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Bob M. Sigalingging
Department of English, Faculty of Letters,
Gunadarma University
Jalan Margonda Raya No. 100

Website translation is a kind of translation evolving in recent years
along with the advancement in information technology. The realization of
decision making in the translation process of web content of is actually a process of problem solving in
communication involving Bahasa Indonesia as the source language (SL) and
English as the target language (TL). This study aims to identify a number
of translation techniques used by the translator to translate the content
of and also describe the translation process of it.
This research is descriptive-qualitative and process-oriented in the field
of translation. The data used in this study are linguistic elements
including words, phrases, and sentences provided in the The sampling technique applied was purposive sampling
and the technique of data collection was content analysis. The analysis
results demonstrate that first, there are 14 translation techniques used
in translating the content of, namely literal
translation, transposition, borrowing, established equivalence,
modulation, reduction, adaptation, amplification, particularization,
generalization, linguistic compression, discursive creation, linguistic
amplification, and calque. Second, the translation process of is reflected through translation procedures consisting
of transposition, modulation, naturalization, contextual conditioning, and

Keywords: Translation technique, translation process, web content, source

language,target language.

two languages and two cultures

1. INTRODUCTION involved in a translated text. This
Nababan (2003) stated that trans- will be closely related to the
lation becomes a part of applied translator's responsibility for the
linguistics because in translation quality of the translation itself.
the practical aspects are greatly It is inevitably that the era
emphasized. Translation can be development characterized by the
understood simply as a transfer of advancement of information techno-
message using the equivalent word logy and the ease of people in
from the source language (SL) to accessing a lot of information via
the target language (TL). A internet today often propose
translator must completely master

98 Sigalingging, Realization of…

translation as the right solution source language (SL), transferring,
to solve communication constraint and restructuring.
between two different languages and Taken from www.ayodyapala
two different cultures. This study .com, Ayodya Pala is an art insti-
focuses on web content translation. tution which is actively in pre-
Web content trans-lation is one of serving, training or educating, and
the works in the field of trans- developing Indonesian traditional
lation by considering the develop- arts and cultures. For 37 years,
ment of digital era is now able to this institution has collected a
unite all elements of society wealth of experience in both na-
around the world so that the tional and international event.
information exchange among nations Nevertheless, Ayodya Pala plans to
becomes a crucial thing deserving make official website in bilingual
serious attention. In this study, so that the international communi-
the writer runs two roles at once, ties later will be able to access
as the translator and researcher complete information about Ayodya
for the translation so that the Pala through the page of its
study presented here can be cate- English web content. This underlies
gorized as semi-professional work the client to hire the writer who
in the field of translation. has educational background in
Lincoln and Guba (1985) de- translation and is active in
fined location of study as the translation world for three years,
focus-determined boundary, the as the translator for the web
limit used to determine the focus content.
or object of the study. Thus, Furthermore, translation
location is not always geographic technique becomes an essential
or demographic. Media can also be a point in every translation process
research location. For that reason, and it can be said as the reali-
the website can zation of decision making process,
be regarded as the research loca- whose results can be identified in
tion and source of data in this translation work (Nababan, 2003).
study as well. Furthermore, the Molina and Albir (2002) mentioned
data examined in this study are five basic characteristics of
words, phrases, and sentences in translation techniques, such as: 1)
Bahasa Indonesia (SL) provided in they affect the result of the
the web content of translation, 2) they are classified The content on by comparison with the original, 3)
this website displays texts or they affect micro–units of text, 4)
information relating to Ayodya Pala they are by nature discursive and
and all are written in Bahasa contextual, and 5) they are
Indonesia as the source language functional. Therefore, the writer
(SL). The web content is then finally refers to 18 translation
translated into English as the tar- techniques formulated by Molina and
get language (TL). Here, the Albir in translating the web
translation process with its va- content of
rious complexities is clearly Hosseinnia (2014) in his re-
involved in this work. The search entitled "Omission as A
translation process can be stated Strategy in Subtitling" explained
as a series of activities under- that the linguistic elements like
taken by translator as the transla- words or expressions are usually
tor transfers the message from the more dominantly reduced in the
source language into the target subtitling of Persian language in-
language (Nababan, 2003). The volving a number of English TV
translation process consists of series so it can be concluded that
three stages, namely analysis of reduction is the most dominant
technique used to produce Persian

Journal Of Language And Literature Vol 5, No. 2 Desember 2017 99

subtitle in the translation process language text, analyzing it in
of a number of English TV series. order to determine its meaning, and
Next, Wuryantoro (2014) in his then reconstructing this same
research entitled "Kajian Proses meaning using the lexicon and
Penerjemahan dan Kualitas Terje- grammatical 26 structure which are
mahan Teks Hukum dan Teks Ilmiah appropriate in the receptor
Bidang Hukum Karya Penerjemah language and its structure
Tersumpah" stated that the trans- context.” (Larson, 1998, p.3) Four
lation process of legal texts and Aspects Encountered by the
scientific text of legal engages in Translator There are four aspects
three to eight stages and the encountered by the translator:
translation techniques include • Lexicon
three variants, such as single,
• Grammatical structure
couplet, and triplet. On the other
hand, Hendrastuti (2013) conducting • Communication situation
research entitled "Kajian Terjema-
han Metafora yang Menunjukkan Sikap • Cultural context
dalam Buku Motivasi The Secret" Principles of Translation
demonstrated that 15 translation Alan Duff (1990) suggested some
techniques, out of a total of 292 general principles in her book
techniques available, are used in entitled Translation, those prin-
translating metaphors showing atti- ciples are: meaning, form, regis-
tudes in the motivation book The ter, source language influence,
Secret. Moreover, Kuncara (2013) style and clarity, and idiom (Duff,
writing the study titled "Analisis 1990, pp.10-11) Translation Strate-
Terjemahan Tindak Tutur Direktif gies Andrew Chesterman (2000)
pada Novel The Godfather dan suggested three strategies used to
Terjemahannya dalam Bahasa Indo- solve problems that are commonly
nesia" described that 12 trans- encountered in a text, which are
lation techniques are used in syntactic strategies, semantic
translating directives with the stra-tegies, and pragmatic strate-
frequency of use is 244 times. gies (taken from Chesterman, 2000,
Finally, if juxtaposed with p.87-116, Memes of Translation).
some previous researches that make
TV series, legal text and 3. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
scientific text of legal, book, and This research is qualitative
novel to be the research object, descripttive research in the field
this study focuses on identifying a of translation. In qualitative
number of translation techniques as descriptive research, the case
the realization of decision making study leads to detailed and in-
process applied by translator when depth description of the real con-
translating the web content. In dition of what actually happens in
addition, this study belongs to the field of study (Sutopo, 2002).
semi-professional research because This study describes the reali-
the writer directly examines the zation of decision making applied
translation process and the by the writer in the form of the
translation work that he generates. translation techniques usage to
translate the web content of from Bahasa
2. LITERATURE REVIEW Indonesia (SL) into English (TL).
The Definition of Translation This study also uses numerical data
“Translation, then, consists of serving as tool for disclosuring
studying the lexicon, grammatical the frequency of translation
structure, communication situation, techniques used by the writer to
and cultural context of the source

100 Sigalingging, Realization of…

translate the web content of as data collection techniques. This indicates that the researcher not
Thus, the data used in this only notes the important contents
study are linguistic elements in the document, but also finds the
including words, phrases, and sen- implicit meaning (Yin in Sutopo,
tences contained in the web content 2002). In this study, the re-
of The data searcher attempted to deepen the
were analyzed and described clearly translation process of the web
and deeply to be finally concluded content of by
by the writer. The data were also deciding the implementation of
described based on real facts. translation techniques used in
Furthermore, this study is embedded translating the content of the
case-study because the researcher website. Finally, content analysis
has first chosen and determined the was applied in the process of data
problems which become the focus of analysis. Content analysis is the
the research as stated in the stage of collecting, grouping, and
introduction of this study. In analyzing data based on the
terms of orientation, this research approach used in a study. This
is categorized as process-oriented study used translation approach to
translation research. This is con- answer the problems that appear du-
cerned with the translation process ring the translation process
performed by the translator occured.
(writer) in relation to translation
strategies or procedures and trans- 4. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
lation quality as well as trans- 4.1 Translation Techniques of
lation behavior (Nababan, 2007). In The Web Content of
relation to translation procedures,
Machali (2000) mentioned five types Website has nine
of translation procedures, namely webpages consisting of Home, Pro-
transposition, modulation, natura- file, News, Our Service, Our
lization, contextual conditioning, Branch, Gallery, Article, Testimo-
and notes. nial, and Contact. The translation
The sampling technique used of 486 data provided in Bahasa
in this research is purposive Indonesia content of the website
sampling. This sampling technique shows that there
was applied to determine the data. are 14 translation techniques
The sample selection was directed applied by the translator in trans-
at source of data deemed to have lating the content into English,
important data relating to the pro- which is spread into several
blems in this study, in this case variants of technique. A number of
the website It translation techniques applied by
was intended to obtain the depth the translator in translating the
and completeness of the data and web content of
the depth of study in a particular and the fre-quency of their usage
context. Meanwhile, this study can be seen in the table 1 below.
specifically used content analysis

Table 1. Translation techniques of the web content of

No. Translation techniques Frequency Percentage
1. Literal translation 181 37.23%
2. Transposition 113 23.25%
3. Borrowing 100 20.58%
4. Established equivalence 61 12.55%

Journal Of Language And Literature Vol 5, No. 2 Desember 2017 101

5. Modulation 8 1.65%
6. Reduction 5 1.03%
7. Adaptation 3 0.62%
8. Amplification 3 0.62%
9. Particularization 3 0.62%
10. Generalization 2 0.41%
11. Linguistic compression 2 0.41%
12. Discursive creation 2 0.41%
13. Linguistic amplification 2 0.41%
14. Calque 1 0.21%
Total 486 100%
The dominance of literal language (TL), although based
translation, which is 181 times on the research facts the
(37.23%) of the total 486 total frequency of those
techniques used, indicates that in techniques is not very large,
translating (translation process) i.e. 6.39% (without including
the web content of transposition focusing on the the translator form equivalence). This proves
is oriented to the source language that in translating the web
(SL). Source language-oriented content of,
translation technique will produce the translator actually really
accurate translation, but there is considers that the meaning or
a possibility that the translation message contained in the
is not or less acceptable and source language can be trans-
difficult to understand (Nababan, ferred accurately with the
2010). This finding becomes a dis- equivalent word or term in the
tinguishing factor with Hosseinnia target language, and in larger
(2014) that emphasizes on re- dimensions the translator does
duction. On the other hand, literal not betray the author nor does
translation that have been applied it deceive the target reader.
to translate metaphors showing
attitude (Hendrastuti, 2013) and 4.2 Translation Process of
directives (Kuncara, 2013) appa- The Web Content of
rently also turns out to have a
high frequency in the process of
translating the web content of It was mentioned earlier that this research is categorized as process-
I. However, if viewed from the oriented research in the field of
type of translation techniques translation. This is related to the
used by the translator as a translation process performed by
whole, there are 11 other the translator (writer) in accor-
translation techniques, namely dance with the translation strategy
transposition, established or procedure. Machali (2000)
equvalence, modulation, re- summarized translation procedure
duction, adaptation, ampli- into five categories, namely
fication, particularization, transposition, modulation, natura-
generalization, linguistic lization, contextual conditioning,
compression, discursive crea- and notes. The translation pro-
tion, and linguistic amplify- cedure is valid to sentence and
cation, which are essentially textual micro-units such as clause,
oriented to the target phrase, and word. Translation pro-
cedure is also the stage of acti-

102 Sigalingging, Realization of…

vities to complete the translation i) The placement of verb in the
(Hartono, 2009). Therefore, here beginning of sentence in
the writer tries to demonstrate a Bahasa Indonesia is not
number of data that belong to above prevalent in English struc-
categories when the realization of ture, except in imperative
decision making in the translation sentence. Thus, the trans-
process of the web content of ferring can be done by using is conducted. the structure of declarative
1. Transposition sentence.
According to Catford (1965) SL
transposition is a translation pro- Dengan didukung oleh seniman-
cedure that involves the changing seniman pilihan yang handal
of grammatical form from the source dan profesional dalam
language (SL) into the target bidangnya, ....
language (TL). The frequency of
transposition in this study reaches TL
the percentage of 23.25%. It is supported by qualified
a. Shifting is mandatory and and professional artists,
automatic caused by system and ....
grammar rule. In this case, the
translator is obliged to use c. Shifting is due to the natural-
transposition, for instance: ness of expression. It is be-
i) The translation of singular cause the equivalent of the
noun from Bahasa Indonesia source language seems not
(SL) into plural noun in natural in the target language.
English (TL). i) A verb in Bahasa Indonesia
SL (SL) becomes noun or noun
menyiapkan tenaga ahli serta phrase in English (TL).
piranti yang diperlukan untuk SL
pendidikan, pelatihan, ...., maka memuaskan
penampilan karya seni, serta konsumen adalah motivasi
menciptakan lapangan kerja kami dalam berkarya, ....
dalam bidang seni.
TL ...., customer satisfaction
preparing the experts and becomes our motivation.
equipments necessary for
education, training, artistic ii) Noun + noun in Bahasa
performance and creating Indonesia (SL) becomes
employment in art. adjective + noun or noun
phrase in English (TL).
ii) Noun + adjective in SL
Bahasa Indonesia (SL) becomes menyiapkan tenaga ahli serta
adjective + noun in English piranti yang diperlukan
(TL). untuk pendidikan, pelatihan,
SL penampilan karya seni, serta
tari tradisional dan modern menciptakan lapangan kerja
dalam bidang seni.
traditional and modern dance TL
preparing the experts and
b. Shifting is due to a gramma- equipments necessary for
tical structure in the source education, training, artis-
language (SL) does not exist in tic performance and creating
the target language (TL). employment in art.

Journal Of Language And Literature Vol 5, No. 2 Desember 2017 103

iii) A clause in Bahasa adjective in English
Indonesia (SL) stated (TL).
implicitly in the form of SL
participial in English (TL). Disamping musik, seni
SL tari juga berguna bagi
Penelitian lain yang anak anda karena ....
dilakukan McMaster Univer-
sity dan Rotman Research TL
Institute Toronto juga In addition to the music,
menguatkan fakta di atas. dance is also useful for
your children to ....
Another research d. Unit shift, for instance a
accomplished by McMaster word in the source language
University and Rotman becomes a phrase in the target
Research Institute Toronto language and a phrase in the
also emphasized the above source language becomes a
facts. clause in the target language.
i) Word become phrase
iv) Noun + clause in Bahasa SL
Indonesia (SL) becomes Baik...banyak hal yang
adjective + noun in English membuat kami lebih, namun
(TL). yang terpenting adalah ....
Konsep pendidikan dan pela- TL
tihan seni yang dilaksanakan Ok, many things make us
di Ayodya Pala .... become a high–quality
choice, but the most
TL essential thing is ....
The applied concept of art
education and training in ii) Phrase becomes clause
Ayodya Pala .... SL
v) Category shift Top cuma di sanggar Ayodya
1) A verb in Bahasa Indo- Pala yang bisa go
nesia (SL) becomes a noun internasional.
in English (TL).
Karena alasan-alasan ter- Awesome. Only Ayodya Pala
sebut, kini para ahli is the opportunity to go
menganjurkan pada orang international.
tua untuk membuat anak-
anaknya terlibat dalam 2. Modulation
kegiatan seni sejak Modulation is divided into two
kecil. categories, namely mandatory modu-
lation and free modulation. The
TL frequency of modulation in this
For those reasons, the study reaches the percentage of
suggestion from the 1.65%.
experts is now instrucing a. Mandatory modulation is re-
all parents to get their quired if it is difficult to
children involved in arts find the equivalent of a word
since childhood. or phrase from source language
(SL) to target language (TL),
2) A verb in Bahasa Indone- so it needs to be raised.
sia (SL) becomes an i) Active pattern in Bahasa
Indonesia (SL) becomes

104 Sigalingging, Realization of…

passive pattern in English Pimpinan Sanggar Ayodya Pala
(TL) and vice versa. telah membentuk tim kesenian
yang akan ditugaskan berang-
SL kat ke Myanmar.
Dengan melakukan acara gelar
tari ini membuat anak-anak TL
semakin mencintai sebuah The Head of Ayodya Pala al-
karya dalam negeri. ready formed a delegation
that will be assigned to
TL leave for Myanmar.
Through this competition, it
is expected that children 3. Naturalization
would love their national Naturalization is a translation
culture more and more. procedure that involves the process
of transferring and adapting the
ii) A particular word in word in SL, first into normal pro-
Bahasa Indonesia (SL) is nunciation in TL then transferring
translated into a general and adapting it into normal form.
word or phrase in English Molina and Albir (2002) grouped it
(TL). into a translation technique called
SL pure borrowing and naturalized
Pengalaman Pentas borrowing. The frequency of
borrowing in this study reaches the
TL percentage of 20.58%.
Experience on Stage Example 1 (pure borrowing):
b. Free modulation is a trans- Disamping pendidikan formal,
lation procedure which is ternyata pendidikan seni seperti
undertaken for nonlinguistic musik, lukis, tari dan drama ...
reason, for example to clarify
meaning, to generate meaning TL
relation in the target Beside formal education, the form
language, or to find a natural of art like music, painting, dance
equivalent in the target and drama ....
i) Stating information impli- Example 2 (naturalized borrowing):
citly in the target language SL
(TL) when it is explicitly Seni juga tidak hanya sarana untuk
stated in the source language mengungkapkan kreativitas dan
(SL). imajinasi, namun ....
Example 1:
Hal ini ditandai dengan telah Art is also not only a path to
berdirinya 31 cabang Ayodya express creativity and imagination,
Pala aktif dengan jumlah but also ....
siswa mencapai 2.500 siswa
.... 4. Contextual conditioning
Contextual conditioning is the
TL placement of information in a
This fact is marked by 31 context, so that the meaning will
operational branches of be clear to the receiver (Hartono,
Ayodya Pala with their 2,500 2009). Contextual conditioning is
students .... realized through adaptation, parti-
cularization, generalization,
Example 2: linguistic compression, and dis-

Journal Of Language And Literature Vol 5, No. 2 Desember 2017 105

cursive creation, with the total
percentage of 2.47%. Example 5 (Discursive creation):
Example 1 (Adaptation): SL
SL Undian komprehensif (bagi siswa
Yang akan mendapatkan hadiah dari semester 5, 9, dan 13) dengan ma-
perlombaan ini adalah yang men- teri Tarian Wajib di semester
dapatkan juara 1 hingga 3, dan juga sebelumnya; ....
harapan 1 hingga 3.
TL Comprehensive test (for students in
The winner of this competition was the 5th, 9th and 13th semester) with
divided into the 1st winner, 1st the subject of Mandatory Dance per-
runner up and 2nd runner up and also formance in the previous semester;
three consolation prize winners. ....

Example 2 (Particularization): 5. Notes

SL Notes is a translation proce-
Kesenian yang akan ditampilkan dure which is used if a translator
adalah Tari Gending Sriwijaya, Tari translates a word or phrase whose
Tor-tor Batak, Randai Minang, Tari lexical equivalence does not exist
Dol Bengkulu, Zapin Kalimantan dan in the target language.
Tari Topeng Depok. SL
Foto tari Tor-tor
The performed dances were Gending TL
Sriwijaya, Tor-tor Batak, Randai A photo of Tor-tor Dance
Minang, Dol Bengkulu, Zapin Kali- Footnote : Tor-tor is a traditional
mantan and Topeng Depok. dance from North Sumatra.
The above explanation shows that
Example 3 (Generalization): the realization of decision making
SL by translator (writer) in
Lomba tari ini akan memperebutkan translating the web content of
piala, piagam dan juga uang is done
pembinaan bagi mereka yang juara. thoroughly as a process connecting
inner feeling between the author
TL using Bahasa Indonesia and the
This dance competition will provide target readers (international
trophies, charters and also prize communities) using English. This is
money for the winners. reflected in the use of a number of
well-considered translation
Example 4 (Linguistic compression): techniques, with regard to the
SL social and cultural context, to
Etin, julukan dari Budi Agustinah transfer the message (meaning) from
menyatakan bahwa penilaian dari the source language (SL) into the
seluruh kontestan tari ini di- target language (TL). If the
lakukan dengan membedakan 3 kelom- translation process of legal text
pok, sehingga masing-masing umur and scientific text of legal
dilakukan penilaian yang tidak involves eight stages (Wuryantoro,
sama. 2014), then in this research the
translation process of the web
TL content of takes
Etin, the nickname gained from Budi five stages.
Agustinah, stated that the assess-
ment of all contestants was done by
distinguishing three groups based
on each age category.

106 Sigalingging, Realization of…

5. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE related to five types of trans-
RESEARCH lation strategies or procedures,
The realization of the writer's namely transposition, modulation,
decision making as the translator naturalization, contextual condi-
of the web content of tioning, and notes. appears through The writer recognizes that the
the implementation of 14 trans- aspects discussed in this study are
lation techniques, namely literal still minor from overall aspects
translation, transposition, that can be assessed in relation to
borrowing, established equivalence, the process of website translation
modulation, reduction, adaptation, and semi-professional research in
amplification, particularization, the field of translation. There-
generalization, linguistic com- fore, the writers hope another
pression, discursive creation, researcher can improve this study,
linguistic amplification, and for instance by analyzing trans-
calque. Literal translation and lation method of web content of
transposition are the most dominant with different
translation techniques used by linguistic approach or discussing
translators. Literal translation translation quality of web content
puts forward the meaning equi- of by involving
valence whereas transposition shows rater as secondary data.
the form equivalence between the
source language and target 6. REFERENCES
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Meanwhile, the translation pro- Theory of Translation. Oxford:
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