfjcif;//

zufqdwf*syef eDacsUacwf

'd@k Arm qif;&Jom;tap;t&H;k zwyv&d@k vufatmufukd &ckid w
f ikd ;f vH;k qdik &f m wdik ;f &if;om;

tap;tvH;k 0ifuwfjcif;/ aemuf+rD;qGv
J u
kd jf cif;//
zwyv (&ckid w
f ikd ;f )/ Arm rsKd ;csKd ufwyfrawmf(&ckid w
f ikd ;f ) t+zKd ufeef@ zufqpf*syefukd &efuek f
nGe=f um;csut
f wdik ;f awmfveS u
f wfjcif;//

NAdwdoQtpdk;& *pfbD;&*pfbD vufatmufcH&cdkifajy/

Edik if &H ;D t& / pD;yGm;&D;t& / vlr&_ ;D t& +Adwo
d #&@kd zdEydS jf cif;/
0&rf;+yD;or*~&@kd ay:ayguv
f m&jcif;//
&ckid t
f rsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D vrf;a=umif; aysmufq;kH vm&jcif;

a0zefcsuf

ysm;aw;nDvmcH (zwyv &ckid w
f ikd ;f ) awmif;qdck suw
f d/
pD;yGm;&D; tajcteD qd;k 0g;vmyH/k
awmuef nDvmcH. qH;k jzwfcsuw
f /d
Armajy Edik if &H ;D tuGt
J jyJw/d &ckid af jyrm aemufvu
kd t
f uGt
J jyJw/d
q&mawmfto#ipf Ed mW . &ckid af csmif;aqG;ED;G ayG;
ajryHv
k uf0n
J n
D w
G &f ;D wyfaygi;f pk nDvmcHvuf0n
J n
D w
G f &D;wyfaygi;f pk nDvmcH/

q&mawmftoQifOD;pdE mW tzrf;cH&jcif;/

+Adwo
d #vufatmuf &ckid af jyrS Armvufatmuf &ckid af jyt+zdKuf pwifykH a0zefcsu?f
ArmEdik if &H ;D *,ufa=umifh &ckid af jyu ygwt
D oD;oD; awmcdu
k wfjcif;/ vlwef;pm;awmfveS &f ;D

udk xdyk gww
D d vkyaf qmifuwfjcif;?

110

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
awmfveS &f ;D pcef;qifh a&mxG;D vmjcif;?

1948-ck aemufydkif;avmufrm &ckdifajyvufeufudkif awmfvSef&D;avmurm

(1) to#ipf Ed mW ax&f acgi;f aqmifa& ajyolvw
G af jrmuf&;D ygw?D
(2) a&;abmfausmjf r acgi;f aqmifa& ArmajyuGejf rLedwyf gw?D
(3) a&;eD AHak yguo
f mausmf acgi;f aqmifa& uGejf rLedwyf gw?D
(4) ajyola&;abmfygw&D ckid af jy vlwef;pm;ygw.
D abmifa&mxD;G jcif;/ pcef;qifah &mxD;G jcif;/
(5) aemuf+rD;qGjJ cif;&d@k ukd a0zefo;kH oyfcsu/f /
(6) 1958-ck &ckid af wmwGi;f ygwt
D csKd @eef@ a&;abmfwt
d vif;0ifjcif;

“uWef y k e f ; acwf”
'kw,
d &ckid 0f o
H mEkacwf(&ckid t
f rsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D / ap;&H&k ;D umv)
&ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@wd qkw,
f w
k af w vuQ%mwd udv
k ekd v
D uQ%m/ avorm;vuQ%m/ AsL&du
k
a&pD/ rif;rJ*h %
kd ;f apG;/ a'oapG;/ bmomapG;/ vlrsKd ;apG;/ pcef;vGerf /_ &mxl;rufr?_

20-&mpkyxrydkif; &ckdifEdkifiH&D;umv tusKdif;csKy
csKyf

&wn. ajyeDvy_ ,
f mS ;&D; pwifvmjcif;/ ,if;. r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[m?
&ckid 0f o
H mEktpdu
k t
f rSef vkyif ef;wd?
20-&mpk 'kw,
d ydik ;f umv Edik if &H ;D tazG@tap;wd//
yxr &ckid 0f o
H mEkacwfeef@ 'kw,
d &ckid 0f o
H mEkacwf Edik ;f ,_id af 0zefjcif;?
'kw,
d &ckid 0f o
H mEkacwf. xl;jcm;csuw
f ?d
ArmEdik if &H ;D ygwD tuGt
J ajy;wd/ &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D rm *,uf&u
kd rf w
_ ?d
25 / 2 / 62 &Sr;f ajy awmif}uD;nDvmcH z,f'&,frl
2/ 3/ 62 zufqw
d f eD0if;tpd;k & tm%modr;f jcif;
&cdik af jyudk wdik ;f cGJ (13)vd@k owfrw
S jf cif;
&ckid af jyudk zufqw
d af e;eef@zEd ydS jf cif;/

(c)&ckdiftrsdK;om; awmfvSef&D;ygwD tazGUtap;rsm; ay:aygufvmjcif;?

vsKd @0u
S Ef ikd if &H ;D v_y,
f mS ;jcif;wd trsKd ;om;tiftm;pkwd tzrf;cHuwf&jcif;/ tcsKd @awmcdjk cif;/

111

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
&ckid af jy vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@csKyf (&rvy)
,if;. r[mAsL[m ae;AsL[m
&ckid af jy uGejf rLedwyf gwD (&uy)
,if;.cH,cl su/f r[mAsL[m/ ae;AsL[m
&ckid af jy trsKd ;om;nDnw
G &f ;D tazG@ (&rnz)
&ckid af jy vGwv
f yf&;D wyfO;D (&vw)
Armaeacs@qef@usi&f ;D / &ckid af jy trsKd ;om;vGwaf jrmuf&;D wyfaygi;f pk/ ,if;.cH,l csuw
f ?d
zufqw
d w
f u
kd zf su&f ;D trsKd ;om;wyfaygi;f pk ,if;.vkyaf qmifcsuw
f /d &cdik af jyawm wGi;f yg

wDwd
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D udk r[mAsL[mcif;vd@k ay:ayguv
f ma& tazG@tap;wd// &ckid af jyol@
orRwEdik if u
H kd ae;AsL[mcif;usi;f a&ygw/D /
&rvz/ &uyae;AsL[m &ckid af jyol@orRwEdik if /H r[mAsL[m/ ajyol'rD u
kd a&pD awmfveS &f ;D
(&vw/ &rnz)?
&ckid af jytrsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D abmifrm &yfawuwfaw &ckid w
f ikd ;f &if;om; tazG@t
ap;wdvrl sKd ;pktazG@ tap;wd?
&ckid af jy csi;f trsKd ;om; vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@?
&ckid af jy &Giu
hf sm rlqviftrsKd ;om; vGwaf jrmuf&;D tazG@?
&ckid af jy ajyol'rD u
kd a&pD awmfveS &f ;D udk r[mAsL[m cif;usi;f xm;a&ygww
D ?d
uGejf rLedwyf gwD (&ckid af jyaumfro#i)f ?
Armajy uGejf rLedwyf gw(D &ckid af jyeD )?
&uy ae;AsL[m &ckid jf ynfoo
l rRwEdik if ?H
trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D eef@ awmfveS &f r,f//

r[mAsL[m/ ae;AsL[meefU cH,lcsufwd/

(u) trsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f qufukd OD;xdyx
f m;vd@k qufc&H zd@k ?
(c) &ckid w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k vGwv
f yf&;D twGuf trsK;d om;awmfveS &f ;D ud&k m vkyaf qmif&zk@d ?
(*) ig&@kd .cH,cl suw
f d
(1) &ckid af jya& oD;jcm;Edik if H wEdik if +H zdKufaw// &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;a& oD;jcm;tazG@tap;
+zdKufaw?
(2) &ckid af jya& vH;k 0udv
k ekd eD ef@ ya'o&mZf wydik ;f Ekid if +H zdKufaw//

112

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
(3) ig&h @kd .t"du &efoal & Armaeacs@+zdKufaw//
(4) vufeufuikd f awmfveS &f ;D &m &ckid af jy vGwv
f yf&;D udk tqH;k tjzwfy;D zk@d +zdKufaw//
Oya'wGi;f wku
kd f ayG;&d@k um; tajcteD taxmuftyHu
h &kd m yD;Edik v
f rd rhf ,f+zdKufaw/
(5) t*k eDacs@eef@ya'o&mZf qef@usi&f ;D pdu
k u
f kd ajywGi;f pdu
k /f ajyolpu
kd v
f @kd rcH,&l /
trsKd ;om;pdu
k v
f @kd &m cH,&l zk@d +zdKufaw//

3? (u) &ckdifajya& oD;jcm;EkdifiH wEdkifiHNzdKufaw/ &ckdifvlrItazGUtap;a& oD;jcm;trsdK;
om;w&yfNzdKufaw/
(1) wlnaD & yx0D teDtxm;[djcif;//
(2) wlnaD & pD;yGm;&D; obm0[djcif;//
(3) wlnaD & bmompum;[djci;f//
(4) oD;jcm;trsKd ;om; ,dik af us;r_[jd cif;//

(u) 1/ wlnDa& yx0DteDtxm;[djcif;//

bDpaD vmufu &ckid af jyrm &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap; pwifex
D ikd af &//
a0omvD/ 'Gg&0wD/ "n0wD&@kd rm tif't
kd ,f&,
D v
H rl sKd ;/ oufvrl sKd ;/ +rdK@vrl sKd ;&d@k Eikd if H (State)

xlaxmifuwfjcif;//
&SEd idk if jH cm;qufq&H ;D ?
at'D 1454-ck e&Ekrif;}uD;. aeerdwo
f wfrw
S jf cif;//
at'D 1517-ck rif;bmbk&if. aeerdwo
f wfrw
S jf cif;//
ordik ;f trGt
D qu af eerdwef ef@ &ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;vuf[d 'dXaeerdw/f /

(u) 2/ wlnDa& pD;yGm;&D;obm0[djcif;//

av,mvkyif ef;/ O,di_ v
f yk if ef;/ wHigvyk if ef;/ qm;vkyif ef;/ &dpS ;D yGm;&D;?
Armaeacs@vufatmuf &ckid pf ;D yGm;&D;/ a&eHvyk if ef;?

(u) 3// wlnDa& bmompum;[djcif;//
a'otvdu
k f &ckid pf um;oHw?d
&ckid f wdik ;f &if;om;wd/ (+rdK/ crD/ 'dik ;f euf/ &Sr;f 'l;/ ouf/ vif;au;/ +rHK/ r*lyg (0g) rm&rm}uD;/
tEk/ acgipf /kd cH/k acsm/ &cdik )f ?

113

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
trsKd ;om;pmyDw&yfukd xlaxmifEikd af & tiftm;eef@ ajyhpEkH ikd af &?

(u) 3? oD ; jcm;trsd K ;om;,d k i f a us;r_ [ d j cif ;
(1) ud;k uG,rf q
_ ikd &f m ,dik af us;r_?
(2) bmom pmyDqikd &f m ,dik af us;r_?
(3) okcrk tEkynmqkid &f m ,dik af us;r_?
(4) qif,ifx;kH azG@rq
_ idk &f m ,dik af us;r_?
(5) Adou
k m qdik &f m ,dik af us;r_?
3// (c) &ckdifajya& vHk;0udkvdkeDEdkifiHeef@ ya'o&dkuf wydkif;EdkifiH+zdKufaw//
vuf[u
d mvrm &ckikd af jya& u|eyf ek ;f udv
k ekd ED ikd if H wEdik if +H zdKufaw// &ckid t
f csKyftcsmtm
%mudk Armu odr;f ydu
k cf sKyfuikd x
f m;a&// Armajyaxmifpq
k adk & a0g[m&eef@ zH;k uG,x
f m;jcif;/
pD;yGm;&D;/ Ekid if &H ;D / vlr&_ ;D t& zdEydS x
f m;jcif;// +Adwo
d # ya'o&mZf pedww
f ydik ;f [djcif;?
av,m+rD jyKjyifajymif;av;&D;ukd tem*wfumvrm wd;k wufawavmuudk wufvrS ;f zd@k
twGuf ajcvSr;f opf wvSr;f t+zdKuf vkyaf qmif&zd@k ?
av,m+rD a wmf v S e f & D ; . t"d u a&a&G c suf
(1) avvkyo
f w
l idk ;f avydik q
f ikd &f ;D ?
(2) cdu
k rf rDa& av,mvkyif ef;udk cdu
k rf aD & av,mvkyif ef;t+zdKufajymif;av;&D;?
(3) avxGuyf apP;udk avorm;tajyht0cHpm;&D;?
avorm;vl w ef ; tv$ m av;v$ m
(1) +rDo#i}f uD;?
(2) csr;f oma& avorm;?
(3) tavtvwfavorm;?
(4) qif;&Ja& avorm;?

av,mwk d u f a yG ; vrf ; pOf

(1)oD;pm;wku
d af yG;?
(2)vufiw
k v
f uf&if; vufrjyKwf&;D wdu
k af yG;?
(3) av,m+rD ajyolyikd f wdu
k af yG;?

114

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;
(4)pkaygi;f av,mwdu
k af yG; (0g) uGeAf sL;wdu
k af yG;/ &rnzeef@ &rvwwd@k . wdu
k af yG;vrf;pdik f
(buy)eef@ (&uy) &d@k . wku
d af yG;vrf;pOf?

awmf v S e f & D ; tif t m;oH k ; ck

(1) tvkyo
f rm;t+cDct
H m;?
(2) avorm;eef@ "eo#iaf ygupf t"dutm;?
(3) rsK;d csKd ufajycsKd uf "eo#it
f &Htm;/ AD,ufemrfeef@ w&kwaf wmfveS &f ;D wd?

3// (i) igh&dkU\t"du&efolrSm ArmaeacsUNzdKufaw//

&ckid v
f rl t
_ azG@tap;wGif ywdyuQ?
Armaeacs@eef@ &ckid w
f rsKd ;om;w&yfv;kH . ywdyuQa& t"duywdyuQ+zKd uaf w// Armaeacs@a&

t"du&efo+l zdKufaw//

3// (C) vuf e uf u d k i f awmf v S e f & D ; &m vG w f v yf & D ; twG u f tqH k ; tjzwf N zd K uf a w/
Oya'wGif; wdkufayG;um; tNcDteD taxmufyHhudk&myD;Edkifvdrfhr,f//
Armaeacs@u ol@pu
kd t
f iftm;/ Edik if &H ;D tiftm;eef@ &ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D tiftm;wGi;f rm &ckid t
f csKyf

tcsmtm%mudk usL;ausmo
f rd ;f ydu
k x
f m;pGmudk ig&h @kd omrmefawmif;qdv
k @kd r&// &cdik pf u
kd t
f iftm;
&ckid Ef ikd if &H ;D tiftm;eef@ awmfveS w
f u
kd cf u
kd &f zd@k +zdKufaw//

trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;\ vufeufoHk;yg;/

(1) pif=u,freG jf rwfaw trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwv
f ufeuf?
(2) awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& oabmw&m;vufeuf?
(3) acwfrpD u
kd v
f ufeuf?
awmfveS &f ;D . t+cDcpH cef;?
trsL'd om;pdu
k "f gwf vlrsKd ;&D;pdw"f gw/f oabmw&m;qdpk mG a& vl@toH;k cHyapP;&m+zKd ufaw?
tvky.
f vrf;nGe@f &m+zdKufaw// pdu
k .
f w&m;a& ajymif;av;eDa& wd;k wufeaD &// t+cDteDeef@
pdu
k .
f vuQ%mudk xl;jcm;a&t+cDteDeef@ xl;jcm;a&vuQ%m//

115

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
3/ (i) t*kaeacsUeefU ya'o&mZfqefUusif&D;pdkufudk ajywGif;pdkuf? ajyolpdkufvdkU rcH
,l & ? trsKd ; om;pd w f v d k U &mcH , l & a&/
ajywGi;f pdu
k f (Civil War)/ ajyolpu
kd f (People War) trsKd ;om;pdu
k f (National War)

(C) ig&h @kd . r[mAsL[mrSm trsKd ;om; awmfveS &f ;D +zdKufaw//
(i) ae;AsL[mrSm trsKd ;om; nDnw
G &f ;D +zdKufaw//
awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& r[mAsL[meef@ ae;AsL[m
t"duywdyuQtwdik ;f r[mAsL[m+zdKufay:vma&/ yHpk w
H d (w&kwaf wmfveS &f ;D &ckid af wmf
vSe&f ;D )


116

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

tcef ; (8)
vk y f i ef ; yd k i f ;
csd K uf a w&J a bmf t aygif ; &d k U

ig&h @kd a&&cdik af wmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f . t+zKd ufrsKd ;pHw
k d 0HomEkacwf E_u
d af cwf. xl;jcm;csuw
f d Arm/
&ckid af bmifa&mxD;G vmjcif;a=umifh ihg&@kd txdemcsuw
f d pa&pGmwdukd a0zefowWKcs+yD;au aqG;ED;G c,m
+zdKufaw// tqH;k rm aumufpu
kd cf suu
f akd v; wifjyc,m+zdKufaw// a'tcsut
f vufwad & ig&h @kd .twdG
t}uHK/ ig&h @kd tawG;tac:/ ihg&@kd .A[kow
k &cdik o
f rdik ;f &ky.
f &ky0f wWK t+zdKuftEdu
k w
f u
d kd aygi;f pyfE;DS aESm+yD;
au wifjyaqG;ED;G jcif;/ aumufpu
kd cf sjcif;+zdKufonf// a'tcsut
f vufwad & ig&h @kd .trsKd ;om; awmfveS f
&D;umvrm aumif;aumif;xda&mufz@kd tcsut
f vufwyd if +zdKufvrd rhf ,f// ig&h @kd .yxrpcef;qifh trsKd ;
om;awmfveS &f ;D twGuf udik af pG;&zd@k cH,cl suw
f yd if+zdKufz@kd ,lq&a&//

csd K uf a w&J a bmf t aygif ; &d k U

ig&h @kd a& oabmw&m; oufoufeef@ pcef;vm;au t+rKH +zKd uef v
D rd rfh nf/ vufw@Gd oufoufeef@
pcef;vm;au tuef;+zdKufev
D rd af r// ,if;eef@Zk oabmw&m;eef@ vufw@Gd aygi;f pyfr&S m atmifayG;t
a&muf wdu
k cf u
kd cf sw
D ufEikd zf @kd +zKd ufaw// tvkyv
f yk &f mwdik ;f rm pDru
H ed ;f cs+y;D au ae;aumif;vrf;aumif;udk
udik af wG+yD;au wm0efcsv@kd vkyaf qmifr&S m ,if;tvkyaf & vkyif ef;w&yf+zdKufaw// atmifayG;twGuf
ajyh0a&/ aumif;jrwfaw tvkyt
f aqmifwck+zdKufaw//

117

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
yxrtcsuf?

ig&h @kd rm awmfveS &f ;D wck. awG;ac:ajrmfjrif&;D w&m;/ awmfveS &f ;D wck. oabmw&m;/ cH,cl su/f
&yfawcsu/f ,Hak =uhcsu/f OD;awcsu/f a&a&Gcsu&f @kd cdik cf ikd af ESmif;aESmif; [dz@kd v@kd a&//

'k w d , tcsuf?

r[mAsL[m jywfom;awhrwfz@kd v@kd a&// ae;AsL[mudk yg;eyfusiv
f nfpmG / odrahf rG@eufae;pGm/
ae;rSef vrf;rSef oH;k wwfz@kd vadk &//

wwd,tcsuf?

a'umvrm rsKd ;csKd ut
f iftm;pktoD;oD;/ woD;y*~v
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t&D;}uD;a&// oHr%da&;abmfwu
d pkd ak p;+yD;au trmcHt+rHKawygwD awaqmufz@kd vadk &// a,+yD;au
wqifh au'gygwD (0g)ap;&H;k &D;ygwD awaqmufz@kd vakd &// ap;&H;k &D;a& awmfveS &f ;D . t"du0if&;kd +zdKufaw
twdik ;f ap;&Hk &D; vkyaf wtcg r[mAsL[mqdpk mG udk awhrufpmG jywfom;pGm csrw
S x
f m;+y;D au ae;AsL[mudk
txl;u|r;f usif vdrmR yd&pd mG eef@ ae;rSev
f rf;rSef oH;k wwfz@kd v@kd a&// r[mAsL[mwck atmifjrifz@kd twGuf
ae;AsL[m axmifaomif;ruvdak &// ihg&@kd ckid w
f rsKd ;om;vH;k udk ap;&H;k a&tcgrm pD;pD;pdu
k pf u
kd v
f yk zf @kd vakd &/
1// tvkyo
f rm;/ avorm;/ "eo#iaf ygupf / rsKd ;csKd ufajycsKd uf"eo#i/f a'vlwef;pm;av;&yfukd
yxrpcef;qifh trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D umvrm nDnw
G &f ;D wyfaygi;f pkEikd zf @kd twGuf ap;&H;k a& t"duvuf
euf+zdKufaw//

pwkwW
wtcsuf
Wt csuf?
awmfvSef&D;w&yfrSm armif;ESif&D;tiftm; oHk;&yf[da&/

(1) Edik if &H ;D tiftm;
(2) pD;yGm;&D;tiftm;
(3) ,di_ af us;r_ tiftm;&d@k yif+zdKufaw//
,if;a=umifh trsKd ;om;awmfveS &f ;D r[mAsL[meef@tnD pD;yGm;&D;pku
d pf +zdKufaw av,m+rDjyKk
jyifajymif;av;&D;udk awG;+yD;au vkyfaqmifzdk@vdka&ae;wl EdkifiHjcm;,dkifaus;r_udk qef@usif+yD;au
trsKd ;om;,dik af us;r_ jyKjyif ajymif;av;&D;udv
k ahd wG;vd@k vkyaf qmifz@kd vakd &//

118

Zmvkyu
f wfz@kd av;

yOPrtcsuf
r tcsuf//
//
trsdK;om;awmfvSef&D;udk qifaEG;zdkUtwGuf

1? pif=u,freG jf rwfaw trsKd ;om;pdw"f gwf ajy0h vmatmif }uKd ;pm;uwf&zk@d &ckid o
f rdik ;f t&yf&yf
urBmo
h rdik ;f / Ekid if w
H umordik ;f twWKywWu
d kd zwf&v
_ v
hd mzd@k vv
kd rd rhf ,f//
2?awmfveS rf eS u
f efa& oabmw&m;eef@ ajyh0a&pdw"f gwf +zdKufvmatmif }udK;pm;uwf&zd@k //
Ekid if &H ;D ody/H` Ekid if &H ;D azG@ap;yH/k Oya'ynm/ 'oeduynm/ abmuaA'ynm/ vlr&_ ;D ody'Hpa& bmom&yfwd
udak v;aumif;/ awmfveS &f ;D ordik ;f wduakd v;aumif; zwf&v
_ v
hd mzd@k vt
kd yfvrd af r? ud,
k Ehf idk if .
H &kyb
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hf ;kH uwfz@kd vdt
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f matmif }uKd ;pm;uwf&zd@k / ud,
k cf E<mynm trsKd ;rsK;d udw
k wfu|r;f &zd@k /
4? wd;k wufaw oabmw&m;&D;tiftm;eef@ ZGx
J ufoefpmG vufw@Gd vyk af qmifjcif;/
tiftm;ESpcf u
k kd aumif; aumif; rGerf eG f aygi;f pyfwwfz@kd vakd &//
5// opPmw&m;}uD; oH;k yg;udk eufae;pGm usio
hf ;kH vkyaf qmifz@kd vakd &//
(u) &ckid t
f rsKd ;om;tay:rSm xm;tyfawopPmw&m;/
(c) &ckid w
f ikd ;f ajytay:rSm xm;tyfaw opPmw&m;/
(*) &ckid af jy vGwv
f yf&;D wyfrawmftay:rSm xm;tyfaw opPmw&m; aoH;k yg;udk OD;xdyx
f m;
+yD;au usio
hf ;kH vkyaf qmifz@kd vv
kd ma&//
6// ud,
k /f E_w/f ESv;kH oH;k yg;vH;k rGeaf &aumif;jrwfatmif owd0&d ,
d eef@ xde;f ausmif;zd@k vv
kd ma&/
tz&ckid af jy Edik if eH ef@ trsKd ;om;vGwv
f yf&ar// nDnw
G rf j_ zifh atmifayG;od@k

pHausmfxeG ;f (r[m0dZmÆ )
(&aohawmifNrKdUae/ &Dacsmif;&Gm? xm;blawmifuGif; pcef;weD&mrm 21? 1? 69 edefU
18? 29 em&DtcsdefwGif &DG;om;ca&)

119

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