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1.1 Purpose
The purpose of this experiment is that students can understand the principle of energy loss
because of the friction between the pipe and the flow in different pipes.
1.2 Basic Theory
According to Bambang Triatmojo (1993), each fluid has viscosity or thickness. The fluid in the
pipe will experience gradations of velocity and shear stress at entire field because of the presence
of viscosity or thickness itself. The shear stress causing major energy loss. Other factors that play
a role in losing flow energy is the presence of pipe fittings such as constriction, elbow, filter
(strainer), pipe enlargement (expansion), pipe reduction (contraction), branching (T joint; V
joint), branching (tee) and valve causing turbulence. This factor is called minor energy loss.
Taking into account the two losses, the Bernoulli equation is between two streams of flow (point
1 and 3) to be:

Figure 1.1 Horizontal Pipe Scheme with Power and Press Lines
Energy losses are expressed in the following forms:

1. Energy loss duefriction (hf)

Energy loss duefriction is called too loss of primary energy or major loss. Happens
as a result the presence of liquid viscosity and turbulence because of it roughness of
pipe wall borders and will create style swipe the will cause loss energy along the pipe
with a constant diameter on uniform flow. Energy loss throughout one unit length
will constant during roughness and the diameter does not change. Primary energy
loss on pressurized pipes Darcy-Weisbach formula is used. This equation can used
for various types of non-compressed streams and liquids. The amount of energy loss
during the loop pipe according to DarcyWeisbach is:
For primary power loss:

Then :

hf is the loss of energy or pressure (m), L is the length of the pipe (m), D is the pipe
diameter (m), g is the gravitational acceleration (m / sec2), v is the flow velocity
(m / sec), f is the coefficient of friction (for PVC 0.00015 mm).

2. Secondary / Minor Energy Loss (he)

Energy loss due cross section and other accessories are also called secondary energy
loss or minor loss occurs at enlargement of appearance (expansion), downsizing
cross section (contraction), turn or bend. Secondary energy loss or this minor loss
will cause it collision between particles of matter liquid and increasing friction due
to turbulence and not the uniform speed distribution on a pipe cross section.
There are separate boundary layers from the pipe wall then it will processing or
vortex water. This will be processed disrupt flow patterns laminar so it will increase
the level of turbulence.
Although called a minor, loss in that place may be greater than that loss of main
energy due to friction with the pipe. Therefore energy loss must be taken into
The mathematical equation of loss minor energy is:

Then :

k is a constant, v is the flow velocity, L is the length of the pipe, D is the pipe
diameter, A1 is the area of pipe 1 (upstream), A2 is area pipe 2 (downstream)
The coefficient k depends on the physical shape of turns, constriction, valves, and
connection. However, the value of k is still an approach value, because strongly
influenced by materials, smoothness of making connections, as well as age of the
connection itself.
Cross section change pipe :
Besides the existence loss of energy due to friction, there is also a loss of energy
caused by changes pipe cross section. On long pipes loss of energy due to friction
usually much bigger than on loss of energy due to changes cross section, so that in
circumstances the result is loss of energy cross section changes can ignored. In short
pipes loss of energy due to changes cross section must be taken into account. To
minimize loss energy due to cross section changes, cross section changes are made
in order

1. Flow through a small diameter pipe to the pipe through a pipe

large diameter;

2. Flow through large diameter pipes to the pipe through the pipe
small diameter;
1.3 Tools and materials
1. Fluid Friction Apparatus;
2. Pipes of different diameters;
3. Measuring Cup;
4. Stopwatch;

1.4 Practical Procedure

1. Prepare a trial tool fluid friction apparatus including measuring vessels (to accommodate
flowing debits) and stopwatch.
2. Select the pipe that matches the fluid used for the experiment;
3. Turn on the pump and open the test faucet, the flow will flow from the over flow tools
4. After the flow is stable, measure the flowrate before and after obstacles. How to measure
water discharge is as follows:
a. Press the stopwatch knob together with filling the measuring cup with the fluid
from the flowing hose.
b. If the water is sufficient, divert the hose and press / stop the stopwatch at the
same time.
c. After the measurement is complete, remove the remaining water from the
measuring cup.
5. Within a certain time interval, observe and record the high difference in internal fluid
6. Measure the diameter of the pipe being tested.
7. Repeat the experiment by changing the width of the opening of the faucet, so that the
results of observations are obtained with different debits.
1. Debit (Q)

2. Flow Speed (U)

1.5 Practicum Data Form
Table 1.1 Pipe Cross Section Practicum Data 1, Slow ( Pipe 7 )
Volume of measuring cup ( ml) Time (s) Debit (m³/s)
100 10,54
100 10,73
100 10,59
Average 2,5 cm

Table 1.2 Pipe Cross Section Practicum Data 1, Medium ( Pipe 7 )

Volume of measuring cup ( ml) Time (s) Debit (m³/s)
100 6,95
100 6,76
100 6,68
1.6 Reference