1 views

Uploaded by Gradia Olfactra Ilokana

Soke

- Week 7 Concrete Quality Control & Admixtures
- Concrete Mix Design With Portland Pozzolana Cements
- Conctrete Mix Design With Ppc Cement Research Paper (1)
- Civil Engineering_ Water and Waste Water_ Earthquake_ Railways
- Admixtures
- C33
- Railway Construction Testing
- Rate Analysis
- Mechanical Equipment Procedure TSE
- Modification Specification of Concrete
- Coconut Shell as Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate in Concrete
- Sika Fume HR
- New Microsoft Word Document
- New Microsoft Word Document.docx
- book.docx
- Investigation on Behavior of Rcc Beams With Used Foundry Sand as a Aletrnative Material f0r Natural Sand
- Experimental Study Of Palm Oil Fuel Ash As Cement Replacement Of Concrete
- LECTURE 3 - Solution to Problem
- Lecture 1 - Introduction
- Study on Low cost Concrete with Paper Industry Waste - Lime Sludge

You are on page 1of 9

net/publication/328186201

materials ﬂy ash, steel slag, and silica fume for high strength concrete

DOI: 10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

CITATIONS READS

0 26

4 authors, including:

Bandung Institute of Technology

1 PUBLICATION 0 CITATIONS

SEE PROFILE

Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:

All content following this page was uploaded by Gradia Olfactra Ilokana on 21 February 2019.

IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering

materials fly ash, steel slag, and silica fume for high strength concrete

To cite this article: M Ujianto et al 2018 IOP Conf. Ser.: Mater. Sci. Eng. 403 012026

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

with added materials fly ash, steel slag, and silica fume for

high strength concrete

Civil Engineering Department, Engineering Faculty, Universitas Muhammadiyah

Surakarta Jl. Ahmad Yani, TromolPos 1, Pabelan, Kartasura, Jawa Tengah

ujianto@ums.ac.id

high storey building, bridge, highway, or fly over. Most of the construction project in

Indonesia use concrete as the main material. Various problems arise as the ongoing

developments such as reduced the natural resources to market demand require the concrete can

be used one day after the project completion. The research is trying to solve this problem. The

use of fly ash as substitute material to reduce the amount of cement use due to its chemical

properties of silica and alumina, the use of steel slag instead of 50% coarse aggregate, and use

of silica fume so greatly affect the compressive strength of concrete. The result of concrete

compressive strength in 3 samples from first mix design with code AR were 29.16 MPa, 29.72

MPa, and 30.12 MPa. Fly ash, steel slag, and silica fume can increase the compressive strength

which is much higher than design compressive strength of 15 MPa and with this mix design

only use 51% of total cement requirement with normal mix design of ACI method.

1. Introduction

Development in the construction in Indonesia currently is heavy conducted. More than 60%

construction project either from the simplest to the complicated project use concrete as the main

construction material. Increasing the lower middle class by 56.5% from 240 million populations can

be sure the development will be continuing to grow [1]. The purpose of self-development is to make

people prosperous. Without realizing there is problem arising from uncontrolled development is

reduction the natural resources that is the impact of massive development that occurred at this time. To

solve this problem, so need for innovation. In this study the authors have conducted research on high

quality concrete SCC concrete that can be hardened and can be used within 1 day. Concrete consisting

of a mixture of cement, fine aggregate, coarse aggregate, and water is a material that cannot be

separated in the world of construction.

Conventional concrete is considered less effective because in the process required a vibrator to

compress fresh concrete. SCC is also otherwise called as High-Fluidity Concrete, Self-Levelling Concrete and

Self- Consolidating Concrete. This concrete has a very good ability to flow inside the formwork in which

there is a reinforcing steel relying on the effect of gravity force with a maintained homogeneity [2]. As

a solution of the problem, is currently being developed concrete SCC (Self Compacting Concrete) that

is self-flowing and self-compacted concrete, to support SCC's work is required also Admixture

Content from this work may be used under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licence. Any further distribution

of this work must maintain attribution to the author(s) and the title of the work, journal citation and DOI.

Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd 1

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

material that is Superplasticizer, in this opportunity using MasterGlenium SKY 8614 from BASF,

added is required to meet the flow ability requirements.

Then, SCC development needs to be balanced with innovation to save natural resources. The

cement production process mostly uses fossil fuels that are likely to cause a greenhouse effect. The

residual ash from the cement production process is also directly mixed with the free air which makes it

pollution for the environment. It should be noted that 1 ton of cement produces 1 ton of carbon dioxide

as well, and cement production also accounts for 7% of overall CO2 generated from various sources

That factor causes many innovations to reduce the amount of cement use in making SCC concrete.

Some researchers have done research on the issue, such as the addition of materials as cementitious to

reduce the amount of cement and increase the compressive strength of concrete.

Based on the above background, then the problem that became the focus of this research is what is

the most optimal material for Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY 8614? How do other additives

influence the compressive strength of the concrete? While the purpose of this research is to know the

optimal added material for Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY 8614 and to know the effect of fly

ash, steel slag and silica fume combined with Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY 8614 to the

compressive strength of concrete. The benefits of this research are expected to become the potential

developer material of steel slag, silica fume, and fly ash as added materials of SCC concrete

construction and can be a solution of construction problems in buildings that will soon be used within

1 day.

2. Research methods

In the first stage of preparation based on study results, literature studies, preparations include materials

and equipment to be used in the manufacture of test specimens. The sources of data from primary and

secondary data. Primary data in this study was obtained through interviews and consultations with

experts who are competent in their field. Secondary data in this study secondary data obtained from

the observation and test samples of test specimens, and reference library related to this research. Some

of the things observed and tested in this study are:

Workability of Concrete Mixed Workability, this test is done by Slump Test.

Compressive Test, this test is done on all samples after all samples reaches age of 24 hours.

In the second stage, the material characteristics and physical test were tested on each material used.

This test used the ASTM C 40 assay standard for the ASTM C 127 as a mild aggregate assay test for

specific gravity and absorbance tests on coarse aggregate ASTM C 128 for specific gravity and

absorption tests on fine aggregate ASTM C 136 for fine aggregate filtration analysis and coarse

aggregate.

In the third stage, batching is done with mix design composition 1 with AR code (Superplasticizer

MasterGlenium SKY 8614, silica fume, slag steel, sand, gravel, cement, and water), mix design 2 with

BS code (Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY 8614, fly ash, Slag of steel, sand, gravel, cement, and

water). Mix design 3 with CT code (Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY 8614, fly ash, silica fume,

sand, gravel, cement, and water), mix design 4 with DU code (Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY

8614, fly ash, silica fume, slag steel, sand, Gravel, cement, and water) and mix design 5 with the EV

code (Superplasticizer MasterGlenium SKY 8614, steel slag, sand, gravel, cement, and water). Each

mix design will be made into 3 specimens. Prior to printing into a 15 x 30 cm cylindrical test

specimen, each of the fresh concrete results of each mix design is performed slump flow test which

refers to the EFNARC testing standard (fresh concrete requirement is to have 55-85 cm slump flow).

After the hardened concrete can be done capping (ASTM C 617 Standard) with sulfur material on each

hardened concrete so that the surface of the concrete becomes flat [3 – 7].

In the fourth stage, the test of compressive strength of cylindrical concrete on each test specimen is

15 specimens. In the fifth stage data analysis and discussion of all test results that have been done on

each specimen. In the sixth stage the conclusion of all test results, analysis and report writing.

2

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

2.1. Materials

SteelSlaag is the waste material from steel casting in the form of waste and has not maximized its use.

Silica fume is a delicate pozzolan material, where the composition is mostly produced from the high

blast furnace or the rest of the silicon or silicon iron alloy production. The use of silica fume in a

concrete mix is intended to produce concrete with increasing strength from day to day.

Superplasticizer is an added material used in the manufacture of SCC concrete intended to achieve its

flow ability. The PCC (Portland Composite Cement) on this occasion uses a brand of Three Wheels of

type I. The cement is often used for buildings in general, in addition to having lower hydration heat

during the cooling process compared to other types of portland, the work will be easier and produce

surface concrete is denser and smooth (SNI 157064-2004). Aggregates Larrad's (1990) study results

show that the maximum grain size provides concrete evidence to make high quality concrete should

not be more than 15 mm [8] List of materials are used in this research shown in table 1.

1 Cement 3.15 gr/cm3 Tiga Roda tipe PCC

2 Sand 2.60 gr/cm3 Merapi

3 Coarse 2.65 gr/cm3 Kulon Progo

4 Steel slag 3.60 gr/cm3 Ceper Klaten

5 Silica fume 2.20 gr/cm3 SikaFume, PT. Sika

6 Fly ash 2.15 gr/cm3 PT. Varia Usaha Beton

7 Superplasticizer Brosur PT. BASF

AR code is used as designation for mix design type 1, BS code is used as designation for mix design

type 2, CT code is used as designation for mix design type 3, DU code is used as designation for mix

design type 4, and EV code is used as designation for mix design type 5. The above materials use fly

ash 15% of cementitious, silica fume 10% of cementitious, superplasticizer 1.5% of cementitious, 50%

steel slag of total coarse aggregate, fine aggregate ratio: coarse aggregate = 49:51. The concrete

strength of the concrete plan is 15 MPa within 1 day. Mix design using American Concrete Institute

(ACI) method, with strong press 15 MPa plan in 1 day and f'c 75 MPa in 28 days. As a result of

normal concrete mix design, total cement requirement of 800 kg/m3, gravel 672 kg/m3, sand 650

kg/m3, water 0,206 m3. Then modified to mix design modification with cementitious deduction of

27.25% of cement content, to obtain total cement requirement of 550 kg/m3, silica fume 5.5% from

cementitious of 32 kg/m3. The mix design is shown in table 2.

Mix Design Code (Needs 3 cylinder)

No. Material Unit

AR BS CT DU EV

1 Cement 8.7 7.9 6.9 6.9 9.2 kg

2 Silica fume 0.5 - 0.9 0.9 - kg

3 Fly ash - 1.4 1.4 1.4 - kg

4 Water 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 2.9 liter

5 Superplasticizer 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 liter

6 Sand 12 13 12 12 13 kg

7 Gravel 6.2 6.7 13 6.5 6.8 kg

8 Steel Slag 6.2 6.7 - 6.5 6.8 kg

3

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

The cylindrical concrete was tested for compressive strength at the age of 1 day (24 hours) with a

compressive strength test machine. The following is the result of the cylinder concrete compressive

test can be seen in the table 3.

BS 19.24 22.07 20.27 20.53

CT 4.00 4.44 4.44 4.27

DU 4.30 4.10 3.40 3.93

EV 26.60 23.80 30.60 27.00

4. Discussion

The result of compressive strength test is shown in figure 1 (a) AR concrete mix design (b) BS

concrete mix design (c) CT concrete mix design (d) DU concrete mix design and (e) EV concrete mix

design. Figure 2 shows the comparison result of all mix design and figure 3 shows the graph of

concrete optimum compressive strength.

The results of compressive strength test of AR concrete mix design, AR1 cylinder has a

compressive strength of 29.14 MPa, AR2 cylinder has a compressive strength of 29.71 MPa, and the

AR3 cylinder has a compressive strength of 30.10 MPa. The average of AR concrete compressive

strength is 29.65 MPa at 1 day (24 hours).

The results of compressive strength test from concrete BS design mix, BS1 cylinder have

compressive strength of 19.24 MPa, BS2 cylinder have compressive strength 20.27 MPa, and BS3

cylinder have compressive strength equal to 22.07 MPa. The average of concrete strength of BS is

20.53 MPa at 1 day (24 hours).

The results of compressive strength test from concrete mix design CT, CT1 cylinder has a

compressive strength of 4.00 MPa, cylinder CT2 has a compressive strength of 4.44 MPa, and CT3

cylinder has a compressive strength of 4.44 MPa. The average of compressive strength of CT concrete

is 4.27 MPa at 1 day (24 hours).

The results of compressive strength test from DU concrete mix design, DU1 cylinder have

compressive strength equal to 3.4 MPa, cylinder DU2 have compressive strength 4.1 MPa, and

cylinder DU3 have compressive strength equal to 4.3 MPa. The average of concrete compressive

strength of DU is 3.93 MPa at 1 day (24 hours).

The results of the compressive strength test of EV concrete mix design, EV1 cylinder has a

compressive strength of 23.8 MPa, EV2 cylinder has a compressive strength of 26.6 MPa, and EV3

cylinder has a compressive strength of 30.6 MPa. The average of compressive strength of EV concrete

is 27,00 MPa at 1 day (24 hours).

AR concrete has the highest average compressive strength compared to other mixed concrete that is

29.65 MPa in the age of 1 day (24 hours). Recommended additives for the SKY 8614 Superplasticizer

MasterGlenium are silica fume and steel slag.

From the results of the compressive strength shown in the table 3 that the addition of

Superplasticizer and fly ash is not effective in increasing the compressive strength of the concrete

mixture. The use of steel slaags that have high hardness characteristics can support increased

compressive strength.

4

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

30.2 22.5

22

30

21.5

29.8

Comp. Comp. 21

Strenght 29.6 Strenght 20.5

(MPa) (MPa) 20

29.4

19.5

29.2

19

29 18.5

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

Sample Sample

(a) Graph of AR concrete test result. (b) Graph of BS concrete test result.

4.5 5

4.4 4

Comp. 4.3 Comp. 3

Strengh 4.2 Strenght

t (MPa) 4.1 (MPa) 2

4 1

3.9 0

0 1 2 3 4 0 1 2 3 4

Sample Sample

(c) Graph of CT concrete test result. (d) Graph of DU concrete test result.

Result of concrete EV

40

30

Comp.

Strenght 20

(MPa)

10

0

0 1 2 3 4

Sample

5

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

35

30

25 AR

Comp. 20

Strenght 15 BS

(MPa) CT

10

5 DU

0

0 1 2 3 4 EV

Sample

30.00

25.00

20.00

Comp.

15.00

Strenght

(MPa) 10.00

5.00

0.00

AR BS CT DU EV

Mix Design

5. Conclusion

From the results and discussion can be concluded that the optimal added materials for Superplasticizer

MasterGlenium SKY 8614 is silica fume and steel slag. And the addition of added materials will be

optimum using silica fume with 5.5% content of cementitious, steel slag of 50% of the total coarse

aggregate.

References

[1] Hediyanto 2013 Peranan Beton Dalam Pembangunan Infrastruktur Indonesia [Online] available

at https://www.pu.go.id/berita/view/10400/peranan-beton-dalam-pembangunan-infrastruktur

-indonesia

[2] Okamura H, Ozawa K and Ouchi M 2000 Self-compacting concrete Structural concrete journal

of the fib. Vol 1 no 1 pp 3-17

[3] Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2004 ASTM C40 Standard Test Method for Organic in Fine

Aggregate for Concrete (West, Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International)

[4] Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2015 ASTM C127 Standard Test Method for Relativity Density

(Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate (West, Conshohocken, PA: ASTM

International)

[5] Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2015 ASTM C128 Standard Test Method for Relativity Density

(Specific Gravity) and Absorption of Fine Aggregate (West, Conshohocken, PA: ASTM

6

2017 1st International Conference on Engineering and Applied Technology (ICEAT) IOP Publishing

IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering 403 (2018) 012026 doi:10.1088/1757-899X/403/1/012026

1234567890‘’“”

International)

[6] Annual Book of ASTM Standards 2014 ASTM C136 Standard Test Method for Sieving Analysis of

Fine and Coarse Aggregate (West, Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International)

[7] EFNARC 2002 EFNARC Specification and Guidelines for Self-Compacting Concrete (Farnhamm,

Surrey GU9 7EN, UK: EFNARC)

[8] Tjokrodimuljo K 1996 Teknologi Beton (Yogjakarta, Indonesia: Nafiri)

- Week 7 Concrete Quality Control & AdmixturesUploaded byKreem Alfa
- Concrete Mix Design With Portland Pozzolana CementsUploaded bysouravaech1
- Conctrete Mix Design With Ppc Cement Research Paper (1)Uploaded byPARASASRINIVAS
- Civil Engineering_ Water and Waste Water_ Earthquake_ RailwaysUploaded byNavid Nakhaie
- AdmixturesUploaded byeph
- C33Uploaded byanjadely
- Railway Construction TestingUploaded byMadura Jobs
- Rate AnalysisUploaded bynagaraj_qce3499
- Mechanical Equipment Procedure TSEUploaded byspazzbgt
- Modification Specification of ConcreteUploaded byemadsafy
- Coconut Shell as Partial Replacement of Coarse Aggregate in ConcreteUploaded byIRJET Journal
- Sika Fume HRUploaded bythe pilot
- New Microsoft Word DocumentUploaded byDattatreya Dattu
- New Microsoft Word Document.docxUploaded byDattatreya Dattu
- book.docxUploaded byDattatreya Dattu
- Investigation on Behavior of Rcc Beams With Used Foundry Sand as a Aletrnative Material f0r Natural SandUploaded byesatjournals
- Experimental Study Of Palm Oil Fuel Ash As Cement Replacement Of ConcreteUploaded byAnonymous vQrJlEN
- LECTURE 3 - Solution to ProblemUploaded byKaren Lovedorial
- Lecture 1 - IntroductionUploaded byDerick Urrea
- Study on Low cost Concrete with Paper Industry Waste - Lime SludgeUploaded byGRD Journals
- Cylinder Concrete Mix ProportationsUploaded byTopeyaki Francia
- Cylinder Concrete Mix ProportationsUploaded bytrixon
- RespUploaded bySujith Mathew
- SNI 19-6724-2002(1)Uploaded byM. Gunawan Budisusila
- 93 26 EvaluationUploaded byvignesh natarajan
- Design and EstimateUploaded byNishimonKonwar
- soil testUploaded byGlendisLisbethQuicoZapata
- RMC - KPTCLsacUploaded bysachinkumar
- Mix+Design+2Uploaded byAjayveer Singh
- Cheminteraplast ZUploaded byICPL-RWP

- Sp SinusoidalUploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana
- CoverUploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana
- Mix Design ACI OkaUploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana
- Academic Reading SampleUploaded byankit009
- 06 Matrix BeamUploaded byEdouard Meyer
- Belajar Bekerja LNUploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana
- 34734 Chapter IVUploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana
- UCT 17Uploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana
- Concrete Batching PlantUploaded byGradia Olfactra Ilokana

- 06Econometrics_Statistics_Basic_1-8.pptUploaded byHay Jirenyaa
- 10.1016@j.jelechem.2016.03.010Uploaded byNia AzZuhra Angelica
- Linear Programming _set1Uploaded byvaishnu dass
- Mandala of Sacred ActivismUploaded bysbartone
- 9171_Sosialisasi Beasiswa KSE 2018-2019Uploaded bySeliaDestianingrum
- individual siop lesson planUploaded byapi-263388091
- AQUACULTURE 05.pdfUploaded byfdlab
- ComputationsUploaded byLiza Lee
- Ani Caroline Grigion Potrich (2016)Uploaded byMochammad Ridwan
- 1. Norsen. John S. Bell’s concept of local causalityUploaded byFrancesca Leto
- Basic Simulation Lab ManualUploaded byshiva4105
- ıuuıu 56Uploaded bydob14
- hsc dance programUploaded byapi-203667098
- Chem162 FractCryst Report Gradescope 021919 PCUploaded byAmalawa Aiwekhoe
- FINAL PPT PASSBYOP.pptxUploaded bymindworkz pro
- TPM SeminarUploaded byVishnu Nair
- Magnetospheric Eternally Collapsing Object (Jeffy Hodgson)Uploaded byDr Abhas Mitra
- Water-GEMS Manual.pdfUploaded byMario Valerin
- Java Specialist Master Course PrepUploaded byswetalv
- Risk Matrix (v2)Uploaded byblazerman3
- GENERAL TERMS CONDITIONS AND SAFETY REQUIREMENT.pdfUploaded byprashganvir
- Firo B-1Uploaded byRajesh Biswas
- IntroductionUploaded byVandana Kapil Vaswani
- User OptionsUploaded byJustin Galipeau
- Ortorectificacion De imagenes sentinelUploaded byIgor Davalos
- National Programme on School Standards and Evaluation_NEUPA_2015Uploaded byayushi bhatt
- 978-1-63057-094-1-3Uploaded bygouravbhatia200189
- Boeckh - Philological HermeneuticsUploaded byMondlT
- ProjectMekonnenUploaded byAhmed Hassan
- CAMWorks Tech Tips.pdfUploaded byhamzah35