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APPLICATION CHANGE

1.1 Purpose

The purpose of this experiment is that students can understand the principle of energy loss

because of the friction between the pipe and the flow in different pipes.

1.2 Basic Theory

According to Bambang Triatmojo (1993), each fluid has viscosity or thickness. The fluid in the

pipe will experience gradations of velocity and shear stress at entire field because of the presence

of viscosity or thickness itself. The shear stress causing major energy loss. Other factors that play

a role in losing flow energy is the presence of pipe fittings such as constriction, elbow, filter

(strainer), pipe enlargement (expansion), pipe reduction (contraction), branching (T joint; V

joint), branching (tee) and valve causing turbulence. This factor is called minor energy loss.

Taking into account the two losses, the Bernoulli equation is between two streams of flow (point

1 and 3) to be:

Figure 1.1 Horizontal Pipe Scheme with Power and Press Lines

Energy losses are expressed in the following forms:

Energy loss duefriction is called too loss of primary energy or major loss. Happens

as a result the presence of liquid viscosity and turbulence because of it roughness of

pipe wall borders and will create style swipe the will cause loss energy along the pipe

with a constant diameter on uniform flow. Energy loss throughout one unit length

will constant during roughness and the diameter does not change. Primary energy

loss on pressurized pipes Darcy-Weisbach formula is used. This equation can used

for various types of non-compressed streams and liquids. The amount of energy loss

during the loop pipe according to DarcyWeisbach is:

For primary power loss:

Then :

With:

hf is the loss of energy or pressure (m), L is the length of the pipe (m), D is the pipe

diameter (m), g is the gravitational acceleration (m / sec2), v is the flow velocity

(m / sec), f is the coefficient of friction (for PVC 0.00015 mm).

Energy loss due cross section and other accessories are also called secondary energy

loss or minor loss occurs at enlargement of appearance (expansion), downsizing

cross section (contraction), turn or bend. Secondary energy loss or this minor loss

will cause it collision between particles of matter liquid and increasing friction due

to turbulence and not the uniform speed distribution on a pipe cross section.

There are separate boundary layers from the pipe wall then it will processing or

vortex water. This will be processed disrupt flow patterns laminar so it will increase

the level of turbulence.

Although called a minor, loss in that place may be greater than that loss of main

energy due to friction with the pipe. Therefore energy loss must be taken into

account.

The mathematical equation of loss minor energy is:

Then :

With:

k is a constant, v is the flow velocity, L is the length of the pipe, D is the pipe

diameter, A1 is the area of pipe 1 (upstream), A2 is area pipe 2 (downstream)

The coefficient k depends on the physical shape of turns, constriction, valves, and

connection. However, the value of k is still an approach value, because strongly

influenced by materials, smoothness of making connections, as well as age of the

connection itself.

Cross section change pipe :

Besides the existence loss of energy due to friction, there is also a loss of energy

caused by changes pipe cross section. On long pipes loss of energy due to friction

usually much bigger than on loss of energy due to changes cross section, so that in

circumstances the result is loss of energy cross section changes can ignored. In short

pipes loss of energy due to changes cross section must be taken into account. To

minimize loss energy due to cross section changes, cross section changes are made

in order

large diameter;

2. Flow through large diameter pipes to the pipe through the pipe

small diameter;

1.3 Tools and materials

1. Fluid Friction Apparatus;

2. Pipes of different diameters;

3. Measuring Cup;

4. Stopwatch;

1. Prepare a trial tool fluid friction apparatus including measuring vessels (to accommodate

flowing debits) and stopwatch.

2. Select the pipe that matches the fluid used for the experiment;

3. Turn on the pump and open the test faucet, the flow will flow from the over flow tools

4. After the flow is stable, measure the flowrate before and after obstacles. How to measure

water discharge is as follows:

a. Press the stopwatch knob together with filling the measuring cup with the fluid

from the flowing hose.

b. If the water is sufficient, divert the hose and press / stop the stopwatch at the

same time.

c. After the measurement is complete, remove the remaining water from the

measuring cup.

5. Within a certain time interval, observe and record the high difference in internal fluid

Piezometer.

6. Measure the diameter of the pipe being tested.

7. Repeat the experiment by changing the width of the opening of the faucet, so that the

results of observations are obtained with different debits.

Equations

1. Debit (Q)

1.5 Practicum Data Form

Table 1.1 Pipe Cross Section Practicum Data 1, Slow ( Pipe 7 )

Volume of measuring cup ( ml) Time (s) Debit (m³/s)

100 10,54

100 10,73

100 10,59

Average 2,5 cm

Volume of measuring cup ( ml) Time (s) Debit (m³/s)

100 6,95

100 6,76

100 6,68

Average

1.6 Reference

1. http://publication.gunadarma.ac.id/bitstream/123456789/6989/1/jurnal.pdf

2. http://sipil.ft.uns.ac.id/web/wp-content/uploads/2018/11/Modul_MekFlu.pdf

3.https://www.academia.edu/25130756/LAPORAN_PRAKTIKUM_MEKANIKA_FLUIDA_LEN

GKAP

4. https://dokumen.tips/documents/laporan-praktikum-hidrolika-558467c76b7d4.html

5. https://www.academia.edu/24458389/Laporan_Praktikum_Mekanika_Fluida_Rev.3_

6.https://www.academia.edu/32188166/LAPORAN_PRAKTIKUM_HIRDROLIKA_I_KEHILAN

GAN_ENERGI

7. https://sanggapramana.wordpress.com/2010/09/12/kehilangan-tenaga-pada-pipa/

8.https://www.scribd.com/doc/50080215/Sistem-Aliran-Tertutup-Paper-Praktikum-Mekanika-

Fluida-Kelompok-1-Teknik-Pertanian-UNSRI

9. Modul Praktikum – CIVL6023-MEKANIKA FLUIDA & HIDROLIKA

10. http://journals.ums.ac.id/index.php/mesin/article/download/3302/2106

11.https://www.researchgate.net/publication/327281245_ANALISA_PERUBAHAN_DEBIT_TER

HADAP_PERUBAHAN_PENAMPANG_PADA_PIPA_UJI_LABORATORIUM

12. http://sitedi.uho.ac.id/uploads_sitedi/E1A114092_sitedi_SKripsi%20Angga.pdf

13. http://jurnal.untidar.ac.id/index.php/wahana/article/view/252/205

14.http://contohlaporan26.blogspot.com/2010/12/laporan-praktikum-mekanika-fluida-

acara_06.html

15. http://www.ocean.itb.ac.id/wp-content/uploads/2016/10/50639_Modul-Mekflu.pdf

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