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Employment is a contract between two parties, one being the employer and
the other being the employee. An employee may be defined as: "A person in
the service of another under any contract of hire, express or implied, oral or
written, where the employer has the power or right to control and direct the
employee in the material details of how the work is to be performed.

Job Analysis
Job Analysis is the process of collecting, analyzing, and setting out
information about the content of jobs in order to provide the basis for a Job
Description and data for recruitment, training, job evaluation and
performance management.

Or u can say-
It is the process which provides information used for writing job description
(a list of the job entails) and Job specification (What kind of people to hire
for the job)

Information Provided by Job Analysis.

-why the job exists and, in essence, what the job holder is expected to
- the nature and scope of the job in terms of the tasks and operations.
- Performance criteria.
- Responsibilities.
- Motivating factors.
- Development Factors (promotion and career prospective.)
- Environmental factors (working conditions, unsocial hours, mental and
emotional demands)
What does Job analysis helps us understand….
1) Selection Procedures
2) Compensation
3) Training
4) Performance Review,etc.

Nature of Job Analysis

The most basic building block of HR management, job analysis, is a

systematic way to gather and analyze information about the content and
human requirement of jobs, and the context in which jobs are performed.

Job analysis usually involves collecting information on the characteristics of

a job that differentiate it from other jobs. Information that can be helpful in
making the distinction includes the following:
l Work activities and behaviors l Machines and equipment used
l Interactions with others l Working conditions
l Performance standards l Supervision given and received
l Financial and budgeting impact l Knowledge, skills, and abilities needed

What Is a Job?

Although the terms job and position are often used interchangeably, there is
a slight difference in emphasis. A job is a grouping of common tasks, duties,
and responsibilities. A position is a job performed by one person. Thus, if
there are two persons operating word processing equipment, there are two
positions (one for each person) but just one job (word processing operator).

Job Descriptions and Job Specifications

In most cases, the job description and job specifications are combined into
document that contains several different sections. An overview of each
follows next.
JOB DESCRIPTIONS : A job description indicates the tasks, duties, and
responsibilities of a job. It identifies what is done, why it is done, where it is
done, and briefly, how it is done.
Performance standards should flow directly from a job description, telling
what the job accomplishes and how performance is measured in key areas of
the job description. The reason for including the performance standards is
clear. If employees know what is expected and how performance is to be
measured, they have a much better chance of performing satisfactorily.

JOB SPECIFICATIONS While the job description describes activities to

be done, it is job specifications that list the knowledge, skills, and abilities
an individual needs to perform a job satisfactorily. Knowledge, skills, and
abilities include education, experience, work skill requirements, personal
abilities, mental and physical requirements.

e.g. Job specifications for a data entry operator might include a required
educational level, a certain number of months of experience, a typing ability
of 60 words per minute, a high degree of visual concentration,
and ability to work under time pressure.


I. Planning the Job Analysis

A. Identify objectives of job analysis.

B. Obtain top management support.

II. Preparing and Communicating the Job Analysis

A. Identify jobs and methodology.

B. Review existing job documentation.
C. Communicate process to managers and employees

III. Conducting the Job Analysis

A. Gather job analysis data.

B. Review and compile data.
IV. Developing Job Descriptions and Job Specifications

A. Draft job descriptions and specifications.

B. Review drafts with managers and employees.
C. Identify recommendations.
D. Finalize job descriptions and recommendations.

V. Maintaining and Updating Job Descriptions and Job


A. Update job descriptions and specifications as organization changes.

B. Periodically review all jobs.

Human Resource Planning

Human Resource Planning is the process of anticipating and carrying out the
movement of people into within and out of the organization. Human
resources planning is done to achieve the optimum use of human resources
and to have the correct number and types of employees needed to meet
organizational goals.

Uses of HRP

- Improve the utilization of human resources.

- Match human resource related activities and future organizations
objectives effectively.
- Achieve economies in hiring new workers.
- Coordination between various HR programs such a employment
equity plan and hiring needs.
Importance of HRP

- Ensures optimum use of manpower. (Woman, too nowadays?)

- Forecast future requirements.
- Help determine recruitment/ induction level.
- To anticipate redundancies/ surpluses
- To determine training levels and works.
- Know the cost of manpower if there is a new project is being taken

HR planning and analysis activities have several facets. Through HR

planning,managers attempt to anticipate forces that will influence the future
supply of and demand for employees. Having adequate human resource
information systems (HRIS) to provide accurate and timely information for
HR planning is crucial.The importance of human resources in organizational
competitiveness must be addressed as well. As part of maintaining
organizational competitiveness, HR analysis and assessment of HR
effectiveness must occur. The internationalization of organizations has
resulted in greater emphasis on global HR management.

HR Planning Process


In planning for human resources, an organization must consider the
allocation of people to jobs over long periods of time—not just for the next
month or even the next year. This allocation requires knowledge of any
foreseen expansions or reductions in operations and any technological
changes that may affect the organization. On the basis of such analyses,
plans can be made for shifting employees within the organization, laying off
or otherwise cutting back the number of employees, or retraining present
employees. Factors to consider include the current level of employee
knowledge, skills, and abilities in an organization and the expected
vacancies resulting from retirement, promotion, transfer, sick leave,
or discharge.
In summary, the HR plan provides a road map for the future, identifying
where employees are likely to be obtained, when employees will be needed,
and what training and development employees must have.
Hence, In simple sence, the different HR activities must be aligned with the
general business strategy, as well as the overall HR strategy, in order to
support business goals.


If HR planning is done well, the following benefits

should result:
l Upper management has a better view of the human resource dimensions of
business decisions.
l HR costs may be lower because management can anticipate imbalances
before they become unmanageable and expensive.
l More time is available to locate talent because needs are anticipated and
identified before the actual staffing is required.
l Better opportunities exist to include women and minority groups in future
growth plans.
l Development of managers can be better planned.

1. Scanning the External Environment

At the heart of strategic planning is the knowledge gained from scanning the
external environment for changes. Environmental scanning is the process
of studying the environment of the organization to pinpoint opportunities
and threats. Scanning especially affects HR planning because each
organization must draw from the same labor market that supplies all other
employers. Indeed, one measure of organizational effectiveness is the ability
of an organization to compete for a sufficient supply of human resources
with the appropriate capabilities.
2. Government Influences

A major element that affects labor supply is the government. Today,

managers are confronted with an expanding and often bewildering array of
government rules as regulation of HR activities has steadily increased. As a
result, HR planning must be done by individuals who understand the legal
requirements of various government regulations.
Hence, Government trade policies and restrictions can affect HR planning.

3. Economic Conditions

The general business cycle of recessions and booms also affects HR

planning. Such factors as interest rates, inflation, and economic growth help
determine the availability of workers and figure into organizational plans
and objectives. Decisions on wages, overtime, and hiring or laying off
workers all hinge on economic

4. Geographic and Competitive Concerns

Employers must consider the following geographic and competitive

concerns in making HR plans:
l Net migration into the area
l Other employers in the area
l Employee resistance to geographic relocation
l Direct competitors in the area
l Impact of international competition on the area

5. Workforce Composition and Work Patterns

Changes in the composition of the workforce, combined with the use of

varied work patterns, have created workplaces and organizations that are
very different from those of a decade ago. As noted in Chapter 1,
demographic shifts have resulted in greater workforce diversity. Many
organizations are addressing concerns about having sufficient workers with
the necessary capabilities, and have turned to such sources as welfare-to-
work programs. The use of outsourcing and contingent workers also must be
considered as part of human resource planning.
The traditional work schedule, in which employees work full time, 8 hours a
day, 5 days a week at the employer’s place of operations, is in transition.
Organizations have been experimenting with many different possibilities for
change: the 4-day, 40-hour week; the 4-day, 32-hour week; the 3-day week;
and flexible scheduling.
Many employers have adopted some flexibility in work schedules and
locations. Changes of this nature must be considered in HR planning.
These alternative work schedules allow organizations to make better use of
workers by matching work demands to work hours.
Workers also are better able to balance their work and family
responsibilities. One type of schedule redesign is flextime, in which
employees work a setnumber of hours per day but vary starting and ending


A growing number of employers are allowing workers to use
widely different working arrangements. Some employees
work partly at home and partly at an office, and share office
space with other “office nomads.”

The shift to such arrangements means that work is done

anywhere, anytime,
and that people are judged more on results than on “putting
in time.” Greater
trust, less direct supervision, and more self-scheduling are
all job characteristics of those with virtual offices and other
less traditional arrangements.


This inventory of organizational capabilities often consists of:

●Individual employee demographics (age, length of service

in the organization, time in present job)
●Individual career progression (jobs held, time in each job,
promotions or other job changes, pay rates)
●Individual performance data (work accomplishment, growth
in skills)
These three types of information can be expanded to
●Education and training
●Mobility and geographic preference
●Specific aptitudes, abilities, and interests
●Areas of interest and internal promotion ladders
●Promotability ratings
●Anticipated retirement

All the information that goes into an employee’s skills

inventory affects the
employee’s career. Therefore, the data and their use must
meet the same standards of job-relatedness and
nondiscrimination as those used when the
employee was initially hired. Furthermore, security of such
information is important to ensure that sensitive information
is available only to those who have specific use for it.


Data on individual employees can be aggregated into a
profile of the current organizational workforce. This profile
reveals many of the current strengths and deficiencies. The
absence of some specialized expertise, such as advanced
computer skills, may affect the ability of an organization to
take advantage of new technological developments.
Likewise, if a large group of experienced employees are all in
the same age bracket, their eventual retirement will lead to
high turnover and a major void in the organization.
Establishing an HRIS
The explosion of information technology has changed the
nature of HR information
usage. Just a few years ago, most HR information had to be
and maintained on mainframe computers. Today, many
different types of
information technology are being integrated and used so
that HR professionals
can access HR-related data and communicate it to other
managers and executives.

It is crucial when establishing an HRIS that the system be
able to support the HR strategies of the organization.



• Tata owned Jaguar-Land Rover (JLR) has

announced a major drive to recruit 600
engineers and technical staff to work on its
700-million-pounds projects
• Besides, there are a "significant number"
of vacancies in its purchasing, finance and
human resources departments. It is also
launching a programme aimed at recruiting
Problem of booming B Schools
• Headhunters scouting around for MBAs
• 2000 witnessed an alarming rise in
number of institutes, offering management
education both at the undergraduate & PG
• All these needs atleast 200 MBAs for
teaching faculty
• Most of MBAs join industries
• Management are worried
• Where to find qualified & eligible MBAs…?

Recruitment is the process of searching

for prospective employees and
stimulating them to apply for jobs in the
Selection starts where
recruitment ends

In simple terms:-

It is a process of searching for and obtaining applicant for job, from among
whom right people can be selected.

In Formal Terms:
It is a process to find and attract capable applicant for employment. The
process begins when new recruits are sought and ends when their applicants
are submitted.
This result is a pool of applicants from which new employees are selected.

Purpose of Recruitment

- Determine the present and future requirements of the organizations.

- Increase the pool of job applicants at minimum cost.
- Help increase the success rate of selection process.
- Help reduce the probability that job applicants once recruited and
selected, leave the organization after a short period of time.
- Meet the organizations legal and social obligations regarding the
compositions of its work force.
- Begin identifying and preparing potential job applicants who will be
the appropriate candidates.
- Increase organizational and individual effectiveness in short & long
- Study the effectiveness of various recruiting techniques and sources
for all types of job applicants.

Factors governing Recruitment

1) External Factors
a) Unemployment Rate
b) Political and legal considerations.
c) Constitutions which prohibits discriminations.
d) Preferences to son of the soil
e) Company Image

2) Internal Factors
a) Recruiting Policy
b) Temporary & Part – Time employees.
c) Preference to local citizens in MNC.
d) Size
e) Cost.

A good recruitment policy is that which :

• Complies with government policies

• Provides job security
• Provides employee development
• Flexible to accommodate changes
• Ensures its employees long-term
employment opportunities
• Cost effective for the organization


1. Internal search
rnal Search
Job portals
Notice boards
2. External search

Educational institutions
Employment agencies
Interested applications
Employee referrals

Process of recruitment

Human resource planning

Identify HR requirements
Determine numbers, levels & Criticality of
Choose the resources & Methods of
Analyze the cost & time involved
Start implementing the Recruitment program
Select and hire and

Evaluate the Program :

• The recruitment policies, sources &

methods have to be evaluated from time
to time
• Successful recruitment program shows
– No. of successful placements
– No. of offers made
– No. of applicants
– Cost involved


1.0 Introduction

Selection can be conceptualized in terms of either choosing

the fit candidates, or rejecting the unfit candidates, or a
combination of both. So, selection process assumes rightly
that, there is more number of candidates than the number of
candidates actually selected, where the candidates are
made available through recruitment process. selection is a
process of choosing the most suitable persons out of all the
participants. In this process, relevant information about
applicant is collected through series of steps so as to
evaluate their suitability for the job to be filled. On other
hand, selection is the process of assessing the candidates by
various means and making a choice followed by an offer of

2.0 Factors (Conditions) for Selection Process

The basic idea in a selection process is to solicit maximum
possible information
about the candidates to ascertain their suitability for
employment, and given the fact that, there are factors which
affect the seeking of such information(Prasad, 2005, p. 246),
he proposed the following factors which determine the steps
involved in a selection process;

Firstly, various steps involved in a selection process depend

on the type of personnel to be selected. For example, more
information is required for the selection of managerial
personnel as compared to subordinate workers.

Secondly, selection process depends on the sources of

recruitment and the method that is adopted for making
contact with prospective candidates
e.g. In advertisement, selection process is more
comprehensive and time-consuming, where as in the case of
campus recruitment; the process is shortened and may be
completed in a day.

Thirdly, selection process depends on the number of

candidates that are available for selection. If the number is
large enough, there is a need for creating various filtering
points and reducing the number of applicants at each
successive point. However, where the number of applicants
is small, lesser number of filtering points are required.

3.0 Steps in Selection Process

The strategy and method used for selecting employees

varies from firm to firm and from one job to another.

Scholars of Human Resource Management such as Gupta,

Prasad, and Armstrong6 suggested the following steps to be
involved in employees’ selections process, though not
necessary to be implemented chronologically:-
4.0.1 Preliminary Interview (screening applications)

Initial screening is done to weed out totally

candidates at the outset. It is essentially a sorting process in
which prospective candidates are given the necessary
information about the nature of the job and the organisation,
at the same time, the necessary information is also elicited
from the candidates about their education, skills, experience,
salary expected and the like.

It helps to determine whether it is worthwhile for a

candidate to fill up the application form. At this juncture, test
of authenticity for candidate’s relevant certificates is done.

4.0.2 Application Form

Application form is a traditional and widely used device for

information from candidates. It should provide all the
information relevant to selection, where reference for caste,
religion, birth place, may be avoided as it may be regarded
an evidence of discrimination.

4.0.3 Selection Test

Psychological tests are being increasingly used in employee

selection, where a test may involve some aspect of an
individual’s attitudes, behavior and performance.
Tests are useful when the number of applicants is large, as
at best it
reveals that the candidates who scored above the
predetermined cutoff points are likely to be more successful
than those scoring below the cutoff point.

4.0.4 Employment Interview

Interview is an essential element of selection and no
selection procedure is complete without one or more
personal interviews, where the information collected through
application letter or application forms and tests can be cross-
checked in the
interview, where candidates demonstrates their capabilities
and strength in relevant to their academic credentials.

4.0.5 Medical Examination

Applicants who have crossed the above stages are sent for a
physical examination either to the company’s physician or to
a medical officer approved for the purpose.
Such examination serves the following purposes:-
a) It determines whether the candidate is physically fit to
perform the job, where those who are physically unfit are
b) It reveals existing disabilities and provides a record of the
employee’s health at the time of selection. This record will
help in settling company’s liability under the workmen
compensation Act for claim for any injury.
c) It prevents the employment of people suffering from
contagious diseases.
d) It identifies candidates who are otherwise suitable but
require specific jobs due to physical handicaps and allergies.

4.0.6 Reference Checks

The applicant is asked to mention in his application form, the

names and addresses of two or more persons who know him
well. These may be his previous employers, heads of
education institutions or public figures. These people are
requested to provide their frank
opinion about the candidate without incurring any liability. In
government and public sector
4.0.7 Final Approval

In most of the organizations, selection process is carried out

by the human resource department, where the decisions of
the department are recommendatory. The candidates
shortlisted by the department are finally approved by the
executive of concerned departments or units.

4.0.8 Selection

Appointment is generally made on probation of one or two

years, where upon satisfactory performance during this
period, the candidate is finally confirmed in the job on the
terms employed with, whether permanent or contractual

Q1). What is placement?
Ans. Placement is a process of assigning a specific job to
each of the selected candidates. It involves assigning a
specific rank and responsibility to an individual. It implies
matching the requirements of a job with the qualifications of
the candidate.

Q2). Give the significance of placement?

Ans. The significances of placement are as follows: -
* It improves employee morale.
* It helps in reducing employee turnover.
* It helps in reducing absenteeism.
* It helps in reducing accident rates.
* It avoids misfit between the candidate and the job.
* It helps the candidate to work as per the predetermined
objectives of the organization.

Q1). What is induction?

Ans. Once an employee is selected and placed on an

appropriate job, the process of familiarizing him with the job
and the organization is known as induction.
Induction is the process of receiving and welcoming an
employee when he first joins the company and giving him
basic information he needs to settle down quickly and
happily and stars work.

2). What are the objectives of induction?

Ans. Induction is designed to achieve following objectives: -

* To help the new comer to overcome his shyness and
overcome his shyness nervousness in meeting new people in
a new environment.
* To give new comer necessary information such as location
of a café, rest period etc.
* To build new employee confidence in the organization.
* It helps in reducing labor turnover and absenteeism.
* It reduces confusion and develops healthy relations in the
* To ensure that the new comer do not form false
impression and negative attitude towards the organization.
* To develop among the new comer a sense of belonging
and loyalty to the organization.

Q3). What are the advantages of formal induction?

Ans. The advantages of formal induction are: -

* Induction helps to build up a two-way channel of
communication between management and workers.
* Proper induction facilitates informal relation and team
work among employee.
* Effective induction helps to integrate the new employee
into the organization and to develop a sense of belonging.
* Induction helps to develop good relation.
* A formal induction programme proves that the company is
taking interest in getting him off to good start.
* Proper induction reduces employee grievances,
absenteeism and labor turnover.
* Induction is helpful in supplying information concerning
the organization, the job and employee welfare facilities.

4). What are the contents of induction programme?

Ans. A formal induction programme should provide following

information: -
* Brief history and operations of the company.
* The company’s organization structure.
* Policies and procedure of the company.
* Products and services of the company.
* Location of department and employee facilities.
* Safety measures.
* Grievances procedures.
* Benefits and services of employee.
* Standing orders and disciplinary procedures.
* Opportunities for training, promotions, transfer etc.
* Suggestion schemes.
* Rules and regulations.