You are on page 1of 8

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]

Application of Weighted Total Acceleration

Equation on Wavelength Calculation
Syawaluddin Hutahaean
Ocean Engineering Program, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering,-Bandung Institute of Technology
(ITB), Bandung 40132, Indonesia
syawaluddin@ocean.itb.ac.id

Abstract—In this research, total acceleration equation is derivative where in this case, truncation error can only be
formulated where there is time scale coefficient at its time reduced by reducing the s ize of its interval. Based on
differential term. The formulation was done based on Courant criteria it is assumed that Taylor series for a
Courant Number equation and by using Taylor series. spatial and time function must contain a coefficient at the
Then this total acceleration is applied to kinematic free time interval. Then minimizing truncation error at Taylor
surface boundary condition and Euler momentum series obtains time coefficient value and interval s ize that
equations. Potential velocity and water surface equations produces the level of accuracy that fits with what has been
of linear water wave theory as well as wave number demanded.
conservation equation were substituted to momentum and
kinematic free surface boundary condition equations II. THE FORMULATION OF TOTAL
produced dispersion equation with wave amplitude as its ACCELERATION EQUATION WITH
variable and which fits with wave number conservation COEFFICIENT
equation. Wave number conservation equation is an In this section total acceleration equation will be
equation that regulates changes in wavelength as a result formulated where there is a coefficient at the time
of water depth changes. This equation was extracted from differential term.
potential velocity equation.
Keywords—Courant Number, Taylor Series, Total 2.1. Base of the Theory
Derivative, Wave Number Conservation Equation. a. Courant Number
Courant (1928) introduced Courant Number which is a
I. INTRODUCTION criteria relation between length interval (𝛿𝑥) with time
This research aims at finding a dispersion equation with a step (𝛿𝑡) to conduct numerical analysis at the fluid flow,
wavelength that fits with what exists in the nature. i.e.
Dispersion equation of linear wave theory (Dean, 1991), 𝑢𝛿𝑡
𝐶= < 𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥 .......(1)
𝛿𝑥
was formulated using kinematic free surface boundary
where 𝑢is a velocity, 𝛿𝑡is time step and 𝛿𝑥is length
condition and Bernoulli equations where this Bernoulli 𝛿𝑥
equation is formulated from Euler momentum equation. interval,𝐶𝑚𝑎𝑥 = 1. If at (1) 𝑢 = is defined, hence 𝐶 = 1
𝛿𝑡
Both at the kinematic free surface boundary condition and which does not meet the Courant Number criteria.
𝛿𝑥
Euler momentum equations there are total change term of However, if 𝑢= is defined where 𝛾 is a positive
𝛾𝛿𝑡
spatial and time function.
number greater than 1, then it will meet (1). From this
In the formulation of total acceleration equation, it is
𝑑𝑥
equation, a conclusion can be made that there is a
defined that at lim𝑑𝑥 and 𝑑𝑡 close to zero, 𝑢 = , where coefficient 𝛾 at time step 𝛿𝑡 to define a velocity. This
𝑑𝑡
𝑢 is a velocity of material movement. Courant number in coefficient can be stated as a time scale coefficient.
fluid mechanics (1928) stated that in order to be defined
𝑑𝑥
that 𝑢 = , there are certain criteria for the size of space b. Taylor Series Review
𝑑𝑡
length (𝑑𝑥) and time step (𝑑𝑡) . In general, it can be stated Taylor series is often used only up to the first derivative
that in order to be defined that at lim𝑑𝑥 and 𝑑𝑡 close to or with an accuracy of 𝑂( 𝛿 1 )at numerical analysis as
𝑑𝑥 well as the formulation of a conservation law. Total
zero, 𝑢 = , there are certain conditions.
𝑑𝑡 acceleration equation, at Euler momentum equation at
The accuracy of Taylor series is determined not only by fluid flow, is also often formulated using Taylor series
the number of its terms but also by its interval size. 𝑂( 𝛿 1 ). Using Taylor series up to the first derivative, the
Meanwhile, Taylor series is often used only up to the first
accuracy is depended only on the interval measurement.

www.ijaers.com Page | 251

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
Therefore, interval size that produces a good accuracy Another equation is needed, therefore Taylor series is
should be determined. . performed with a change in 𝑡time only,
( ) 𝑑𝑓 𝛿𝑡2 𝑑 2 𝑓
For a continuous function 𝑓 = 𝑓 𝑥, 𝑡 , where 𝑥is 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛿𝑡 + + ⋯ (8)
𝑑𝑡 2 𝑑 𝑡2
horizontal axis and 𝑡is time, Taylor series approach
In this case the time scale coefficient γ was not performed
𝑂( 𝛿 1 ) (Thomas (1996)), since the one to be reviewed is only the change in
Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓
𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛿𝑥 + 𝛿𝑡 function against time 𝑡. In order for (8) to be able to be
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡
Using time scale coefficient γ, performed only up to the first derivative, then
Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 𝛿 𝑡 2𝑑2 𝑓
𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛾𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛿𝑥 + 𝛾𝛿𝑡 𝑑𝑡2
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡 |2 𝑑𝑓 | ≤ ɛ ....(9)
𝛿𝑡
........(2) 𝑑𝑡

At (2) there is a truncation error, Substitute𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡to (9) and the equation is
𝛿𝑥2 Ƌ2𝑓 𝛾2 𝛿𝑡2 Ƌ2 𝑓 Ƌ2 𝑓 performed at 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡, hence
𝑅= + + 𝛿𝑥 𝛾𝛿𝑡 +⋯
2 Ƌ𝑥2 2 Ƌ𝑡2 Ƌ𝑥Ƌ𝑡 2ɛ
𝑅can be ignored if 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 < ....(10)
𝜎

𝑅
𝛿𝑡at (10) is the value of 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 since it is determined only
| Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 |<ɛ .......(3) based on the function of time without the interaction with
𝛿𝑥 +𝛾𝛿𝑡
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡
where ɛis a very small number. (3) can be achieved by a the changes toward space. With𝛿𝑡 = 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 , the value of γ
small size of 𝛿𝑥and𝛿𝑡and with a time scale value of γ. can be calculated at (7).
The size of𝛿𝑥and𝛿𝑡and the value of γ where Taylor series
can be used only up to the first derivative can be Table.1: The Value of 𝛾and𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 for 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) =
determined with (3). 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 .
𝛾 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥
2.2. Determining 𝛿𝑥,𝛿𝑡 and 𝛾. Wave period 𝑇: 7 sec.
With an assumption that there are the values of 2
𝑅 3 0,02228
𝛿𝑥,𝛿𝑡and𝛾, where the number of the third derivative term 𝑅 3
3,14301 0,02243
with higher derivatives is much smaller than the number 4
𝑅 3,15978 0,02214
of the second derivative term, then as 𝑅, only the second
Wave period 𝑇: 8 sec.
derivative that can be used, and (3) becomes
𝛿 𝑥2Ƌ2 𝑓 𝛾2 𝛿𝑡 2 Ƌ2𝑓 Ƌ2𝑓 𝑅2 3 0,02547
+ +𝛾𝛿𝑥𝛿𝑡
2 Ƌ𝑥2 2 Ƌ𝑡2 Ƌ𝑥Ƌ𝑡
| Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 | < ɛ ......(4) 𝑅 3 3,14301 0,02564
𝛿𝑥 +𝛾𝛿𝑡
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑡
𝑅4 3,15978 0,0253
Wave length is 𝐿 = 𝐶𝑇where𝐶 is wave celereties or wave
velocity and T is wave period. From this wave length Wave period 𝑇: 9 sec.
2
equation, 𝛿𝑥 = 𝐶𝛿𝑡 is defined. With 𝐿 =
2𝜋
where 𝑘is 𝑅 3 0,02865
𝑘 3
𝜎 𝑅 3,14301 0,02884
wave number, relation 𝐶 = is obtained, then, 4
𝑘 𝑅 3,15978 0,02846
𝜎𝛿𝑡
𝛿𝑥 = ..........(5) Wave period 𝑇: 10 sec.
𝑘
Substitute (5) to (4) and the upper and lower part of the 𝑅 2
3 0,03183
equation are divided by 𝛿𝑡 3
𝑅 3,14301 0,03205
1 𝜎 2 Ƌ2f 𝜎 Ƌ2f γ2 δt Ƌ2f
( ) 𝛿𝑡 +γ( 𝛿𝑡) +
2 𝑘
| Ƌx2 𝑘 ƋtƋx 2 Ƌt2
| < ɛ ....(6) 𝑅4 3,15978 0,03162
𝜎 Ƌf Ƌf
( ) +γ
𝑘 Ƌx Ƌt

Furthermore a sinusoidal function is reviewed with the Table (1) presents the result of the calculation of values
form𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 . This equation is a water 𝛾and𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 for various wave periods and various level of
wave surface elevation equation of the linear wave theory accuracy 𝑅, where𝑅 2 shows that 𝑅is calculated only with
(Dean, 1991). Substitute 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 to (6) and the second derivative only, 𝑅 3 shows that𝑅is calculated up
perform it at the condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = to the third derivative and 𝑅 4 , 𝑅is calculated up to the
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡, will produce fourth derivative. It can be seen that for the same period,
2
|− 1+ 𝛾− 𝛾 |𝜎𝛿𝑡
2 2
the higher the accuracy of 𝑅the bigger the value of γ but
(1+𝛾)
≤ ɛ ....(7) with small change. Whereas at the similar accuracy level
At (7), the lower part of equation can be taken out from of 𝑅, for different wave period, the value of γ is the same.
the absolute operation | | , since it always has positive The uses of accuracy up to 𝑅 5 does not change the value
value. At (7) there are two unknowns, i.e. 𝛾and𝛿𝑡.

www.ijaers.com Page | 252

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
𝛿𝑥5 𝛿𝑡5 Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓
of γconsidering the terms of and at𝑅 5 is a very small 𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) = 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) + 𝛾𝛿𝑡 + 𝛿𝑥
120 120 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥
number close to zero. The first term of the right side of the equation is moved to
the left and the equation is divided by 𝛿𝑡
The function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 has been used to 𝑓 (𝑥 + 𝛿𝑥, 𝑡 + 𝛿𝑡) − 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) Ƌ𝑓 𝛿𝑥 Ƌ𝑓
=𝛾 +
calculate the value γ. If the form of function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝛿𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 𝛿𝑡 Ƌ𝑥
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 is used, where this equation is the change of With the presence of time coefficient 𝛾at time differential
water particle velocity at space and time for standing term, it can be defined that at lim𝛿𝑥, 𝛿𝑡approaches zero
𝛿𝑥
wave, then relation equation between 𝛾and𝛿𝑡is obtained can be defined that = 𝑢. Therefore, the total
𝛿𝑡
which is similar to (7) for accuracy 𝑅 2 , i.e. acceleration equation is
2
|− 1+ 𝛾− 𝛾 |𝜎𝛿𝑡 𝐷𝑓 Ƌ𝑓 Ƌ𝑓
2 2 =𝛾 +𝑢 ........(12)
(1+𝛾)
< ɛ .......(11) 𝑑𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥

However, accuracies𝑅 3 and𝑅 4 have different shapes and

III. EQUATIONS FROM VELOCITY
produce different value 𝛾, although with a not too big
POTENTIAL
different, as shown on Table (2).
This part has been written by Hutahaean (2019), however;
considering that equations in this part are very important
Table.2: The Value of𝛾and𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 for𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡
for this research, it will be rewritten.
𝛾
𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥
3.1. Velocity Potential Equation
(sec.)
Velocity potential from linear wave theory which is the
Wave period 𝑇 = 7 sec. product of Laplace equation operation (Dean, 1991) is
2
𝑅 3 0,02228 𝛷 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) = 𝐺𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ......(13)
𝑅3 2,85619 0,02243 𝑥is horizontal axis,𝑧is vertical axis where 𝑧 = 0at the
𝑅4 2,87499 0,02214 surface of still water level, 𝑡time, 𝐺wave constant, 𝑘
2𝜋
Wave period 𝑇 = 8 sec wave number, 𝜎 = , angular frequency, 𝑇 wave period
𝑇
2
𝑅 3 0,02547 andℎ still water depth.
𝑅3 2,85619 0,02564
𝑅4 2,87499 0,0253 The equation was formulated at flat bottom condition,
Wave period 𝑇 = 9 sec however Hutahaean (2008) found out that the effect of
slopping bottom on velocity potential is small, only on its
𝑅2 3 0,02865
3 hyperbolic term, i.e.
𝑅 2,85619 0,02884
Flat bottom :
𝑅4 2,87499 0,02846 ( ) ( )
𝑒 𝑘 ℎ+𝑧 + 𝑒 −𝑘 ℎ+𝑧
Wave period 𝑇 = 9 sec 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) =
2
𝑅2 3 0,03183 Slopping bottom :
3 ( ) ( )
𝑅 2,85619 0,03205 𝛽(𝑧 ) = 𝛼𝑒 𝑘 ℎ+𝑧 + 𝑒 −𝑘 ℎ+𝑧
𝑅4 2,87499 0,03162 Where𝛼is a coefficient that is a function of bottom slope
(equation 14). It is seen that𝛼 ≈ 1.Therefore, (13) can be
Table (2) shows that at 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ,the value of performed at sloping bottom where there will be values of
γ is fluctuating against the level of accuracy 𝑅but with Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺
and .
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥
relatively small fluctuation. From the two analysis of 1+
𝜕ℎ
1−
𝜕ℎ
1 𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
coefficient γ for the two shapes of the function, the .𝛼= ( 𝜕ℎ + 𝜕ℎ ) ......(14)
2 1− 1+
𝜕𝑥 𝜕𝑥
hydrodynamic analysis for water wave can use the value
Ƌℎ
of 𝛾 = 3. For numerical analysis where discretization of is bottom slope.
Ƌ𝑥
space and time is needed, than the space length size 𝛿𝑥 =
𝜎𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝛿𝑡𝑚𝑎𝑥 3.2. Wave Number Conservation Equation
with time step𝛿𝑡 = .
𝑘 𝛾
The velocity potential equation (13) is obtained from
variable separation method, where velocity potential is
2.3. Total Acceleration with coefficient
considered as multiplication between 3 functions, i.e.
As has been shown that by performing coefficient on time
𝛷 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) = 𝑋 (𝑥) 𝑍(𝑧) 𝑇(𝑡) , 𝑋 (𝑥) is just an 𝑥function
differential term, Taylor series can be performed up to the
,𝑍 (𝑧) is just a 𝑧function and 𝑇 (𝑡) is just a time function. At
first derivative, i.e.
(1), 𝑍(𝑧 ) = cosh 𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) . If (13) is performed at sloping

www.ijaers.com Page | 253

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
Ƌ𝑍 (𝑧) Ƌ cosh 𝑘 (ℎ+𝑧) Ƌ 𝑘 (ℎ+𝑧) simplest way is by performing the assumption of a long
bottom = = sinh 𝑘(ℎ + 𝑧) = 0,
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ2𝐺
in this equation the one with the value of zero is , wave where can be ignored, and in this case the
Ƌ𝑥2
Ƌ𝑘 (ℎ+𝑧 )
= 0 ..................(15) following equation is obtained,
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝐺 𝐺 Ƌ𝑘
for all 𝑧 value. Therefore the value of𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) = 𝑐, =− , .................(24)
Ƌ𝑥 2𝑘 Ƌ𝑥
where 𝑐is constant, i.e. the same for the entire flow fieldof (23) can be written as,
Ƌ𝑘ℎ Ƌ2 𝐺 Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺
the wave moves. If(3) is performed on 𝑧 = 0, then = =𝐺 + 2𝑘 .....................(25)
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥
0or, (25) is differentiated twice against horizontal-𝑥axis and
Ƌ𝑘 𝑘 Ƌℎ Ƌ2𝐺
=− ...........(16) substituted to the term , and an assumption is
Ƌ𝑥 ℎ Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2
With (16), derivative equations higher than wave number Ƌ4 𝐺
performed that is a very small number that is
can be formulated, for example for 𝑧 = 0, by ignoring Ƌ𝑥4
Ƌ2 ℎ considered to be equal to zero which produce,
, Ƌ𝐺
Ƌ𝑥2 = µ𝐺 .........(26)
Ƌ2 𝑘 2𝑘 Ƌℎ 2 Ƌ𝑥
= ( ) ............(17) Ƌ3𝑘 Ƌ𝑘 2 Ƌ2𝑘 Ƌ𝑘
Ƌ𝑥2 ℎ 2 Ƌ𝑥 ( 3+5( ) +2𝑘 2+4𝑘2 )
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥
Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ2 𝑘 µ=− ..........(27)
From this point onward, the calculation of and refers Ƌ2𝑘 Ƌ𝑘
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2 (4 +16𝑘 +8𝑘3 )
Ƌ𝑥2 Ƌ𝑥
to𝑧 = 0. With (17) the third differential can be obtained, Therefore particle velocity equation at horizontal-
and so forth. Based on (15), the following relations apply, 𝑥direction becomes
𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) = 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ 𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) = 1 ......(18a) 𝑢 = 𝐺 (𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − µ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) ........(18b) ....(28)
𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) ........(18c)
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) = 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ 𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 𝜂) ........(18d) IV. DISPERSION EQUATION
Where𝜂is the water surface elevation. Therefore, based on At the potential velocity equation (13), there are 2 (two)
(18a-d), equations containing the three elements are unknowns, i.e. energy constant 𝐺and wave number 𝑘;
elements with values similar to the value in deep water. therefore, two equations are needed to calculate those two
unknowns. Governing equation for analyzing the two
3.3. Energy Conservation Equation unknowns are kinematic free surface boundary condition
From velocity potential (1) horizontal−𝑥 velocity and momentum equation. In its movement from the deep
equation is obtained water to shallower water, evolution or transformation of
Ƌ𝛷 Ƌ𝐺 the two unknown values will happen. The evolution is
𝑢 =− = (𝐺𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 )
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 arranged by wave number conservation equation (15) and
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ..........(19) energy conservation (23) or (25). The two conservation
Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺 equations are absorbed to the two governing equations.
= (𝐺 𝑘 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 + 𝐺 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 + 2 𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥
Ƌ2 𝐺 4.1 Kinematic Free Surface Boundary Condition
− 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥)
Ƌ𝑥 Using total derivative equation(12), kinematic free
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ......(20) surface boundary condition becomes 𝑤𝜂 = 𝛾 + 𝑢 𝜂 .
Ƌ𝜂 Ƌ𝜂
Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥
and vertical−𝑧 velocity equation,
Substitute (21) , (28) and𝜂(𝑥, 𝑡) = 𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 and the
Ƌ𝛷
𝑤 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) = − = −𝐺𝑘𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 equation is performed at the condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 =
Ƌ𝑧
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 ,
......(21)
Ƌ𝑤 𝐴 𝑘𝐴
= −𝐺𝑘 2 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 .....(22) 𝐺 (𝑘 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − 𝛾𝜎𝐴 − (𝑘 − µ) ( ))
Ƌ𝑧 2 2
Substitute equations (20) and (22) to continuity equation
𝐴
Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑤 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − 𝛾𝜎𝐴 = 0 ....(29)
+ = 0and performed at the condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 2
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧
√2 𝐴
𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡 = and 𝑧 = 𝜂 = , then the 4.2. Horizontal Momentum Equation
2 2
𝐴
equation is divided by 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ), to obtain, For a function𝑓 = 𝑓(𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) , where the main change is in
2
Ƌ𝑘 Ƌ𝐺 Ƌ2 𝐺 the direction of horizontal-𝑥 axis, then (12) can be
𝐺 + 2𝑘 − = 0..................(23) performed to obtain total acceleration equation, and
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥2
This equation is another form of energy conservation horizontal-𝑥 and vertical-𝑧 total velocity equations are
Ƌ𝐺 𝐷𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢
equation. This equation is a relation between 𝐺and . The =𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 .......(30)
Ƌ𝑥 𝑑𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧

www.ijaers.com Page | 254

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
𝐷𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤
=𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 ........(31) 𝐴 𝑘𝐴
𝑑𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝛾 2 𝜎 2 (𝑘 − µ) = 𝑔𝑘 (𝑘 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − (𝑘 − µ) ( ))
respectively, where𝑢is water particle velocity at 2 2
horizontal-𝑥direction and 𝑤is particle velocity vertical-𝑧 .......(37)
direction. With (30) and (31), then Euler momentum If the bottom slope is ignored, then (37) becomes
equation becomes, 𝐴 𝑘2 𝐴
𝛾 2 𝜎 2 = 𝑔 (𝑘 𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − ) ......(38)
Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ𝑢 1 Ƌ𝑝 2 2
𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 =− ......(32)
Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝜌 Ƌ𝑥 If wave amplitude is considered as a very small number,
Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑤 1 Ƌ𝑝
𝛾 +𝑢 +𝑤 =− − 𝑔 .......(33) both to water depth and wave length, (38) becomes
Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝜌 Ƌ𝑧
𝛾 2 𝜎 2 = 𝑔𝑘𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘ℎ ......(39)
At (33) the characteristics of irrotional flow is performed
Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑢 Then if𝛾 = 1is taken, (39) becomes
at space differential, = , and integrated against
Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑧 𝜎 2 = 𝑔𝑘𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘ℎ ......(40)
vertical-𝑧 axis and dynamic free surface boundary (40) is a dispersion equation of linear wave theory (Dean,
condition is performed where 𝑝𝜂 = 0, pressure equation is 1991).
obtained, i.e.
𝜂
𝑝 Ƌ𝑤 1 1 Dispersion equations (37), (38), (39) and (40) have not
= 𝛾∫ 𝑑𝑧 + (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) − (𝑢 2 + 𝑤 3 )
𝜌 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 2 2 met wave number conservation equation. At (37) wave
+𝑔 (𝜂 − 𝑧) number conservation equation (18a) is performed, hence
The pressure equation is differentiated against horizontal- 𝑘𝐴
𝛾 2 𝜎 2 (𝑘 − µ) = 𝑔𝑘 (𝑘 − (𝑘 − µ) ( )) .....(41)
2
𝑥axis and substituted to (32) where at (32) the
characteristics of irrotional flow is performed (41) is used to calculate wave number at the deep water.
Ƌ𝑢 Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 1Ƌ Ƌ𝜂 The dispersion equation at the shallow water is obtained
𝛾 = −𝛾 ∫ 𝑑𝑧 − ( (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) + 𝑔 ) by substituting wave number conservation (15) that can
Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥
Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 be stated as
The completion of ∫ 𝑑𝑧 will be done using potential 𝐴 𝐴0
Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡
𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + )
velocity theory of the linear wave theory(21). 2 2
Ƌ𝑤 𝐴
Keeping in mind that𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + 0) =
= −𝐺𝜎𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 2
Ƌ𝑡 𝐴0
𝜂
Ƌ𝑤 1where𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + ) = 𝜓𝜋, this research used 𝜓 = 1.1,
∫ 𝑑𝑧 = −𝐺𝜎 (𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) − 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) ) 2
𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 where𝑡𝑎𝑛ℎ (1.1𝜋) = 0.998009 ,
𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 𝐴
𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝜓𝜋 ,or
𝑘𝐴
= 𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ ......(42)
Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 2 2
∫ 𝑑𝑧 = 𝐺𝜎 (𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝜂) − 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) ) Substitute (42) to (41),
Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡
(𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − µ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 𝛾 2 𝜎 2 (𝑘 − µ) = 𝑔𝑘 (𝑘 − (𝑘 − µ)(𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ) )...(43)
This equation is dispersion equation at the shallow water.
From (28),
Ƌ𝑢 However,calculation with (43) should be performed
= 𝐺𝜎 (𝑘𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 − µ𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + 𝑧) 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡, ,hence
Ƌ𝑡 consecutively from deep water depth. To obtain deep
Ƌ 𝜂 Ƌ𝑤 Ƌ𝑢𝜂 Ƌ𝑢
∫ 𝑑𝑧 = − , horizontal-𝑥momentum equation water depth,𝑘0 is calculated with (41), then deep water
Ƌ𝑥 𝑧 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑡 Ƌ𝑡
𝐴0
becomes depth ℎ0 is the deepest between 𝑘0 (ℎ0 + ) = 𝜓𝜋 and
2
Ƌ𝑢𝜂 1 Ƌ Ƌ𝜂 𝐴0
𝛾 = −( (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) +𝑔 ) .....(34) ≤ 0.10. For water depth more than ℎ0 the wave
Ƌ𝑡 2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 2ℎ 0
number conservation equation can’t be applied.
4.3. Simple Dispersion Equation
To obtain a simple dispersion equation, convective 4.4.Complete Dispersion Equation
acceleration at (34) is ignored, In this complete dispersion equation, the surface
∂u ∂η
𝛾( ) = −𝑔 ........(35) momentum equation is used completely and the wave
∂t z=η ∂x
number conservation equation is applied. The resulted
Substitute (28) and water surface equation 𝜂(𝑥, 𝑡) =
equation is for calculating wave number at the shallow
𝐴𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡, and the equation is performed at the
water only. Substitute (42) to (29) the first 𝑓 (𝑘, 𝐺 ) =
condition 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝑘𝑥 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝑘𝑥 = 𝑐𝑜𝑠𝜎𝑡 = 𝑠𝑖𝑛𝜎𝑡
𝐴
0equation is obtained.
𝛾𝐺𝜎 (𝑘 − µ)𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝑔𝑘𝐴 ....(36)
2
Equation (29) is written as an equation for 𝐺and 𝑓1 (𝑘, 𝐺 ) = 𝐺 (𝑘 − (𝑘 − µ)(𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ) )
substituted to (36), 𝐴
𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) − 𝛾𝜎𝐴 = 0 .....(44)
2
The second equation is surface momentum equation, i.e.

www.ijaers.com Page | 255

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
Ƌ𝑢 𝜂 1 Ƌ Ƌ𝜂 8 2,58 7,12 8 0,32
𝑓2 (𝑘, 𝐺 ) = 𝛾 +( (𝑢 2𝜂 + 𝑤𝜂2 ) + 𝑔 ) = 0
Ƌ𝑡 2 Ƌ𝑥 Ƌ𝑥 9 3,26 8,02 9 0,32
..... (45) 10 4,03 8,91 10 0,32
Where, 11 4,88 9,8 11 0,32
Ƌ𝑢𝜂 𝐴
𝛾 = 𝛾𝐺𝜎 (𝑘 − µ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) ....(46a) 12 5,8 10,69 12 0,32
Ƌ𝑡 2
Ƌ𝑢𝜂 1 2 2 𝐴 13 6,81 11,58 13 0,32
𝑢𝜂 = 𝐺 𝑘 (𝑘 − µ) 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ 𝑘 (ℎ + ) ....(46b)
2
Ƌ𝑥 2 2 14 7,9 12,47 14 0,32
Ƌ𝑤𝜂 1 𝐴
𝑤𝜂 = − 𝐺 2 𝑘 2 (𝑘 − µ) 𝑠𝑖𝑛ℎ2 𝑘 (ℎ + ) ....(46c) 15 9,07 13,36 15 0,32
Ƌ𝑥 2 2
Ƌ𝜂
𝑔 = −2𝑔 (𝜓𝜋 − 𝑘ℎ) ...(46d)
Ƌ𝑥
The result of the calculation on Table (3) was done using
At (46d) 𝑘𝐴is substituted with wave number conservation
the value of 𝛾 = 2.483 . Wavelength 𝐿 on Table (3) was
equation (42). Keep in mind that based on wave number 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥
𝐴 calculated using (47) obtained that for all reviewed
conservation equation, 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) is constant number, 𝐿
2 1
𝐴 𝐴0 wave period is 0.318 or , where it is in accordance with
i.e. 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘 (ℎ + ) = 𝑐𝑜𝑠ℎ𝑘0 ( ℎ0 + ), where𝑘0 is 𝜋
2 2
the analytical result ( Hutahaean (2019)) i.e. breaking
calculated with (41) and deep water depth ℎ0 is the 𝐻𝑏 1
𝑘0 𝐴0 1 𝐴0
occurs when = , 𝐻𝑏 breaker height and𝐿𝑏 breaker
𝐿𝑏 𝜋
deepest betweenℎ0 = (𝜓𝜋 − ) and ≤ 0.10. The
2 𝑘0 2ℎ 0 length. Therefore 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 on column 2 is deep water wave
values of 𝑘and𝐺can be obtained by completing (35) and height maximum for wave period on column 1, where the
(36) with Newton-Rhapson method, with the inputs wave wave period is similar to 𝑇𝑊𝑖𝑒𝑔 and is close enough to
period, wave amplitude and water depth.
𝑇𝑆𝑖𝑙 that was calculated using 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 on column 2. Therefore
a conclusion can be made that the value of 𝛾 = 2.483is a
V. THE ADJUSTMENT OF γ VALUE
quite good value, and the maximum deep water wave
The value of 𝛾 = 3from the previous analysis is
height 𝐻0 for wave period on column 1 is on column 2.
theoretical value based only on Laplace equation solution.
In this part, the adjustment of 𝛾value will be done using
VI.
EXAMPLE OF THE RESULT OF
observation on deep water wave height. The adjustment is
WAVELENGTH CALCULATION
done using the relation between deep water wave height
The example of the result of wavelength 𝐿calculation
and wave period from Silvester (1974) and from Wiegel
wave with wave period of 8 second, with𝐴0 = 0.6 m
(1949 and 1964). 𝑑ℎ
By ignoring bottom slope, then (41) which is a dispersion and = −0.01 is shown on Fig.1., Fig 2. and Fig.3.
𝑑𝑥
equation at deep water, becomes a quadratic equation for
𝑘. Fig.1 shows the comparison between wavelength (40),
𝑘𝐴 (39), (38) and (43) where it is seen that (40) as dispersion
𝛾 2 𝜎 2 = 𝑔𝑘 (1 − ( )) .........(47)
2 equation of linear wave theory produces wavelength that
This equation has a solution if the determinant value is is much longer than the three comparing equations.
𝐷 ≥ 0, where Wavelength (39), (38) and (43) look close, but further
𝑔𝐴
𝐷 = 𝑔2 − 4 ( ) (𝛾 2 𝜎 2 ). information can be seen on Fig.2.
2
𝑔
For𝐷 = 0, 𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 = With the value of𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 =
2𝛾2 𝜎2
80
2𝐴𝑚𝑎𝑥 ,wave period is calculated from empirical
Wave Length L (m)

60
equations of Silvester (1974), 𝑇𝑆𝑖𝑙 = √19.68𝐻 1⁄ and
3
40
𝐻𝑚 0.5
Wiegel equation (1949 and 1964), 𝑇𝑊𝑖𝑒𝑔 = 15.6 ( ) ,
𝑔 20
𝐻𝑚 is maximum deep water wave height,𝑔is the force of
0
gravity. As 𝐻1⁄ and𝐻𝑚 ,𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 is used.
3 0 2 4 6 8 10
Table.3: Wave height maximum at deep water, at𝛾 = Water Depth h (m)
2.483.
𝑇 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 𝑇𝑆𝑖𝑙 𝑇𝑊𝑖𝑒𝑔 𝐻𝑚𝑎𝑥 eq. (40) eq. (39)
(sec.) (m) (sec.) (sec.) 𝐿 eq. (38) eq. (43)
6 1,45 5,34 6 0,32
7 1,97 6,23 7 0,32 Fig.1: Comparison between wavelength (40), (39), (38)
and (43).

www.ijaers.com Page | 256

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
Wave Length L (m)
20 VII. CONCLUSION
This research concludes that at a space and time function,
15
there is a time scale coefficient at total change or total
10 acceleration. For a function 𝑓 (𝑥, 𝑧, 𝑡) with the main
5 direction of change at axis −𝑥 direction, the total
0 acceleration coefficient has a value of 2.483. The
0 2 4 6 8 10 application of total acceleration equation with time scale
Water Depth h (m) coefficient at wavelength analysis produces wavelength
that fits with the one exists in the nature.
eq. (39) eq. (38) There are 3 factors affecting wavelength, i.e. total
acceleration equation, wave number conservation law and
eq. (43) eq. (44+45)
wave amplitude. However, the main factors are the first
Fig.2: Wavelength (39), (38), (43) and (44+45) and the third factors. Total acceleration plays a role in
determining wavelength as a whole i.e at deep water and
Fig. 2 shows the result of the calculation using (39), (38), shallow water, wave number conservation equation plays
(43) and (44+45). At shallow water, wavelength from a role in the transformation of wavelength at the change
(39) and (38) looks much bigger than from (43) and of water depth at shallow water. With the presence of
(44+45). Whereas at deep water, (38) produces wave amplitude effect on wavelength, the correct
wavelength similar to that of (43) and (44+45). This wavelength analysis is if it is performed together with
shows that wave number conservation has a major role in shoaling analysis.
the transformation of wavelength at shallow water, where Convective acceleration term at the momentum equation
at (39) and (38) wave number conservation equation is is shortening wavelength although it is relatively small.
not performed. In addition, the changes in wavelength For practical purposes dispersion equation formulated
from (43) and (44+45) look linear which shows that the without taking into account convective acceleration can
changes in wavelength as a result of water depth changes be used.
is dominated by wave number conservation equation (15). Wavelength research with physical model has never been
Between (39) and (38), there is a relatively big difference, done before. Considering that the truth of a wave theory is
where at (39) there is no wave amplitude as its variable as also shown by the produced wavelength, therefore the
it is with (38). This shows that the effect of wave availability of wavelength data as the result of physical
amplitude on wavelength is shortening wavelength. To model is highly needed.
study the effect of wave amplitude on wavelength, (38) is
performed with different wave amplitude, i.e. 0.30 m and REFERENCES
0.60 m, with the result as presented on Fig. 3, which [1] Dean, R.G., Dalrymple, R.A. (1991). Water wave
shows that wavelength from a wave with wave amplitude menchanics for engineers and scientists. Advance
0.30 m is longer that wavelength of a wave with wave Series on Ocean Engineering.2. Singapore: World
amplitude of 0.60 m. Scientific. ISBN 978-981-02-0420-4. OCLC
22907242.
20
[2] Courant, R.,Friedrichs,K., Lewy, H. (1928). Uber
wavelength L (m)

15
die partiellen Differenzengleic hungen der
mathemtischen Physik. Matematische Annalen (in
10 German). 100 (1): 32-74, Bibcode:1928. MatAn
100.32.C. doi :10.1007/BF01448839.JFM
5 54.0486.01 MR 1512478.
[3] Thomas, George B., Jr., Finney, Ross L.(1996),
0 Calculus and Analyitic Geometry (9th ed.), Addison
0 2 4 6 8 10 Wesley, ISBN 0-201-53174-7.
water depth h (m) [4] Hutahaean, S. (2008). Persamaan Gelombang
Nonlinier Pada Dasar Perairan Miring. Jurnal Teknik
wave amplitude 0.3 m wave amplitude 0.6 m Sipil, Fakultas Teknik Sipil dan Lingkungan ITB,
Vol.15 no.1, April 2008. ISSN 0853-2982.
Fig.3: Wavelength (38) with different wave amplitude 𝐴 [5] Koteweg, D.J. and De Vries, G. (1895). On the
Change of Form of Long Waves Advancing in a
Rectangular Canal, and on a New Type of Long

www.ijaers.com Page | 257

International Journal of Advanced Engineering Research and Science (IJAERS) [Vol-6, Issue-2, Feb- 2019]
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.2.31 ISSN: 2349-6495(P) | 2456-1908(O)
Stationary Waves. Phil.Mag., 5th series, Vol. 39,
pp422-443.
[6] Stokes, G.G (1847). On the Theory of Oscillatory
Waves. Transaction of the Cambridge Society 8.
441-455. Reprinted in Stokes, G.G. (1880).
Mathematical and Physical Papers, Volume 1.
Cambridge University Press. Pp. 197-229
[7] Hutahaean, S. (2019). Complete Breaker Analysis
Using Velocity Potential of Linear Wave Theory.
International Journal of Advanced Engineering and
Science (IJAERS). [Volume-6 issue-1,Jan-2019].
ISSN-2349-6495(P) / 2456-1908 (O).
https://dx.doi.org/10.22161/ijaers.6.1.16
[8] Silvester, R. (1974). Coastal Engineering, I.
Generation, propagation and influnce of waves.
Elsevier Scienctific Publishing Company,
Amsterdam London New York 1974. pp.88.
[9] Wiegel,R.L. (1949). An Analysisis of Data from
Wave Recorders on the Pacific Coast of tht United
States, Trans.Am. Geophys. Union, Vol.30, pp.700-
704.
[10] Wiegel,R.L. (1964). Oceanographical Engineering,
Prentice-Hall, Englewoods Cliffs,N.J.