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Learning Theories

By Muhammad Ikhlas
MSED – General Education
Background
Based on the Self-quiz “Your Emerging Theory/Philosophy of
Teaching and Learning”,

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Beaviorism Theory
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Cognitivism Theory
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Humanistic Theory

D
D D
Combination

D
D
1.1 Theories: Behavioural
Primary Focus Major Theorists
– Observable behaviour – Thorndike
– Stimulus-response – Pavlov
connections – Watson
Assumptions – Skinner
– Learning is a result of
environmental forces Principles
Subcategories – Time/place pairings
– Contiguity – Biological basis of
– Respondent behaviour
(Classical) – Consequences
– Operant – Modelling
(Instrumental)
Behaviorism
⚫ The theory originates from the works of Ivan Pavlov’s, classical
conditioning, and B. F. Skinner’s, operant conditioning.

⚫ Classical Conditioning is when an unconditioned stimulus and


response is manipulated with a conditioned stimulus to create a
conditioned response.

⚫ Operant Conditioning is a controlled response with a reward/


punishment system according to the behavior.

⚫ The learner needs reinforcements to keep interest.


⚫ Stimuli are effective in controlling behavior.

⚫ As a result, the behaviors can be measured to record learning success.


1.2 Theories: Cognitive
Primary Focus
– Mental behaviour Major Theorists
– Knowledge – Bloom
– Intelligence – Piaget
– Critical Thinking – Gagne
Assumptions
– Learning is a result of Principles
mental operations/
– Memory is limited
processing
– Changes in
Subcategories complexity
– Information Processing – Changes over time
– Hierarchical – Good thinking
– Developmental requires standards
– Critical Thinking
1.2.1 Cognitive Subcategories
Information Processing
– study of the structure and function of mental processing
within specific contexts, environments, or ecologies .
– Example: Stage Model of Information Processing
Hierarchical Developmental
– The classification of – stages in cognitive
educational goals and development
objectives
– Example: Piaget
– Example: Bloom’s Taxonomy

Critical Thinking
– How we apply our cognitive processes to evaluating
arguments (propositions) and making decisions
– Examples: Thinking to a standard. Critical Thinking Model
Cognitivism
⚫ Information Processing looks at how information is retrieved and
stored.
⚫ This theory focuses on how to store and retrieve information.
⚫ Learning is attained through rehearsal and consistent use of the
information.
⚫ Retention strategies such as breaking down information and
comparing the information to long term storage are great techniques.
Constructivism
⚫ Constructivism views learning as a process in which the learner
constructs knowledge based on their past experiences.

⚫ The teacher only acts as a facilitator who encourages students to


explore within a given framework.

Learners may collaborate with others


to organize their ideas and learn from
each other to construct their own
knowledge.
1.3 Theories: Humanistic
Primary Focus
– Affect/Values Major Theorists
– Self-Concept/Self-Esteem – Rogers
– Needs – Maslow
Assumptions – N. V. Peale
– Learning is a result of
affect/emotion and goal-
Principles
orientation
– Individual
Subcategories uniqueness
– Affect – Self-determination
– Motivation/Needs – Dreams and goals
– Self-concept are vital for success
– Self-esteem
1.3.1 Humanistic Subcategories
Affect
– The affective/emotional system colours, embellishes,
diminishes or otherwise modifies information processed by
people.
– Example: The Affective Domain Self-Concept
Motivation/Needs
– What needs motivate us to act?
– Example: Maslow’s Hierarchy of
Needs
Self-Esteem Ideal Self
– Basic faith in oneself as being growth-directed and positively oriented.
– Individuals cannot progress because they do not have faith in their ability
to solve problems or to accurately experience the here-and-now.
Putting It All Together
Learning Theory Learning Process
Through positive/ negative reinforcement
Behaviorism and punishment

Rehearsing information and then storing it


Cognitivism for long term use

Constructing ones own knowledge


Constructivism through past experiences and group
collaboration
Result of affect/emotion and goal-
Humanistic
orientation
What is Learning Theories?

The Ways used to obtain


a person’s (students or
learners) behaviour
change that relatively
permanent, both in the
form
01 of knowledge,
02 skills
03
(psychomotor) and
Text Here
Easy to change
Text Here
Easy to change
Text Here
Easy to change

attitudes (affective) as a
colors. colors. colors.

result of experiences
(learning)
Thank You
For your attention ☺