DC and AC Meters
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PART 1 (DC) PART 2 (AC)
• Introduction to DC • Introduction to AC
meters meters
• D’ Arsonval meter
• D’ Arsonval meter movement (halfwave
movement rectification)
• DC ammeter • D’ Arsonval meter
• DC voltmeter movement (fullwave
• DC ohmmeter rectification)
• Loading effects of AC
• Loading effects of DC meter
meter
Meters
Digital Meters
Measure the continuous voltage/ current signal at discrete points in time.
The signal converted from analog signal (continuous in time) to a digital signal
(discrete instants in time)
Analog Meters
Based on the d’Arsonval meter movement which implements the readout
mechanism.
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INTRODUCTION
HOW CAN WE MEASURED CURRENT AND
VOLTAGE?
Im
Rm
Torque (T)
PMMC instrument
T = BxAxNxI [N.m]
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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF MOVING COIL INSTRUMENT
AMMETER, VOLTMETER AND OHMMETER?
Rsh
Rs
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DC AMMETER
IshRsh = ImRm
Ish Im
Rsh = ImRm / Ish (Ω) (a)
d'Arsonval movement
Rsh Rm I = Ish + Im Ish = I – Im
Therefore, Rsh = ImRm/(I – Im)
Purpose I >>n Im , n = multiplying factor
n=I/Im
I = nIm (b)
Substitute b to a
Rsh = ImRm/(nIm – Im)
Rsh= Rm/(n1) (c)
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EXAMPLE 1 (DC AMMETER)
Example 1: DC Ammeter
A 100uA meter movement with an internal
resistance of 800Ω is used in a 0  100 mA
ammeter . Find the value of the required shunt
resistance.
Solution:
n = I/Im = 100 mA / 100 µA = 1000
Thus,
Rsh = Rm / (n – 1) = 800 / 999 = 0.8 Ω
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THE ARYTON SHUNT
Rsh = Ra + Rb + Rc
Most sensitive
range 1A
Ra Im
Rm
1 mA Rsh (c)
n 1
S 5A
+ Rm
Rshunt
Rb
50
10A
Rc

•Used in multiple range ammeter
•Eliminates the possibility of the moving coil to
be in the circuit without any shunt resistance
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THE ARYTON SHUNT
At point B, (Rb+Rc)(Ra+Rm)
I1 Ra Im
Middle
sensitive S I2
B VRb Rc VRa Rm
range + Rb Rm
Rshunt
(Rb + Rc )(I2 Im) = Im(Ra +Rm)
I3
Rc Since,

Ra = Rsh – (Rb + Rc),
yield,
I2 (Rb + Rc ) – Im(Rb+Rc) = Im [Rsh – (Rb + Rc ) + Rm]
I m ( Rsh Rm )
Rb Rc (d)
I2
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THE ARYTON SHUNT
At point C, Rc(Ra+Rb+Rm)
I1
Ra Im VRc VRa Rb Rm
I2
(I3Im)Rc = Im(Ra+Rb+Rm)
+ Rb Rm
Rshunt
S
I3Rc = Im(Ra+Rb+Rc+Rm)
C
I3 I3Rc = (Rsh+Rm)
Rc

I m ( Rsh Rm )
Rc (e)
I3
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THE ARYTON SHUNT
1 1
Rb I m ( Rsh Rm ) (f)
I 2 I3
Ra = Rsh – (Rb+Rc) (g)
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EXAMPLE 2: THE ARYTON SHUNT
Calculate the value for Ra, Rb and Rc as shown, given the
value of internal resistance, Rm=1kΩ and full scale current of
the moving coil = 100 µA. The required range of current are:
I1 = 10 mA, I2 = 100 mA and I3 = 1A.
I1 Ra Im
I2
B
S
+ Rb
Rshunt
Rm
I3
Rc

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AMMETER INSERTION EFFECT
R1 R1
X X
Ie Connect Im
Ammeter
E E Rm
Y I e I m 100% Y
E InsertionError E
Ie Ie
Im
R1 R1 Rm
Im R1
I e R1 Rm
InsertionError
Ie Im
100%
Ie
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EXAMPLE 3: AMMETER INSERTION
EFFECTS
A current meter that has an internal resistance of 78Ω is used
to measure the current through resistor R1. Determine the
percentage of error of the reading due to ammeter insertion.
R1
X
Im
1kΩ
3V E Rm
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SOLUTION EX:3
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DC VOLTMETER
To extend the
voltage range
PURPOSE
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DC VOLTMETER
Rs Im
+
Rm
1 Unit derivation:
Sensitivit y (Ω/V)
I fs 1 1 ohms
Sensitivit y
Ifs= Im = full scale deflection current amperes volt volt
ohms
Rs + Rm= (S x Vrange)
It is desirable to make
R(voltmeter) >>R ( circuit)
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EXAMPLE 4: DC VOLTMETER
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MULTIRANGE VOLTMETER
V Im( Rm R)
+ 3v
R3
Im Rm
 Where the multiplier resistance,
R can be R1 or R2 or R3
Multirange Voltmeter
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MULTIRANGE VOLTMETER
R1
30 v
10 v The multiplier resistors are connected in series, and
R2
S
each junction is connected to one of the switch
+ 3v terminals. The range of this voltmeter can be also
R3 calculated from the equation
V Im( Rm R)
Im Rm

+ 30 v
+ 3v
R3
R3
Im Rm
Im Rm
 
Fig b
Fig a
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VOLTMETER LOADING EFFECT
RA
RT = Rs +Rm
Rs Im
E
VRB RB
Rm Req = RB //RT
Rs Rm
Ifs= Im Vrange
S
Rs= (S x Vrange)  Rm
Total voltmeter resistance, RT
Vrange = ( Rs + Rm) Im RT = Rs + Rm = S x Vrange
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VOLTMETER LOADING EFFECT
Calculation:
1) RT = Rs + Rm = S x Vrange
2) Req = RB // RT
RB
3) Without voltmeter VRB xE
(expected value) R R
A B
Req
VRB
m
4) With voltmeter xE
(measured value) Req R A
5) Insertion error
VRB VRB
m
x100%
VRB
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EXAMPLE 6: VOLTMETER LOADING
EFFECT
RA
RT = Rs +Rm
Rs Im
E
VRB RB
Rm Req = RB //RT
Fixed portion
Rz
Ifs
0.1Rz 0.9Rz Rm
Variable E
X Y
portion
Rx
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DC OHMMETER
E
I fs w/o Rx
Rz Rm
I < Ifs
E
I with Rx
Rz Rm Rx
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DC OHMMETER
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EXAMPLE 7:DC OHMMETER
A 1 mA fullscale deflection current meter movement is to be
used in an ohmmeter circuit. The meter movement has an
internal resistance, Rm, of 100Ω, and a 3 V battery will be used
in the circuit. If the measured resistor has resistance of 1kΩ,
mark off the meter face for the reading (20%, 40%, 50%, 75%
and 100%) .
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SOLUTION EX:7
Ohm
4.5k 3k
12k 50% 1k
40%
75%
20%
0
∞
0% 100%
Full scale
percentage
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MULTIPLERANGE OHMMETER
R
multiplerange ohmmeters m
R1
Rx1
R2
R x 10
R3
R x 100
E
X Y
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END OF PART 1
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