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CHAPTER 2

DC and AC Meters

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PART 1 (DC) PART 2 (AC)

• Introduction to DC • Introduction to AC
meters meters
• D’ Arsonval meter
• D’ Arsonval meter movement (half-wave
movement rectification)
• DC ammeter • D’ Arsonval meter
• DC voltmeter movement (full-wave
• DC ohmmeter rectification)
• Loading effects of AC
• Loading effects of DC meter
meter

STRUCTURE FOR CHAPTER 2


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PART 1 – DC METERS

Meters

Digital Meters
Measure the continuous voltage/ current signal at discrete points in time.
The signal converted from analog signal (continuous in time) to a digital signal
(discrete instants in time)

Analog Meters
Based on the d’Arsonval meter movement which implements the readout
mechanism.

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INTRODUCTION
HOW CAN WE MEASURED CURRENT AND
VOLTAGE?

Im
Rm

Torque (T)
PMMC instrument
T = BxAxNxI [N.m]
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ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES
OF MOVING COIL INSTRUMENT
AMMETER, VOLTMETER AND OHMMETER?

 DC Ammeter : The shunting resistor Rsh and d’Arsonval


movement form a current divider
 DC Voltmeter : Series resistor Rs and d’Arsonval movement
form a voltage divider.
 Ohmmeter : Measures the current to find the resistance
Rs

Rsh

Rs

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DC AMMETER

 D’Arsonval movement, Rm || (shunt resistor), Rsh


 To limit the amount of the current in the movement’s
coil by shunting some of it through Rsh

Rsh = resistance of the shunt


I Rm = internal resistance of the meter
movements (movable coil)
Ish Im
d'Arsonval movement

Ish = shunt current


Rsh Rm
Im = full scale deflection current of the
meter movement
I = full-scale deflection current for
the
ammeter | | = Parallel symbol 7
DC AMMETER

Vm = ImRm Vsh = IshRsh


Vsh = Vm
I
Ammeter Terminal

IshRsh = ImRm
Ish Im
Rsh = ImRm / Ish (Ω) ----(a)
d'Arsonval movement
Rsh Rm I = Ish + Im Ish = I – Im
Therefore, Rsh = ImRm/(I – Im)
Purpose I >>n Im , n = multiplying factor
n=I/Im
I = nIm ---(b)
Substitute b to a
Rsh = ImRm/(nIm – Im)
Rsh= Rm/(n-1) -----(c)
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EXAMPLE 1 (DC AMMETER)
Example 1: DC Ammeter
A 100uA meter movement with an internal
resistance of 800Ω is used in a 0 - 100 mA
ammeter . Find the value of the required shunt
resistance.
Solution:
n = I/Im = 100 mA / 100 µA = 1000
Thus,
Rsh = Rm / (n – 1) = 800 / 999 = 0.8 Ω

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THE ARYTON SHUNT

Rsh = Ra + Rb + Rc
Most sensitive
range 1A
Ra Im
Rm
1 mA Rsh  ----(c)
n 1
S 5A
+ Rm
Rshunt

Rb
50
10A
Rc
-
•Used in multiple range ammeter
•Eliminates the possibility of the moving coil to
be in the circuit without any shunt resistance

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THE ARYTON SHUNT

At point B, (Rb+Rc)||(Ra+Rm)
I1 Ra Im

Middle
sensitive S I2
B VRb  Rc  VRa  Rm
range + Rb Rm
Rshunt
(Rb + Rc )(I2 -Im) = Im(Ra +Rm)
I3
Rc Since,
-
Ra = Rsh – (Rb + Rc),
yield,
I2 (Rb + Rc ) – Im(Rb+Rc) = Im [Rsh – (Rb + Rc ) + Rm]

I m ( Rsh  Rm )
Rb  Rc  ----(d)
I2
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THE ARYTON SHUNT
At point C, Rc||(Ra+Rb+Rm)

I1
Ra Im VRc  VRa  Rb  Rm
I2
(I3-Im)Rc = Im(Ra+Rb+Rm)
+ Rb Rm
Rshunt

S
I3Rc = Im(Ra+Rb+Rc+Rm)
C
I3 I3Rc = (Rsh+Rm)
Rc
-
I m ( Rsh  Rm )
Rc  ----(e)
I3

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THE ARYTON SHUNT

 Substitute eqn (d) into eqn (e), yields

1 1
Rb  I m ( Rsh  Rm )    ----(f)

 I 2 I3 
Ra = Rsh – (Rb+Rc) ----(g)

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EXAMPLE 2: THE ARYTON SHUNT
Calculate the value for Ra, Rb and Rc as shown, given the
value of internal resistance, Rm=1kΩ and full scale current of
the moving coil = 100 µA. The required range of current are:
I1 = 10 mA, I2 = 100 mA and I3 = 1A.

I1 Ra Im

I2
B
S
+ Rb
Rshunt
Rm

I3
Rc
-
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AMMETER INSERTION EFFECT
R1 R1
X X

Ie Connect Im

Ammeter
E E Rm

Y I e  I m  100% Y
E InsertionError  E
Ie  Ie
Im 
R1 R1  Rm

Im R1

I e R1  Rm

InsertionError 
 Ie  Im 
100%
Ie
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EXAMPLE 3: AMMETER INSERTION
EFFECTS
A current meter that has an internal resistance of 78Ω is used
to measure the current through resistor R1. Determine the
percentage of error of the reading due to ammeter insertion.

R1
X

Im
1kΩ

3V E Rm

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SOLUTION EX:3

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DC VOLTMETER

• DMM become VOLTMETER – multiplier Rs


in series with the meter movement.

To extend the
voltage range
PURPOSE

To limit current through the DMM to a


maximum full-scale deflection current

DMM = D’Arsonval Meter Movement

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DC VOLTMETER

Rs Im
+

Rm

1 Unit derivation:
Sensitivit y  (Ω/V)
I fs 1 1 ohms
Sensitivit y   
Ifs= Im = full scale deflection current amperes  volt  volt
 
 ohms 

Rs + Rm= (S x Vrange)
It is desirable to make
R(voltmeter) >>R ( circuit)
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EXAMPLE 4: DC VOLTMETER

Calculate the value of the multiplier resistance


on the 50 V range of a dc voltmeter that used a
500µA d’Arsonval meter with an internal
resistance of 1 kΩ.

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MULTI-RANGE VOLTMETER

 A multi-range voltmeter consists of a


deflection instrument, several multiplier
resistors and a rotary switch.
30 v R1 only one of the three multiplier resistors is
10 v connected in series with the meter at any time.
R2 The range of this meter is
S

V  Im( Rm  R)
+ 3v
R3

Im Rm
- Where the multiplier resistance,
R can be R1 or R2 or R3
Multi-range Voltmeter
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MULTI-RANGE VOLTMETER

R1
30 v
10 v The multiplier resistors are connected in series, and
R2
S
each junction is connected to one of the switch
+ 3v terminals. The range of this voltmeter can be also
R3 calculated from the equation

V  Im( Rm  R)
Im Rm
-

A commercial version of a Where the multiplier, R, now can be


multi-range voltmeter
R1 or (R1 + R2) or (R1 + R2 + R3)

(Note: the largest voltage range must be


associated with the largest sum of the multiplier
resistance)
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EXAMPLE 5: MULTI-RANGE VOLTMETER

Calculate the value of the multiplier resistance for the


multiple range dc voltmeter circuit shown in Figure (a)
and Figure (b), if Ifs = 50μA and Rm = 1kΩ
R1
R1 30 v
3v 10 v
10 v R2
R2 S
S

+ 30 v
+ 3v
R3
R3

Im Rm
Im Rm
- -
Fig b
Fig a

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VOLTMETER LOADING EFFECT

RA
RT = Rs +Rm
Rs Im
E

VRB RB
Rm Req = RB //RT

Rs  Rm
Ifs= Im Vrange 
S
Rs= (S x Vrange) - Rm
Total voltmeter resistance, RT
Vrange = ( Rs + Rm) Im RT = Rs + Rm = S x Vrange
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VOLTMETER LOADING EFFECT

Calculation:
 1) RT = Rs + Rm = S x Vrange

 2) Req = RB // RT
RB
 3) Without volt-meter VRB  xE
(expected value) R R
A B

Req
VRB 
m
 4) With volt-meter xE
(measured value) Req  R A
 5) Insertion error
VRB  VRB
m

x100%
VRB
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EXAMPLE 6: VOLTMETER LOADING
EFFECT

RA
RT = Rs +Rm
Rs Im
E

VRB RB
Rm Req = RB //RT

A volt meter (0-10V) that has an internal resistance of


78Ω is used to measure the voltage across resistor RB.
Determine the percentage of error of the reading due to
voltmeter insertion. Let E = 4V, RA=RB = 1kΩ , S =
1kΩ/V
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DC OHMMETER

Basic Ohmmeter circuit

Fixed portion
Rz
Ifs
0.1Rz 0.9Rz Rm

Variable E
X Y
portion

Rx

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DC OHMMETER

Before measuring the Rx, the Ωmeter is set to “zero”-calibration

Definition zero = shorting the terminal x-y & adjust Rz to obtain


the full-scale deflection on the meter movement.

E
I fs  w/o Rx
Rz  Rm
I < Ifs

E
I with Rx
Rz  Rm  Rx

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DC OHMMETER

Relationship between full-scale deflection to


the value of Rx is :
I Rz  Rm
P 
I fs Rz  Rm  Rx

This equation is used for marking off the scale on the


meter face of the ohmmeter to indicate the value of a
resistor being measured

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EXAMPLE 7:DC OHMMETER
A 1 mA full-scale deflection current meter movement is to be
used in an ohmmeter circuit. The meter movement has an
internal resistance, Rm, of 100Ω, and a 3 V battery will be used
in the circuit. If the measured resistor has resistance of 1kΩ,
mark off the meter face for the reading (20%, 40%, 50%, 75%
and 100%) .

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SOLUTION EX:7

Ohm
4.5k 3k

12k 50% 1k
40%
75%
20%
0

0% 100%
Full scale
percentage

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MULTIPLE-RANGE OHMMETER

The previous section is not capable of measuring resistance


over wide range of values.
R - fixed resistance &
We need to extend our discussion
Ifs of ohmmeters
zeroing potentiometer to include
z

R
multiple-range ohmmeters m

R1
Rx1

R2
R x 10

R3
R x 100
E
X Y

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END OF PART 1

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