You are on page 1of 325

*III’

Basic
mm

if

THI RD
EDITION with answers

Raymond Murphy
with William R. Smalzer
" ' r'' . ^
Self-study
reference and
practice for
students of
North American
English

THI RD
EDITION with answers

Raymond Murphy
with William R. Smalzer
gig C a m b r id g e
U N IV E R SIT Y PRESS
CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS
Cambridge, New York, Melbourne, Madrid, Cape Town, Singapore,
Sao Paulo, Delhi, Dubai, Tokyo

Cambridge University Press


32 Avenue of the Americas, New York. NY 10013-2473, USA

www.cambridge.org

© Cambridge University Press 2011

First published 1989


Third Edition 2011

Printed in Hong Kong, China, by Golden Cup Printing Company Limited

A catalog record for this publication is available from the British Library.

isb n 978-0-521-13334-0 Student’s Book with answers and CD-ROM


isb n 978-0-521-13353-1 Student’s Book with answers
isb n 978-0-521-13337-1 Student’s Book with CD-ROM
isb n 978-0-521-13330-2 Workbook with answers

Cambridge University Press has no responsibility for the persistence or


accuracy of URLs for external or third-party Internet Web sites referred to in
this publication, and does not guarantee that any content on such Web sites is,
or will remain, accurate or appropriate.

Book design and layout: Adventure House, NYC


Audio production: Richard LePage & Associates

Illustration credits: Carlos Castellanos, Richard Deverell, Travis Foster, Peter


Hoey, Randy Jones, Gillian Martin, Sandy Nichols, Roger Penwill, Lisa
Smith, Ian West, Simon Williams, and Tracy Wood
Contents
To the Student viii
To the Teacher x

Present
1 a m /is /a r e
2 a m /is /a r e (questions)
3 I am d o in g (present continuous)
4 are y ou doin g? (present continuous questions)
5 I d o /w o r k /lik e , etc. (simple present)
6 I d o n ’t . . . (simple present negative)
7 D o y ou . . . ? (simple present questions)
8 I am d o in g (present continuous) and I do (simple present)
9 I have . . . and I’ve g o t . . .

Past
10 w a s/w er e
11 w o r k e d /g o t/w e n t, etc. (simple past)
12 I d id n ’t . . . D id you . . . ? (simple past negative and questions)
13 I was d o in g (past continuous)
14 I was d o in g (past continuous) and I d id (simple past)
15 I used to . . .

Present perfect
16 H ave you ever . . . ?
17 H o w lo n g have you . . . ?
18 for sin ce ago
19 I have d on e and I d id (present perfect and simple past 1)
20 ju st, already, and yet (present perfect and simple past 2)
21 I’ve lo st m y key. I lo st m y key last w eek , (present perfect and simple past 3)

Passive
22 is d o n e was d on e (passive l)
23 is b ein g d on e has b een d on e (passive 2)

Verb forms
24 b e /h a v e /d o in present and past tenses >
25 R egular and irregular verbs

Future
26 W hat are you d o in g tom orrow ?
27 I’m g o in g to . . .
28 w ill 1
29 w ill 2

If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the STUDY GUIDE on page 263. i
Modals, im peratives, etc.
30 m ig h t
31 can and co u ld
32 m u st
33 sh o u ld
34 I have to . . .
35 W ou ld you lik e . . . ? Fd lik e . . .
36 Fd rather . . .
37 D o this! D o n ’t do that! L e t’s do this!

There and it
38 th ere is th ere are
39 th ere w a s/w e r e there h a s/h a v e b een th ere w ill be
40 I t . . .

A uxiliary verbs
41 I am , I d o n ’t, etc.
42 Y ou have? / H ave you? / Y ou are? / A re you?, etc.
43 to o /e ith e r so am I / n eith er do I, etc.
44 isn ’t, h aven ’t, d o n ’t, etc. (negatives)

Questions
45 is i t . . . ? have you . . . ? do th ey . . . ?, etc. (questions 1)
46 W h o saw you? W h o d id you see? (questions 2)
47 W h o is she ta lk in g to? W hat is it like? (questions 3)
48 W h a t . . . ? W h ich . . . ? H o w . . . ? (questions 4)
49 H o w lo n g d oes it take . . . ?
50 D o you k n o w w h ere . . . ? I d o n ’t k n o w w h a t . . . , etc.

Reported speech
51 She said t h a t . . . H e to ld m e t h a t . . .

-ing and to . . . V
52 w o r k /w o r k in g g o /g o in g d o /d o in g
53 to . . . (I w an t to do) and -in g (I enjoy d oin g)
54 I w a n t you to . . . I to ld you to . . .
55 I w e n t to th e store to . . .

Go, get, do, make, and have


56 go to . . . go on . . . go for . . . go -in g
57 get
58 do and m ak e
59 have

Pronouns and possessives


60 I /m e h e /h im th ey /th em , etc.
61 m y /h is /th e ir , etc.
62 W h o se is this? It’s m in e /y o u r s/h e r s, etc.
63 I /m e /m y /m in e

iv If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the STUDY GUIDE on page 263.
64 m y s e lf/y o u r se lf/th e m se lv e s, etc.
65 -’s (K ate’s camera / m y b ro th er’s car, etc.)

A and the
66 a /a n . . .
67 train(s) bus(es) (singular and plural)
68 a b o ttle / som e w ater (countable/uncountable 1)
69 a cake / so m e cake / som e cakes (countable/uncountable 2)
70 a /a n and the
71 th e . . .
72 go to w ork go h o m e go to th e m o v ies
73 I lik e m u sic I hate exam s
74 th e . . . (names of places)

Determ iners and pronouns


75 th is /th a t/th e s e /th o s e
76 o n e /o n e s
77 so m e and any
78 n o t + any no n on e
79 n o t + a n y b o d y /a n y o n e/a n y th in g n o b o d y /n o o n e /n o th in g
80 so m e b o d y /a n y th in g /n o w h e r e , etc.
81 every and all
82 a ll m o st som e any n o /n o n e
83 b o th eith er n eith er
84 a lo t m u ch m an y
85 (a) little (a) few

Adjectives and adverbs


86 o ld /n ic e /in te r e s tin g , etc. (adjectives)
87 q u ick ly /b a d ly /su d d en ly , etc. (adverbs)
88 o ld /o ld e r exp en sive / m o re exp en sive
89 old er than . . . m ore ex p en siv e th an . . .
90 n o t as . . . as
91 th e o ld est th e m o st exp en sive
92 en o u g h
93 to o

Word order
94 He speaks E n g lish very well, (word order 1)
95 a lw a y s/u su a lly /o ften , etc. (word order 2)
96 s till yet already
97 G ive m e that b ook! G ive it to m e!

Conjunctions and clauses


98 and b ut or so b ecau se
99 W h en . . .
100 I f w e go . . . I f you see . . . , etc.
101 I f I had . . . I f w e w e n t . . . , etc.
102 a person w h o . . . a thing th a t/w h ic h . . . (relative clauses l)
103 the people w e m et the hotel you stayed at (relative clauses 2)

If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the STUDY GUIDE on page 263. v
__
Prepositions
104 at 8:00 on M onday in A p ril
105 f r o m . . . to u n til sin ce for
106 b efo re after d u rin g w h ile
107 in at on (places 1)
108 in at on (places 2)
109 to in at (places 3)
110 n ex t to, b etw een , under, etc.
111 up, over, th rou gh , etc.
112 on at by w ith about
113 afraid o f . . . , g o o d a t . . . , etc. o f/a t/fo r , etc. (prepositions + -ing)
114 listen to . . . , lo o k a t . . . , etc. (verb + preposition)

Phrasal verbs
115 go in, fa ll off, run away, etc. (phrasal verbs 1)
116 p ut on your shoes p ut your shoes on (phrasal verbs 2)

A ppendix 1 Active and passive 235


A ppendix 2 List of irregular verbs 236
A ppendix 3 Irregular verbs in groups 237
A ppendix 4 Short forms (he’s / I’d / d o n ’t, etc.) 238
A ppendix 5 Spelling 240
A ppendix 6 Phrasal verbs (take o f f / g iv e up, etc.) 242
A ppendix 7 Phrasal verbs + object (put ou t a fire / try on clothes, etc.) 243

A dditional Exercises 244

Study Guide 263

Answer Key to Exercises 276


Answer Key to A dditional Exercises 303
Answer Key to Study Guide 306

Index 308

vi If you are not sure which units you need to study, use the STUDY GUIDE on page 263.
To the Student

This is a gram m ar book for


Contents
beginning to low -interm ediate
students o f English. T here are 116 To the Student viii
To the Teacher x
units in the book, and each unit is Present
about a different point o f English 1 a m /is/a re
2 a m /is /a re (questions)
3 I am d o in g (present continuous)
gram m ar. T here is a list of units at 4 are you doing? (present continuous questions)
5 I d o /w o rk /lik e , etc. (simple present)
the beginning o f the book (Contents). 6 I d o n ’t . . . (simple present negative)
7 D o you . . . ? (simple present questions)
8 I am d oing (present continuous) and I do (simple present)
Do not study all the units in order 9 I have — and I ’ve g o t . . .

Past
from beginning to end. It is b etter to 10 w as/w ere
11 w o rk e d /g o t/w e n t, etc. (simple past)
choose the units that you need to do. 12 I d id n ’t . . . D id you . . . ? (simple past negative and questions)
13 I was d o in g (past continuous)
For example, if you have a problem 14 I was d oing (past continuous) and I d id (simple past)

w ith the present perfect (I have been,


he has done, etc.), study U nits 16-21.

Use the Contents or the Index (at the


back o f the book) to find the unit
(or units) that you need.

If you are not sure


w hich units you
need to study, use
the Study Guide
at the back o f the
book.

Study Guide (pages 263-275)

V III
m m 1 am doing (present continuous) Exercises u n i t j
3.1 Whatarethese peopledoing?Usetheseverfcstt>completethesentences:

Each un it is tw o pages.
T he inform ation is on
the left-hand page and Z He______________ for*(ms- 5. . _____________ hieMm
^^^B She'srating U't raining. They’r*numing
the exercises are on B B Sheisn't reading Theson shining Theyarea'' walking.

the right: i Jw w .jt!r Mm. Me----------------------*


J. “You_____________ onmy6m* •OM'imwcy.’
iB hT * Mamk readinga
■■H S she n (nor) • Sheisn't eating. {*She'snot eating.)
||§ B B | « Thf phene1*ringing.
I « W.-'r*having S. I -------- .oose&wMrje.
3.J Lookat the picture. Writesentences about lane. UseShe's ing orShe isn’t -ing.
they * Theduhta-naredoingthenhomework.
■ ■ F I A»/iva» +ring■»somethinghhappeningsw g /f y K S ti s.
I’mworking m em , ssE S I <«b■
5. (p *•»«*>------------------
yAc __________________
she'swearing2bat
tfwv'ieplayingbaseball

3.4 WhetShappeningnow?Writetruesentences.
« Look,there'sSarah. She'swearingahwwncoat. shei«wearing now) 1 0/ ■
wash/ myhair) ---------------
*Wherearethechildrenr “They’replayingmthepark“
5. (it/ram) ---------------------- .---- -------------- —_
^ B B hotspethng. seeAppends*S. h (i t «w<*y/ fcnghsh) «. . .
ft (them«/»h«w) __ ___ . , —
ft 0/we«/shoes)
■ ■ li«- 1ft (1/ «Mdf aptmpajwr) ---- —

Information Exercises

Study the left-hand page (information), and


do the exercises on the right-hand page.

Use the Answer Key to check your answers.


T he Answer Key is on pages 2 7 6 -3 0 2 .

Study the left-hand page again if necessary.

D on’t forget the seven APPENDIX 2


List of irregular verbs (see Unit 25)
APPENDIX 3
Irregular verbs in groups_______________
Appendixes at the back ThutimpfipastaWpastpatriiipkmfgemit!

o f the book (pages


235-243). These w ill
give you inform ation
about active and passive
forms, irregular verbs,
short forms, spelling, and
phrasal verbs.

There are also Additional


Exercises at the back o f the
book (pages 2 4 4-262).
There is a list o f these
exercises on page 244.

C D -R O M
This book is sold w ith or w ithout a
C D -R O M . O n the C D -R O M , there are
m ore exercises on all the units, and these
are different from the exercises in the book.
T here are also m ore than 600 test questions.

ix
To the Teacher
T he m ost im portant features o f this book are:
■ It is a gram m ar book. It does not deal w ith other aspects of the language.
■ It is for beginning to low -interm ediate students of English. It does not
cover areas of gram m ar w hich are not norm ally taught at the beginning
to low -interm ediate level.
■ It is a reference book w ith exercises. It is not a course book and is not
organized progressively.
M It is addressed to learners and intended for self-study.

O rgan ization o f the b o o k _____________________________________________________


T here are 116 units in the book, each one focusing on a particular area of gram m ar.
T he m aterial is organized in gram m atical categories, such as tenses, questions,
and articles. U nits are not ordered according to difficulty, and should therefore be
selected and used in the order appropriate for the learner(s). T he book should not
be w orked th rough from beginning to end. T he units are listed in the Contents, and
there is a com prehensive Index at the end of the book.
Each un it has the same form at consisting of two facing pages. T he gram m ar point is
presented and explained on the left-hand page and the corresponding exercises are
on the right. T here are seven Appendixes (pages 235-243) dealing w ith active and
passive forms, irregular verbs, short forms (contractions), spelling, and phrasal verbs.
It m ight be useful for teachers to draw students’ attention to these.
At the back o f the book there is a set o f Additional Exercises (pages 244-262). These
exercises provide “m ixed” practice bringing together gram m ar points from a
num ber o f different units (especially those concerning verb forms). T here are 35
exercises in this section, and there is a full list on page 244.
Also at the back of the book there is a Study Guide to help students decide w hich
units to study - see page 263.
Finally, there is an Answer Key (pages 276-302) for students to check their answers
to all the exercises in the book. An edition w ithout the Study Guide and Answer Key
is available for teachers who w ould prefer it for their students.

L e v e l________________________________________________________________________
T he book is for beginning learners, i.e., learners w ith very little English, but not for
com plete beginners. It is intended m ainly for beginning students who are beyond
the early stages of a beginners’ course. It could also be used by low -interm ediate
learners whose gram m ar is w eaker than other aspects o f their English or w ho have
problem s w ith particular areas o f basic gram m ar.
T he explanations are addressed to the beginning learner and are therefore as simple
and as short as possible. T he vocabulary used in the examples and exercises has also
been restricted so that the book can be used at this level.

x
U sin g the b o o k _________________________________________________________________
T he book can be used by students w orking alone (see To the Student) or as
supplem entary course m aterial. In either case the book can serve as a beginning
gram m ar book.
W h en used as course m aterial, the book can be used for im m ediate consolidation
or for later revision or rem edial work. It m ight be used by the whole class or by
individual students needing extra help and practice.
In some cases it may be desirable to use the left-hand pages (presentation and
explanation) in class, but it should be noted that these have been w ritten for
individual study and reference. In m ost cases, it w ould probably be better for
teachers to present the gram m ar point in their preferred way w ith the exercises
being done for hom ew ork. T he left-hand page is then available for later reference by
the student.
Some teachers may prefer to keep the book for revision and rem edial work. In this
case, individual students or groups of students can be directed to the appropriate
units for self-study and practice.

C D -R O M ______________________________________________________________________
T he book is sold w ith or w ithout a C D -R O M . T he C D -R O M contains further
exercises on all the units in the book, as well as a bank of m ore than 600 test
questions from w hich users can select to compile their ow n tests.

Basic Grammar in Usef Third Edition


This is a new edition of Basic Grammar in Use. The differences between this edition and the
second edition are:
■ T he book has been redesigned w ith new color illustrations.
■ T here is reorganization, so some units have different num bers from the
previous edition.
■ T here are m any (usually m inor) revisions to the explanations, examples,
and exercises.
■ T here are tw o new pages of Additional Exercises (pages 244-262).
■ T here is a new C D -R O M w ith fu rth er exercises to accom pany the book.
Basic
Gram
U N I T
am/is/are

I'm 22.
My name is Lisa. I'm not married.

I'm Am erican. I'm from Chicago. My favorite color is blue.

I'm a student. My favorite sports are


tennis and swim m ing.

My father is a doctor, and my


I'm interested in art.
mother is a journalist.

Positive Negative
I am (I’m ) I am n o t (P m not)
he (he’s) he (he’s n o t or he is n ’t)
she is (she’s) she is n o t (she’s n o t or she is n ’t)
it (it’s) it (it’s n o t or it is n ’t)
we (we’re) we (we’re n o t or we a r e n ’t)
you are (you’re) you are n o t (you’re n o t or you a r e n ’t)
they (they’re) they (they’re n o t or they a r e n ’t)

shortforms shortforms
P m cold. Can you close the window, please? I'm afraid of
P m 32 years old. My sister is 29.
Steve is sick. H e’s in bed.
My brother is afraid of dogs.
It’s 10:00. You’re late again.
Ann and I are good friends.
Your keys are on the table.
P m tired, but P m n o t hungry.
Tom is n ’t interested in politics. H e ’s interested in music.
Jane is n ’t a teacher. She’s a student.
Those people aren’t Canadian. They’re Australian.
It’s sunny today, but it is n ’t warm.

th at’s = that is there’s — there is here’s = here is


■ Thank you. T hat’s very nice of you.
■ Look! T here’s Chris.
■ “H ere’s your key.” “Thank you.”

2 am/is/are (questions) —►Unit 2 there is/are —►Unit 38 a/an —►Unit 66 short forms —►Appendix 4
Exercises u n i t |
1.1 Write the short form (she's / we aren't, etc.)
1. she is she's 3. it is n o t _____________ 5. I am not ______________
2. they a r e 4. that is _____________ 6. you are not ______________
1.2 Write am, is, or are.
1. The w eather /s nice today. 5. Look! T h e r e Carol.
2. I _______not rich. 6. My brother and I good tennis players.
3. This b a g heavy. 7. Amy at home. H er c h ild re n at school.
4. These b a g s_______heavy. 8. I a taxi driver. My siste r_______ a nurse.
1.3 Complete the sentences.
1. Steve is sick. He's in bed.
2. I’m not hungry, b u t _______________thirsty.
3. Mr. Thom as is a very old m a n ._______________ 98.
4. These chairs aren’t beautiful, b u t _______________ comfortable.
5. The w eather is nice today. warm and sunny.
6. “_______________late.” “No, I’m not. I’m early!”
7. C atherine isn’t at h o m e ._______________ at work.
8. “_______________your coat.” “Oh, thank you very m uch.”

1.4 Look at Lisa's sentences in 1A.Now write sentences about yourself.

1. (name?) My 5. (favorite color or colors?)


2. (from?) I M y.
3. (age?) I 6. (interested in . . . ?)
4. (j° b?) I I ___________________
1.5 Write sentences for the pictures. Use:
afraid an gry cold h ot h u n g ry t h i rsty

1. She's thirsty. _________ 3. H e 5. _________


2. T h e y __________________ 4. 6. _
1.6 Write true sentences, positive or negative. Use is/isn't or are/aren't.
1. (it / hot today) It isn 't hot today. OR It's h ot today.
2. (it / windy today) I t ______________________________________
3. (my hands / cold) My .
4. (Brazil / a very big country) ___
5. (diamonds / cheap) ___
6. (Toronto / in the U nited States) ___

Write true sentences, positive or negative. Use I'm / I'm not.


7. (tired) I'm_tired.__________ OR I'm n o t tired.
8. (hungry) I _______________________________________
9. (a good swimmer) ________________________________________
10. (interested in politics)__________ ________________________________________

— Additional exercise 1 (page 244) 3


U N I T
am/is/are (questions)

Positive Question What's your name?


I am am I? David.
he he?
Are you m arried? 4
she is is she?
it it? No, I'm single.
we we? How old are you?
you are are you?
25.
they they?
Are you a student?

Yes, I am.

■ “A m I late?” “No, y o u ’re on tim e.”


■ “Is your m o th er at hom e?” “No, she’s out.”
■ “Are your parents at hom e?” “N o, th ey ’re out.”
■ “Is it cold in your room ?” “Yes, a little.”
■ Your shoes are nice. Are th ey new?
W e say:
■ Is she at home? / Is your m o th er at home? (not Is at hom e your mother?)
■ Are they new? / Are your shoes new? (not Are new your shoes?)

W here . . . ? / W h a t. . . ? / W ho . . . ? / H o w . . . ? / W hy . . . ?
■ W here is your m other? Is she at home?
■ “W here are you from?” “Canada.”
■ “W hat co lo r is your car?” “It’s red.”
■ “H o w old is Joe?” “H e’s 24.”
■ “H o w are your parents?” “They’re fine.”
■ These postcards are nice. H o w m u ch are they?
■ This hotel isn’t very good. W hy is it so expensive?
w hat’s = w hat is w ho’s = who is how ’s = how is w here’s = where is
W hat’s your phone num ber? W h o’s that man?
W here’s Lucy? H o w ’s your father?

Short answers
I am. I’m That's my seat.
he
he h e’s
she isn ’t.
she is. she’s
it
Yes, it No, it’s not. or No,
we w e’re we
you are. you’re you aren’t.
they they’re they

“Are you tired?” “Yes, I a m .”


“Are you hungry?” “N o , I’m not, but I’m thirsty.”
“Is your friend Japanese?” “Yes, he is.”
“Are these your keys?” “Yes, th ey are.”
“T hat’s my seat.” “N o , it isn ’t.”

4 am/is/are —►Unit 1 questions —►Unit 45 what/which/how —►Unit 48


Exercises 2
2.1 Find the right answers for the questions.

.
1 W h ere’s the camera? a) Toronto. 1.
2. Is your car blue? b) No, I’m not. 2.
3. Is Linda from London? c) Yes, you are. 3.
4. Am I late? d) My sister. 4.
5. W h ere’s Ann from? e) Black. 5.
6. W hat color is your bag? f) N o, it’s black. 6.
7. Are you hungry? g) In your bag. 7.
8. H ow is George? h) No, she’s American. 8.
9. W h o ’s that woman? i) Fine. 9.

2.2 Make questions with these words.


1. (is / at hom e / your m other) /s y o u r m oth er a t hom e
(your parents / are / how) H o w a re y o u r p a re n ts
(interesting / is / your job)
(the stores / are / open today)
(from / w here / you / are)
(interested in sports / you / are)
(is / near here / the post office) _
(at school / are / your children) .
(you / are / late / w h y )______ _

2.3 Complete the questions. Use W hat. .. / Who . . . I Where . . . I How .


-----------------------------
1. Ho w a re . your children? They’re fine.
2 . _ the bus stop? At the end of the block.
3. . your children? Five, six, and ten.
4. . these oranges? $1.50 a pound.
5. ________ your favorite sport? Skiing.
the m an in this photograph? That’s my father.
___________ your new shoes? Black.

2.4 Write the questions.

Paul
1. name?) What's y o u r nam e? Paul.
2. Australian?) No, I’m Canadian.
3. how old?) _ I’m 30.
4. a teacher?) No, I’m a lawyer.
5. m arried?) Yes, I am.
6. wife a lawyer?) No, she’s a teacher.
7. fro m ?)_______ She’s from Mexico.
8. her n am e?)___ Ana.
9. how old ?)_____ She’s 27.

2 5 Write short answers (Yes, / am. / No, he isn't., etc.).


1. Are you married? No, I'm not. 4. Are your hands cold? .
2. Are you th irsty ?______________________ 5. Is it dark n o w ? ______
3. Is it cold to day?______________________ 6. Are you a teach er?__

- - - - :ional exercises 1-2 (pages 244-245) 5


I am doing (present continuous)

The present continuous is:


a m /is /a r e + d o in g /e a tin g /ru n n in g /w ritin g , etc.
I am (not) ■ Pm w orkin g. Pm n ot w atch in g TV.

he ■ M aria is reading a newspaper.


she is (not) H She isn ’t eating, (or She’s n o t eating.)
it -in g ■ The phone is rin ging.
we ■ W e’re h aving dinner.
you are (not) ■ You’re n ot listen in g to me. (or You aren’t listen in g
they ■ The children are d o in g their hom ework.

A m /is /a r e + -in g = som ething is happening now:

I5m w o rk in g
she’s w earing a hat
they’re playin g baseball
P m n o t w atch in g television

past now future


■ Please be quiet. P m w orkin g. (= Pm working now)
■ Look, there’s Sarah. She’s w earing a brow n coat. (= she is wearing it now)
■ The w eather is nice. It’s n ot raining.
■ “W here are the children?” “T hey’re playin g in the park.”
■ (on the phone) W e’re h aving dinner now. Can I call you later?
■ You can turn off the television. P m n o t w atch in g it.
For spelling, see Appendix 5.
com e —►com ing w rite —►w ritin g dance —►dancing
ru n —►running sit —►sitting sw im —►sw im m ing
lie —►lying

am/is/are —►Unit 1 are you doing? (questions) —►Unit 4 I am doing and I do —►Unit 8
What are you doing tomorrow? —►Unit 26
Exercises
3.1 What are these people doing? Use these verbs to complete the sentences:
eat have lie play sit w ait

1. Sh e's ea tin g an apple. 4. . on the floor.


2. H e ___________ for a bus. 5. breakfast.
3. T h e y _______________________ soccer. on the table.

3.2 Complete the sentences. Use these verbs:


b u ild co o k leave stand stay sw im take w o rk
1. Please be quiet. I 'm w orking .
2 .
“W h ere’s John?” “H e’s in the kitchen. H e _
3. “Y o u _________________________ on my foot.” “Oh, I’m sorry.”
4. Look! S om ebody__________ in the river.
5. W e’re here on vacation. We __________at a hotel on the beach.
6 . “W h ere’s Sue?” “S h e ____ a shower.”
7. T h e y ____________________ a new hotel downtown.
I ____________________________ now. Good-bye.

3.3 Look at the picture. Write sentences about Jane. Use She's -ing or She isn't -ing.
1. (have dinner) J a n e isn 't having dinner._____
2 . (watch television) She's w a tch in g television.
3. (sit on the floor) S h e ________________________
4. (read a b o o k )_______________________________
5. (play the p ia n o )_____________________________
6 . (lau g h )--------------------------------------------------------
7. (wear a h a t) ________________________________
8. (write a le tte r)______________________________

3 4 What's happening now? Write true sentences.


1. (I / wash / my hair) I'nn n o t w ashing m y hair.______________
2. (it / snow) It's snow ing. OR It isn 't sn o w in g .
3. (I / sit / on a chair)_______ ________________________________________
4. (I eat)__________________ ________________________________________
5. (it / rain)_________________________________________________________
6. (I / study / English)_______ ________________________________________
~ (I / listen / to music)______________________________________________
S. (the sun / shine)__________ ________________________________________
9.. (I / wear / shoes)_________ ________________________________________
10. (I / read / a newspaper) ________________________________________
U N I T
are you doing? (present continuous questions)

Positive Question W hat are you doing?


I am am I
he d o in g he doing?
she is w o rk in g is she w orking?
it g o in g it going?
we staying, we staying?,
you are etc. are you etc.
they they

“Are you fe elin g O K ?” “Yes, I’m fine, thanks.”


“Is it raining?” “Yes, take an um brella.”
W hy are you w earing a coat? It’s not cold.
“W h at’s Paul doin g?” “H e’s reading the newspaper.”
“W hat are the children d oing?” “They’re w atch in g television.”
Look, there’s Emily! W h ere’s she going?
W ho are you w a itin g for? Are you w a itin g for Sue?

Study the word order:

is/are + subject 4- -ing


Is he w o rk in g today?
Is Paul w o rk in g today? (not Is working Paul today?)
W here are they going?
W here are those people going? (not W here are going those people?)

Short answers
I am. I’m
he
he h e’s
she isn ’t.
she is. she’s
it
Yes, it No, it’s not. or No,
we w e’re we
you are. you’re you aren’t.
they they’re they

“Are you leavin g now?” “Yes, I a m .”


“Is Paul w o rk in g today?” “Yes, he is .”
“Is it raining?” “N o , it isn ’t.”
“Are your friends staying at a hotel?” “N o , th ey aren’t. They’re staying w ith m e.’!

8 I am doing —►Unit 3 W hat are you doing tom orrow ? —►Unit 26 questions —►Units 45-48
U N
Exercises
4.1 Look at the pictures and write the questions.

4.2 Look at the pictures and complete the questions. Use:


cry eat go lau gh lo o k at read

4.3 Make questions with these words. Put the words in the right order.
1. is / working / Paul / today) Is Paul w orking to d a y
2 . w hat / the children / are / doing) W h a t a re th e children doing
3. you / are / listening / to me)
4. w here / your friends / are / g o in g )______
5. are / watching / your parents / television)
6. w hat / Jessica / is / co o k in g )____________
7. why / you / are / looking / at m e ) ______
8. is / coming / the b u s )__________________

4.4 Write short answers (Yes, \ am. / No, he isn't., etc.).


1. Are you watching TV? No, I'm not. 4. Is it raining? .
2. Are you wearing a w atch ?____________ 5. Are you sitting on the floor? .
3. Are you eating som ething?___________ 6. Are you feeling all rig h t? ___

—►Additional exercise 3 (page 245)


I do/work/like, etc. (simple present)

They’re looking at their books. H e’s eating an ice cream cone.


They read a lot. He lik es ice cream.

They read / he lik es / I w ork, etc. = the simple present:


I/w e /y o u /th e y read lik e w ork live w atch do have
h e /s h e /it reads likes w orks lives w atches does has

Rem em ber:
he works / she lives / it rains, etc.
■ I w ork in an office. M y broth er w orks in a bank. (not My brother work)
■ Lucy lives in Houston. H er parents live in Chicago.
■ It rains a lot in the winter.
I have -►h e /s h e /it has:
■ Joh n has lunch at hom e every day.
For spelling, see Appendix 5.
-es after -s / -sh / -ch: pass -►passes finish -►finishes w atch -►watches
-y -+ -ie s: study -►studies try-► tries
also: do -►does go -►goes

We use the simple present for things that are true in general, or for things that happen
sometimes or all the time:
■ I lik e big cities.
■ Your English is good. You speak very well.
■ Tim w orks very hard. He starts at 7:30 and fin ish es at 8:00 at night.
■ The earth goes around the sun.
■ We do a lot of different things in our free time.
■ It costs a lot of m oney to build a hospital.

A lw a y s/n e v e r /o fte n /u su a lly /so m e tim e s + simple present


■ Sue always gets to work early.(not Sue gets always)
■ I never eat breakfast. (not I eatnever)
■ We often sleep late on weekends.
■ M ark usually plays tennis on Sundays.
■ I so m etim es w alk to work, but not very often.

I d o n 't. . . (negative) —►Unit 6 Do you . . . ? (questions) —►Unit 7 I am doing and I do —►Unit 8


always/usually/often, etc. (word order) —►Unit 95
Exercises U N I
5.1 Write these verbs with -s or -es.
1. (read) she rea d s 3. (fly) it. 5. (have) s h e .
2. (think) h e . 4. (dance) h e . 6. (finish) i t

5.2 Complete the sentences about the people in the pictures. Use:
eat go liv e play play sleep

1. H e plays the piano. 4. . tennis.


2. T h e y __________________ in a very big house. 5. . to the movies a lot.
3. __________________ a lot of fruit. 6. . seven hours a night.

5.3 Complete the sentences. Use:


b o il clo se cost cost lik e lik e m e et op en speak teach w ash
1. M aria speaks four languages.
2. Banks u su ally _______________ at 9:00 in the m orning.
3. The art m u se u m _______________ at 5:00 in the afternoon.
4. Tina is a teacher. S h e _______________ m ath to young children.
5. My jo b is very interesting. I _______________ a lot of people.
6 . Peter’s car is always dirty. H e n e v e r_______________ it.
7. Food is expensive. I t _____ a lot of money.
Shoes are expensive. They . a lot o f money.
9. W a te r_______________ at 100 degrees Celsius.
10. Julia and I are good friends. I _______________ her, and she . me.

5.4 Write sentences from these words. Use the right form of the verb (arrive or arrives, etc.).
1. (always / early / Sue / arrive) S u e a lw a ys a rriv e s early.
2 .
(to the movies / never / I / g o ) __________________________
3. (work / M artina / hard / alw ays)___
4. (like / chocolate / children / usually)
5. (Julia / parties / enjoy / alw ays)____
(often / people’s names / I / forget) _
(television / Tim / watch / never)
(usually / dinner / we / have / at 6:30)
9. (Jenny / always / nice clothes / wear) _

5.5 Write sentences about yourself. Use always! n ever I often! usually I sometimes.
1. (watch TV in the evening) / usually w a tch T V in the evening.________________
(read in bed) I .
(get up before 7 :0 0 )________
(go to w ork/school by b u s )__
(drink coffee in the m orning)
I d o n 't . . . (simple present negative)

The simple present negative is d o n ’t/d o e s n ’t + verb:

Coffee? No, thanks. I don't

Positive Negative
I w ork I
we lik e we d o n ’t
you do you (do not) w ork
they have they lik e
w orks do
he he
likes d oesn ’t have
she she
does (does not)
it it
has

I drink coffee, but I d o n ’t d rink tea.


Sue drinks tea, but she d oesn ’t d rink coffee.
You d o n ’t w ork very hard.
We d o n ’t w atch television very often.
The w eather is usually nice. It d o esn ’t rain very often.
Gary and Nicole d o n ’t k n ow many people.

Rem em ber:
I/w e /y o u /th e y d o n ’t . . . I d o n ’t like football.
h e /s h e /it d oesn ’t . H e d o esn ’t like football.

I d o n ’t like Fred, and Fred d o esn ’t like me. (not Fred don’t like)
My car d o esn ’t use m uch gas. (not My car don’t use)
Sometimes he is late, but it d o esn ’t happen very often.

We use d o n ’t/d o e s n ’t + baseform (don’t lik e / doesn’t speak / doesn’t do, etc.):
■ I d o n ’t lik e to wash the car. I d o n ’t do it very often.
■ Sarah speaks Spanish, but she d o esn ’t speak Italian. (not doesn’t speaks)
■ Bill d o esn ’t do his jo b very well, (not Bill doesn’t his job)
■ Paula d o esn ’t usually have breakfast, (not doesn’t . . . has)

I do/work/like, etc. (simple present) —►Unit 5 Do you . ? (simple present questions) —►Unit 7
Exercises U N I T
6.1 Write the negative.
1. I play the piano very well. / don 't p la y the piano v e r y well.
2. Jane plays the piano very well. Jane _
3. They know my phone number. T hey.
4. We work very hard.
5. M ike has a car.
6. You do the same thing every day.

6.2 Study the information and write sentences with like.

1. 23/// a nd 'Rose like cla ssica l music.


Do you like . , C a ro l.
I ____ classical music.

Bill and 2. Bill and Rose .


Rose Carol You C a ro l_______
i
1. classical music? yes no
2. boxing? no yes 3.

3. horror movies? yes no

6.3 Write about yourself. Use:


I never . . . or I . . . a lot or I d o n 't . . . very often.
1. (watch TV) / n e v e r w a tch TV. OR _ / w a tch T V a lot. OR
/ don't w a tch T V v e ry often.
2. (go to the theater)
3. (ride a bicycle)
4. (eat in restaurants)
5. (travel by train)

6.4 Complete the sentences. All of them are negative. Use don't/doesn't + these verbs:
cost go know read see use w ear
1. I buy a newspaper every day, but sometimes I don 't r e a d it.
2. Paul has a car, but h e _______________ it very often.
3. Paul and his friends like movies, but th e y _______________ to the movie theater very often.
4. Am anda is m arried, but s h e _______________ a ring.
5. I _______________ m uch about politics. I’m not interested in it.
6. The Regent H otel isn’t expensive. I t m uch to stay there.
7. Brian lives near us, but we . . him very often.

6.5 Put the verb into the correct form, positive or negative.
1. M argaret speaks four languages - English, Japanese, Arabic, and Spanish, (speak)
2. I don / like my job. It’s very boring, (like)
3. “W h ere’s M artin?” “I’m sorry. I _______________________ .” (know)
4. Sue is a very quiet person. S h e _______________________ very m uch, (talk)
5. A n d y _______________________ a lot o f coffee. It’s his favorite drink, (drink)
6. It’s not true! I ________________ . it! (believe)
7. T hat’s a very beautiful picture. I . . it a lot. (like)
M ark is a vegetarian. H e ______ meat, (eat)

13
Do you . . . ? (simple present questions)

We use d o /d o e s in simple present questions:

Positive Question Do you play the guitar?


I w ork I
we lik e we
do
you do you work?
they have they like?
w orks do?
he he
likes have?
she does she
does
it it
has

Study the w ord order:

d o /d o e s + subject + infinitive
Do you w ork on Sundays?
Do your friends live near here?
D oes Chris play tennis?
W here do your parents live?
H ow often do you wash your hair?
W hat does this word mean?
H ow m uch does it cost to fly to Puerto Rico?

Questions w ith alw ays/usu ally/ever:


Do you always have breakfast?
D oes Chris ever call you?
W h at do you usually do on weekends?

W hat do you do? = W hat’s your job?


■ “W hat do you do?” “I w ork in a bank.”

Rem em ber:
do I/w e /y o u /th e y . . . D o they like music?
does h e / s h e / i t . . . D oes he like music?

Short answers

I/w e /y o u /th e y do. I/w e /y o u /th e y d o n ’t.


Yes, No,
h e /s h e /it does. h e /s h e /it d oesn ’t.

“D o you play tennis?” “N o , I d o n ’t.”


“D o your parents speak English?” “Yes, they d o .”
“D oes Gary w ork hard?” “Yes, he d o es.”
“D oes your sister live in Vancouver?” “N o , she d o esn ’t.”

I do/work/like, etc. —►Unit 5 I don't (negative) —►Unit 6 questions —►Units 45-48


Exercises U N I T
7.1 Write questions with Do . . . ? and Does . . . ?
1. I like chocolate. H ow about you? D o you like chocola te _____________________
2. I play tennis. H ow about y o u ? _________y o u __________________________________
3. You live near here. H ow about L ucy?________ L u c y __________________________
4. Tom plays tennis. How about his friends?_____________________________________
5. You speak English. H ow about your b ro th e r? _________________________________
6. I do yoga every m orning. H ow about y o u ? ____________________________________
7. Sue often travels on business. H ow about P aul?_______________________________
8. I w ant to be famous. H ow about y o u ? ________________________________________
9. You w ork hard. H ow about A n n a ?___________________________________________

7.2 Make questions from these words + do/does. Put the words in the right order.
1. (where / live / your parents) W h ere do y o u r p a re n ts live ___________________
2. (you / early / always / get up) D o you a lw a ys p e t up e a rly _________________
3. (how often / TV / you / w a tc h )_____________________________________________
4. (you / w ant / w hat / for d in n e r)____________________________________________
5. (like / you / fo o tb all)_______________________________________________________
6. (your brother / like / fo o tb all)______________________________________________
7. (what / you / do / in your free tim e ) ________________________________________
8. (your sister / w ork / w h e re )________________________________________________
9. (to the movies / ever / you / g o ) ____________________________________________
10. (what / m ean / this w o rd )__________________________________________________
11. (often / snow / it / h e r e )___________________________________________________
12. (go / usually / to bed / w hat tim e / you)

13. (how m uch / to call Mexico / it / cost)

14. (you / for breakfast / have / usually / what)

7.3 Complete the questions. Use these verbs:


-de~ do enjoy get lik e start teach w ork

1
1. W hat do you do I work in a bookstore.
2. _____________ it? It’s OK.
3. W hat tim e . . in the morning? At 9:00.
4. . on Saturdays? Sometimes.
5. H ow . to work? Usually by bus.
6 . And your husband. W h a t. ? H e’s a teacher.
7. W h a t. Science.
his job? Yes, he loves it.

7.4 Write short answers (Yes, he does. / No, I don't., etc.).


1. Do you watch TV a lot? No, / d o n ’t.__________ OR Yes, / do.
2. Do you live in a big city ?_______________________________________
3. Do you ever ride a bicycle?______________________________________
4. Does it rain a lot w here you live? .
5. Do you play the p ia n o ?_________

— Additional exercises 4-7 (pages 245-246) 15


I am doing (present continuous) and
I do (simple present)

Jack plays the guitar,


but he is n o t p layin g the guitar now.
Is he p layin g the guitar? N o , he isn ’t. (present continuous)
D oes he play the guitar? Yes, he does. (simple present)

| Present continuous (I am doing) = now, at the time o f speaking:

I’m d o in g

past now future


■ Please be quiet. I’m w orking. (not I work)
■ Tom is taking a shower at the m om ent. (not Tom takes)
■ Take an um brella w ith you. It’s raining.
■ You can turn off the television. I’m not w atching it.
■ W hy are you under the table? W hat are you doing?

Simple present (I do) = in general, all the time, or sometimes:

I do

past now future


■ I w ork every day from 9:00 to 5:30.
■ Tom takes a shower every m orning.
■ It rains a lot in the winter.
■ I d o n ’t w atch television very often.
■ W hat do you usually do on weekends?

We do not use these verbs in the present continuous (I am -ing):


lik e love w ant k n ow understand rem em ber depend
prefer hate need m ean b elieve forget

Use only the simple present w ith these verbs (I w ant / do you like?, etc.):
■ I’m tired. I w ant to go hom e. (not I’m wanting)
■ “D o you k n ow that girl?” “Yes, but I d o n ’t rem em b er her nam e.”
■ I d o n ’t understand. W hat do you mean?

present continuous —►Units 3-4 simple present —►Units 5-7 present for the future —►Unit 26
Exercises u N1 8
8.1 Answer the questions about the pictures.

Does he take photographs? Yes, he does. Is she driving a bus? _


Is he taking a photograph? No, he isn t Does she drive a bus?
W hat is he doing? W hat is she doing?
H e s taking a bath.____________________

We are teachers.

Does he wash windows? . Are they teaching?


Is he washing a window? Do they teach ?__
W hat is he doing? W hat do they do?

8.2 Complete the sentences with am/is/are or do/don't/does/doesn't.


1. Excuse me, do you speak English?
2. “W h ere’s Kate?” “I _______________ know.”
3. W h at’s so funny? W h y you laughing?
4. “W h a t_______________ your sister do?” “She’s a dentist.”
5. I t _______________ raining._I _______________ w ant to go out in the rain.
6. “W h e re _______________ you come from?” “Canada.”
7. H ow m u c h _______________it cost to send a letter to Canada?
8. Steve is a good tennis player, but h e ______________ play very often.

8.3 Put the verb in the presentcontinuous (/ am doing) or the simple present (/ do).
1. Excuse me, do you speak (you / speak) English?
2. “W h ere’s Tom?” He's taking (he / take) a shower.”
3. / don't w a tch (I / not / watch) television very often.
4. Listen! S om ebody______________________________(sin g)*
5. Sandra is tire d . : (she / want) to go hom e now.
6. H ow o fte n _______________________________(you / read) a newspaper?
7. “Excuse me, b u t (you / sit) in my seat.” “Oh, I’m sorry.”
8. I’m so rry,__________________________ (I / not / understand). Can you speak m ore slowly?
9. It’s la te . (I / go) hom e n o w .___________________________
(you / come) w ith me?
10. W hat tim e ____________________________________ (your father / finish)w ork every day?
11. You can turn off the ra d io .______________________________________ (I / not / listen) to it.
12. “W h ere’s Paul?” “In the k itc h e n . (he / cook) som ething.”
13. M a rtin ____________________________________________ (not / usually / drive) to work. He
_______________________________(usually / walk).
14. S u e _______________________ (not / like) coffee. (she / prefer) tea.

17
I have . . . and I've g o t . . .

You can say I have or I’ve got, he has or h e’s got:

I I (I’ve got) I've got a headache.


we we (we’ve got)
have or have g o t
you you (you’ve got)
they they (they’ve got)
he he (he’s got)
she has or she has go t (she’s got)
it it (it’s got)

shortform

I have blue eyes, or I’ve g o t blue eyes.


Tim has two sisters, or Tim has go t two sisters.
O ur car has four doors, or O ur car has go t four doors.
Sarah isn’t feeling well. She has a headache, or She’s go t a headache.
They like animals. They have a horse, three dogs, and six cats, or They’ve got a horse

I d o n ’t have / I haven’t got, etc. (negative)


You can say:
I/w e /y o u /th e y d o n ’t I / w e /y o u /th ey haven’t
have got
h e /s h e /it d o esn ’t h e /s h e /it hasn’t

■ I have a bike, but I d o n ’t have a car. or I’ve g o t a bike, but I haven’t go t a car.
■ Mr. and Mrs. Harris d o n ’t have any children, or . . . haven’t g o t any children.
■ It’s a nice house, but it d o esn ’t have a garage, or . . . it hasn’t go t a garage.
■ M ariko d oesn ’t have a job. or M ariko hasn’t got a job.

D o you have . . . ? / H ave you g o t . . . ?, etc. (questions)


You can say:
do I/w e /y o u /th e y have I /w e /y o u /th e y
have? or got?
does h e /s h e /it has h e /s h e /it

■ D o you have a camera? or H ave you go t a camera?


■ D oes H elen have a car? or Has H elen go t a car?
■ W hat kind o f car does she have? or W hat kind of carhas shegot?
■ W hat do you have in your bag? or W hat have you g o t in your bag?

Short answers
“D o you have a camera?” “Yes, I d o.” / “N o, I d o n ’t.” or
“H ave you got a camera?” “Yes, I have.” / “No, I haven’t.”
“D oes Anne have a car?” “Yes, she d oes.” / “No, she d oesn ’t.” or
“Has Anne got a car?” “Yes, she has.” / “No, she hasn’t.”

had / didn't have (past) —►Units 11-12 have breakfast / have a headache, etc. —►Unit 59 some/any —►Unit 77
U N I T
Exercises
9.1 Write the short form with got (we've got / he hasn't got, etc.).
1. we have g o t. w e ve g o t 3. they have got _ 5. it has g o t ____
2. he has g o t _ ___________ 4. she has not g o t . 6. I have not g o t.

9.2 Read the questions and answers. Then write sentences about Mark.
_
1. Have you got a car? 1. H e hasn t g o t a car.
2. Have you got a computer? 2 . H e __________________
3. Have you got a dog? Mark 3.
4. Have you got a cell phone? 4.
5. Have you got a watch? 5.
Have you got any brothers or
sisters?

What about you? Write sentences with I've got or / haven't got.
7. (a com puter) ___________________________________________
8. (a dog) -----------------------------------------------------------------
9. (a bike) ___________________________________________
10. (brothers / sisters) ___________________________________________

9.3 Write these sentences with have/has or don't have / doesn't have. The meaning is
the same.
1. They have got two children. They h ave tw o children. ______________
2. She hasn’t got a key. S h e doesn t have a key.
3. He has got a new job.
4. They haven’t got m uch money.
5. Have you got an umbrella?
6. We have got a lot of w ork to do.
7. I haven’t got your phone number.
8. Has your father got a car?
9. H ow m uch money have we got?

9.4 Complete the sentences with do, doesn't, don't, got, has, or have.
1. Sarah hasn’t g o t a car. She goes everywhere by bicycle.
They like animals. They have three dogs and two cats.
Charles isn’t happy. H e ____________________ got a lot of problem s.
They don’t read much. T h e y ____________________ have many books.
“W h at’s wrong?” “I’v e _________________ . som ething in my eye.”
“W h ere’s my pen?” “I don’t know. I don’t . __________________ it.”
7. Julia wants to go to the concert, but she have a ticket.

9.5 Complete the sentences. Use have/has or don't have / doesn't have with:
a lo t o f frien d s fou r w h eels a h ead ach e six legs
a b ig yard m u ch tim e a key
I’m not feeling well. I h ave a headache._________________________________
It’s a nice house, but it doesn't have a big yard. __________________________
M ost c a rs_______________________________________________________________
Everybody likes Tom. He .
I can’t open the door. I __
An in se c t______________
Hurry! W e _____________

—• Additional exercises 5-7 (page 246) 19


was/were

last night now

N ow R obert is at work.

At m idnight last night


he w asn ’t at work.

H e was in bed.
H e was asleep.

a m /is (present) -►was (past):


■ I am tired, (now) I was tired last night.
■ W here is Kate? (now) W here was Kate yesterday?
■ The w eather is nice today. The w eather was nice last week.
are (present) -►w ere (past):
■ You are late, (now) You w ere late yesterday.
M They aren’t here, (now) They w eren ’t here last Sunday.

Positive Negative Question


I I I?
he he was n ot he?
was was
she she (wasn’t) she?
it it it?
we we we?
w ere n ot
you w ere you w ere you?
(w eren’t)
they they they?

Last year Rachel was 22, so she is 23 now.


W hen I was a child, I was afraid of dogs.
We w ere hungry after the trip, but we w eren ’t tired.
The hotel was comfortable, but it w asn ’t expensive.
Was the w eather nice w hen you w ere on vacation?
Your shoes are nice. Were they expensive?
W hy w ere you late this m orning?

Short answers
I/h e /s h e /it was. I /h e /s h e /it w asn ’t.
Yes, No,
w e /y o u /th ey were. w e /y o u /th ey w eren ’t.

“Were you late?” “N o , I w asn ’t.”


“Was Ted at w ork yesterday?” “Yes, he w as.”
“Were Sue and Steve at the party?” “N o , they w eren ’t .”

am/is/are —►Units 1-2 I was doing —►Unit 13


U N I
Exercises
10.1 Where were these people at 3:00 yesterday afternoon?

5.
/ /v

8 L _ (

? Jj
Gary Jack Kate Sue Mr. and Mrs. Hall Ben

1. O a r v w a s in bed. 4. __________
2. Jack and Kate . 5. __________
3. S u e _________ 6. And you? I .

10.2 Write am/is/are (present) or was!were (past).


1. Last year she w a s 22, so she is 23 now.
2. Today the w e a th e r_________nice, but yesterday i t . . very cold.
3. I _________ hungry. Can I have som ething to eat?
4. I feel fine this m orning, but I very tired last night.
5. W h e re _____ you at 11:00 last Friday m orning?
6. D o n ’t buy those shoes. T h e y _________ very expensive.
7. I like your new ja c k e t._________ it expensive?
8. This tim e last year I in Paris.
9. “W h e re ________ the children?” “I don’t know. They . . here a few m inutes ago.”

10.3 Write was!were or wasn't!weren't.


1. We w eren’t happy w ith the hotel. O ur room w a s very small, and it w a sn t clean.
2. M a rk at w ork last week because h e __________ sick. H e’s better now.
3. Y esterday a holiday, so the b a n k s closed. They’re open today.
4. “ Kate and Bill at the party?” “K a te __________ there, but B ill_________ .”
5. “W here are my keys?” “I don’t know. They . on the table, but they’re
not there now.”
6. Y o u _________ at hom e last night. W h e re ____ you?

10.4 Write questions from these words + was/were. Put the words in the right order.
_________ Y n_______________________________________ _
1. (late / you / this morning / why?)
W h y w e r e y o u la te this m orning? The traffic was bad.
2. (difficult / your exam?)
No, it was easy.
3. (last week / where / Sue and Chris?)
They were on vacation.
4. (your new camera / how much?)
O ne hundred and tw enty dollars.
5. (angry / you / yesterday / why?)
Because you were late.
6. (nice / the weather / last week?)
Yes, it was beautiful.
worked/got/went, etc. (simple past)

They w atch television every night.


(simple present)

They w atched television last night.


(simple past)

w atched is the simple past:

I/w e /y o u /th e y t t
, ,t w atched
h e /s h e /it

The simple past is often -ed (regular verbs). For example:


work —►w ork ed dance —►danced
clean —►cleaned stay —►stayed
start —►started need —►need ed
■ I brush my teeth every m orning. This m orning I brushed my teeth.
■ Terry w ork ed in a bank from 1996 to 2003.
■ Yesterday it rained all m orning. It stop p ed at lunchtim e.
■ W e enjoyed the party last night. We danced a lot and talked to a lot of people. The
party ended at m idnight.
For spelling, see Appendix 5.
try —►trie d study —►studied copy —►copied
stop —►sto p p ed plan —►p lan n ed

Some verbs are irregular (= not regular). The simple past is not -ed. H ere are some im portant
irregular verbs (see also Appendixes 2-3):
begin —►began fall fell leave —►left sell —►sold
break broke find fou n d lose lo st sit sat
bring b rou ght fly flew make m ade sleep slept
build b u ilt forget fo rg o t m eet m et speak spoke
buy b ou g h t get got pay paid stand stood
catch caught give gave put p ut take to o k
come cam e g° w en t read read (red)* tell told
do did have had ring rang think th o u g h t
drink drank hear heard say said w in w on
eat ate know k n ew see saw w rite w rote
*pronounced {(redv
■ I usually get up early, but this m orning I g o t up at 9:30.
■ W e did a lot o f w ork yesterday.
■ Caroline w en t to the movies three times last week.
■ Jam es cam e into the room, to o k off his coat, and sat down.

was/were —►Unit 10 I didn't / Did you . . . ? (negative and questions) —►Unit 12 ago —►Unit 18
Exercises U N I T
11.1 Complete the sentences. Use a verb from the box.

b ru sh d ie en d en joy h ap p en o p en rain start stay w ant

1. I b ru s h e d my teeth three times yesterday.


2. It was hot in the room , so I _______________ the window.
3. The movie was very long. I t _______________ at 7:15 and _ at 10:00.
4. W hen I was a child, I _______________ to be a doctor.
5. The accid en t_______________ last Sunday afternoon.
6. It’s a nice day today, but yesterday i t __________ all day.
7. W e _______________ our vacation last year. W e . at a very nice place.
8. Anna’s g ran d father___________ . w hen he was 90 years old.

11.2 Write the simple past of these verbs.


1. get g o t________ 4. p a y _______ 7. go — 10. k n o w .
2. see . ________ 5. v is it_______ 8. think . 11. p u t __
3. p la y . ________ 6. b u y _______ 9. copy _ 12. sp ea k .

11.3 Read about Lisa's trip to Mexico City. Put the verbs in the correct form.

Last Tuesday, Lisa (l) fle w from Los Angeles to Mexico City. She fly
(2) -------------------- . up at 6:00 in the morning and (3). . a cup get, have
of coffee. At 7:15 she (4). . home and (5) _ _ to leave, drive
the airport. W hen she (6) . there, she (7). the get, park
car, (8) . to the terminal, and (9). . in. Then she walk, check
(10). . breakfast at an airport cafe and (11). ________ for have, wait
her flight. The plane (12)___________ . on time and (13). depart, arrive
in Mexico City four hours later. Finally she (14). ltaxi from take
the airport to her hotel downtown.

11.4 Write sentences about the past (yesterday / last w eek, etc.).
1. Jam es always goes to work by car. Yesterday h e w e n t to w o rk b y car.
Rachel often loses her keys. She . . last week.
Kate meets her friends every night. S h e ________________ . last night.
I usually buy two newspapers every day. Yesterday I _____
We often go to the movies on weekends. Last Sunday we
I eat an orange every day. Yesterday I .
Tom always takes a shower in the m orning. This m orning he .
O u r friends often come to see us. T h e y ___________________ . last Friday.

11.5 Write sentences about what you did yesterday.


1. / w e n t to th e theater._______ 4. ______
2. ______________________________ 5. ______
3. ______________________________ 6. ______

: : onal exercise 10 (page 248)


I didn't. . . Did you . . . ?
(simple past negative and questions)
We use d id in simple past negatives and questions:
Positive Negative Question
I played I play I play?
we started we start we start?
you w atched you watch you watch?
did n ot
they had they have did they have?
(d idn ’t)
he saw he see he see?
she did she do she do?
it w ent it g° it go?

D o /d o e s (present) —►did (past):


■ I d o n ’t watch television very often.
I d id n ’t watch television yesterday.
■ D o es she go out often?
D id she go out last night?

We use d id /d id n ’t + baseform (w a tc h /p la y /g o , etc.):


I watched but I didn’t watch (not I didn’t watched)
they went did they go? (not did they went?)
he had he didn’t have
you did did you do?

I played tennis yesterday, but I d id n ’t w in.


“D id you do your hom ew ork?” “No, I d id n ’t have tim e.”
We w en t to the movies, but we d id n ’t enjoy the film.

Study the w ord order in questions:

did + subject + base form


D id your sister call you?
W h at did you do last night?
H ow did the accident happen?
W here did your parents g° for vacation?

Short answers
I/w e /y o u /th e y I/w e /y o u /th e y
Yes, did. No, d id n ’t.
h e /s h e /it h e /s h e /it

“D id you see Joe yesterday?” “N o , I d id n ’t.”


“D id it rain on Sunday?” “Yes, it d id .”
“D id H elen come to the party?” “N o , she d id n ’t .”
“D id your parents have a good trip?” “Yes, th ey d id .”

24 worked/got/went, etc. (simple past) —►Unit 11


Exercises U N I T | 2

12.1 Complete these sentences with the verb in the negative.


1. I saw Barbara, but I didn't s e e Jane.
2. They w orked on Monday, but th e y _____________________ . on Tuesday,
3. We w ent to the post office, but w e _____________________ to the bank.
4. She had a pen, but s h e _________________________ any paper.
5. Jack did some w ork in the yard, but he . any work in the house.

12.2 Write questions with Did .. . ?


1. I watched TV last night. H ow about you? D id you w a tch T V la st night
2. I enjoyed the party. H ow about you? ______________________
3. I had a nice vacation. H ow about you? ______________________
4. I finished w ork early. H ow about you? ______________________
5. I slept well last night. H ow about you? ______________________

12.3 What did you do yesterday? Write positive or negative sentences.


1. (watch TV) / w a tch e d TV. OR / didn 't w a tch TV.
2. (get up before 7:00)
3. (take a shower)
4. (buy a magazine)
5. (eat meat)
6. (go to bed before 10:30) ____________________________________________________

12.4 Write B's questions. Use:


cost g et to w ork go go to bed late happen have a n ice tim e -stay"- w in

1. A: We w ent to Chicago last m onth. 5. A: We came hom e by taxi.


B: W here d id vou s ta y ? B: H ow m uch ?
A: W ith some friends. A: Tw enty dollars.

2. A: I was late for the meeting. 6. A: I’m tired this m orning.


B: W hat time ? B: ?
A: H alf past nine. A: No, but I didn’t sleep very well.

3. A: I played tennis this afternoon. 7. A: W e w ent to the beach yesterday.


B: ? B: ?
A: No, I lost. A: Yes, it was great.

4. A: I had a nice vacation. 8. A: The window is broken.


B: Good. W here ? B: H ow ?
A: To the m ountains. A: I don’t know.

12.5 Put the verb in the correct form - positive, negative, or question.
1. We w ent to the movies, but the film wasn’t very good. W e didn 't en joy it. (enjoy)
2. T im . some new clothes yesterday - two shirts, a jacket, and a sweater, (buy)
3. . yesterday?” “N o, it was a nice day.” (rain)
4. We were tired, so we . _ long at the party, (stay)
5. It was very warm in the room , so I . ______________ a window, (open)
6. “Did you call Chris this m orning?” “No, I _______________ tim e.” (have)
7. “I cut my hand this m orning.5 ‘H o w _______________ that?” (do)
“W hy w eren’t you at the m eeting yesterday?” “I _______________ about it.” (know)

— -sd itio n a l exercises 10-13 (page 248) 25


I was doing (past continuous)

4:00 now (6:00) It is 6:00 now.


Paul is at home.
He is w atching television.
At 4:00 he wasn’t at home.
He was at the gym.
He was sw im m in g in the pool.
He wasn’t w atching television.

3:30 ► 4:15

he started he finished
he was sw im m in g
swimming swimming

W as/w ere + -in g is the past continuous:


Positive Negative Question
I I I
he d o in g he was n ot d o in g he doing?
was was
she w atch in g she (w asn’t) w atch in g she w atching?
it p layin g it p layin g it playing?
sw im m in g sw im m in g sw im m in g?
we we we
livin g, w ere n ot livin g, living?,
you w ere you w ere you
etc. (w eren’t) etc. etc.
they they they

■ W hat w ere you d o in g at 11:30 yesterday? Were you w orking?


■ “W hat did he say?” “I don’t know. I w asn ’t listen in g .”
■ It was raining, so we didn’t go out.
■ In 2001 we w ere liv in g in Japan.
■ Today she’s wearing a skirt, but yesterday she was w earing pants.
■ I woke up early yesterday. It was a beautiful m orning. The sun was shining, and the
birds w ere singing.
Spelling (live -►living / run —>►running / lie -►lying, etc.) —►Appendix 5

A m /is /a r e + -in g (present) —>►


w a s/w ere + -in g (past):

Present Past
M I’m w o rk in g (now). I was w o rk in g at 10:30 last night.
■ It isn ’t rain in g (now). It w asn ’t rain in g w hen we w ent out.
■ W hat are you d o in g (now)? W hat w ere you d o in g at 3:00?

was/were —►Unit 10 I was doing and I did (past continuous and simple past) —►Unit 14
U N I T | J
Exercises
13.1 Look at the pictures. Where were these people at 3:00 yesterday afternoon? And what
were they doing? Write two sentences for each picture.

US
3.

i&sjm
miIJMd
Rachel Jack Kate ^ Ti^m Tracey Mr. and Mrs. Hall
at hom e at the supermarket in his car at the station in the park
watch TV buy food drive wait for a train walk

1. ~Rgchel_ w as a t ___ home. She was_ washing.TV._____


2. Jack and K a te _________________________________. They
3. Tim
4. _______________________________________________
5. „________
6. And you? I _________________________________________

13.2 Sarah did a lot of things yesterday. Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.
7:10-7:25 7:30-8:10 8:30-9:00 1. At 8:45 she_ was_ w ashing
2 . At 10:45 s h e _______________________

3. At 8:00

4. At 12:10.
10:15-11:45 12:00-12:45
5. At 7:15.

6. At 9:30.

13.3 Complete the questions. Use was/were -ing. Use what/where/why if necessary.

1. (von / live') W h e re w e r e you living in 1999? In Brazil.


2. (vou / do) at 2:00? I was asleep.
3. (it / rain) w hen you got up? No, it was sunny.
4. (Sue / drive) so fast? Because she was late.
5. (Tim / wear) a suit yesterday? No, a T-shirt and jeans.

13.4 Look at the picture. You saw Joe in the street yesterday afternoon. What w as he
doing? Write positive or negative sentences.
1. (wear / a jacket) H e w a sn 't w ea rin g a iacket.
2. (carry / a bag) ..
3. (fo / to the dentist)
4. (eat / an ice cream cone)
5. (carry / an umbrella)
6. (p-o / home)
7. (wear / a hat)
8. (ride / a bicvcle)

27
I was doing (past continuous) and
I did (simple past)

Jack was reading The phone rang. H e stop p ed reading. He answ ered the
a book. phone.
W hat happened? The phone rang, (simple past)
W hat was Jack d o in g w hen the phone rang?
(past continuous)
He was reading a book.
W hat did he do w hen the phone rang?
(simple past)
He stop p ed reading and answ ered the phone.
Jack began reading before the phone rang.
So when the phone rang, he was reading.
he began the phone he stopped he answered the
reading rang reading phone
I__ ________I

he was reading

Simple past Past continuous


M A: W hat did you do yesterday m orning? ■ A: W hat w ere you d o in g at 10:30?
B: We played tennis, (from 10:00 to 11:30) B: We w ere p layin g tennis.
Start Finish Start
10:00 11:30 10:00
1 1 | ^
1 1
I
r
J
w t / /
we played we w ere p layin g
completed action unfinished action

'■ Jack read a book yesterday. ■ Jack was reading a book w hen the
(= from beginning to end) phone rang.
■ D id you w atch the basketball game on ■ Were you w atch in g television w hen
television last night? I called you?
■ It d id n ’t rain while we were on vacation. ■ It w asn ’t rain in g w hen I got up.

■ I started work at 9:00 and fin ish ed at 4:30. At 2:30 I was w orkin g.
■ It was rain in g w hen we w en t out. (= it started raining before we w ent out)
■ I saw Lucy and Steve this m orning. They w ere w a itin g at the bus stop.
■ Kelly fe ll asleep while she was reading.

I did (simple past) —►Units 11-12 I was doing (past continuous) —►Unit 13 while —►Unit 106
U N I
Exercises
14.1 Look at the pictures. Put the verbs in the correct form, past continuous or simple past.
Lucy. b ro ke (break) her arm last week.
I t ___ . (happen) when
sh e _ (paint) her
room. S he___ _______ (M )
off the ladder.

3. Yesterday S u e__________ _ (walk)


down the street when she . . (meet)
James. H e . — (go)
to the station to catch a train, and he
____________________________ (carry) a bag.
T h ey _________________________ (stop) to
talk for a few minutes.

14.2 Put the verb into the past continuous or simple past.
1. A: W hat w e r e yo u doing (you / do) w hen the phone ra n g (ring)?
B: I w a s w a tch in g (watch) television.
2. A: Was Jane busy w hen you w ent to see her?
B: Yes, s h e ________________________ (study).
3. A: W hat tim e ____________________________ (the mail / arrive) this m orning?
B: I t ________________________ (come) while I _________________________ (have) breakfast.
4. A: Was Tracey at w ork today?
B: No, s h e _________________ (not / go) to work. She was sick,
5. A: H ow fa s t________________ (you / drive) w hen the police
(stop) you?
B: I’m not sure, but I (not / drive) very fast.
6. A: ___________________________(your team / win) the baseball game yesterday?
________________
B: No, the w eather was very bad, so w e (not / play).
7. A: H ow _ _______(you / break) the window?
B: W e __ (play) baseball. I _________________ (hit) the ball
and i t . (break) the window.
8. A: ______ _ (you / see) Jenny last night?
B: Yes, she . _________ (wear) a very nice jacket.
9. A: W hat (you / do) at 2:00 this m orning?
B: I was asleep.
10. A: I __________ (lose) my key last night.
B: H ow . (you / get) into your apartm ent?
A: I ___ (climb) in through a window.

- - : a tional exercises 14-15 (pages 249-250)


I used to

Dave afew years ago


work in a factory. I w ork in a superm arket.
I used to work in a factory.

Dave
Dave used to w ork in a factory. N ow he w orks in a superm arket.
Dave used to w ork in a factory. = he w orked in a factory before, but he doesn’t
work there now:

he used to w ork he works

past

You can say I used to w ork . . . / she used to have . . . / th ey used to be . . . , etc.
be
I /y o u /w e /th e y w ork
used to
h e /s h e /it have
play, etc.
I used to have very long hair.
■ W hen I was a child, I used to lik e chocolate.
■ I used to read a lot of books, but I don’t read
m uch these days.
■ Liz has short hair now, but it used to be very long.
■ They used to live on the same street as us,
so we used to see them a lot. B ut we don’t
see them very often these days.
■ H elen used to have a piano, but she sold it a few
years ago.
| \
T he negative is I d id n ’t use to . . . .
■ W hen I was a child, I d id n ’t use to lik e tomatoes. oL-
o ^ o
The question is did you use to . . . ? o 0 V?
■ W here did you use to live before you came here?

We use used to . . . only for the past. You cannot say “I use to . . .” for the present:
■ I used to play tennis. These days I play golf. (not I use to play golf)
■ We usually get up early, (not We use to get up early)
U N I
Exercises
15.1 Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences with used to .

I'm a hairdre?sser now. " “ I

1 J
r J \ ;
r
1
AF 7
r rS Jfe A " m is "

This is me a few years ago. When 1 was y o u n g e r. . . A few years ago


1. She used to have 2. He 3.
Iona hair. baseball. a taxi driver.

We live in New York City now. This is me 20 years ago.


1 never wear glasses now. 1

V
S .1 J1 |
rh sbB ^ ^ n ^ i
( ■■
4. 5. 6. This buildin g
in the
country.

15.2 Karen works very hard and has very little free time. A few years
ago, things were different.
I w ork very hard
at my job. I don't
have any free time.
Do you play any sports? ■ ►Yes, I swim every day,
and I play volleyball.
Do you go out much? ■ ►Yes, three or four nights
a week.
Do you play a musical ■ ►Yes, the guitar.
instrum ent?
Do you like to read? ■ ►Yes, I read a lot.
Do you travel much? ■ ►Yes, I take two or three Karen now
trips a year.

Write sentences about Karen with used to ..


1. She u sed to sw im e v e ry day.________ 4.
2. She. . volleyball. 5.
3. ____ 6 .
15.3 Complete these sentences. Use used to orthe simple present(/ p/ay / he lives, etc.).
1. I u sed to p la y tennis. I stopped playing a few years ago.
2. “Do you play any sports?” “Yes, I p lo y basketball.”
3. “Do you have a car?” “No, I ______________________one, but I sold it.”
4. G e o rg e______________________ a waiter. N ow h e’s the m anager o f a hotel.
5. “Do you go to w ork by car?” “Sometimes, but m ost days I ___________________ by train/
6. W hen I was a child, I never . . meat, but I eat it now.
7. M ary loves to watch TV. She . . TV every night.
8. W e __________________ . near the airport, but we moved dow ntow n a few years ago.
9. N orm ally I start w ork at 7:00, so I . . up very early.
10. W hat g am es_________ y o u ______ w hen you were a child?
U N I T
Have you e v e r. . . ?

Have you been to Mexico City?

Yes# I have. Many times.

Have you ever been to Japan?

No, I've never been to Japan, )

Have been / have driven / have played, etc. is the present perfect (have + past participle)
I played I played?
we have (’ve) lived we lived?
have regular verbs
you have n ot (haven’t) visited you visited?
they read they read?
he lo st he lost?
has (’s)
she been has she been? irregular verbs
has n ot (hasn’t)
it flow n it flown?

Regular verbs The past participle is -ed (the same as the simple past):
play —►I have played live —►I have lived visit —►she has visited

Irregular verbs The past participle is not -ed.


Sometimes the past participle is the same as the simple past:
buy -►I b ou gh t / I have b ou gh t have -> he had / he has had
Sometimes the past participle is different (see Appendixes 2-3).
break —►I b rok e / I have broken see —►you saw / you have seen

We use the present perfect w hen we talk about a tim e from the past until now, for example,
a person’s life.
Have you ever been to Japan?
------------------------- timefrom the past until now----------------
past now
■ “H ave you been to France?” “No, I haven’t.”
■ W e’ve been to Canada, but we haven’t been to Alaska.
■ JVLary is an interesting person. She has had many different jobs and has lived
in many places.
■ I’ve seen that wom an before, but I can’t rem em ber where.
■ H ow many times has Brazil w on the W orld Cup?
■ “H ave you read this book?” “Yes, I’ve read it twice.” (tw ice = two times)

Present perfect + ever (in questions) and never:


■ “Has Ann ever been to Australia?” “Yes, once.” (once = one time)
■ “H ave you ever played golf?” “Yes, I play a lot.”
■ My sister has never traveled by plane.
■ I’ve never rid den a horse.
■ “W ho is that man?” “I don’t know. I’ve never seen h im before.”

present perfect —►Units 17-18 present perfect and simple past —►Units 19-21irregular verbs —►Appendixes 2-3
Exercises
16.1 You are asking Helen questions beginning with Have you ever .
U N I T
16
Write the questions.

Helen

1. (Montreal?) H av e you e v e r been to M o n tre a l? No, never.


2. (play / golf?) H av e you e v e r p la y e d g o lf? _______ Yes, many times.
3. (South Korea?) Have_______________________________ Yes, once.
4. (lose / your passport?) No, never.
5. (fly / in a helicopter?) Yes, a few times.
6. (win / a race?) No, never.
7. (Peru?) Yes, twice.
8. (drive / a bus?) No, never.
9. (break / your leg?) Yes, once.

16.2 Write sentences about Helen. (Look at her answers in Exercise 16.1.)
1. (Peru) She's been to P e ru tw ice._________________________________________________
2. (South Korea) S h e _________________________________________________________________
3. (win / a ra c e )_____________________________________________________________________
4. (fly / in a h elico p ter)______________________________________________________________

Now write about yourself. How often have you done these things?
5. (N ew York) I _____________________________________________________________________
6. (play / te n n is )______ ______________________________________________________________
7. (drive / a tru c k ) ____________________________________________________________
8. (be / late for w ork or sch o o l)_______________________________________________________

16.3 Mary is 65 years old. She has had an interesting life. What has she done?

h ave be all over the w orld a lo t o f in tere stin g th in g s


do w r ite m an y di f f eren t j obs a lo t o f in tere stin g p eo p le
travel m e et 10 b ook s m arried th ree tim es

1. She has h a d m any d iffe re n t job s.________________________________________________


2. She ________________________________________________________________________
3. __________________________________________________________________________
4. __________________________________________________________________________________
5. __________________________________________________________________________
6. ____________________________________________________________
16.4 Put the verbs in the present perfect.
1. / ve seen (I / see) that w om an before, but I can’t rem em ber her name.
2. “ H a v e you e v e r p la y e d (you / ever / play) golf?” “Yes, I play golf a lot.”
3. “__________________________(you / ever / write) a poem ?” “Yes, in high school.”
4. “Does Em m a know Sam?” “N o ,_________________________(she / never / meet) him .”
5. Ann and Eli have lots of books, a n d __________________________(they / read) all of them .
6. __________________________(I / never / be) to Australia, b u t _________________________
(my brother / be) there twice.
7. Joy’s favorite movie is Howard and Belinda. (she / see) it five
times, b u t (I / never / see) it.
8. _________________________ (I / travel) by plane, bus, and train. Someday, I w ant to take a
trip by boat.

— -zd itio n al exercises 16f 18 (pages 250-251) 33


U N I T
How long have you . . . ?

Jane is on vacation in Brazil.


She is there now.
She arrived in Brazil on Monday.
Today is Thursday.
H ow long has she been in Brazil? How long have you
been in Brazil?
since M onday.
She has been in Brazil
for three days.

Com pare is and has been:


She is in Brazil is = present
now.

since M onday,
She has been in Brazil has been = present perfect
for three days.

Monday now
Thursday

Com pare:
Simple present Present perfect (have been / have lived / have know n, etc.)
Dan and Kate are m arried. They have been m arried for five years.
(not They are m arried for five years.)
Are you married? H o w lo n g have you been married?
(not H ow long are you married?)
D o you k n ow Lisa? H o w lo n g have you k n ow n her?
(not H ow long do you know her?)
I k n o w Lisa. I’ve k n ow n her for a lo n g tim e.
(not I know her for . . .)
Vera lives in Brasilia. H o w lo n g has she lived in Brasilia?
She has lived there all her life.
I have a car. H o w lo n g have you had your car?
I’ve had it since A pril.

Present continuous Present perfect continuous (have been + -ing)


I’m stu d yin g Germ an. H o w lo n g have you been stu d yin g German?
(not H ow long are you studying German?)
I’ve been stu d yin g Germ an for tw o years.
David is w atch in g TV. H o w lo n g has he b een w atch in g TV?
H e’s been (= He has been) w atch in g TV since 5:00.
It’s raining. It’s been (= It has been) rain ing all day.

34 for and since —►Units 18, 105


Exercises UNI T \ J
17.1 Complete these sentences.
1. Jane is in Brazil. She has been there since Monday.
2. I know Lisa. I have know n her for a long time.
3. Sarah and Andy are married. They m arried since 1999.
4. Brian is sick. He sick for the last few days.
5. We live on M ain Street. We there for a long time.
6. C atherine works in a bank. She in a bank for five years,
7. Alan has a headache. He a headache since he got up
this m orning.
8. I’m studying English. I English for six m onths.

17.2 Make questions with How long . . . ?


S’ "............. .......
1. Jane is on vacation. H o w Iona has she been on v acation
2. Scott and Judy are in Brazil. How long ?
3. I know Amy. How lone vou ?
4. Diana is studying Italian. ?
5. My brother lives in Seattle.
6. Fm a teacher.
7. It is raining. ?
J

Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with:

fo r 10 m in u te s a ll day a ll h er life
fo r 10 y ea rs sin ce h e w as 20 sin ce Sun d ay
1. They have been m a rrie d fo r 10 yea rs. ______________________
2. S h e ____________________________________________________________
3. T h e y ___________________________________________________________
4. The s u n ________________________________________________________
5. S h e ____________________________________________________________
6. H e _____________________________________________________________

17.4 Which is right?


1. M ark-hves-/ has lived in Canada since April. (has lived is right)
2. Jane and I are friends. I know / I’ve know n her very well.
3. Jane and I are friends. I know / I’ve know n her for a long time.
4. A: Sorry I’m late. H ow long are you waiting / have you been w aiting?
B: N o t long. O nly five minutes.
5. M artin works / has w orked in a hotel now. H e likes his jo b a lot.
6. Ruth is reading the newspaper. She is reading / She has been reading it for two hours.
7. “H ow long do you live / have you lived in this house?” “A bout 10 years.”
8. “Is that a new coat?” “No, I have / I’ve had this coat for a long tim e.”
9. Tom is / has been in Seattle right now. H e is / He has been there for the last three days.

— -dditional exercises 16-18 (pages 250-251) 35


_____________________________
for since ago

For and since


W e use for and since to say how long:
■ Jane is in Brazil. She has been there { ^o r t^iree
I since Monday.

We use for + a period of time We use since + the start of the period
(three days / two years, etc.): (Monday / 9:00, etc.):

start of
the period

for three days


M onday since M onday
M onday Tuesday W ednesday

past past now

for since
three days 10 m inutes M onday W ednesday
an hour two hours 9:00 12:30
a week four weeks July 4th my birthday
a m onth six m onths January I was 10 years old
five years a long tim e 1995 we arrived

Richard has been in Canada for six Richard has been in Canada since
m on th s. (not since six months) January. (= from January to now)
W e’ve been waiting for tw o W e’ve been waiting since 9:00.
hours. (not since two hours) (= from 9:00 to now)
I’ve lived in Chicago for a lo n g tim e. I’ve lived in Chicago since I was 10
years old.

A go
ago = before now:
■ Susan started her new jo b three w eeks ago. (= three weeks before now)
■ “W hen did Tom leave?” “Ten m in u tes ago.” (= ten m inutes before now)
■ I had dinner an h our ago.
■ Life was very different a hundred years ago.
We use ago w ith the past (sta rted /d id /h a d /w a s, etc.).
C om pare ago and for:
■ W hen did Jane arrive in Brazil?
She arrived in Brazil three days ago.
■ H o w lo n g has she been in Brazil?
She has been in Brazil for three days.

present perfect + for/since —►Unit 17 from/until/since/for —►Unit 105 for and during - * Unit 106
U N I
Exercises
18.1 Write for or since.
.
1 Jane has been in Brazil sin ce Mondav.
2. Jane has been in Brazil three days.
3. My aunt has lived in Australia 15 years.
4. Jennifer is in her office. She has been there 7:00.
5. Mexico has been an independent country 1821.
6 . The bus is late. W e’ve been waiting 20 minutes.
7. N obody lives in those houses. Thev have been em ptv manv vears.
8. Michael has been sick a long time. He has been in the hospital October.

18.2 Answer these questions. Use ago.


1. W hen was the last tim e you ate? Three hours ago.
2. W hen was the last tim e you were sick?
3. W hen was the last tim e you w ent to the movies?
4. W hen was the last tim e you were in a car?
5. W hen was the last tim e you w ent on vacation?

18.3 Complete the sentences. Use for or ago with these words.
1. Jane arrived in Brazil th r e e d a ys ago.__________________ (three days)
2. Jane has been in Brazil fo r th r e e days._________________ (three days)
3. Lynn and M ark have been m a rrie d ______________________ (20 years)
4. Lynn and M ark got m a rrie d _____________________________ (20 years)
5. Dan arriv ed ___________________________________________ (an hour)
6. I bought these sh o es____________________________________ (a few days)
7. Silvia has been studying E n g lish _________________________ (six months)
8. Have you know n L isa__________________________________ ? (a long time)

48.4 Complete the sentences with for or since.


1. (Jane is in Brazil - she arrived there three days ago)
J a n e has b een in 3 r a z i ! fo r th r e e d a y s ._____________
2. (Jack is here - he arrived on Tuesday)
Jack has ____________________________________________
3. (It’s raining - it started an hour ago)
It’s been ___________________________________________
4. (I know Sue - I m et her in 2002)
I’v e ________________________________________
5. (Claire and M atthew are m arried - they got m arried six m onths ago)
Claire and M atthew h a v e _______ ___________________________________________________
6. (Liz is studying m edicine at the university - she started three years ago)
Liz h a s _________________________________________________
7. (David plays the piano - he started w hen he was seven years old)
David has _ _ _____________________________ _________________________________________

* I 5 Write sentences about yourself. Begin your sentences with:


I’ve l i v e d I’ve b e e n I5ve b een stu d yin g — I5ve k n o w n — I5ve had —
1. I've liv e d in this to w n fo r th r e e years. _________________________________________

3.

- i o c * :~al exercises 16-18 (pages 250-251)


I have done and I did
(present perfect and simple past 1)

His car is dirty. H e is washing his car. H e has w ashed his car.
(= his car is clean now)

They are at home. They are going out. They have gon e out.
(= they are not at hom e now)

We use the present perfect for an action in the past w ith a result now:
■ I’ve lo st my passport. (= I can’t find my passport now)
■ “W here’s Rebecca?” “She’s g on e to bed.” (= she is in bed now)
■ W e’ve b ou gh t a new car. (= we have a new car now)
■ It’s Rachel’s birthday tom orrow, and I haven’t b o u g h t her a present.
(= I don’t have a present for her now)
■ “Bob is away on vacation.” “O h, w here has he gone?” (= w here is he now?)
■ H ave you m e t my brother, or should I introduce you?
■ I was a very slow typist in college, but I’ve gotten faster.
Usually you can also use the simple past (he w ashed / I lost, etc.) in these situations. So
you can say:
■ “W h ere’s your key?” “I’ve lo st it.” or “I lo st it.”
■ “Is Peter here?” “No, h e’s g on e hom e.” or “H e w en t hom e.”
■ W e’ve b o u g h t a new car. or We b o u g h t a new car.

We use only the simple past (not the present perfect) w ith a finished tim e (yesterday,
last w eek, etc.).
■ I lo st my key yesterday. (not I have lost)
■ We b ou gh t a new car last w eek. (not we have bought)

simple past—►Units 11-12 present perfect —►Units 16-18 present perfect and simple past—►Units 20-21
Exercises u N1 19
19.1 Look at the pictures. What has happened? Use the present perfect. Choose from:
go to bed w ash h er car stop ra in in g close th e d oor fa ll d ow n take a show er

She has w a sh e d h e r car.

He

They

It

He

The

19.2 Rewrite the sentences that have underlined verbs. Use the present perfect.
1. Lee M ing isn’t here. He w ent home. H e has g o n e home._________________
2. I don’t need to call them . I w rote them a le tte r.__________________________ _
3. Karen’s not coming to the party. She broke her a rm ._______________________
4. My brother and his wife don’t live here any more. They moved to Seattle.

5. I made a big m istak e. ___________________________________________


6. I lost my w a lle t._______ _________________________________________________
Did you see it anywhere? _ _ _ ___________________________________________
7. Did you hear? __________________________________________________________
M ark got married. _ _ _ _ _________________________________________________

Now rewrite these present perfect sentences in the simple past.


8. I’ve done the shopping. / d id the shopping._____________________________
9. Brian has taken my bike again w ithout asking.____________________________
10. Have you told your friends the good n ew s?_______________________________
11. We haven’t paid the electric b ill._________________________________________

39
just, already, and yet
(present perfect and simple past 2)
Just = a short time ago
We use ju st w ith the present perfect oi
■ A: Are Diane and Paul here?
B: Yes, they’ve ju st arrived.
Yes, they ju st arrived.
■ A: Are you hungry?
B: No, I’ve ju st had dinner.
I ju st had dinner.
■ A: Is Tom here?
B: No, sorry, he’s ju st left.
H e ju st left. y ^ y have just arrjvecj

A lready = before you expected / before I expected


Yes, I know. We've
We use already w ith the present perfect or the simple past. Jon, this is Emma. already met.
■ A: W hat time are Diane and Paul coming?
B: They’ve already arrived, or
They already arrived.
■ It’s only 9:00 and Anna has already gon e to bed.
or . . . Anna already w en t to bed.
(= before I expected)
■ A: Jon, this is Emma.
B: Yes, I know. W e’ve already m et. or
W e already m et.

Yet = until now


We use yet w ith the present perfect or the simple past. W e use yet in negative sentences and
questions. Yet is usually at the end.
yet in negative sentences
■ A: Are Diane and Paul here?
B: No, they haven’t arrived yet. or
. . . they d id n ’t arrive yet.
(but B expects Diane and Paul to arrive soon)
■ A: Does Jam es know that you’re going away?
B: N o, I haven’t told him yet. or
. . . I d id n ’t te ll him yet.
(but B is going to tell him soon) The film hasn't started yet.
■ Silvia has bought a new dress, but she hasn’t
Oh, it's nice. Have you
w orn it yet. or . . . she d id n ’t w ear it yet. worn it yet?
yet in questions This is my new dress.
■ A: H ave Diane and Paul arrived yet? or
D id Diane and Paul arrive yet?
B: No, not yet. W e’re still waiting for them .
■ A: Has Nicole started her new job yet? or
D id Nicole start her new job yet?
B: No, she’s starting next week.
■ A: This is my new dress.
B: Oh, it’s nice. H ave you w orn it yet? or
D id you w ear it yet?

present perfect —►Units 16-18 present perfect and simple past —►Units 19, 21 still, yet, and already —►Unit 96
Exercises U N I

20.1 Write a sentence with ju s t for each picture.

1. They 've ju s t arrived. 3. Theyj .


2. He 4. The race

Complete the sentences. Use already + present perfect.

1. W hat tim e is Paul arriving? H e 's a lrea d y a rrived .


2. Do your friends w ant to see the movie? No, they it.
3. D on’t forget to call Tom. I
4. W hen is M artin going to work? He
5. Do you w ant to read the newspaper? I
6. W hen does Sarah start her new job? She
\_

20.3 Rewrite these sentences. Use the present perfect.


1. Did Sarah start her new job yet? H as S a ra h s ta rte d h e r n e w jo b yet?
2. Did you tell your father about the accident y e t? ________________________
3. I ju st ate a big dinner, so I’m not hu n g ry .______________________________
4. Jenny can watch TV because she already did her h o m ew o rk .____________
5. You can’t go to bed - you didn’t brush your teeth y e t.__________________
6. You can’t talk to Pete because he ju st w ent h o m e .______________________
7. Nicole ju st got out o f the hospital, so she can’t go to w o rk .______________

Now rewrite these sentences in the simple past.


8. Have you given the post office our new address yet?
D id you g iv e the p o s t o ffic e o u r n e w ad dress yet? ________________
9. The mail carrier hasn’t come y e t._____________________________________
10. I’ve ju st spoken to your sister.________________________________________
11. Has M ario bought a new com puter y e t? _______________________________
12. Ted and Alice haven’t told anyone they’re getting m arried yet.

13. W e’ve already done our packing for our tr ip .__________________________


14. I’ve ju st swum a mile. I feel great!____________________________________

20.4 Write questions with the present perfect and yet.


1. Your friend has a new job. Perhaps she has started it. You ask her:
H a ve you s ta r t e d y o u r n e w jo b y e t?
2. Your friend has some new neighbors. Maybe he has m et them . You ask him:
vou ?
3. Your friend has to pay her phone bill. Perhaps she has paid it. You ask her:
7
4. Tom was trying to sell his car. Maybe he has sold it. You ask a friend about Tom.
7
U N I T
I've lost my key. I lost my key last week.
21 (present perfect and simple past 3)
Sometimes you can use the present perfect (I have lo st / he has gone, etc.) or the
simple past (I lo st / he w ent, etc.).

■ “Is Peter here?” “N o, h e’s gon e hom e.” or “No, he w en t hom e.”
B ut w ith a finished tim e (yesterday / last w eek, etc.), we use only the simple past (not the
present perfect).

simple past + finished time


yesterday. yesterday
last week. last w eek
We arrived at 3:00. six m onths ago
in 2002. finished time
six m onths ago.
past now

Do not use the present perfect (have arrived / have d on e / have been, etc.) w ith a
finished time:
■ I saw Paula yesterday, (not I have seen)
■ W here were you on Sunday afternoon? (not W here have you been)
■ We d id n ’t take a vacation last year. (not We haven’t taken)
■ “W hat did you do last night?” “I stayed at hom e.”
■ W illiam Shakespeare lived from 1564 to 1616. He was a writer. He w rote many
plays and poems.
Use the simple past to ask W hen . . . ? or W hat tim e . . . ?
■ W hen did you buy your com puter? (not W hen have you bought?)
■ W hat tim e did Andy go out? (not W hat tim e has Andy gone out?)

Com pare:

Present perfect or simple past


■ I have lo st my key. or I lo st my key. (= I can’t find it now)
■ Ben has gon e home, or Ben w en t hom e. (= he isn’t here now)
■ H ave you had lunch? or D id you have lunch?
■ The letter hasn’t arrived yet. or The letter d id n ’t arrive yet.

Present perfect only Sim ple past only

time until now finished time

past past now


H ave you ever been to Spain? m D id you go to Spain last year?
(= in your life, until now)
My friend is a writer. He has w ritten W illiam Shakespeare (1564-1616)
m any books. w rote many plays and poems.
The letter hasn’t arrived yet. The letter d id n ’t arrive yesterday.
W e’ve lived in Boston for six years. We lived in Chicago for six years,
(= we live there now) but now we live in Boston.

42 present perfect —►Units 16-18 present perfect and simple past —►Units 19-20
Exercises U N I
21.1 Complete the answers to the questions.

1. Have you had lunch? Yes, / h a d i t _______________________ an hour ago.


2. Have you started your new job? Yes, I ________________________________ last week.
3. Have your friends arrived? Yes, th e y _____________________________ on Friday.
4. Has Sarah gone out? Y es,_____________________________________at 5:00.
5. Have you w orn your new suit? Y es,__________________________________ yesterday.

21.2 Are these sentences OK? Correct the verbs that are wrong. (The verbs are underlined.)
1. I’ve lost my key. I can’t find it.________________ O K ____________________________________
2. Have you seen Kate yesterday? D id you se e ___________________________
3. I’ve finished my w ork at 2:00. _________________________________________
4. I’m ready now. I’ve finished my work. _________________________________________
5. W hat time have you finished your work? _________________________________________
6. Sue isn’t here. She’s gone out.______________ _________________________________________
7. Steve’s grandm other has died two years ago. _________________________________________
8. W here have you been last night?_____________________________________________________

21.3 Put the verb in the present perfect or past.


1. My friend is a writer. He has w r itte n (write) m any books.
2. W e didn f ta ke (not / take) a vacation last year.
3. I _______________________ (play) tennis yesterday afternoon.
4. W hat tim e _______________________ (you / go) to bed last night?
5. _______________________ (you / ever / m eet) a famous person?
6. The w e a th e r________________________(not / be) very good yesterday.
7. Kathy travels a lot. S h e ________________________(visit) many countries.
8. I _______________________ (turn) off the light before leaving this m orning.
9. I live in N ew York now, but I ________________________ (live) in Mexico for many years.
10. “W h at’s Peru like? Is it beautiful?” “I don’t know. I •_______________(not / be) there.’

21.4 Put the verb in the present perfect or past.


1. A: H ave y o u e v e r been (you / ever / be) to Florida?
B: Yes, we w e n t (go) there on vacation two years ago.
A: (you / have) a good time?
B: Yes, i t (be) great.

2. A: W hat does your friend do?


B: She’s a painter. S h e (win) many prizes for her paintings.
A: (you / see) any of her paintings?
B: Yes, I (see) some o f her work last week.

3. Rose works in a factory, but s h e (have) a lot o f different jobs.


Five years ago s h e ________________________ (be) a waitress in a restaurant. After that, she
_______________________ (work) on a ranch, but s h e ________________________
(not / enjoy) it very much.

4. A: Do you know M artin’s sister?


B: I ________________________ (see) her a few times, but I _______________________
(never / speak) to h e r.________________________ (you / ever / speak) to her?
A: Yes. I ________________________ (meet) her at a party last week. She’s very nice.

- -dditional exercises 19-23, 29-31 (pages 252-254, 257-259)


U N I T
is done was done (passive 1)
22
The office is clean ed every day.

The office was cleaned yesterday.

Com pare active and passive:


Somebody cleans the office every day. (active)

The office is cleaned every day. (passive)

Somebody cleaned the office yesterday, (active)

The office was cleaned yesterday. (passive)

The passive is:


past participle

cleaned d on e
simple present a m /is/a r e
(not) + invented b u ilt
simple past w a s/w ere
injured taken, etc.

T he past participle of regular verbs is -ed (cleaned/dam aged, etc.).


For a list o f irregular past participles (d o n e/b u ilt/ta k en , etc.), see Appendixes 2 -3 .
■ B utter is m ade from milk.
■ ■

Oranges are im p o rted into Canada.
H ow often are these rooms cleaned?
■ I am never in vited to parties.
■ This house was b u ilt 100 years ago.
■ These houses w ere b u ilt 100 years ago.
■ W hen was the telephone invented?
■ We w eren ’t in vited to the party last week.
■ “Was anybody injured in the accident?”
“Yes, two people w ere taken to the hospital.”

W as/w ere born


■ I was born in Colom bia in 1989. (not I am born)
M “W here w ere you born?” “In Cairo.”

Passive + by
■ The telephone was invented by A lexan d er G raham B ell in 1876.
(= Alexander Graham Bell invented it)
■ I was bitten by a d o g a few days ago.
■ Do you like these paintings? They were painted by a friend o f m in e.

is being done / has been done —►Unit 23 irregular verbs —►Unit 25, Appendixes 2-3 by —►Unit 112
active and passive —►Appendix 1
Exercises U N I
22.1 Write sentences from these words. Some of the sentences are questions.
Sentences 1-7 are present.
1. (the office / clean / every day) The o ffic e is cle a n e d e v e ry day.________
2. (these rooms / clean / every day?) A r e these room s cle a n e d e v e ry d ay?
3. (glass / make / from sand) G lass________________________________________
4. (stamps / sell / in a post o ffice)_________________________________________
5. (this w ord / not / use / very o fte n )_____________________________________
6. (we / allow / to park h e re ? )____________________________________________
7. (how / this word / pro n o u n ce?)________________________________________

Sentences 8-15 are past.


8. (the office / clean / yesterday) The o ffic e w as cle a n e d yesterday.______
9. (the house / paint / last m onth) The h o u s e ______________________________
10. (my phone / steal / a few days a g o )_____________________________________
11. (three people / injure / in the accid en t) A
___________________________
12. (when / this bridge / b u ild ?)___________________________________________
13. (I / not / wake up / by the n o ise )_______________________________________
14. (how / these windows / break ?)________________________________________
15. (you / invite / to Jo n ’s party last w e ek ?)_________________________________

22.2 These sentences are not correct. Correct them.


1. (Th is house built)100 years ago. This house w as built 100 y e a rs ago.
2. Soccer plays in m ost countries o f the w o rld ._________________________
3. W hy did the letter send to the wrong address?_______________________
4. A garage is a place w here cars repair.________________________________
5. W here are you born? .
6. How many languages are speaking in S w itzerland?_
7. Somebody broke into our house, but nothing sto len ..
8. W hen was invented the bicycle?__________________

22.3 Complete the sentences. Use the passive (present or past) of these verbs:
clean d am age fin d g ive in v ite m ak e m ak e sh ow steal take
1. The room is cle a n e d every day.
2. I saw an accident yesterday. Tw o people w e r e taken to the hospital.
3. P a p e r__________________________ from wood.
4. There was a fire at the hotel last week. Tw o of the ro o m s ________________________ .
5. “W here did you get this picture?” “I t _____________________ to me by a friend of m ine.”
6. Many British p ro g ram s________________________ on Am erican television.
7. “Did Jim and Sue go to the wedding?” “No. T h e y _________________, but they didn’t go.”
8. “H ow old is this movie?” “I t ________________________ in 1965.”
9. My c a r ____________________ last week, but the next day i t ___________________
by the police.

22.4 Where were they born?


1. (M akoto / Tokyo) /H akoto w a s h orn in___________ Tokyo._____________________
2. (Isabel / Sao Paulo) Isab el__________________________________________________
3. (her parents / Rio de Janeiro) H e r ___________________________________________________
4. (you / ???) I ______________________________________________________
5. (your m other / ???) _______________________________________________________
U N I T
is being done has been done (passive 2)
23
Is/are b ein g . . . (present continuous passive)

Somebody is p a in tin g the door . (active)

The door is b ein g painted. (passive)

■ My car is at the garage. It is b ein g repaired. (— somebody is repairing it)


■ Some new houses are b ein g b u ilt across from the park. (= somebody is
building them )
Com pare the present continuous and simple present:
■ The office is b ein g cleaned right now. (present continuous)
The office is cleaned every day. (simple present)
■ In the U nited States, football games are usually played on weekends, but no big
games are b ein g played next weekend.
For the present continuous and simple present, see Units 8 and 26.

H as/h ave been . . . (present perfect passive)

before now

Somebody has painted the door . (active)


T zr
TZ
The door has been painted. (passive)
{=
U
W ll
=3 PAINT

■ My key has b een stolen. (= somebody has stolen it)


■ My keys have been stolen. (= som ebody has stolen them )
■ I’m not going to the party. I h aven’t been invited. (= nobody has invited me)
■ Has this shirt been washed? (= has somebody washed it?)
Com pare the present perfect and simple past:
■ The room isn’t dirty any more. It has been cleaned, (present perfect)
The room was cleaned yesterday, (simple past)
■ I can’t find my keys. I think they’ve been stolen, (present perfect)
My keys w ere stolen last week, (simple past)
For the present perfect and simple past, see Units 19-21.

is done / was done —►Unit 22 active and passive —►Appendix 1


U N I
Exercises
23.1 What's happening?

1. The car /s being repaired.___________ 3. The windows


2. A b rid g e _____________________________ 4. The grass___

23.2 Look at the pictures. What is happening or what has happened? Use the present
continuous (is/are being . . . ) or the present perfect (has/have been . . .).

1. (the office / clean) The o ffice is being cleaned. __________________


2. (the shirts / iron) The s h irts have been ironed.__________________
3. (the window / break) The w in d o w ________________________________
4. (the ro o f / repair) The ro o f_______________________________________
5. (the car / dam age)_______________________________________________
6. (the houses / tear / d o w n )________________________________________
7. (the trees / cut / d o w n )__________________________________________
8. (they / invite / to a p a rty )________________________________________

23.3 Complete the sentences. (Study Unit 22 before you do this exercise.)
1. I can’t use mv office right now. It is heinci p a in te d (paint).
2. We didn’t go to the partv. W e w e r e n 't in v ite d (not / invite).
3. The washinv m achine was broken, hut it’s O K now. It (repair).
4. The washing machine (repair) yesterday afternoon.
5. A factory is a place where things (make).
6. H ow old are these houses? W hen (they / build)?
7. A: (the com puter / use) at the m om ent?
B: Yes, Steve is using it.
8. I’ve never seen these flowers before. W hat (thev / call)?
9. My sunglasses (steal) at the beach yesterday.
10. The bridge is closed. It (damage) last week, and it
(not / repair) yet.

- -dditional exercises 24-27 (pages 255-256)


U N I T
be/have/do in present and past tenses

B e (= a m /is/a r e /w a s/w e r e ) + -in g (clea n in g /w o rk in g , etc.)


a m /is /a r e + -in g ■ Please be quiet. P m w o rk in g .
(present continuous) It isn ’t rain in g right now.
—►Units 3 -4 and 26 W hat are you d o in g tonight?

w a s/w ere + -in g I was w o rk in g w hen she arrived.


(past continuous) It w asn ’t raining, so we didn’t need an umbrella.
-► U nit 13 W hat w ere you d o in g at 3:00?

B e + past participle (c lea n ed /m a d e/ea ten , etc.)


a m /is /a r e + past participle I’m never in vited to parties.
(simple present passive) B utter is m ad e from milk.
-+ U nit 22 These offices aren’t cleaned every day.

w a s/w ere + past participle The office was cleaned yesterday.


(simple past passive) These houses w ere b u ilt 100 years ago.
-+ U nit 22 H ow was the w indow broken?
W here w ere you born?

H ave/h as 4- past participle (c le a n e d /lo st/e a te n /b e e n , etc.)


have/has + past participle ■ I’ve lived in this house for 10 years.
(present perfect) ■ Tom has never rid den a horse.
Units 16-17, 19-21 ■ Kate hasn’t been to South America.
■ W here have Paul and Nicole gone?

D o /d o e s /d id + baseform (c le a n /lik e /e a t/g o , etc.)


d o /d o e s + baseform ■ I like coffee, but I d o n ’t lik e tea.
(simple present negative and Chris d o esn ’t go out very often.
questions) W hat do you usually do on weekends?
—►U nits 6 -7 D oes Silvia live alone?

did + baseform I d id n ’t w atch TV yesterday.


(simple past negative and It d id n ’t rain last week.
questions) W hat tim e d id Paul and Nicole go out?
-► U nit 12

48 irregular verbs —►Unit 25, Appendixes 2-3


Exercises U N I T
24.1 Write is/are or do/does.
1. V o . you w ork at night? 6.________ the sun shining?
2. W here ctne they going? 7. W hat tim e the stores close?
3. W h y ______ you looking at me? 8._______ M aria working today?
4. Bill live near you? 9._W h a t______ this word mean?
5. you like to cook? 10._______ you feeling all right?

24.2 Write am not/isn't/aren't or don't/doesn't. All these sentences are negative.


1. Tom doesn t w ork at night.
2. I’m very tired. I _______________ w ant to go out tonight.
3. I’m very tired. I _______________ going out tonight.
4. G a ry ______________ working this week. H e’s on vacation.
5. My parents are usually at hom e. T h e y _______________ go out very often.
6. Nicole has traveled a lot, but s h e ___________ * speak any foreign languages.
7. You can tu rn off the television. I _______________watching it.
8. Liz has invited us to her party next week, but w e _______________ going-

24.3 Write was/were/did/have/has.


1. W here w e r e your shoes made?_____________6. W h a t ti m e _________ she go?
2. _____________ you go out last night? 7. W h e n _____________ these houses built?
3. W h a t ____________ you doing at 10:30? 8. Steve arrived yet?
4. W h e r e ____________ your m other born? 9. W h y _____________ you go hom e early?
5.______________ B arbara gone home? 10.______ H ow lo n g ________they been m arried?

24.4 Write is/are/was/were/have/has.


1. Joe h as lost his passport.
2. This b rid g e ________ built 10 years ago.
3. you finished your w ork yet?
4. This tow n is always clean. The stree ts________ cleaned every day.
5. W h e re _________ you born?
6. I _________ju st made some coffee. W ould you like some?
7. G lass made from sand.
8. This is a very old photograph. I t _________taken a long tim e ago.
9. D a v id _________ bought a new car.

24.5 Complete the sentences. Choose fromthe box and put the verb into the correct form.

d am age rain enjoy “go- p ron ou n ce eat


listen use op en go u nderstand

1. I’m going to take an um brella w ith me. It’s raining .


2. W hy are you so tired? Did you g o to bed late last night?
3. W here are the chocolates? Have y o u _________________ all o f them?
4. H ow is your new job? Are y o u __________________ it?
5. My car was b a d ly in the accident, but I was OK.
6. Chris has a car, but she doesn’t it very often.
7. M ary isn’t at hom e. She h a s away for a few days.
8. I don’t __________________ the problem . Can you explain it again?
9. M artin is in his room . H e’s _________________ to music.
10. I don’t know how to say this word. H ow is i t __________________ ?
11. H ow do y o u this window? Can you show me?
U N I T
Regular and irregular verbs

Regular verbs
The simple past and past participle of regular verbs is -ed:
clean —►cleaned live —►lived paint —►painted study —►studied
Simple past (—►U nit 11)
■ I cleaned my room yesterday.
■ Charlie studied engineering in college.
Past participle
h ave/has + past participle (present perfect —►Units 16-17, 19-21):
■ I have cleaned my room.
■ Tina has lived in M iami for 10 years.
be (is/a re/w e re/h a s been, etc.) + past participle (passive —►Units 22-23):
■ These rooms are cleaned every day.
■ My car has been repaired.

Irregular verbs
The simple past and past participle o f irregular verbs do not end in -ed:
make break ( ut
simple past m ad e broke cut
past participle m ad e broken cut

Sometimes the simple past and past participle are the same. For example:
make find buy cut
simple past
m ade fou n d bought cut
past participle
■ I m ad e a cake yesterday, (simple past)
■ I have m ade some coffee, (past participle - present perfect)
■ B utter is m ad e from milk, (past participle - present passive)

Sometimes the simple past and past participle are different. For example:
break know begin g°
simple past broke k new began w ent
past participle broken k now n b egu n gon e

■ Somebody broke this w indow last night, (simple past)


■ Somebody has b roken this window, (past participle - present perfect)
■ This w indow was broken last night, (past participle - past passive)

irregular verbs —►Appendixes 2-3 spelling (regular verbs) —►Appendix 5


Exercises U N I
25.1 Write the
participle
1. make m ade______ 6. enjoy 11. hear
2. cut cut 7. buy 12. put
3. say _____________ 8. sit 13. catch
4. bring _____________ 9. leave _________ 14. watch
5. pay _____________ 10. happen _________ 15. understand

25.2 Write
Write the
the simple past and past participle of these verbs.
1. break b ro ke______ broken 8. come
2. begin 9. know
3. eat 10. take
4. drink 11. g°
5. drive 12. give
6. speak 13. throw
7. w rite 14. get

25.3 Put the verb in the right form.


1. I w a sh e d my hands because they were dirty, (wash)
2. Somebody has broken this window, (break)
3. I feel good. I _______________very well last night, (sleep)
4. W e _______________ a really good movie yesterday, (see)
5. It a lot while we were on vacation, (rain)
6. I’v e _______________ my bag. (lose) Have y o u _______________ it? (see)
7. Rosa’s bicycle w a s _______________ last week, (steal)
8. I _______________ to bed early because I was tired, (go)
9. Have y o u _______________ your w ork yet? (finish)
10. The shopping mall w a s _______________about 20 years ago. (build)
11. A n n a _______________ to drive w hen she was 16. (learn)
12. I’ve n e v e r_______ a horse, (ride)
13. Julia is a good friend o f mine. I’v e her for a long time, (know)
14. Yesterday I _________ a n d ________________ my leg. (fall / hurt)
15. My b ro th e r_______________in the Boston M arathon last year. Have you ever
_______________ in a m arathon? (run / run)

25.4 Complete the sentences. Choose from the box and put the verb into the correct form.

cost d rive f ly m ak e m e et sell


speak sw im te ll th in k w ak e up w in

1. I have made some coffee. W ould you like some?


2. Have y o u _______________J° h n about your new job?
3. We played basketball on Sunday. We didn’t play very well, but w e _____________ the game.
4. I know Gary, but I’ve n e v e r his wife.
5. We w e re by loud music in the m iddle o f the night.
6. Stephanie ju m p ed into the river a n d to the other side.
7. “Did you like the movie?” “Yes, I ______________ it was very good.”
8. Many different languages a r e _______________ in the Philippines.
9. O ur v acatio n _______________a lot o f m oney because we stayed in an expensive hotel.
10. Have you e v e r a very fast car?
11. All the tickets for the concert w e re _______________very quickly.
12. A b ir d _______________ in through the open window while we were having our dinner.
U N I T
What are you doing tomorrow?
26
today is Sunday

We use a m /is /a r e + -in g (present continuous) for som ething happening now:
■ “W here are Sue and Amanda?” “T hey’re p layin g tennis in the park.”
■ Please be quiet. I’m w orkin g.
W e also use a m /is /a r e + -in g for the future (tom orrow / next week, etc.):
■ Andrew is p layin g tennis tomorrow.
■ I’m not w o rk in g next week.

I am d o in g so m eth in g to m o rro w = I have arranged to do it, I'm going to a


I have a plan to do it: concert tomorrow.

■ Sophie is g o in g to the dentist on Friday.


(= she has an appointm ent w ith the dentist)
■ W e’re h aving a party next weekend.
■ Are you m e etin g your friends tonight?
■ W hat are you d o in g tom orrow night?
■ I’m not g o in g out tonight. I’m staying at home.
You can also say, “I’m g o in g to do som ething.” (-► U nit 27).

Be careful! Do not use the simple present (I stay / do you go, etc.) to say w hat somebody has
arranged to do:
■ I’m staying at hom e this evening. (not I stay)
■ Are you g o in g out tonight? (not Do you go)
■ Lisa isn ’t c o m in g to the party next week. (not Lisa doesn’t come)
B ut we use the simple present for schedules (buses, movies, classes, etc.):
■ The plane arrives in N ew York at 7:30 tom orrow m orning.
■ W hat tim e does the movie end tonight?
Compare:
Present continuous (usually for people) Simple present (for schedules)
I’m g o in g to a concert tomorrow. The concert starts at 7:30.
W hat time are you leaving? W hat tim e does your plane leave?

52 present continuous —►Units 3-4 simple present —►Units 5-7 I'm going to . —►Unit 27
Exercises U N I
26.1 Look at the pictures. What are these people doing next Friday?

Richard Karen Tom and Sue

1. A n d r e w is p layin g tennis on Friday.


2 .
R ich ard ____________________ to the movies.
3. R ach e l___________________________________
4. lunch w ith Ken.
5.

26.2 Write questions. All the sentences are future.


1. (you / go / out / tonight?) A r e you going out tonight?
2. (you / w ork / next week?) _____________________________
3. (what / you / do / tom orrow night?) _____________________________
4. (what tim e / your friends / come?) _____________________________
5. (when / Liz / go / on vacation?) _____________________________

26.3 Write sentences about yourself. What are you doing in the next few days?
1. I'm staying a t hom e tonight.__________________________________________
2. ! m going to the th e a te r on M onday. _________________________________
3.
4.
5.
6.

26.4 Put the verb in the present continuous (he is leaving, etc.) or simple present (the
train leaves, etc.).
1. A r e you going (you / go) out tonight?” “No, I’m too tired.”
2. W e're going (we / go) to a concert tonight. It s ta r ts (it / start) at 7:30.
3. Listen to this! (Karen / get) m arried next m onth!
4. A: My p a re n ts__________ _ (go) on vacation next week.
B: O h, that’s nice. W here . ____________(they / go) ?
5. Silvia is taking an English course this semester. The course .
(end) on Friday.
6. T here’s a party tom orrow night, b u t ____________________ (I / not / go).
7. (I / go) out w ith some friends tonight. W hy don’t you
come, too? . (we / m eet) at Jo h n ’s house at 8:00.
A: H o w __ (you / get) hom e after the party tom orrow? By taxi?
B: No, I can go by bus. The last b u s _______
_____________________________(leave) at m idnight.
A: Do you w ant to go to the movies tonight?
B: Yes, w hat tim e ________________________ (the movie / begin)?
10. A: W h a t__________________________ (you / do) tom orrow afternoon?
B: _______________________________(I / work).
U N I T
I'm going to . . .

P m g o in g to do som ething

I'm going to watch TV tonight.

morning

She is g o in g to w atch TV tonight.

We use a m /is/a r e g o in g to . . . for the future


I am do . . .
h e /s h e /it is (not) g o in g to drink . . .
w e /y o u /th ey are watch . . .

am I buy . . . ?
is h e /s h e /it g o in g to e a t. . . ?
are w e /y o u /th ey wear . . . ?

I am g o in g to do so m eth in g = I have decided to do it, my intention is to do it:

I decided to do i t ► P m g o in g to do it
|____________________________________________________________________
past now future
■ P m g o in g to buy some books tomorrow.
■ Sarah is g o in g to sell her car.
■ Pm n ot g o in g to have breakfast this m orning. I’m not hungry.
■ W hat are you g o in g to wear to the wedding next week?
■ “Your hands are dirty.” “Yes, I know. P m g o in g to wash them .”
■ Are you g o in g to in vite M artin to your party?
We also use the present continuous (I am doing) for the future, usually for
arrangem ents (—►U nit 26):
■ I am p layin g tennis w ith Julia tomorrow.

Something is g o in g to happen
Something is g o in g to happen = we can see
now that it is sure to happen:
■ Look at the sky! It’s g o in g to rain,
(black clouds now —►rain)
■ O h, no! It’s 9:00 and I’m not ready.
P m g o in g to be late.
(9:00 now and not ready —►late)

present for the future —►Unit 26 will —►Units 28-29


Exercises
27.1 What are these people saying?

/ m g oing h
w a tch TV.

27.2 Complete the sentences. Use going to + these verbs:


do eat g ive lie d ow n stay w alk w ash w atch w ear
1. My hands are dirty. I'm g oing to w a sh them .
2. W hat a r e y o u going to w e a r to the party tonight?
3. It’s a nice day. I don’t w ant to take the bus. I ___________________________________ .
4. Steve is going to San Diego next week. H e __________________________ w ith some friends.
5. I’m hungry. I ___________________________________ this sandwich.
6. It’s Sharon’s birthday next week. W e ______________________________ her a present.
7. Sue says she’s feeling____ very tired. S h e ______________________________ for an hour.
8. The president’s speech is on television to n ig h t._______ y o u __________________________ it?
9. W h a t____________________R ach e l___________________________w hen she finishes school?

27.3 Look at the pictures. What is going to happen?

<>< 3 0S 3

1. It 's going to rain._______________________________________________


2. The s h e lf_________________________________________________________
3. The c a r __________________________________________________________
4. H e _______________________________________________________________

.4 What are you going to do today or tomorrow? Write three sentences.


1. I’m ______________________________________________________________
2. ________________________________________________________________
3.

55
will 1

Sarah goes to w ork every day. She is always


there from 8:30 until 4:30.
It is 11:00 now. Sarah is at work.
At 11:00 yesterday, she was at work.
At 11:00 tom orrow, she w ill be at work.

Sarah

w ill + baseform (w ill be / w ill w in / w ill com e, etc.):


be be?
I / w e /y o u /th ey w ill (’11) w in I / w e/y o u /th ey win?
w ill
h e /s h e /it w ill n ot (w on ’t) eat h e /s h e /it eat?
com e, etc. com e?, etc

’11 = w ill: I’ll (I will) / you’ll / she’ll, etc.


w o n ’t = w ill not: I w o n ’t (= I will not) / you w o n ’t / she w o n ’t, etc.

We use w ill for th e future (tom orrow / next week, etc.):


■ Sue travels a lot. Today she is in Los Angeles. Tom orrow she’ll be in Mexico City.
N ext week she’ll be in N ew York.
■ You can call me tonight. I’ll be at home.
■ Leave the old bread in the yard. The birds w ill eat it.
■ W e’ll probably go out tonight.
■ W ill you be at hom e tonight?
■ I w o n ’t be here tomorrow. (= I will not be here)
■ D o n’t drink coffee before you go to bed. You w o n ’t sleep.
We often say I th in k . . . w i l l . . . :
■ I th in k Kelly w ill pass her driver’s test.
■ I d o n ’t th in k it w ill rain this afternoon.
■ D o you th in k the test w ill be difficult?

We do not use w ill for things we have already arranged or decided to do (—►Units 26-27):
■ W e’re g o in g to the movies on Saturday. Do you w ant to come w ith us?
(not We will go)
WH I’m not w o rk in g tomorrow, (not I w on’t work)
■ Are you g o in g to take your driver’s test tom orrow? (not W ill you take)

What are you doing tomorrow? —►Unit 26 I'm going to . - * Unit 27 will 2 ^ Unit 29
Exercises U N I
28.1 Helen is traveling in South America. Complete the
CARACAS
sentences with she was, she's, or she'll be. Next week
1. Yesterday sh e w a s in Rio de Janeiro. \ BOGOTA
2. T o m o rro w ______________ in Bogota.
[ Tomorrow
3. Last w e e k in Santiago. LIMA
Right now
4. N ext w e e k ______________ in Caracas.
5. Right n o w in Lima.
RIO DE JANEIRO
6. Three days a g o ______________ in Buenos Aires. SANTIAGO Yesterday

7. At the end of her t r i p _______________very tired.


\ A Last week
14 y
BUENOS AIRES
I Three days ago
Helen lr
28.2 Where will you be? Write sentences about yourself. Use:
I'll be . . . or I'll probably be . . . or I don't know where I'll be.
1. (at 10:00 tom orrow) / / / b e a t work. or III p ro b a b ly h e a t th e beach.
2. (one hour from n o w )__________________________________________________________
3. (at m idnight to n ig h t)__________________________________________________________
4. (at 3:00 tom orrow afte rn o o n )__________________________________________________
5. (two years from n o w )_________________________________________________________

28.3 Put in will ('II) or won't.


1. D on’t drink coffee before you goto bed. You w o n 't sleep.
2. “Are you ready yet?” “N o t yet._I _______________be ready in five m inutes.”
3. I’m going away for a few days. I’m leaving tonight, so I _______________be at
hom e tomorrow.
4. I t ______________ rain, so you don’t need to take an umbrella.
5. A: I don’t feel very well tonight.
B: Well, go to bed early and y o u _______________feelbetter in the m orning.
6. It’s Bill’s birthday next Monday. H e _______________ be 25.
7. I’m sorry I was late this m orning. I t _______________ happen again.

28.4 Write sentences with I think . . . or / don't think . . . .


1. (Kelly will pass the driver’s test) / think K elly w ill p a ss th e d river's test.
2. (Kelly w on’t pass the driver’s test) / do n 't think K elly w ill p a ss th e d river's test.
3. (we’ll w in the game) I _____________________________________________
4. (I w on’t be here tom orrow) ______________________________________________
5. (Sue will like her present) ______________________________________________
6. (they w on’t get married) ______________________________________________
7. (you w on’t like the movie)_______ ______________________________________________

23.5 Which is right? (Study Unit 26 before you do this exercise.)


1. W e’ll go- / W e’re going to the theater tonight. W e’ve got tickets. (We’regoing is right)
2. “W hat will you do / are you doing tom orrow night?” “N othing. I’m free.”
3. They’ll leave / T hey’re leaving tom orrow m orning. T heir train is at 8:40.
4. I’m sure your aunt will lend / is lending us some money. She’s very rich.
5. “W hy are you putting on your coat?” “I’ll go / I’m going out.”
6. Do you think Claire will call / is calling us tonight?
7. Steve can’t m eet us on Saturday. H e’ll w ork / H e’s w orking.
8. Let’s fly to M iami instead of driving. It w on’t take / isn’t taking as long.
9. A: W hat are your plans for the weekend?
B: Some friends will come / are coming to stay w ith us.
will 2

You can use I’l l . . . (I w ill) w hen you offer som ething or decide to do something:
■ “My suitcase is very heavy.” “I’ll carry it for you.”
■ “I’ll call you tomorrow, O K ?” “OK, bye.”
We often say I th in k I’l l . . . / I d o n ’t th in k I’l l . . . w hen we decide to do something:
■ I’m tired. I th in k I’ll go to bed early tonight.
■ It’s a nice day. I th ink I’ll sit outside.
■ It’s raining. I d o n ’t th ink I’ll go out.
Do not use the simple present (I go / 1 call, etc.) in sentences like these:
■ I’ll call you tomorrow, OK? (not I call you)
■ I think I’ll go to bed early. (not I go to bed)

Do not use I’l l . . . for som ething you decided before (—►Units 26-27):
■ I’m w o rk in g tomorrow. (not I’ll work)
■ T here’s a good program on TV tonight. I’m g o in g to w atch it. (not I’ll watch)
■ W hat are you d o in g this weekend? (not W hat will you do)

Shall I . . . ? Shall w e . . . ?

Shall I answ er the phone? No, that's OK. I'll answ er it.

Shall I / Shall w e . . . ? = Do you think this is a good thing to do? Do you think this is a
good idea?
■ It’s very warm in this room. Shall I op en the window?
■ “Shall I call you tonight?” “O K .”
■ It’s a nice day. Shall w e go for a walk?
■ W hat shall w e have for dinner?
We use sh ould in the same way.
■ “Shou ld I call you tonight?” “O K .”
■ It’s a nice day. S hou ld w e go for a walk?
■ W hat sh ould w e have for dinner?

What are you doing tomorrow? —►Unit 26 I'm going to . . . —►Unit 27 will 1 —►Unit 28 should —►Unit 33
Exercises U N I T
Complete the sentences. Use I'll (1 will) + these verbs:
c-arry do eat send sh ow sit stay
XT
1. My suitcase is very heavy. I'll c a r r y it for you.
2. Tpjoy your vacation. Thank you. you a postcard.
3. I don’t w ant this banana. Well, I’m hungry. it.
4. Do you w ant a chair? No, it’s OK. on the floor,
5. Did you call Jenny? O h no, I forgot. it now.
6. Are you coming w ith me? No, I don’t think so. here,
7. H ow do you use this camera? Give it to me and you. ^

Complete the sentences. Use 1 think I ' l l . . . or / don't think I ' l l . . . + these verbs:
buy buy -go- have play
1. It’s cold todav. / don t think I'll ao out.
2. I’m hungry.
O J
I som ething to eat.
3. I feel very tired. tennis.
4. I like this hat. it.
5. This camera is too expensive. it.

29.3 Which is right?


1. T-ea-ll-/ I’ll call you tomorrow, OK? (I’ll call is right)
2. I haven’t done the shopping yet. I do / I’ll do it later.
3. I like sports. I watch / I’ll watch a lot o f sports on TV.
4. I need some exercise. I think I go / I’ll go for a walk.
5. Gerry is going to buy / will buy a new car. He told me last week.
6. “This letter is for Rose.” “OK. I give / I’ll give / I’m going to give it to her.”
7. A: Are you doing / W ill you do anything this evening?
B: Yes, I’m going / I’ll go out w ith some friends.
8. I can’t go out w ith you tom orrow night. I w ork / I’m working / I’ll w ork.
9. I like this hat. I think I buy / I’ll buy it.

1r 4 What does Anne say to Kathy? Find the right answers.

Kathy Anne
1. It’s very warm in this room, a) If you want. W here should we go?
2. This TV program isn’t very good. b) Yes, who shall we invite?
3. Should we have a party? c) N o, shall I go and get some?
4. It’s dark in this room. d) Shall I open the window?
5. Should I go to the store? e) Should I turn on the light?
6. Shall we go out? f) OK, how many shall we buy?
7. Shall I wait here? g) Should I turn it off?
8. Do we have any bread? h) No, come w ith me.
9. Should we get some lottery tickets? i) No, it’s OK. I’ll go.

— - : : ■-nal exercises 28-31 (pages 256-259) 59


U N I T
might
10
Where are you going
for your vacation?

I'm not sure.


I might go
:, to Costa Rica.

H e m ig h t go to Costa Rica. It m ig h t rain.


(= it is possible that he will go to Costa Rica) (= it is possible that it will rain)

m ig h t + baseform (m igh t go / m ig h t be / m ig h t rain, etc.):


be
I/w e /y o u /th e y g°
m ig h t (not)
h e /s h e /it play
com e, etc.

I m ig h t = it is possible that I will:


■ I m ig h t go to the movies tonight, but I’m not sure. (= it is possible that I will go)
■ A: W hen is Rebecca going to call you?
B: I don’t know. She m ig h t call this afternoon.
I Take an um brella w ith you. It m ig h t rain.
■ Buy a lottery ticket. You m ig h t be lucky. (—perhaps you will be lucky)
H “Are you going out tonight?” “I m ig h t.” (= I m ight go out)
Study the difference:
■ P m p layin g tennis tom orrow, (sure)
I m ig h t play tennis tom orrow, (possible)
M Rebecca is g o in g to call later, (sure)
Rebecca m ig h t call later, (possible)

I m ig h t n o t = it is possible that I will not:


■ I m ig h t n o t go to w ork tom orrow. (= it is possible that I will not go)
■ Sue m ig h t n o t co m e to the party. (= it is possible that she will not come)

May
You can use m ay in the same way. I m ay = I m ight:
■ I m ay go to the movies tonight. (= I m ight go)
■ Sue m ay n o t co m e to the party. (= Sue m ight not come)
May I . . . ? = Is it O K to .. . ? / Can I . . . ?:
■ May I ask a question? (= is it O K to ask / can I ask?)
■ “May I sit here?” “Sure.”

will —►Units 28-29 can —►Unit 31


Exercises U N I T
30.1 Write sentences with m ight.
1. (it’s possible that I’ll go to the movies) / m ig h t go to th e m ovies._____________________
2. (it’s possible that I’ll see you tom orrow) I ____________________________________________
3. (it’s possible that Sarah will forget to c a ll)____________________________________________
4. (it’s possible that it will snow to d ay )_________________________________________________
5. (it’s possible that I’ll be late to n ig h t)_________________________________________________

Write sentences with might n o t.


6. (it’s possible that M ark will not be here next w e e k )___________________________________
7. (it’s possible that I w on’t have time to go o u t) ________________________________________

30.2 Somebody is asking you about your plans. You have some ideas, but you are not sure.
Choose from the list and write sentences with I m ight.
fish Italy M onday a n ew car take a trip take a taxi

1. W here are you going for your vacation? I’m not sure. / m ig h t go to Italy.
2. W hat are you doing this weekend? I don’t know. I __________________
3. W hen will you see Kate again? I’m not su re .____________________
4. W hat are you going to have for dinner? I don’t k n o w .___________________
5. H ow are you going to get hom e tonight? I’m not su re .____________________
6. I hear you w on some money. W hat are I haven’t decided y e t.____________
you going to do w ith it?

30.3 You ask Bill questions about his plans for tomorrow. Sometimes he is sure, but usually
he is not sure.

1. Are you playing tennis tom orrow? Yes, in the afternoon.


2. Are you going out tom orrow evening? Possibly.
3. Are you going to get up early? Maybe.
4. Are you working tom orrow? No, I’m not.
5. W ill you be at hom e tom orrow m orning? Maybe.
6. Are you going to watch television? I might.
7. Are you going out in the afternoon? Yes, I am.
8. Are you going shopping? Perhaps. I’m not sure.
Bill
Now write about Bill. Use might where necessary.
1. He's playing tennis to m o rro w afternoon.______________________________________
2. H e m ight go out to m o rro w evening.___________________________________________
3. H e ____________________________________________________________________________
4. ________________________________________________________________________________
5. ________________________________________________________________________________

7. _____________________________________________
8. __________________________________________________

33.4 Write three things that you might do tomorrow.


1.
2. ______________________________________
3.

61
U N I T
can and could
31
I can play Could you open
the piano. the door, please?

He can play the piano, ■■■■H i

can + baseform (can do / can play / can com e, etc.):


do do?
I/w e /y o u /th e y can play I/w e /y o u /th e y play?
can
h e /s h e /it can’t (cannot) see h e /s h e /it see?
com e, etc. com e?, etc.

I can do som ething = I know how to do it, or it is possible for me to do it:


■ I can play the piano. My brother can play the piano, too.
■ Sarah can speak Italian, but she can’t speak Spanish.
■ “Can you sw im ?” “Yes, but I’m not a very good swimmer.”
■ “Can you change a tw enty-dollar bill?” “I’m sorry, I can’t.”
■ I’m having a party next week, but Paul and Rachel can’t com e.

For the past (yesterday / last w eek, etc.), we use c o u ld /c o u ld n ’t:


■ W h en I was young, I cou ld run very fast.
■ Before M aria came to the U nited States, she co u ld n ’t understand m uch English.
N ow she can understand everything.
■ I was tired last night, but I co u ld n ’t sleep.
■ I had a party last week, but Paul and Rachel c o u ld n ’t com e.

Can you . . . ? C ou ld you . . . ? Can I . . . ? C ou ld I . . . ?


We use Can you . . . ? or C ou ld you . . . ? w hen we ask people to do things:
■ Can you open the door, please? or C ou ld you open the door, please?
■ Can you wait a m inute, please? or C ou ld you w a it. . . ?
We use Can I have . . . ? or C ou ld I have . . . ? to ask for something:
■ (in a store) Can I have change for a dollar, please? or C ou ld I have . . . ?
Can I . . . ? or C ou ld I . . . ? = is it O K to do something?:
■ Tom, can I borrow your umbrella? or Tom, cou ld I borrow your umbrella?
■ (on the phone) Hello, can I speak to Gary, please? or . . . cou ld I speak . . . ?

62 May I . . . ? - > U n it 30
Exercises U N I
31.1 Ask Steve if he can do these things:

jf You

i.
_Y \
C an you sw im ?
Steve
>

&
2.
3.
4.
5.
10 kilometers 6.

Can you do these things? Write sentences about yourself. Use / can or / can't.
7. I _________________________________ 10. ________________________________
11.
9. 12.
31.2 Complete these sentences. Use can or can't + one of these verbs:
-eo m e fin d hear see speak
1. I’m sorry, but we ca n 't com e to your party next Saturday.
2. I like this hotel room. Y o u ____________________ the m ountains from the window.
3. You are speaking very quietly. I ____________________ you.
4. Have you seen my suitcase? I ____ . it.
5. C atherine got the jo b because she five languages.

31.3 Complete these sentences. Use can't or couldn't + one of these verbs:
d ecid e eat fin d go go sleep
1. I was tired, but I cou/dn t sleep .
2. I wasn’t hungry yesterday. I ____________________ my dinner.
3. Kate doesn’t know w hat to do. S h e ____________________ .
4. I w anted to speak to M artin yesterday, but I ____________________him.
5. J a m e s ____________________ to the concert next Saturday. He has to work.
6. P au la to the m eeting last week. She was sick.

31 4 What do you say in these situations? Use can or could.


must

She m u st be sick = I am sure she is sick; it is clear


that she is sick.
m u st + base form (m ust be / m u st know , etc.):

be
I/w e /y o u /th e y k n ow
m u st (not)
h e /s h e /it have
live, etc.

We use m u st w hen we believe that som ething is true.


■ You w orked 10 hours today. You m u st be tired.
■ My brother has w orked at your company for years. You m u st k n ow him.
■ My friends have the same zip code as you. They m u st live near you.
■ (on the telephone) This isn’t the Smiths’? I’m sorry. I m u st have the w rong number.
We use m u st n o t w hen we believe that som ething is not true.
■ The phone rang eight times and Karen didn’t answer. She m u st n ot be at home.
■ Carlos takes the bus everywhere. H e m u st n o t have a car.
■ The Silvas are always hom e on Fridays. They m u st n ot w ork then.

B M ust has another meaning. You m u st do som ething = it is necessary


to do it.
■ You m u st be careful w ith this knife.
It’s very sharp.
■ W orkers m u st wear safety glasses
at this machine.
■ In the U nited States, you m u st be
18 to vote.
For the past (yesterday, last w eek, etc.), we
use had to . . . (not must).
’■ They were in a dangerous situation.
They had to be careful.
(not They m ust be careful.)
■ We had to wear safety glasses w hen
we visited the factory last week.
(not We m ust wear)
You m u st n ot do som ething = it is necessary
not to do it; it is the wrong thing to do.
■ Bicyclists m u st n ot ride on the sidewalk.
(= they m ust ride in the street)
■ You m u st n o t be late for school again!

64 I have to . . . —►Unit 34
Exercises U N ! T
32.1 Complete the sentences. Use must be + these verbs:
for you good h u n g ry in th e k itch en tired very happy
1. Silvia w orked 10 hours today. She m u st h e tir e d .
2. It’s evening, and you haven’t eaten anything all day. Y o u ____________________ .
3. It’s the m ost popular restaurant in town, so the fo o d ____________________ .
4. “I got the jo b .” “You did? Y o u ____________________.”
5. The p h o n e’s ringing. I know it’s not for me. I t ____________________.
6. My keys aren’t in the living room , so th e y ____________________ .

32.2 Complete the sentences. Use must + these verbs:


d rin k have know lik e w ork
1. My brother has w orked at your company for years. You m u s t k n o w him.
2. M arilyn wears som ething blue every day. S h e ____________________ the color blue.
3. The Hills have six children and three dogs. T h e y ____________________a big house.
4. Mrs. Lee bought three gallons of milk at the store. H er c h ild re n ____________________
a lot o f milk.
5. I know Mrs. Rom o has a job, but she’s always hom e during the day. She
____________________ at night.

32.3 Write must or must not.


1. (on the telephone) This isn’t the Smiths’? I m u s t have the w rong number.
2. Carlos takes the bus everywhere. He m u s t n o t have a car.
3. B randon is very thin. H e eat very much.
4. I never see my neighbor in the m orning. H e _______________ leave for work very early.
5. I always have to repeat things w hen I talk to Kelly. S h e _______________ hear very well.
6. Jim wears the same clothes every day. H e _______________ have m any clothes.
7. You have a cold and a fever? Poor thing! Y o u feel awful.

32 4 Complete the sentences. Use must + these verbs:


he- be g et know take w ear
1. In m ost o f the U nited States, you m u s t b e at least 16 to get a driver’s license.
2. For this job, y o u _______________both Spanish and German.
3. People in the front seat of a c a r a seat belt.
4. High school students who w ant to go to college good grades.
5. This highway is closed. D riv e rs_______________ another road.
6. A tennis p la y e r_______________very good to play professionally.

12 5 Write must, m ustn't, or had to.


1. We m u stn 't forget to send Sam a birthday card.
2. We h a d to wear safety glasses w hen we visited the factory.
3. I _______________hurry or I’ll be late.
4. “W hy were you so late?” “I _______________ wait half an hour for the bus.”
5. Keep these papers in a safe place. Y o u _______________lose them .
6. Bicyclists_______________follow the same traffic rules as drivers.
7. W e _______________forget to turn off the lights w hen we leave.
8. I don’t usually w ork on Saturdays, but last Saturday I _______________ work.

65
should

You shouldn't watch TV so much.

sh ould + base form


(should do / sh ould watch, etc.)

do
I/w e /y o u /th e y should stop
h e /s h e /it sh ou ld n ’t g°
watch, etc.

You sh ould do som ething = it is a good thing to do; it is the right thing to do:
■ Tom doesn’t study enough. He sh ould study harder.
■ It’s a good movie. You sh ould go and see it.
■ W hen you play tennis, you should always w atch the ball.
Shou ld I/w e do something? = is it a good thing to do?
■ S hou ld I in v ite Karen to dinner?
■ S hou ld we m ak e som ething special for dinner?

You sh o u ld n ’t do som ething = it is not a good thing to do (sh ou ld n ’t = should not):


■ Tom sh o u ld n ’t go to bed so late.
■ You watch TV all the time. You sh o u ld n ’t w atch TV so much.

W e often say I th in k . . . sh ould . . . :


■ I th in k Lisa sh ould buy some new clothes.
(— I think it is a good idea.)
■ It’s late. I th in k I sh ould go hom e now.
■ A: Shall I buy this coat?
B: Yes, I th in k you should.
I d o n ’t th ink . . . sh ould
■ I d o n ’t th in k you sh ould w ork so hard.
(= I don’t think it is a good idea.)
■ I d o n ’t th in k we should go yet. It’s too early.
D o you th in k . . . sh ould . . . ?:
■ D o you th in k I sh ould buy this hat?
■ W hat time do you th in k we should go home?

S hou ld is different from have to.


■ I sh ould study tonight, but I think I’ll go to the movies.
■ I have to study tonight. I can’t go to the movies.

A nother way to say sh ould is o u g h t to:


■ I o u g h t to study tonight, but I think I’ll go to the movies. (= I should study)
■ I think Lisa o u g h t to buy some new clothes. (= Lisa should buy)

shall/should —►Unit 29 m ust—►Unit 32 have to —►Unit 34


Exercises u N 1T J J
33.1 Complete the sentences. Use you should + these verbs:
eat go read v isit watefa- w ear
1. W hen you play tennis y o u sh o u ld w a tc h the ball.
2. It’s late, and you’re very tire d ._________________________ to bed.
3. _________________________ plenty of fruit and vegetables.
4. If you have tim e ,_________________________ the Science M useum . It’s very interesting.
5. W hen you’re d riv in g , a seat belt.
6. It’s a very good b o o k ._________________________ it.

33.2 Write about the people in the pictures. Use He/She s h o u ld n 't. . . so . . . .

1. S h e shouldn t w a tc h T V so much. 3. hard.


2. H e ___________________________________ . 4._______________________________________

33.3 You are not sure what to do, so you ask a friend. Write questions with Do you think I
s h o u ld . . . ?
1. You are in a store. You are trying on a jacket, (buy?)
You ask your friend: D o y o u think / sh o u ld b u y this ja c k e t? _________________________
2. You can’t drive, (learn?)
You ask your friend: Do you th in k ___________________________________________________
3. You don’t like your job. (get another job?)
You ask your frie n d :________________________________________________________________
4. You are going to have a party, (invite Gary?)
You ask your frie n d :________________________________________________________________

33.4 Write sentences with I think . . . sh o u ld . . . and I don't think . .. should . . . .


1. We have to get up early tom orrow, (go hom e now) / think w e sh o u ld c/o hom e now.
2. That coat is too big for you. (buy it) / don t think yo u should b u y it.__________________
3. You don’t need your car. (sell i t ) _____________________________________________________
4. Karen needs a change, (take a tr ip ) ___________________________________________________
5. Sally and Dan are too young, (get m a rrie d )___________________________________________
6. You’re still sick, (go to w o rk )________________________________________________________
7. James isn’t feeling well today, (go to the d o c to r)_______________________________________
8. The hotel is too expensive for us. (stay th e re )_________________________________________

33 5 What do you think? Write sentences with should.


1. I think e v e r y b o d y should learn a n o th er language.__________________________________
2. I think everybody__________________________________________________________________
3. I th in k _____________________________________________________________________________
4. I don’t th in k _______________________________________________________________________
5. I think I ___________________________________________________________________________

67
U N I T
I have to
54
This is my medicine.
I have to take it
three times a day.
n
I have to do som ething = it is
necessary for me to do it; I am
obliged to do it.

to do
I/w e /y o u /th e y have
to w ork
to go
h e /s h e /it has
to wear, etc.

■ I’ll be late for w ork tomorrow- I have to go to the dentist.


■ Jane starts work at 7:00, so she has to get up at 6:00.
■ You have to pass a test before you can get a driver’s license.

The past (yesterday / last w eek, etc.) is had to . . . :


■ I was late for w ork yesterday. I had to go to the dentist.
■ W e had to w alk hom e last night. There were no buses.

In questions and negatives we use d o /d o e s (present) and did (past):


Present
do I/w e /y o u /th e y I /w e /y o u /th e y d o n ’t
have to . . . ? have to . . .
does h e /s h e /it h e /s h e /it d o esn ’t

Past
I/w e /y o u /th e y I/w e /y o u /th e y
did have to . . . ? d id n ’t have to . . .
h e /s h e /it h e /s h e /it

■ W hat time do you have to go to the dentist tom orrow?


■ D o es Jane have to w ork on Saturdays?
■ W hy did they have to leave the party early?
I d o n ’t have to (do something) = it is not necessary to do it:
■ I’m not working tom orrow, so I d o n ’t have to get up early.
■ M ike d oesn ’t have to w ork very hard. H e’s got an easy job.
■ W e didn’t have to w ait very long for the bus - it came in a few minutes.

m u st
You can also use m u st to say it is necessary to do something.
■ You m u st pass a test before you can get a driver’s license.
■ In many countries, m en m u st do military service.
We use have to m ore often than m ust, especially in spoken English.

68 must —►Unit 32
Exercises U N I
34.1 Complete the sentences. Use have to or has to + these verbs:
h it read speak take travel w ear
1. My eyes are not very good. I h a v e to w e a r glasses.
2. At the end o f the course all the stu d en ts____________________ a test.
3. Sarah is studying literature. S h e ____________________a lot of books.
4. Alberto doesn’t understand m uch English. Y o u very slowly to him.
5. Kate is not at hom e much. S h e ____________________ a lot for her job.
6. In tennis y o u ____________________ the ball over the net.

34.2 Complete the sentences. Use have to or had to + these verbs:


answ er buy ch an ge go take w ake w alk
1. We h a d to w alk hom e last night. There were no buses.
2. It’s late. I ____________________now. I’ll see you tomorrow.
3. I w ent to the store after work yesterday. I ____________________ some food.
4. This train doesn’t go all the way downtown. Y o u at First Avenue.
5. We took a test yesterday. W e six questions out of ten.
6. I’m going to bed. I ____________________ up early tomorrow.
7. Amy and her cousin can’t go out w ith us tonight. T h e y care of
Amy’s little brother.

34 3 Complete the questions. Some are present and some are past.
____________________________________________ x T
1. I have to get up early tomorrow. W hat tim e do y o u h a v e to g e t up_____________ ?
2. George had to wait a long time. How lo n g _________________________________ P

3. Liz has to go somewhere. W h e re ________________________________________ ?


4. We had to pay a lot of money. How m u c h ____________________________________ ?
5. I have to do some work. W hat exactly ’ ?
6. They had to leave early. W h y __________________________________________ ?
7. Paul has to go to Moscow. W h e n _________________________________________?

34 4 Write sentences with don't/doesn't/didn't have to . . . .


1. W hy are you going out? You don t h a v e to g o ___________________________________ out.
2. W hy is Sue waiting? S h e __________________________________________________________
3. W hy did you get up early? Y o u ____________________________________________________
4. W hy is Paul working so hard? H e ___________________
5. W hy do you w ant to leave now? W e ________________
6. W hy did they tell me som ething I already know? They .

34 5 Write some things that you (or your friends or family) have to do or had to d o .
1. (every day) / h a v e to d riv e 50 m iles to w o rk e v e r y day.______________________
2 (every d a y )_________
3. (yesterday)__________
4. (to m o rro w )_________
5. (last w e e k )__________
6. (when I was younger)
Would you like . .. ? I'd like

W ould you lik e . . . ? = Do you w a n t. . . ? Would yo


a nio ra nf
We use W ould you lik e . . . ? to offer things:
■ A: W ould you lik e some coffee?
B: No, thank you.
■ A: W ould you lik e a piece of candy?
B: Yes, thanks.
■ A: W hich w ou ld you like, tea or coffee?
B: Tea, please.

We use W ould you lik e to . . . ? to invite somebody:


■ W ould you lik e to go for a walk?
■ A: W ould you lik e to have dinner w ith us on Sunday?
B: Yes, F d love to. (= I w ould love to have dinner w ith you)
■ W hat w o u ld you lik e to do tonight?

F d lik e . . . is a polite way to say “I w ant.” (Fd like = I w o u ld like)


■ I’m thirsty. Fd lik e a drink.
■ (in a tourist office) Fd lik e some inform ation about hotels, please.
■ I’m feeling tired. F d lik e to stay hom e tonight.

W ould you lik e . . . ? and D o you lik e . . . ?

W ould you lik e . . . ? / I’d lik e . . . D o you lik e . . . ? / 1 lik e . . .


Do you like coffee?

Yes, I do.

Would you like


some now?

No, thank you

W ould you lik e some coffee? = Do you D o you lik e coffee? = Do you think coffee
w ant some coffee? is good?
■ A: W ould you lik e to go to the ■ A: D o you lik e to go to the movies?
movies tonight? (in general)
(= do you w ant to go tonight?) B: Yes, I go to the movies a lot.
B: Yes, I’d love to.
M F d lik e an orange, please. ■ I lik e oranges, (in general)
(= can I have an orange?)
■ W hat w o u ld you lik e to do next ■ W hat do you lik e to do on weekends?
weekend?

like to do and like -ing —►Unit 53 I would do something if . — Unit 101


Exercises
35.1 What are the people in the pictures saying? Use Would you like . . . ?

: 5.2 What do you say to Sue in these situations? Use Would you like to . . . ?
1. You w ant to go to the movies tonight. Perhaps Sue will go w ith you. (go)
You say: W ould y o u like to g o to th e m o vies tonic/ht?______________________________
2. You w ant to play tennis tom orrow. Perhaps Sue will play, too. (play)
You say:___________________________________________________________________________
3. You have an extra ticket for a concert next week. Perhaps Sue will come, (come)
You say:___________________________________________________________________________
4. It’s raining and Sue is going out. She doesn’t have an umbrella, but you have one. (borrow)
You say:___________________________________________________________________________

35.3 Which is right?


1. “Do you like / W ould you like a piece o f candy?” “Yes, thanks.” (Would you like is right)
2. “Do you like / W ould you like bananas?” “Yes, I love them .”
3. “Do you like / W ould you like some ice cream?” “No, thank you.”
4. “W hat do you like / would you like to drink?” “A glass of water, please.”
5. “Do you like / W ould you like to go out for a walk?” “N o t now. Maybe later.”
6. I like / I’d like tomatoes, but I don’t eat them very often.
7. W hat tim e do you like / w ould you like to have dinner tonight?
8. “Do you like / W ould you like som ething to eat?” “N o, thanks. I’m not hungry.”
9. “Do you like / W ould you like your new job?” “Yes, I’m enjoying it.”
10. I’m tired. I like / I’d like to go to bed now.
11. “I like / I’d like a sandwich, please.” “Sure. W hat kind of sandwich?”
12. “W hat kind o f music do you like / would you like?” “All kinds.”
U N I T
I'd rath er. . .
36
No, thanks.
I'd rather sit
on the floor.

Ann likes to sit on the floor. She doesn’t


w ant to sit on a chair. So she says:
I’d rather sit on the floor. (= I would prefer
to sit on the floor.)
Pd rather . . . = I w ou ld rather . . .

I w o u ld rather do som ething = I would prefer to do something:


Positive Negative Question
do do do . . . ?
I’d rather stay Pd rather n ot stay stay . .. ?
w ou ld you rather
(I w o u ld rather) have (I w ou ld rather not) have have . . . ?
be be be . . . ?
I don’t really w ant to go out. Pd rather stay home. (= I’d prefer to stay home)
“Should we go now?” “No, not yet. Pd rather w ait until later.”
I’d like to go now, but Tom w ou ld rather w ait until later.
I don’t like to be late. Pd rather be early.
I’m feeling tired. Pd rather n ot go ou t tonight. (= I’d prefer not to go out)
Sue is feeling tired. She’d rather n o t go ou t tonight.
W e’re not hungry. W e’d rather n o t eat yet.
“W ould you like to go out tonight?” “Pd rather n ot.” (= I’d rather not go out)
“W ould you rather have milk or juice?” “Juice, please.”
W hich w o u ld you rather do - go to the movies or watch a DVD at home?

We say “Pd rather do something” (not to do something):


■ Pd rather sit on the floor. (not I’d rather to sit)
■ Sue w ou ld rather not go out. (not w ould rather not to go)
B ut we say “Pd prefer to do som ething”:
■ Pd prefer to sit on the floor.
■ Sue w ou ld prefer not to go out.

You can say “Pd rather . . . than . . . ”:


■ Pd rather go out than stay home.
■ Pd rather have a dog than a cat.
■ W e’d rather go to the movies than watch a DVD at home.
■ Pd rather be at hom e right now than here.

72
U N I T
Exercises 36
36.1 Look at the pictures and complete B's sentences. Use ra th e r. . . .

A B
1.
Would you like No, thanks. I d r a th e r s i t
to sit here? on the floor.

2.
Don't you want
to watch TV?

3.
Would you like
some tea?

4.
Should we go
out now? until it stops raining.

35.2 Complete these questions. Use w ould you ra th e r. . . .


1. Do you w ant to go out, or w o u ld y o u r a th e r s ta y home?
2. Should we have dinner now, o r __________________________ later?
3. W ould you like a glass of juice, o r __________________________ water?
4. Do you w ant to go to the movies, o r __________________________ TV?
5. Should we call your brother tonight, or . tom orrow m orning?

3 Complete the sentences with a verb. Sometimes you need to.


1. I’d rather s ta y hom e tonight. I’d prefer not to g o out.
2. Should we walk hom e, or w ould you ra th e r _______________ a taxi?
3. Do you w ant me to come w ith you, or w ould you p re fe r_______________ alone?
4. Mary doesn’t w ant to go to college. She’d rather . a job.
5. “Can I help you w ith your suitcase?” “No, thank you. I’d ra th e r_________ . it myself.”
6. I’d rather n o t _______________him. I’d p re fe r him a letter.

.4 Answer these questions about yourself. Use I ' d rather . . . than.


1. W hich w ould you prefer to be - a bus driver or an airplane pilot?
I d r a t h e r be a bus d riv e r than an airplane pilot.____________________
2. W hich w ould you prefer to be - a journalist or a school teacher?

3. W here would you prefer to live - in a big city or a small town?

4. W hich w ould you prefer to have - a small house or a big one?

5. W hich w ould you prefer to study - electronics or philosophy?

6. W hich w ould you prefer to w atch - a soccer game or a movie?

73
U N I T
Do this! Don't do that! Let's do this!
1 7

W e use c o m e /lo o k /g o /w a it /d o /b e , etc. w hen we tell somebody to do something:


■ “C o m e here and lo o k at this.” “W hat is it?”
■ I don’t w ant to talk to you. G o away!
■ I’m not ready yet. Please w ait for me.
■ Please be quiet. I’m working.
also
■ Bye! Have a good trip! / H ave a nice time! / H ave a good flight! / H ave fun!
(= I hope you have a good trip, etc.)
■ “H ave some candy.” “Oh, thanks.”
(= would you like some candy?)

We use d o n ’t . . . w hen we tell somebody not to do something:


■ Be careful! D o n ’t fall.
■ Please d o n ’t go. Stay here w ith me.
■ Be here on time. D o n ’t be late.

You can say L et’s . . . w hen you w ant people to do things w ith you. (let’s = let us)
■ It’s a nice day. L et’s go out.
(= you and I can go out)
■ Com e on! L et’s dance.
(= you and I can dance)
■ Are you ready? L et’s go.
■ L et’s have fish for dinner tonight.
■ A: Should we go out tonight?
B: No, I’m tired. L et’s stay home.
The negative is L et’s n o t . . . :
■ It’s cold. L et’s n ot go out. Let’s stay home.
■ L et’s n ot have fish for dinner tonight. Let’s have chicken.
I’m tired o f arguing. L et’s n ot do it any more.
Exercises u r
37.1 Look at the pictures. What are the people saying? Some sentences are positive
(buy!come, etc.) and some are negative (don't buy / don't come, etc.). Use
these verbs:
be buy co m e d r in k drop forget have sit sleep sm ile

37.2 Complete the sentences. Use let's with:


go for a sw im go to a restaurant take th e bus w a it a little w atch T V
S L __________
1. Would you like to play tennis? No, let's go fo r a sw im ______________________
2. Do you want to walk home? No,
3. Shall I put a CD on? No,
4. Should we have dinner at home? No,
5. Would you like to go now? No,
v

3 7 3 Answer with No, d o n 't . . . or No, let's


___________________________
1. Shall I wait for you? No, don t w a it fo r me.________
2. Should we go home now? No, l e t s n ot go hom e yet. _____
3. Shall we go out?
4. Do you want me to close the window?
5. Should I call you tonight?
6. Do you think we should wait for Andy?
7. Do you want me to turn on the light?
8. Should we take a taxi?
there is there are

T here’s a m an on the roof. T here’s a train at 10:30. There are seven days in a week.

Singular
there is . . . (there’s) T here’s a big tree in the yard.
,JM L is there . . . ? T here’s nothing on TV tonight.
fm m there is n o t . . . (there isn ’t A: Do you have any money?
or th ere’s not) B: Yes, th ere’s some in my wallet.
A: Excuse me, is there a hotel near here?
B: Yes, there is. / No, there isn ’t.
We can’t go skiing. There isn ’t any snow.
Plural
there are . . . There are some big trees in the yard.
are there . . . ? There are a lot o f accidents on this road.
there are n o t . . . (there aren’t) A: Are there any restaurants near here?
B: Yes, there are. / No, there aren’t.
This restaurant is very quiet. T here aren’t
many people here.
I H ow many players are there on a soccer team?
There are 11 players on a soccer team.
M llM
There is and it is

there is it is

T here’s a book on the table. I like this book . It’s interesting,


(not It’s a book on the table.) (it = this book)

Compare:
■ “W hat’s that noise?” “It’s a train.” (it = that noise)
T here’s a train at 10:30. It’s a fast train. (It = the 10:30 train)
■ T here’s a lot o f salt in this soup.
I don’t like this soup. It’s too salty, (it = this soup)

there was / were / has been, etc. —►Unit 39 it and there —►Unit 40 some and any —►Unit 77
Exercises U N I
j 3.1 Springfield is a small town. Look at the information in the box and write sentences
about Springfield with There is/are or There isn't/aren't.

1. a golf course? No 1. There is n 't a g o lf course.


2. any restaurants? Yes (a lot) 2. There a re a lo t o f restau ran ts.
3. a hospital? Yes 3.
4. a swim m ing pool? No 4.
5. any movie theaters? Yes (two) 5.
6. a university? No 6.
7. any big hotels? No 7.

.2 Write sentences about your town (or a town that you know). Use There is/are or
There isn't/aren't.
1. There a re a fe w restau ran ts.___________________________
2. There s a b ig p ark.
3.
4.
5.
6.

33 3 Write there is / there isn't / is there or there are / there aren't / are there.
1. Springfield isn’t an old town. There a re n t any old buildings.
2. L o o k !____________________ a photograph o f your brother in the newspaper!
3. “Excuse m e ,____________________ a bank near here?” “Yes, at the end o f the block.”
4. . five people in my family: my parents, my two sisters, and me.
5. ‘H ow many students .____________________ in the class?” “Tw enty.”
6. The road is usually very q u ie t.. ________________ m uch traffic.
_ a bus from dow ntow n to the airport?” “Yes, every 20 m inutes.”
_ any problem s?” “N o, everything is O K .”
9. . now here to sit d o w n .____________________ any chairs.

: =4 Write sentences with There are . . . . Choose from the boxes.


five tw enty-six letters days S eptem ber the solar system
seven th irty players days the U n ited States a w eek
eigh t fifty planets states a basketball team the E nglish alphabet

1. There a re s e v e n d a ys in a week._________________________________________________
2.
3. ___________________________________________________________________________________
4. ___________________________________________________________________________________
5. ___________________________________________________________________________________
6 . ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

33 5 Write there's / is there or it's / is it.


1. “ There's a flight at 10:30.” “ Is i t
a nonstop flight?”
2 . I’m not going to buy this sh irt.. too expensive.
3. “W h at’s wrong?” “_________ som ething in my eye.”
4. . a red car outside your h o u se .. . yours <
5. ____________anything good on TV tonight?” “Y es,. a movie at 8:00.”
6. “W hat’s that building?” “_____________ a school.”
7. . a restaurant in this hotel?” “No, I’m afraid not.”
there was/were there has/have been
there will be
T here was / there w ere (past)

T here is a train every hour.

The time now is 11:15.


T here was a train at 11:00.

Com pare:

there is/a re (present) there w as/w ere (past)


■ T here is a good nature program on ■ T here was a good nature program on
TV tonight. TV last night.
■ We are staying at a very big hotel. ■ W e stayed at a very big hotel.
T here are 1,250 rooms. T here w ere 1,250 rooms.
■ Are there any phone messages for me ■ Were there any phone messages for
this m orning? me yesterday?
■ I’m hungry, but there isn ’t anything ■ I was hungry w hen I got home, but
to eat. there w asn ’t anything to eat.

T here has been / there have been (present perfect)

■ Look! T here’s been an accident.


(there’s been = there has been)
■ This road is very dangerous. T here have
b een many accidents on it.
Com pare there was (past):
■ T here was an accident last night.
(not There has been an accident last night.)
For simple past and present perfect, see U nit 21.

T here w ill be

Do you think there w ill be a lot o f people


at the party on Saturday?
The m anager of the company is leaving, so
there w ill be a new m anager soon.
I’m going out o f town tom orrow. I’m
packing my things today because there
w o n ’t be tim e tomorrow.
(there w o n ’t be = there w ill n ot be)

was/were —►Unit 10 has/have been —►Units 16-17 will Unit 28 there is/are -► Unit 38
there and it —►Units 38, 40 some and any —►Unit 77
Exercises U N I
1 Look at the two pictures. Now the room is empty, but what was in the room
last week? Choose from the box and write sentences with There was . . . or
There were . . . .

an arm ch air a carpet som e flo w e rs a sofa


som e b ooks -a-etoek- th ree p ictu res a sm a ll table

list week

L There w a s a d o c k . on the wall near the window.


2. . on the floor.
3. . on the wall near the door.
4. . in the m iddle o f the room.
5. . on the table.
6. . on the shelves.
7. . in the corner near the door.
8. opposite the armchair.

Write there was / there wasn't / was there or there were / there w eren't /
were there.
1. I was hungry, but th e re w a s n ’t anything to eat.
2. W ere th e re any phone messages for me yesterday?
3. I opened the envelope, but it was em p ty .____________________ nothing in it.
4. “We stayed at a very nice hotel.” “R eally?____________________ a swim m ing pool?”
5. “D id you buy any cherries?” “N o ,____________________ any at the store.”
6. The wallet was em p ty .____________________any m oney in it.
7. “____________________ many people at the m eeting?” “No, very few.”
8. We didn’t visit the m u se u m .____________________ enough time.
9. I’m sorry I’m la te .. . a lot o f traffic.
10. T w enty years ago _ . many tourists here. N ow there are a lot.

3r 3 Write there + is / are / was / were / has been / have been / will be.
1. There w a s a good program on TV last night.
2. ___________________ 24 hours in a day.
3. ___________________ a party at w ork last Friday, but I didn’t go.
4. W here can I buy a newspaper?” “________________ a drugstore at the end o f the block.”
5. W hy are the police outside the bank?” “____________________ a robbery.”
6. W hen we got to the theater, . a long line outside,
7. W hen you arrive to m o rro w ,. somebody at the airport to m eet you.
8. Ten years a g o ___ 500 children in the school. N ow
. m ore than a thousand.
9. Last week I w ent back to the tow n w here I was born. It’s very different now.
____________________ a lot of changes.
10. I think everything will be OK. I don’t th in k ____________________ any problems.
We use it for tim e/day/distance/w eather:

time
W hat time is it?
I t ’s half past 10.
m I t ’s late.
■ I t ’s tim e to go home.

W hat day is it?


It’s Thursday.
It’s M arch 16th.
It was my birthday yesterday.

■ I t ’s two miles from our house to downtown.


■ H ow far is it from N ew York to Los Angeles?
■ I t ’s a long way from here to the airport.
■ W e can walk hom e. It isn’t far.
We use far in questions (is it far?) and negatives (it isn ’t far).
In positive sentences, we use a lo n g w ay (it’s a lo n g way).

■ It’s raining. It isn’t raining. Is it snowing?


■ It rains a lot here. It didn’t rain yesterday.
Does it snow very often?
II I t ’s w a rm /h o t/c o ld /n ic e /c lo u d y /w in d y /su n n y /c le a r/
dry/hum id/foggy/dark, etc.
■ I t ’s a nice day today.

C om pare it and there:


■ It rains a lot in the winter.
It’s very rainy in the winter.
T here is a lo t o f rain in the winter.
■ It was very w in d y yesterday.
T here was a strong w in d yesterday.

It’s nice to . . . , etc.


easy / difficult / impossible / dangerous / safe
It’s to
expensive / interesting / nice / wonderful / terrible, etc.
■ It’s nice to see you again.
■ It’s impossible to understand her.
■ It wasn’t easy to fin d your house.

D o n ’t forget it:
■ I t ’s raining again, (not Is raining again)
■ Is it true that you’re m oving to Dallas? (not Is true t h a t . • )

there is -► Units 38-39


Exercises U N I
-0.1 Write about the weather in the pictures. Use It's .

Write it is (it's) or is it.


1. W hat tim e /s it ?
2 .
We have to go now. . very late.
3. true that Bill can fly a helicopter?
4. “W hat d a y . today? Tuesday?” “N o ,. . Wednesday.”
5. __________10 kilom eters from dow ntow n to the airport.
6 . __________O K to call you at the office?
7. “Do you w ant to walk to the hotel?” “I don’t know. H ow far .
__________ Lisa’s birthday today. She’s 27.
9. I don’t believe it ! __________ impossible.

m3 Write questions with How far . .. ?


1. (here / the station) H o w fa r is it from h e re to the sta tio n ?
2. (the hotel / the beach) H ow
3. (N ew York / W ashington)
4. (your house / the airport)

Write it or there.
1. The w eather isn’t so nice today. i t ’s cloudy.
There was a strong w ind yesterday.
_______ ’s hot in this room. O pen a window.
. was a nice day yesterday. . was warm and sunny.
__________was a storm last night. Did you hear it?
I was afraid b ecau se__________ was very dark.
__________’s often cold here, b u t ___________ isn’t m uch rain.
__________’s a long way from here to the nearest gas station.

-I 5 Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.

easy dangerous w ork in this office -get up-early


it’s d ifficu lt n ice to visit d ifferen t places go ou t alone
im p o ssib le interestin g see you again m ake friends

1. If you go to bed late, it's difficult to c/et up e a rly in the m orning.


2. Hello, J a n e . . H ow are you?
3. ____________________________________. There is too m uch noise.
4. Everybody is very nice at work.
5. I like traveling..
6. Some cities are not safe. at night.
I am, I don't, etc.

She isn’t tired, but he is. He likes tea, but she d o esn ’t.
(he is = he is tired) (she d oesn ’t = she doesn’t like tea)
In these examples, it is not necessary to repeat some words (“he is tired” “she doesn’t like tea”).

You can use these verbs in the same way:


a m /is /a r e ■ I haven’t seen the movie, but my sister has. (= my sister has seen the movieji
w a s/w ere ■ A: Please help me.
have/has B: I’m sorry. I can’t. (= I can’t help you)
d o /d o e s /d id ■ A: Are you tired?
can B: I was, but I’m n o t now. (— I was tired, but I’m not tired now)
w ill ■ A: Do you think Jane will call tonight?'
m ig h t B: She m igh t. (= she m ight call)
sh ould ■ A: Are you going to study tonight?
B: I should, but I probably w o n ’t. (= I should study, but
I probably w on’t study)
You cannot use ’m / ’s / ’ve, etc. (shortforms) in this way.You m ust use a m /is/h a v e , etc.:
■ She isn’t tired, but he is. (n o t. . . but he’s)
But you can use isn ’t / haven’t / w o n ’t, etc. (negative short forms):
■ My sister has seen the movie, but I haven’t.
■ “Are you and Jane working tom orrow ?” “Iam,but Jane isn ’t.”

You can use I am / I’m not, etc. after Yes and No:
■ “Are you tired?” “Yes, I am. / No, I’m n ot.”
■ “W ill Bill be here tom orrow ?” “Yes, he w ill. / No, he w o n ’t.”
■ “Is there a bus to the airport?” “Yes, there is. / No, there isn ’t.”

We use d o /d o e s for the simple present (see Units 6-7):


■ I don’t like hot weather, but Sue does. (= Sue likes hot weather)
■ Sue works hard, but I d o n ’t. (= I don’t w ork hard)
■ “D o you enjoy your work?” “Yes, I d o.”
We use d id for the simple past (see U nit 12):
■ A: Did you and Chris like the movie?
■ B: I did, but Chris d id n ’t. (= I liked it, but Chris didn’t like it)
■ “I had a good tim e.” “I did, too.” (= I had a good time, too)
■ “Did it rain yesterday?” “N o, it d id n ’t.”

You have? / Have you?, etc. —►Unit 42 so am I / neither do I, etc. —►Unit 43


Exercises U N I
tl 1 Complete these sentences. Use only one verb (is/have/can, etc.) each time.
1. Kate wasn’t hungry, but we w e r e . 4. I haven’t read the book, but Tom .
2. I’m not m arried, but my b ro th e r . 5. Karen w on’t be here, but C h ris __
3. Bill can’t help you, but I . 6. You w eren’t late, but I __________

2 Complete these sentences with a negative verb (isn't/haven't/can't, etc.).


1. My sister can play the piano, but I c a n t . 4. M ark has been to China, but I .
2. Sam is working today, but I ________________. 5. I’m ready to go, but Tom .
3. I was working, but my frie n d s . 6. I’ve seen the movie, but Kim .

41 3 Complete these sentences with do/does/did or don't/doesn't/didn't.


1. I don’t like hot weather, but Sue does .
2. Sue likes hot weather, but I d o n t .
3. My m other wears glasses, but my fa th e r_______________ .
4. You don’t know Paul very well, but I _______________ .
5. I didn’t enjoy the party, but my frie n d s_______________ .
6. I don’t watch TV m uch, but P e te r_______________ .
7. Kate lives in Canada, but her parents _
8. You had breakfast this m orning, but I

41 4 Complete the sentences. Write about yourself and other people.


1. I didn’t g o o u t la st n ig h t b u t m y frien d s did.________________
2. I lik e ________________________________, b u t .
3. I don’t ______________________________ , b u t .
4. I’m ______________________________________
5. I haven’t .

5 Put in a verb, positive or negative.


1. “Are you tired?” “I w a s earlier, but I’m not now.”
2. Steve is happy today, but h e _______________ yesterday.
3. The stores aren’t open yet, but the post office .
4. I don’t have a telescope, but I know somebody w ho .
5. I w ould like to help you, but I’m sorry I .
6. I don’t usually drive to work, but I _______________ yesterday.
7. A: Have you ever been to Costa Rica?
B: No, but S an dra_______________ . She w ent there on vacation last year.
8. “Do you and Luke watch TV a lot?” “I _______________ , but Luke doesn’t.”
9. I’ve been invited to Sam’s wedding, but K a te _______________ .
10. “Do you think Sarah will pass her driving test?” “Yes, I’m sure s h e _________
11. “Are you going out tonight?” “I _______________ . I don’t know for sure.”

-1.6 Answer these questions about yourself. Use Yes, I have. / No, I'm n o t , etc.
1. Are you Brazilian? No, I'm not.___________________________
2. Do you have a car?_______________ ________________________________________
3. Do you feel OK?_________________ ________________________________________
4. Is it snowing?____________________ ________________________________________
5. Are you hungry?_________________ ____________________________________ ___
6. Do you like classical music?_______ ________________________________________
7. W ill you be in Boston tom orrow? ________________________________________
8. Have you ever broken your arm? ________________________________________
9. Did you buy anything yesterday? ________________________________________
10. W ere you asleep at 3:00 a.m.? ________________________________________
U N I T
You have? Have you? You are? Are you?, etc.
42
I've bought a new car. I'm w riting a book. I don't like George.

You are? W hat about? You don't? Why not?

You can say you have? / it is? / he can’t?, etc. to show that you are interested or surprised:
■ “Y ou’re late.” “I am? I’m sorry.”
■ “I was sick last w eek.” “You were? I didn’t know that.”
■ “It’s raining again.” “It is? It was sunny 10 m inutes ago.”
■ “T here’s a letter for you.” “T here is? W here is it?”
■ “B ill can’t drive.” “H e can’t? I didn’t know that.”
■ “I’m n o t hungry.” “You aren’t? I am.”
M “Sue isn ’t at work today.” “She isn ’t? Is she sick?”

Use d o /d o e s for the simple present and d id for the simple past:
■ “I speak four languages.” “You do? W hich ones?”
■ “T im d o esn ’t eat m eat.” “H e d o esn ’t? Does he eat fish?”
■ “N ic o le g o t m arried last w eek.” “She did? Really?”

Tag questions

You can use have you? / is it? / can’t she?,


It's a nice day, isn't it?
etc. at the end o f a sentence.
:cy> Yes, it's perfect.
These “mini questions” are tag questions.

Positive sentence —►Negative tag question


It’s a nice day, isn ’t it? Yes, it’s perfect.
Sally lives in Portland, d o esn ’t she? Yes, that’s right.
You closed the window, d id n ’t you? Yes, I think so.
T hose shoes are nice, aren’t they? Yes, very nice.
T om w ill be here soon, w o n ’t he? Yes, probably.

Negative sentence —►Positive tag question


_Y \
That isn ’t your car, is it? No, it’s my m other’s.
You haven’t m et my mother, have you? No, I haven’t.
Sally d oesn ’t go out m uch, does she? No, she doesn’t.
You w o n ’t be late, w ill you? No, I’m never late.

84 I am, I don't, etc. —►Unit 41


Exercises U N I T
1 Answer with You do? / She doesn't? / They did?, etc.

1. I speak four languages. You do W hich ones?


2. I work in a bank. I w ork in a bank, too.
3. I didn’t go to w ork yesterday. W ere you sick?
4. Jane doesn’t like me. W hy not?
5. You look tired. I feel fine.
6. Kate called me last night. W hat did she say?

-2 2 Answer with You have? / You haven't? / She did? / She didn't?, etc.

1. I’ve bought a new car. You have W hat kind is it?


2. Tim doesn’t eat meat. H e doesn t Does he eat fish?
3. I’ve lost my key. W hen did you have it last?
4. Sue can’t drive. She should learn.
5. I was born in Italy. I didn’t know that.
6. I didn’t sleep well last night. Was the bed uncom fortable?
7. T here’s a football game on TV tonight. Are you going to watch it?
8. I’m not happy. W hy not?
9. I saw Paula last week. H ow is she?
10. M aria works in a factory. W hat kind of factory?
11. I w on’t be here next week. W here will you be?
12. The clock isn’t working. It was w orking yesterday.

X2 3 Complete these sentences with a tag question (isn't it? / haven't you?, etc.).

1. It’s a nice dav. isn t i t P Yes, it’s beautiful.


2. These flowers are nice, P Yes, w hat kind are they?
3. Jane was at the party, P Yes, but I didn’t speak to her.
4. You’ve been to Chile, P Yes, many times.
5. You speak Thai, P Yes, but not very well.
6. Bill looks tired, P Yes, he works very hard.
7. You’ll help me, P Yes, of course I will.
J

M2A Complete these sentences with a tag question, positive (is it? / do you?, etc.) or
negative (isn't it? / don't you?, etc.).

1. You haven’t eaten yet, have' vou ? No, I’m not hungry.
2. You aren’t tired, p No, I feel fine.
3. Lisa is a very nice person, p Yes, everybody likes her.
4. You can play the piano, p Yes, but I’m not very good.
5. You don’t know M ike’s sister, p No, I’ve never m et her.
6. Sarah w ent to college, p Yes, she studied psychology.
7. The movie wasn’t very good, p No, it was terrible.
8. Anna lives near you, p Yes, ju st a few blocks away.
9. You w on’t tell anybody what I said, p No, o f course not.
U N I T
too/either so am I / neither do lf etc.

Too and eith er

I'm happy, j I'm happy, too. I'm not happy. Ifm not happy, either.
■ 11■

W e use to o and eith er at the end of a sentence.


We use to o after a positive verb: We use eith er after a negative verb:
■ A: I’m happy. ■ A: I’m not happy.
B: Pm happy, too. B: Pm n o t happy, either.
■ A: I liked the movie. (not I’m n o t . . ., too.)
B: I lik ed it, too. m A: I can’t cook.
■ Jane is a doctor. Her husband is B: I can’t, either, (not I can’t, too)
a doctor, too. m Bill doesn’t watch TV. He d o esn ’t read
newspapers, either.

so am I / n eith er do I, etc.

I'm happy. I'm not happy.


a m /is /a r e
w a s/w er e . . .
so d o /d o e s . . .
did . . .
h ave/h as . . .
n eith er can . . .
w ill. . .
So am I. sh ould . . . Neither am I.

so am 1 = 1 am, too n eith er am I = I’m not, either


so have 1 = 1 have, too (etc.): n eith er can 1 = 1 can’t, either (etc.):
■ A: I’m working. ■ A: I haven’t been to China.
B: So am I. (= I’m working, too) B: N eith er have I. (= I haven’t, either)
■ A: I was late for w ork today. ■ A: Kate can’t cook.
B: So was Sam . (= Sam was late, too) B: N eith er can T om .
■ A: I w ork in a bank. (= Tom can’t, either)
B: So do I. ■ A: I w o n ’t (= will not) be here
■ A: We w en t to the movies last night. tom orrow.
B: You did? So d id w e. B: N eith er w ill I.
■ A: I’d like to go to Australia. ■ A: I never go to the movies.
B: So w o u ld I. B: N eith er do I.

Rem em ber: So am I (not So I am), N either have I (not N either I have).

I am, I don't, etc. —►Unit 41


Exercises U N I
-3.1 Write too or either.

1. I’m happy. I’m happy, too_________


2. I’m not hungry. I’m not h u n g ry ,__________
3. I’m going out. I’m going o u t,___________
4. It rained on Saturday. It rained on Sunday,______
5. Jenny can’t drive a car. She can’t ride a bicycle,___
6. I don’t like to go shopping. I don’t like to go shopping,
7. Linda’s m other is a teacher. H er father is a teach er,___

-3 2 Answer with So . . . I (So am I / So do !/ So can /, etc.).

1. I w ent to bed late last night.


2. I’m thirsty.
3. I’ve already read this book.
4. I need a vacation.
5. I’ll be late tomorrow.
6. I was very tired this m orning.

Answer with N eith er. . . I.

7. I can’t go to the party.


8. I didn’t call Alex last night.
9. I haven’t eaten lunch yet.
10. I’m not going out tonight.
11. I don’t know w hat to do.

-3 3 You are talking to Maria. Write sentences about yourself. Where possible, use So . . . i
or N eith er. . . I. Look at these examples carefully:

I'm tired today. You :an answer: So am / OR I'm not.

I don't work hard. You :an answer: N e ith e r do i OR / do.


Maria You

1. I’m studying English.


2. I can ride a bicycle.
3. I’m not American.
4. I like to cook.
5. I don’t like cold weather.
6. I slept well last night.
7. I’ve never been to India.
8. I don’t use my phone much.
9. I’m going out tom orrow night.
10. I wasn’t sick last week.
11. I didn’t w atch TV last night.
12. I go to the movies a lot.
U N I T
isn't, haven't, don't, etc. (negatives)
44 _________________________________________________________
A We use n o t (n’t) in negative sentences:
Positive Negative
am am n o t (’m not) ■ P m n o t tired.
is is n o t (isn’t or’s not) ■ It isn ’t (or It’s not) raining.
are are n o t (aren’t or ’re not) ■ They aren’t (or They’re not) here.
was was n o t (w asn’t) ■ Brian w asn ’t hungry.
were w ere n ot (w eren’t) ■ The stores w eren ’t open.
have have n ot (haven’t) ■ I haven’t finished my work.
has has n ot (hasn’t) ■ Sue hasn’t been to Mexico.
will w ill n o t (w on ’t) ■ We w o n ’t be here tomorrow.
can can n ot (can’t) ■ George can’t drive.
could cou ld n ot (co u ld n ’t) ■ I c o u ld n ’t sleep last night.
should sh ould n ot (sh ou ld n ’t) ■ You sh o u ld n ’t work so hard.
would w o u ld n ot (w ou ld n ’t) ■ I w o u ld n ’t like to be an actor.
m ust m u st n ot ■ They m u st n o t have a car.

B d o n ’t / d oesn ’t / d id n ’t
Simple present negative I/w e /y o u /th e y do n o t (d o n ’t)
h e /s h e /it does n o t (d oesn ’t) w o r k /liv e /g o , etc.
Simple past negative I/they/he/she, etc. did not (didn’t)

Positive Negative
I w ant to go out. I d o n ’t w an t to go out.
They w ork hard. They d o n ’t w ork hard.
Liz plays the guitar. Liz d oesn ’t play the guitar.
My father lik es his job. My father d o esn ’t lik e his job.
I g o t up early this m orning. I d id n ’t get up early this m orning.
They w ork ed hard yesterday. They d id n ’t w ork hard yesterday.
W e played tennis. We d id n ’t play tennis.
Diane had dinner w ith us. Diane d id n ’t have dinner w ith us.

D o n ’t . . .
L ook! D o n ’t look !
W ait for me. D o n ’t w ait for me.

Sometimes do is the m ain verb (don ’t do / d oesn ’t do / d id n ’t do):


D o something! — D o n ’t do anything!
Sue does a lot on weekends. -► Sue d oesn ’t do m uch on weekends.
I did what you said. I d id n ’t do w hat you said.

simple present negative —►Unit 6 simple past negative —►Unit 12 don't look / don't wait, etc. —►Unit 37
Why isn't/don't . . . ? —►Unit 45
U N I T
Exercises 44
Make these sentences negative.
1. H e’s gone out. H e h a sn 't gone out. 4. It’s cold today. _
2. They’re m arrie d .___________________ 5. W e’ll be late. _
3. I’ve had d in n er.____________________ 6. You should g o ..
L2 Make these sentences negative. Use don't!doesn't!didn't.
1. She saw me. S h e didn 'ts e e me. 4. He lives here. _
2. I like ch eese.________________________ 5. Go aw ay!______
3. They u n d ersto o d ._________ 6. I did the dishes..

Make these sentences negative.


1. She can swim. She can > swim . 6. H e’ll be happy.___
2. T hey’ve arriv ed .___ 7. Call me to n ig h t.__
3. I w ent to the bank. _ 8 . It rained yesterday.
4. H e speaks Jap an ese.. 9. I could hear th e m ..
5. We were angry.____ 10. I believe y o u ..

-T 4 Complete these sentences with a negative verb (isn't!haven't!don't, etc.).


1. They aren’t rich. They don t have m uch money.
2 . “W ould you like som ething to eat?” “N o, thank you. I _______________hungry.’
3. I _______________find my glasses. Have you seen them?
4. S tev e_______________ use e-mail much. H e’d rather talk on the phone.
5. W e can walk to the station from here. I t _______________very far.
6. “W h ere’s Jane?” “I _______________ know._I _______________ seen her today.”
7. Be careful! . fall!
8. W e w ent to the movies last night. I . like the movie very much.
I’ve been to Japan many times, but I ___________ . been to South Korea.
10. J u lia _______________ be here tomorrow. She’ll be out of town.
11. “W ho broke that w indow?” “N ot me. I _______________ do it.
12. We didn’t see w hat happened. W e _____________ looking at the time.
13. Lisa bought a new coat a few days ago, but s h e __ ___________ w orn it yet.
14. Y o u _______________ drive so fast. It’s dangerous.

-4,5 You ask Gary some questions. He answers "Yes" or "No." Write sentences
about Gary, positive or negative.

You % Gary

Are you married? No. i. H e isn t m arried.


Do you live in Los Angeles? Yes. 2. H e liv e s in L o s Angeles.
W ere you born in Los Angeles? No. 3.
Do you like Los Angeles? No. 4.
W ould you like to live someplace else? Yes. 5.
Can you drive? Yes. 6.
Have you traveled abroad? No. 7.
Do you read the newspaper? No. 8.
Are you interested in politics? No. 9.
Do you usually watch TV at night? Yes. 10.
D id you watch TV last night? No. 11.
Did you go out last night? Yes. 12.

89
is i t . . . ? have you ? do they . . . ? , etc.
(questions 1)
You are eating.

Are you eating? W hat are you eating?

In questions, the first verb (is/are/h ave, etc.) is before the subject:

Postive Question
subject + verb verb + subject
I am late. —► Am I late?
That seat is free. Is that seat free?
She was angry. W hy was she angry?
David has gone. -* W here has D avid gone?
You have been to Japan. -► H ave you been to Japan?
They w ill be here soon. —► W hen w ill th ey be here?
Paula can swim. -* Can Paula swim?

Rem em ber: the subject is after the first verb.


■ W here has D avid gone? (not W here has gone David?)
■ Are th ose p eo p le waiting for something? (not Are waiting . . . ?)
■ W h en was the telep h o n e invented? (not W hen was invented . . . ?)

do . . . ? / does . . . ? / did . . . ?
do I/w e /y o u /th e y
Simple present questions
does h e /s h e /it w o r k /liv e /g o , etc. . . . ?
Simple past questions did I/they/he/she, etc.

Positive Question
They w ork hard. D o they w ork hard?
You w atch television. -► H ow often do you w atch television?
Chris has a car. -► D oes Chris have a car?
She gets up early. —► W hat time does she get up?

They w orked hard. D id they w ork hard?


You had dinner. —► W hat d id you have for dinner?
She g o t up early. W hat tim e did she get up?

Sometimes do is the main verb (do you do / did he do, etc.):


■ W hat do you usually do on weekends?
■ “W hat does your brother do?” “H e works in a bank.”
■ “I broke my finger last w eek.” “H ow did you do that?” (not H ow did you that?)

Why is n ’t . . . ? / W hy d o n ’t . . . ?, etc. (Why + negative):


■ W here’s John? W hy isn ’t he here? (not W hy he isn’t here?)
■ W hy can’t Paula come to the m eeting tom orrow? (not W hy Paula can’t . . . ?)
■ W hy d id n ’t you call me last night?

simple present questions —►Unit 7 simple past questions —►Unit 12 questions 2-3 —►Units 46-47
what/which/how —►Units 48-49
Exercises U N I
-5 1 Write questions.
1. I can swim. (and you?) C a n you sw im ?
2. I work hard. (and Jack?) D o e s J a c k w o rk h a rd ?
3. I was late this m orning. (and you?)
4. I’ve seen that movie. (and Kate?)
5. I’ll be here tomorrow. (and you?)
6. I’m going out tonight. (and Paul?)
7. I like my job. (and you?)
8. I live near here. (and Nicole?)
9. I enjoyed the movie. (and you?)
10. I had a good vacation. (and you?)

- 5 2 You are talking to a friend about driving. Write the full questions.

You £
1. (have / a car?) D o you have a c a r ? Yes, I do.
2. (use / a lo t? )____ .it. Yes, almost every day.
3. (use / yesterday?) Yes, to go to work.
4. (enjoy driving?) N o t very much.
5. (a good driver?) I think I am.
6. (ever / have / an accident?) N o, never.

3 Make questions with these words. Put the words in the right order.
1. has / gone / w here / David?) W h ere has D a v id gone?
2. w orking / Rachel / is / today?) Is D a ch e / w orking today?
3. the children / w hat / are / doing?) W h a t.
4. m ade / is / how / cheese?)
5. to the party / coming / is / your sister?)
6. you / the truth / tell / don’t / w h y ? )___
7. your guests / have / yet / arrived?)____
8. leave / w hat time / your plane / does?) _
9. to work / Jenny / why / go / didn’t? ) __
10. your car / in the accident / was / damaged?)

K5L4 Complete the questions.

1. I want to go out. W here do you w a n t to ao?


2. Kate and Paul aren’t going to the party. W hv a ren t they qoina?
3. I’m reading. W hat
4. Sue went to bed early. W hat tim e
5. My parents are going on vacation. W hen
6. I saw Tom a few days ago. W here
7. I can’t come to the party. W hy
8. Tina has moved. W here
9. I need some money. H ow m uch
10. Angela doesn’t like me. W hy
11. It rains sometimes. H ow often
12. I did the shopping. W hen
V
Who saw you? Who did you see?
(questions 2)

Sylvia saw Paul.


W ho saw Paul?
Sylvia. (Sylvia saw him.)
W ho did Sylvia see?
Paul. (She saw Paul.)

Sylvia Paul

Subject Object

Somebody saw Paul. Sylvia saw som ebody.

W ho saw Paul? W ho did Sylvia see?

Sylvia. (Sylvia saw him.) Paul. (She saw Paul.)


w h o is the subject w h o is the object
Paul is the object Sylvia is the subject

In these questions, w h o /w h a t is the subject:


■ W ho lives in this house? (= somebody lives in it - who?)
(not W ho does live?)
■ W hat happened? (= som ething happened - what?)
(not W hat did happen?)
■ W hat’s happening? (W hat’s = W hat is)
■ W h o’s g o t my keys? (W ho’s = W ho has)
In these questions, w h o /w h a t is the object:
■ W ho did you m eet yesterday? (= you m et somebody - who?)
■ W hat did Paul say? (= Paul said som ething - what?)
■ W ho are you calling?
■ W hat was Sylvia wearing?
Com pare:
■ George likes oranges. —► W ho lik es oranges? - George.
W hat does George like? - Oranges.
■ Jane w on a new car. —► W ho w o n a new c a r? -Ja n e .
W hat did Jane win? - A new car.

Use w h o for people (somebody). Use w hat for things, ideas, etc. (something):
■ W ho is your favorite singer?
■ W hat is your favorite song?

questions —►Units 45, 47 what/which/how —►Unit 48


Exercises uni 44
-5.1 Make questions with who or what. In these questions, who/what is the subject.

1. Somebody broke the window.


2. Something fell off the shelf.
3. Somebody wants to see you.
4. Somebody took my umbrella.
5. Something made me sick.
6. Somebody is coming.

-5.2 Make questions with who or what (subject or object).

1. I bought something.
2. Somebody lives in this house.
3. I called somebody.
4. Something happened last night.
5. Somebody knows the answer.
6. Somebody did the dishes.
7. Jane did something.
8. Something woke me up.
9. Somebody saw the accident.
10. I saw somebody.
11. Somebody has my pen.
12. This w ord means something.

-6.3 You want the missing information (XXXXX). Write questions with who or what.

1. I lost XXXXX yesterday, but fortunately W hat d id you lo se ?


XXXXX found it and gave it back to me. Who found it?

2. XXXXX called me last night. She w anted W ho _


XXXXX. W h a t.

3. I needed some advice, so I asked XXXXX.


He said XXXXX.
4. I hear that XXXXX got m arried last week.
XXXXX told me.
5. I m et XXXXX on my way hom e tonight.
She told me XXXXX.

6. Steve and I played tennis yesterday.


XXXXX won. After the game, we XXXXX.
7. It was my birthday last week and I got
some presents. XXXXX gave me a book,
and C atherine gave me XXXXX.

93
Who is she talking to? What is it like?
(questions 3)

Julia is talking to somebody.

W ho is she talking to?

Julia

In questions beginning W ho . . . ? ' / W h a t. . . ? / W here . . . ? / W hich . . . ?, prepositions


(to /fr o m /w ith , etc.) usually go at the end:
■ “W here are you from ?” “I’m from Thailand.”
■ “Jack was afraid.” “W hat was he afraid of?”
■ “W ho do these books belong to?” “They’re m ine.”
■ “Tom ’s father is in the hospital.” “W hich h osp ital is he in?”
■ “Kate is going on vacation.” “W ho w ith?” / “W ho is she going w ith?”
■ “Can we talk?”“Sure. W hat do you w ant to talk about?”

W hat’s it like? / W hat are th ey like?, etc.

W hat’s it like? = W hat is it like?


W hat’s it like? = tell me
som ething about it - is it good or bad,
big or small, old or new, etc.?

W hen we say “W hat is it like?,” lik e is a preposition. It is not the verb lik e (D o you lik e
your new house?).
A: T here’s a new restaurant near my house.
B: W hat’s it like? Is it good?
A: I don’t know. I haven’t eaten there yet.
A: W hat’s your new teacher like?
B: She’s very good. We learn a lot.
A: I m et N icole’s parents yesterday.
B: You did? W hat are they like?
A: They’re very nice.
A: Did you have a good vacation? W hat was the w eather like?
B: It was great. It was sunny every day.

questions —►Units 45-46 what/which/how —►Unit 48 prepositions —►Units 104-114


U N I T
<ercises
You want the missing information (XXXXX). Write questions with who or what.

1
2.
3.
4.

5.

6.

f 2 Write questions about the people in the pictures. Use these verbs + a preposition:
go listen lo o k talk talk w ait

1. Who is sh e talking to? 4. W h a t____


2. W h a t___________ 5. W h a t____
3. W hich restau ran t. 6. W hich bus.

3 Write questions with Which

1. Tom ’s father is in the hospital.


2. W e stayed at a hotel.
3. Jack plays for a football team.
4. I w ent to school in this town.

4 You want some information about another country. You ask somebody who has been
there. Ask questions with What is/are .. . like?
1. (the roads) W h a t a re th e roads like?_____________________________________________
2. (the fo o d )_________________________________________________________________________
3. (the people) _
4. (the weather)

7.5 Ask questions with What was!were . . . like?


1. Your friend has just come back from a trip. Ask about the weather.
W h a t w a s th e w e a th e r like?___________________________________
2. Your friend has just come back from the movies. Ask about the movie.

3. Your friend has just finished a com puter course. Ask about the classes.

4. Your friend has just come back from a business trip. Ask about the hotel.
U N I T
W h a t. . . ? Which How
48 A
(questions 4)
W hat + noun (W hat co lo r . . . ? / W hat k in d . . . ?, etc.)
■ W hat co lo r is your car? ■ W hat co lo r are your eyes?
■ W hat size is this shirt? H W hat n ation ality is she?
■ W hat tim e is it? ■ W hat day is it today?
■ W hat k in d o f job do you want? (or W hat type o f job . . . ? / W hat sort of job . . . ?)
W hat w ithout a noun:
■ W hat’s your favorite color?
■ W hat do you w ant to do tonight?

B W hich + noun (things or people):


■ W hich train did you catch - the 9:50 or the 10:30?
■ W hich d octor did you see D octor Lopez, D octor Gray, or D octor Hill?
We use w h ich w ithout a noun for things, not people:
■ W hich is bigger - Canada or Australia?
We use w h o for people (w ithout a noun):
■ W ho is taller - Joe or Gary? (not W hich is taller?)

C W hat or which?
We use w h ich w hen we are thinking about a small num ber o f possibilities (perhaps 2, 3, or 4):
■ W e can go this way or that way.
W hich w ay should we go? or or or
■ There are four umbrellas here. ■ m HI ■
W hich is yours? W H IC H ?
W hat is m ore general:
■ W hat’s the capital o f Argentina? (of all the cities in Argentina)
■ W hat k ind of music do you like? (of all kinds o f music)
Com pare:
■ W hat co lo r are his eyes? (not W hich color?)
W hich co lo r do you prefer, p in k or yellow ?
■ W hat is the longest river in the world?
W hich is the longest river - the M ississippi, the A m a zo n , or the N ile?

H ow . . . ?
■ “H o w was the party last night?” “It was great.”
■ “H o w do you get to w ork?” “By bus.”
You can use h o w + adjective/adverb (how tall / h ow old / h o w often, etc.):
tall are you?” “I’m five feet 10.” (5 feet 10 inches or 1.78 meters)
b ig is the house?” “N ot very big.”
old is your m other?” “She’s 45.”
“H o w far is it from here to the airport?” “Ten m iles.” (about 16 kilometers)
often do you use your car?” “Every day.”
lo n g have they been m arried?” “Ten years.”
m u ch was the taxi?” “Ten dollars.”

96 questions —►Units 45-47 How long does it take Unit 49 w hich one(s) —►Unit 76
U N I T
Exercises
.1 Write questions with What . . . ?

1. This shirt is nice. (size?) W hat size is it?


2. I w ant a job. (kind?) W hat kin d o f jo b do you w a n t?
3. I have a new sweater. (color?) W h a t.
4. I got up early this m orning. (time?) _____ get up?
5. I like music. (type?) --------
6. I w ant to buy a car. (kind?) _____

: 2 Complete the questions. Use Which . . . ?

W hich should we

Kendaii Sq.
Cambridge
Storrow Dr.

THEATER 1 THEATER 2

goes downtown?

m3 Write What/Which/Who.
1. W hat is that m an’s name? 6. This is a nice office._________ desk
2. W hich . way should we go? is yours?
Left or right? 7. ________ is m ore expensive, m eat or fish?
3. You can have tea or coffee. 8. ________ is older, Liz or Steve?
_________ do you prefer? 9. _____ kind of camera do you have?
4. “_________ day is it today?” “Friday.” 10. A: I’ve got three cameras.
5. . is your favorite sport? B: _________ camera do you use most?

4 Complete the questions with How + adjective or adverb (ihigh/long, etc.).

1. H o w high _ is M ount Everest? O ver 29,000 feet.


2. is it to the station? Almost two miles.
3. _________is Helen? She’s 26.
4. ______ do the buses run? Every 10 minutes.
5. . is the w ater in the pool? Seven feet.
6. have you lived here? Almost three years.

13.5 Write questions with H o w . . . ?


1. Are you five feet nine? Five feet 10? Five feet 11? -jow tall a re you/
2. Is this box one kilogram? Two? Three?
3. Are you 20 years old? 22? 25?
4. Did you spend $20? $30? $50?
D. Do you watch TV every day? O nce a week? Never?

6. Is it 2,000 miles from N ew York to Los Angeles? 2,500? 3,000?


How long does it take . . . ?

H o w lo n g does it take to get from , to . . . ?

N ew York
/ H ow long does it take to get from N ew York
hour X w to W ashington, D.C., by plane?

Washington, D.C
/ * It takes an hour.

■ How long does it take to get from Los Angeles to N ew York by train?
■ It takes several days to get from Los Angeles to N ew York by train.
■ H ow long does it take to get from your house to the airport by car?
■ It takes ten m inutes to get from my house to the airport by car.

H o w lo n g does it take to do something?


takes a week
to o k a long tim e
does
w ill take three hours
H ow long did it take to . . . ? It to . . .
w ill d o esn ’t
d id n ’t take long
w o n ’t

H ow long does it take to cross the Atlantic by ship?


“I came by train.” “You did? H ow long d id it take (to get here)?”
H ow long w ill it take to get from here to the hotel?
It takes a long time to learn a language.
It d o esn ’t take long to m ak e an omelet.
It w o n ’t take long to fix the computer.

H o w lo n g does it take you to do something?

does you
H ow long did it take Tom to . . . ?
w ill them

takes me a week
it to o k Tom a long time to . . .
w ill take them three hours
Day t Day 2 Day 3
I started reading the book on Monday.
I finished it on W ednesday evening.
It to o k m e three days to read it.

■ H ow long w ill it take m e to learn to drive?


■ It takes T om 20 m inutes to get to work in the m orning.
■ It to o k us an hour to do the shopping.
■ D id it take you a long tim e to fin d a job?
■ It w ill take m e an hour to co o k dinner.
Exercises unit 49
-5 1 Look at the pictures and write questions with How long . . . ?

2.
3.
4.

- 5 2 How long does it take to do these things? Write full sentences.


1. fly from your city/country to Los Angeles
It takes ab out 11 hou rs to fly from S e o u l to L o s Angeles.
2. fly from your city/country to Australia

3. become a doctor in your country

4. walk from your hom e to the nearest superm arket

5. get from your house to the nearest airport

-53 Write questions with How long did it take . . . ?


1. (Jane found a job.) H o w long d id it take h e r to fin d a j o b ? _____________
2. (I walked to the station.) y o u _________________
3. (Tom painted the bathroom .) _____________________________________________________
4. (I learned to ski.) _____________________________________________________
5. (They repaired the computer.) __________________________________________________

X9.4 Read the situations and write sentences with It took . . . .


1. I read a book last week. I started reading it on Monday. I finished it three days later.
It took m e th re e days to r e a d the book.__________________________________________
2. W e walked hom e last night. We left at 10:00, and we got hom e at 10:20.

3. I learned to drive last year. I had my first driving lesson in January. I passed my driving test
six m onths later.

4. M ark drove to H ouston yesterday. H e left hom e at 7:00 and got to H ouston at 10:00.

5. Lisa began looking for a jo b a long tim e ago. She got a job last week.

6. Write a sentence about yourself

99
Do you know where . . . ?
I don't know w h a t . . ., etc.
Do you know W e say: W here is Paula?
where Paula is?
but D o you k n ow w here Paula is ?
(not Do you know where is Paula?)
In the same way we say:
I know i
where n i is.
Paula •
I don’t know
Can you tell me w here Paula is?

Compare:
W ho are th ose people? but who those peop le are
H ow old is N icole? D o you k n ow how old N ic o le is
W hat tim e is it? Can you tell m e w hat time it is
W here can I go? w here I can go
H ow m uch is this camera? how m uch this cam era is
I k n ow
W hen are you leaving town? w hen yo u ’re leaving tow n
I d o n ’t k n ow
W here have th ey gone? w here they have gone
I d o n ’t rem em b er
W hat was Jenny wearing? w hat Jenny was wearing

Questions w ith d o /d o e s /d id (simple present and simple past)


W here does he live ?

but D o you k n ow w here he lives ? (not Do you know w here does he live?)
Com pare:

H ow do airplanes fly? but D o you k n ow how airplanes fly


W hat does Jane want? I d o n ’t k n ow w hat Jane w ants
W hy did she go home? I d o n ’t rem em ber why she w en t hom e
W here d id I pu t the key? I k n ow where I p u t the key

Questions beginning Is . . . ? / D o . . . ? / Can . . . ?, etc. (yes/no questions)


Compare:
Is Jack at home? but Jack is at hom e
D o you k n ow
H ave they got a car? if th ey’ve g o t a car
Can B rian swim? or Brian can swim
D o th ey live near here? I d o n ’t k n ow w h eth er they live near here
D id anybody see you? anybody saw you

You can use i f or w h eth er in these sentences:


Do you know i f they’ve got a car? or Do you know w h eth er they’ve got a car?
I don’t know i f anybody saw me. or I don’t know w h eth er anybody saw me.
U N I T
Exercises 50
50.1 Answer these questions with Idon't know w here/w hen/w hy.

1 . Have your friends gone home? (where) / do n 't k n o w w h e re th e y 've pone.


2. Is Sue in her office? (where) I don’t know
3. Is the building very old? (how old)
4. W ill Paul be here soon? (when)
5. Was he angry because I was late? (whv)
6 . Has D onna lived here a long time? (how long)

50.2 Complete the sentences.


1. (H ow do airplanes fly?) Do you know . h o w airplanes fly
2. (W here does Susan work?) I don’t know _
3. (W hat did Peter say?) Do you re m e m b e r.
4. (W hy did he go hom e early?) I don’t k n o w _____
5. (W hat tim e does the m eeting begin?) Do you know
6. (H ow did the accident happen?) I don’t re m e m b e r.

50.3 Which is right?


1. Do you know w hat time is it / it is? (it is is right)
2. W hy are you / you are leaving?
3. I don’t know where are they / they are going.
4. Can you tell me w here is the m useum / the m useum is?
5. W here do you w ant / you w ant to go for vacation?
6. Do you know w hat do elephants eat / elephants eat?
7. I don’t know how far is it / it is from the hotel to the station.

50.4 Write questions with Do you know if


1. (Do they have a car?) V o you k n o w i f th e y h a ve a car?
2. (Are they married?) Do you know
3. (Does Sue know Bill?) ____________
4. (W ill Gary be here tomorrow?) ____________
5. (Did he pass his exam?)_____________ ____________

50.5 Write questions beginning Do you know


1. (W hat does Laura want?) V o y o u k n o w w h a t L a u ra w a n ts?
2. (W here is Paula?) D o ________________________________
3. (Is she working today?) ___________
4. (W hat tim e does she start work?) ___________
5. (Are the banks open tomorrow?) ___________
6. (W here do Sarah and Tim live?) ___________
7. (Did they go to Jane’s party?) ___________

50.6 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.


1. Do you know why th e bus w a s la te__________
2 .
Do you know w hat tim e ________
3. Excuse me, can you tell me w here .
4. I don’t know w h a t______________
5. Do you know if
6. Do you know how m uch .

101
She said t h a t . . . He told me t h a t . .

Last week you w ent to a party. A lot Today you m eet Paul. You tell him
of your friends were there. H ere are about the party. You tell Paul w hat
some things they said to you: your friends said:
Present Past
l fm enjoying my job. ■ Diane said that she was
am enjoying her new job.
was
My father isn't is ■ She said that her father
Diane very happy. w asn ’t very happy.

We're going are w ere ■ Sarah and Tim said that they
to buy a house. w ere going to buy a house.
Sarah Tim

I have to leave early. ■ Peter said that he had to


have leave early.
had
My sister has has ■ He said that his sister had
Peter gone to A ustralia. gone to Australia.

can cou ld ■ Kate said that she c o u ld n ’t


I can't find a job.
find a job.
Kate

I'll call you. w ill w ou ld ■ Steve said that he w ou ld


call me.
Steve

I don't like my job. ■ Rachel said that she d id n ’t


do like her job.
did
My son doesn't does ■ She said that her son d id n ’t
Rachel like school. like school.

You look tired. lo o k lo o k e d ■ M ike said that I lo o k e d tired.


I feel fine. feel felt ■ I said that I felt fine.
etc. etc.
Mike You

say and tell

say (—►said) tell (—►told)


■ H e said that he was tired. ■ He told m e that he was tired.
(not He said me) (not He told that)
■ W hat did she say to you? ■ W hat did she tell you?
(not say you) (not tell to you)
We say he said to m e, I said to Ann, etc. W e say he told m e, I to ld Ann, etc.
but not “he said m e,” “I said A nn.” but not “he told to m e,” “I told to A nn.”

You can say:


■ H e said that he was tired, or H e said he was tired, (without that)
M Kate told me that she couldn’t find a job. or Kate told me she couldn’t find a job.

I told you to . . . —►Unit 54


Exercises U N I
51.1 Read what these people say and write sentences with He/She/They said (that) . . .
1. L js I've lost my w atch. 6. I don't feel very w ell.
“ i
H e s a id h e h a d lo st his w atch.
2 . I'm very busy. 7. W e'll be home late.
S i
1

3. 1 can't go to the party. 8. jg fp I've just gotten back from vacation.


§

4. 1 have to go out. 9. I'm going to buy a new computer.


& A

5. I'm learning Russian. 10. We don't have a key.


f t i l

51 2 Use the pictures to complete the sentences.

1. I m enjoying 2. f ' / / Y m not Mike


my new job. y y hungry.

Diane Emily

I don't You can 6.


w ant to go. have it.
I'll send you
a postcard.
Hannah Mark

I w ant to 9. I'm going to


W here's Robert? watch TV. the movies.
He's gone home.
Linda David Mary

1. I m et Diane last week. She said sh e w a s enjoying h e r n e w jo b


2. Emily didn’t w ant anything to eat. She sa id _____________________
3. I w anted to borrow M ike’s ladder, but he said __________________
4. H annah was invited to the party, but she said ___________________
5. Sharon told me she didn’t w ant the picture. She sa id ____________
6. M ark ju st left on vacation. He sa id ____________________________
7. I was looking for Robert. Linda sa id ___________________________
8. “W hy did David stay at hom e?” “H e sa id _____________________
9. “Has M ary gone out?” “I think so. She sa id ___________________

51 3 Write say/said or tell/told.


1. He s a id he was tired. 7. The w om an she was
2. W hat did she te ll vou? a reporter.
3. Anna she didn’t like Peter. 8. The wom an us she was
4. Jack me that you were sick. a reporter.
5. Please don’t Dan w hat 9. They asked me a lot o f questions, but I
happened. didn’t them anvthing.
6. Did Lucy she w ould be late? 10. They asked me a lot o f questions, but I
didn’t _____________ anything.
U N I T
work/working go/going do/doing
52
A W o rk /g o /b e , etc. (baseform)
We use the base form w ith w ill/c a n /m u st, etc.:
w ill ■ Anna w ill be here soon.
“ ►Units 28
shall ■ Shall I op en the window?
m ig h t ■ I m ig h t call you later.
—►U nit 30
m ay ■ May I sit here?
can ■ I can’t m eet you tomorrow.
-► U nit 31
cou ld ■ C ou ld you pass the salt, please?
m u st ■ It’s late. You m u st be tired. -► U nit 32
should ■ You sh o u ld n ’t w ork so hard. —►U nit 33
w o u ld ■ W ould you lik e some coffee? —►U nit 35

We use the base form w ith d o /d o e s /d id :


d o /d o e s D o you work? —►Units 6 -7
(simple present) They d o n ’t w ork very hard.
H elen d o esn ’t k n o w many people.
H ow m uch does it cost?

did W hat tim e did the train leave? —►U nit 12


(simple past) We d id n ’t sleep well.

B to w ork / to go / to be, etc. (infinitive)


(I’m) g o in g to . . . ■ I’m g o in g to play tennis tomorrow. U nit 27
■ W hat are you g o in g to do?

(I) have to . . . I have to go now. U nit 34


Everybody has to eat.

(I) w ant to . . . Do you w ant to go out? U nit 53


They don’t w ant to co m e w ith us.

(I) w o u ld lik e to . I’d lik e to talk to you. U nit 35


W ould you lik e to go out?

(I) used to . . . Dave used to w ork in a factory. U nit 15

w o r k in g /g o in g /p la y in g , etc.
a m /is /a r e + -in g ■ Please be quiet. I’m w orkin g. —►Units 3-4, 8, 26
(present continuous) ■ Tom isn ’t w o rk in g today.
■ W hat tim e are you g o in g out?

w a s/w ere + -in g ■ It was raining, so we didn’t go out. —►Units 13-14


(past continuous) ■ W hat w ere you d o in g w hen the
phone rang?

104 verbs + to and -ing (I w an t to do / 1enjoy doing) —►Unit 53 go + -ing —►Unit 56


Exercises u n i t
52 1 Complete the sentences. W rite:.. . call Paul o r . . . to call Paul.
1. I’ll c a ll Paul . 6. Do you h a v e
2. I’m going to ca ll Paul . 7. You s h o u ld ____
3. Can y o u Paul? 8. I w a n t________
4. Shall I ? 9. I m ig h t____
5. I’d lik e . 10. C ould you .

: Z 2 Complete the sentences with a verb from the box. Sometimes you need the base form
(work/go, etc.) and sometimes you need -ing (working/going, etc.).

d o /d o in g e a t/e a tin g f l y /f ly in g g e t/g e ttin g


g o /g o in g lis te n /lis te n in g s le e p /sle e p in g stay/stayin g
w a it/w a itin g w a tc h /w a tc h in g w e a r /w e a r in g w ork /w o r k in g

1. Please be quiet. I’m w orking .


2. I feel tired today. I didn’t sleep very well last night.
3. W hat time do you u su ally _______________ up in the m orning?
4. “W here are y o u ?” “To the bank.”
5. Did y o u _______________television last night?
6. Look at that plane! It’s very low.
7. You can tu rn off the radio. I’m n o t to it.
8. They didn’t _______________ anything because they w eren’t hungry.
9. My friends w e r e _______________ for me w hen I arrived.
10. “Does Susan alw ays_______________ glasses?” “No, only for reading.”
11. “W hat are y o u ________________ tonight?” “I’m _______________hom e.”

: 1 3 Put the verb in the correct form. Choose from:

the base form (work/go, etc.) or


the infinitive (to work/to go, etc.) or
-ing {working I going, etc.)
1. Should I open the window? (open)
2. It’s late. I have to g o now. (go)
3. Amanda isn’t w orking this week. She’s on vacation, (work)
4. I’m tired. I don’t w a n t_______________ out. (go)
5. It m ig h t_______________ , so take an um brella w ith you. (rain)
6. W hat time do you h a v e _______________tom orrow m orning? (leave)
7. I’m sorry I can’t _______________ you. (help)
8. My brother is a student. H e’s _______________ physics, (study)
9. W ould you lik e _______________ on a trip around the world? (go)
10. W hen you saw Maria, w hat was s h e ______________ ? (wear)
11. W hen you go to London, w here are you g o in g _______________ ? (stay)
12. “W h ere’sGary?” “H e’s ________________a bath.” (take)
13. I u sed a car, but I sold it last year, (have)
14. He spoke very quietly. I couldn’t him. (hear)
15. You don’t look well. I don’t think you sh o u ld _______________ to w ork today, (go)
16. I don’t know w hat he said. I wasn’t to him. (listen)
17. I’m sorry I’m late. I h a d _______________a phone call, (make)
18. I w ant a doctor, (be) Medical students m u s t_______________ courses in
biology and chemistry, (take)
19. May I p le a se _______________ your phone? (use)

105
to . . . (I want to do) and -ing (I enjoy doing)

verbs + to . . . (I w ant to do)

w ant plan d ecid e try


hope exp ect offer forget + to . (to do / to w ork / to be, etc.)
need p rom ise refuse learn

W hat do you w ant to do tonight?


It’s not very late. We don’t need to go hom e yet.
Tina has d ecid ed to sell her car.
You fo rg o t to turn off the light w hen you w ent out.
My brother is learn in g to drive.
I tried to read my book, but I was too tired.

verbs + -in g (I enjoy doing)

el^ °d f °^ h suSSest + ~*n & (d o in g /w o r k in g /b e in g , etc.)


I enjoy dancing.
I enjoy dancing. (not enjoy to dance)
I don’t m in d g ettin g up early.
Has it stop p ed raining?
Sonia su ggested g o in g to the movies.

verbs + -in g or to . . .

lik e love start


co n tin u e + -in g (doing, etc.) or to . . . (to do, etc.)
prefer hate b egin

Do you lik e g ettin g up early? or Do you lik e to get up early?


I prefer traveling by car. or I prefer to travel by car.
Anna loves dancing, or Anna loves to dance.
I hate b ein g late, or I hate to be late.
It started raining, or It started to rain.

w o u ld lik e to . . . , etc.
w o u ld like w ou ld love
+ to . . . (to do / to w ork / to be, etc.)
w o u ld prefer w ou ld hate

Julia w o u ld lik e to m e et you.


Pd love to go to Australia. (I’d = I w ould)
“W ould you lik e to sit down?” “N o, Pd prefer to stand, thank you.”
I like this city very m uch. I w o u ld n ’t lik e to m ove.
Pd hate to lo se my cell phone.

would like —►Unit 35 I want you to —►Unit 54 go + -ing —►Unit 56 preposition + -ing —►Unit 113
Exercises U N I T
: 3 1 Put the verb in the right form, to . . . or -ing.
1. I enjoy dancing _. (dance) 8. The w eather was nice, so I suggested
2 . W hat do you w a n t. to do ___________ for a walk by the river, (go)
tonight? (do) W h ere’s Bill? H e p ro m ised ___________
3. Good-bye! I hope _ . you here on time, (be)
again soon, (see) 10. I’m not in a hurry. I don’t m ind
I le a rn e d _________ . w hen I was five ___________ . (wait)
years old. (swim) 11. W hat have you d ec id e d __________ ? (do)
Have you fin ish ed ___ . the 12. Gary was very angry and refused
kitchen? (clean) ___________ to me. (speak)
6. W h ere’s Anna? I need . her 13. I’m tired. I w a n t____________to bed. (go)
something, (ask) 14. I was very upset and sta rte d ____________.
Do you e n jo y ________ . other (cry)
countries? (visit) 15. I’m try in g ____________. (work) Please
s to p ____________. (talk)

53 2 Complete the sentences using to .. or -ing. Use these verbs:


-go- go h elp lo se rain read see send w ait w atch
1. “Have you ever been to Australia?” “No, but I’d love to g o
2 . Jane had a lot to do, so I o ffered __ ____________ her.
3. I’m surprised that you’re here. I didn’t ex p e ct_______________ you.
4. Nicole has a lot o f books. She en jo y s_______________ .
5. This ring was my grandm other’s. I’d h a te _______________ it.
.
6 D on’t fo rg e t_______________ us a postcard w hen you’re on vacation.
7. I’m not going out until it sto p s_______________ .
.
8 W hat should we do this afternoon? W ould you like to the beach?
9. W hen I’m tired in the evening, I lik e _____________ . television.
10. “Do you w ant to go now?” “N o, I’d p re fe r______ _______ a few m inutes.”

3 Complete the answers to the questions.

%
1. Do you usually get up early? Yes, I like _ to g e t up e a rly
2. Do you ever go to museums? Yes, I lo v e ______________
3. W ould you like to go to a No, I’m hungry. I’d prefer .
m useum now? to a restaurant.
4. Do you write e-mails often? No, I don’t lik e _________
5. Have you ever been to Rome? No, but I’d lo v e _________ one day.
6. Do you ever travel by train? Yes, I en jo y _____________
7. Do you w ant to walk hom e or I don’t m in d ____________ . , but a
take a taxi? taxi w ould be quicker.

: 3 4 Complete these sentences. Write about yourself. Use to . . . or -ing.


1. I enjov
2. I don’t like
3. If it’s a nice day tom orrow, I’d like
4. W hen I’m on vacation, I like
5. I don’t m ind . hut
6. I w ouldn’t like

I - - - : : : onal exercise 32 (page 260) 107


U N I T
I want you to I told you to . . .
54
I want you to

The w om an w ants to leave.


The m an d oesn ’t w an t the w om an to leave.
He w ants her to stay.
We say:

you
I w ant som eb od y to do som ething
Sarah

■ I w ant you to be happy. (not I w ant that you are happy)


■ They didn’t w ant anybody to k n ow their secret.
■ Do you w ant m e to len d you some money?
We use w o u ld lik e in the same way:
■ W ould you lik e m e to len d you some money?

We also use this structure (verb + somebody + to . . . ) with:


verb + somebody + to . . .
ask Sue asked a friend to len d her some money.
tell I told you to be careful.
i i i i i i ■8 advise W hat do you advise me to do?
exp ect I didn’t exp ect them to be here.
persuade We persuaded Gary to co m e w ith us.
teach I am teach in g my brother to sw im .

I to ld you to . . . / I told you n ot to . . .

Wait for me. Don't w ait for me.

i ||(| ij

Jane Me Paul
-Jane told me to w ait for her. Paul told Sue n o t to w ait for him.

m ak e and let
After m ak e and let, we do not use to:
■ H e’s very funny. He m akes me laugh. (not makes me to laugh)
■ At school our teacher m ad e us w ork very hard.
■ Sue le t me use her com puter because m ine wasn’t working, (not let me to use)
You can say L et’s . . . (= Let us) w hen you w ant people to do things w ith you:
■ C om e on! L et’s dance.
■ “Do you w ant to go out tonight?” “N o, I’m tired. L et’s stay hom e.”

Let's . Unit 37 He told me t h a t . . . —►Unit 51


i—
Exercises U N I
1 Write sentences beginning / want you . . . / I don't want you . . . /
Do you want me . . . ?
1. (you have to come w ith me) / w a n t y o u to co m e w ith me.________
2. (listen carefully) I w a n t.
3. (please don’t be angry) I don’t _
4. (should I wait for you?) Do you .
5. (don’t call me to n ig h t)________
6. (you should m eet S arah)______

: - 2 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. Come on! Let's 2. W here's the station? 3. I'm sick. 4. Can you help me?
go to the movies!
It's a good movie.

Urn . . . er Brian you should go


Dan . . . OK. to the doctor. Linda

5. I'm busy now. 6. Can I use 7. Don't call Do you play the piano?
Come back in your phone? before 8 :0 0 . ?
10 minutes. Yes, my mother
Of course. taught me.

Tom Paul Sue

1. Dan persuaded m e to g o to th e m ovies.


.
2 I w anted to get to the station. A w om an told .
3. Brian was sick. I advised __________________
4. Linda had a lot o f luggage. She a sk e d __
5. I was too busy to talk to Tom. I to ld __
.
6 I w anted to m ake a phone call. Paul l e t .
7. Sue is going to call me later. I to ld ____
A nn’s m other ta u g h t_________________

54.3 Complete these sentences with the verbs in the list. Sometimes to is necessary (to go /
to waitf etc.); sometimes to is not necessary (go/wait, etc.).
arrive b o rrow get go leave m ak e repeat te ll th in k w ait
1. Please stay here. I don’t w ant you to lea ve yet.
2 . I didn’t hear w hat she said, so I asked h e r _______________ it.
3. “Should we begin?” “N o, let’s _______________ a few m inutes.”
4. Are they already here? I expected them . . m uch later.
5. Kevin’s parents didn’t w ant h im _______ married.
6 . I w ant to stay here. You can’t make m e __________ ______ w ith you.
7. “Is that your bicycle?” “No, it’s Jo h n ’s. He let me . it.”
8. Rachel can’t come to the party. She told me . you.
9. W ould you like som ething to drink? W ould you like me . some coffee?
10. “Kate doesn’t like m e.” “W hat makes y o u ___________ . that?”
U N I T
I went to the store to . . .

Paula w anted some fruit, so


she w ent to the store.
W hy did she go to the store?
To get some fruit.
She w ent to the store to get
some fruit.

to . . . (to get / to see, etc.) tells us why a person does something:


■ “W hy are you going out?” “To get some bread.”
■ Amy w ent to the station to m eet her friend.
■ Sue turned on the television to w atch the news.
■ I’d like to go to Mexico to learn Spanish.
m o n e y /tim e to (do something):
■ We need some m o n ey to buy food.
■ I don’t have tim e to w atch television.

to . . . and for . . .
to + verb for + noun
(to get / to see, etc.) (for fo o d / for a new spaper, etc.)
■ I w ent to the store to get some fruit. ■ I w ent to the store for som e fruit.
(not for get)
■ They’re going to Brazil to see their ■ They’re going to Brazil for a vacation.
friends.
■ We need some m oney to buy food. ■ W e need some m oney for food.

w ait for
■ Please w ait for me. I can't leave yet.
■ Are you w a itin g for the bus? I'm waiting for
John to call.
w ait to (do something):
■ I’m w aitin g to talk to the manager.
■ Are you w a itin g to see the doctor?
w ait for (som ebody/som ething) to . . . :
■ I can’t leave yet. I’m w a itin g for Joh n to call.
■ Are you w a itin g for the m ail to com e?

go to . . . and go f o r . . . —►Unit 56 something to eat / nothing to do, etc. —►Unit 80


110 enough + to/for. . . —►Unit 92 too + to/for. . . —►Unit 93
Exercises
: 5 1 Write sentences beginning / w ent to . . . . Choose from the boxes.

a c o ffee shop the d ru gstore buy som e fo o d get som e m e d ic in e


the p o st o ffice" the su perm arket "g^et-som c stam ps m e et a frien d

1. / w e n t to th e p o s t o ffic e to p e t so m e stam ps.____________________________________


2. I w e n t _____________________________
3. _________________
4. ________________________________________________________________ _________________

E5.2 Complete the sentences. Choose from the box.

to get som e fresh air to op en th is d oor to read th e n ew spaper


to see w h o it was to w ak e h im up to w atch the-news-

1. I turned on the television to w a tc h th e n e w s ______________________________________


2. Alice sat down in an arm c h air ____
3. Do I need a k e y ____
4. I w ent for a walk by the riv e r______________________________________________________
5. I knocked on the door o f David’s ro o m ____
6. The doorbell rang, so I looked out o f the w in d o w ____________________________________

: 5 3 Use your own ideas to finish these sentences.Use to . . . .


1. I w ent to the store to p e t so m e fr u it_____________________________________________
2. I’m very busy. I don’t have tim e ____
3. I called A n n ____________________________
4. I’m going o u t _____________________
5. I borrow ed some m o n e y ___

£5.4 Write to or for.


1. I w ent to the store to get some bread.
2. We w ent to a re sta u ran t_______have dinner.
3. Robert wants to go to co lleg e________ study economics.
4. I’m going to B o sto n ______ an interview next week.
5. I’m going to T o ro n to ________visit some friends o f mine.
6. Do you have tim e ____________ a cup o f coffee?
7. I got up late this m orning. I didn’t have tim e ________ comb my hair.
8. Everybody needs m o n e y _______live.
9. We didn’t have any m o n e y _______ a taxi, so we walked hom e.
10. The office is very small. T here’s only enough r o o m a desk and chair.
11. A: Excuse me, are you w a itin g ________ use the phone?
B: No, I’m w a itin g _____________somebody.

55.5 Complete these sentences. Choose from:


Joh^- / ea41 it / to arrive you / te ll m e th e m o v ie / b eg in
1. I can’t go out yet. I’m waiting fo r Jo h n to call_____________________________________
2. I sat down in the movie theater and w a ite d __________________________________________
3. We called an ambulance and w a ite d ____
4. “Do you know w hat to do?” “No, I’m w a itin g _____________________________________
U N I T
go to go on . . . go f o r . . . go -ing

go to . . . (go to w ork / go to San Francisco / go to a concert, etc.)


■ W hat tim e do you usually go to work?
■ I’m g o in g to C hina next week.
go to
■ Jean didn’t w ant to go to the concert.
■ W hat tim e did you go to bed last night?
■ I w en t to the d en tist yesterday.
go to sleep = start to sleep:
■ I was very tired and w en t to sleep quickly,
go h o m e (w ithout to)
■ I’m g o in g h o m e now. (not going to home)

go on
vacation W e’re g o in g on vacation next week.
a trip C hildren often go on sch ool trips.
a tour W hen we were in Egypt, we w en t on a tou r of the Pyramids.
an excursion W orkers at the airport have g on e on strike.
a cruise (= they are refusing to work)
strike

go for . . .
a walk ■ “W h ere’s Joan?” “She w en t for a w alk .”
a run ■ Do you go for a run every m orning?
go (somewhere) for a swim ■ The w ater looks nice. I’m g o in g for a sw im .
lunch ■ Should we go out for dinner? I know a good restaurant
dinner, etc.

go + -in g
We use go + -in g for many sports (sw im m in g /sk iin g , etc.) and also shopping.
sh op p in g I'm going skiing
I go sw im m in g
he is g o in g fish in g
we w ent sailin g
they have gon e sk iin g
she wants to go j ° g g in g
running, etc.

Are you g o in g sh op p in g this afternoon?


| It’s a nice day. Let’s go sw im m in g.
I
(or Let’s go for a swim.)
Richard has a small boat, and he often goes sailing.
I I '■■ ■ I w en t jo g g in g before breakfast this m orning.

■ ■M
I H rH i
iff
1

w&S3m
llllMHIM
: xercises U N I
:c 1 Write to/on/for where necessary.
1. I’m going to C hina next week.
2. Richard often goes sailing, (no preposition)
3. Sue w e n t________ Mexico last year.
4. W ould you like to g o ____the movies tonight?
5. Jack g o e s jogging every m orning.
6. I’m going o u t ________ a walk. Do you w ant to come?
7. I’m tired because I w e n t________bed very late last night.
8. Jim is g o in g ________ at r i p ________ Turkey next week.
9. The w eather was warm and the river was clean, so we w e n t________ a swim.
10. The taxi drivers w e n t_______strike w hen I was in N ew York.
11. I need some stamps, so I’m g o in g ________ the post office.
12. It’s late. I have to g o _______ hom e now.
13. W ould you like to g o _______a tour of the city?
14. Do you w ant to go o u t ________ dinner this evening?
15. My parents are g o in g _______a cruise this summer.

5*5 2 Use the pictures to complete the sentences. Use go/goes/going/went + -ing.

3. every day 4. next winter \j 5. later 6. yesterday

fl
11

y r
j
Peter Sarah

1. Richard has a boat. H e often g o e s sailing .


2. Last Saturday Diane w e n t_______________________________.
3. G a ry ______________________________ every day.
4. Nicole is going to Colorado next winter. She i s ______________________________ .
5. Peter is going out later. He has t o _______________________________.
6. S arah after w ork yesterday.

55.3 Complete the sentences. Use the words in the box. Use to/on/for if necessary.

a sw im vacation H aw aii sh o p p in g bed


a w a lk hom e r id in g sk iin g c o lle g e

1. The w ater looks nice. Let’s go fo r a sw im .


2. After finishing high school, Tina w e n t___________ , w here she studied
psychology.
3. I’m g o in g ___________________ now. I have to buy a few things.
4. I was very tired last night. I w e n t___________ early.
5. I wasn’t enjoying the party, so I w e n t_______ early.
6. W e live near the m ountains. In w inter we go . almost every weekend.
7. Richard has a horse. He g o e s. lot.
It’s a beautiful day! W ould you like to g o _____ . in the park?
9. A: Are you g o in g ____________________ soon?
B: Yes, next m onth. W e’re g o in g ____________ . W e’ve never been there before.
U N I T
get
57 get a letter / get a job , etc. (get + noun) = receive/buy/find:
you get it

you d o n ’t have som ething you have it

■ “D id you get my postcard?” “Yes, I go t it yesterday.” (= receive)


■ I like your sweater. W here did you get it? (= buy)
■ Is it difficult to get a job at the m om ent? (= find)
■ (on the phone) “Hello, can I speak to Lisa, please?” “Sure. I’ll get her.”

get h un gry / get co ld / get tired, etc. (get + adjective) = become:


you get hun gry

you’re n o t hungry you are hungry

■: ■ If you don’t eat, you get hungry.


BMBB I
■ D rink your coffee. It’s g ettin g cold.
■ I’m sorry your m other is sick. I hope she gets b etter soon.
'XYh.; ~ ■
c , ~f Y ■ It was raining very hard. W e didn’t have an umbrella, so we go t very wet.
also get m arried ■ Nicole and Frank are gettin g m arried soon,
:* : : : get dressed (= put your clothes on) ■ I got up and go t dressed quickly,
I
get lo st (= lose your way) ■ We didn’t have a map, so we g o t lost.
I
get to a place = arrive:
■ I usually get to w ork before 8:30. (= arrive at work)
■ We left B oston at 10:15 and got to O ttaw a at 11:45.
get to
get h er e /th e r e (w ithout to ):
■ H ow did you get here? By bus?
get h o m e (without to):
■ W hat time did you get h o m e last night?

get i n / o u t / o n / o f f

get in (a car) get ou t (o f a car) get on get o f f


(a bus / a train / a plane)

■ Kate got in the car and drove away. (You can also say: Kate got in to the car and . . .)
■ A car stopped and a man g o t out. (but A m an got out o f the car.)
■ We go t on the bus outside the hotel and g o t o f f at C hurch Street.

114 get to —►Unit 109 in/out/on/off —►Units 111f 115 get up —►Unit 115
E xercises U N I
: ~ 1 C o m p lete th e s e se n te n c e s. Use g e t / g e t s an d c h o o se from th e box.

an oth er on e a d o cto r a lo t o f rain -my- p o stc ard th e jo b


a g o o d salary a n ew com p u ter a tick et som e m ilk you r ja ck et

1. Did you g e t m y p o s tc a rd ? I sent it a week ago.


2. W here did y o u ?It’s very nice.
3. Quick! This m an is sick. W e have t o ______________________________ .
4. I w ant to return this phone. It doesn’t work. Can I ______________________________ ,
please?
5. Tom has an interview tom orrow. I hope h e ______________________________ .
.
6 W hen you go out, can y o u _______________________________?
7. “Are you going to the concert?” “Yes, if I c a n ______________________________ .”
8. M argaret has a well-paid job. S h e ______________________________ .
9. The w eather is horrible here in winter. W e ______________________________ .
10. I’m going t o . The one I have is too slow.

: ~ 2 C o m p lete th e s e s e n te n c e s. Use g e t t i n g + th e s e w o rd s:
-ee ld- dark late m arried ready
1. D rink your coffee. It’s g ettin g co ld ______ .
2. Turn on the light. It’s ____________________ .
3. “I’m ____________________next w eek.” “Really? Congratulations!”
4. “W h ere’s Karen?” “She’s to go out.”
5. It’s . It’s time to go home.

57 3 C o m p lete th e s e n te n c e s. Use g e t / g e t s / g o t + th e s e w o rd s:
an gry b etter hungry- lo st m arried old w et
1. If you don’t eat, you g e t h ungry .
2. D o n ’t go out in the rain. You’l l ______________________________ .
3. My b ro th e r______________________________ last year. His w ife’s nam e is Sarah.
4. Dan is always very calm. He n e v e r______________________________ .
5. We tried to find the hotel, but w e ______________________________ .
6 . Everybody wants to stay young, but we a l l ______________________________ .
7. Yesterday the w eather wasn’t so good at first, but i t ______________________________
during the day.

57 4 W rite s e n te n c e s w ith I l e f t . . . a n d g o t t o . . . .
1. hom e / 7:30 —►w ork / 8:15
/ le ft hom e a t 7:30 a n d g o t to w o rk a t 8:15.____________________________________
2. Toronto / 10:15 —►N ew York / 12:00
I left Toronto at 10:15 a n d _______________________________________________________
3. the party / 11:15 -►hom e / m idnight

4. Write a sentence about yourself.


I le ft __________________________

: 7 5 W rite g o t in / g o t o u t o f / g o t o n / g o t o f f .
1. Kate g o t in the car and drove away.
2 . I ____________________ the bus and walked to my house from the bus stop.
3. L isa____________________the car, locked the doors, and w ent into a store.
4 . I made a stupid mistake. I ____________________ the wrong train.
do and make

D o is a general word for actions:


■ W hat are you d o in g tonight? (not W hat are you making?)
■ “Shall I open the window?” “No, it’s OK. I’ll do it.”
■ Linda’s jo b is very boring. She does the same thing every day.
■ I did a lot of things yesterday.
W hat do you do? = W hat’s your job?:
■ “W hat do you do?” “I w ork in a bank.”

M ake = produce/create. For example:

She’s m a k in g coffee. H e has m ad e a cake. They m ak e toys. It was m ad e in China.

Com pare do and make:


■ I did a lot yesterday. I cleaned my room , I w rote some letters, and I m ad e a cake.
■ A: W hat do you do in your free time? Read? Play sports?
B: I m ake clothes. I m ak e dresses and jackets. I also m ake toys for my children.

Expressions w ith do
hom ew ork Have the children d on e th eir h om ew ork?
housework I hate d o in g h ousew ork, especially cleaning.
(somebody) a favor Barbara, could you do m e a favor?
do an exercise I have to do fou r exercises for hom ew ork tonight.
(your) best I did m y best, but I didn’t win the race.
the laundry Tim usually does the laundry on Saturdays.
the dishes I cooked, so you should do the dishes.

Expressions w ith m ake


a mistake ■ I’m sorry, I m ade a m istake.
an appointm ent ■ I need to m ak e an ap p o in tm en t to see the doctor.
a phone call ■ Excuse me, I have to m ak e a p h o n e call.
m ake
a list B Have you m ad e a sh op p in g list?
(a) noise B It’s late. D on’t m ake any noise.
a bed B Sometimes I forget to m ak e m y bed in the morning.

We say make a movie but take a picture:


■ W h en was this m o v ie made? but W hen was this p ictu re taken?

do/does/did (negatives and questions) —►Units 44-45 make somebody do something —►Unit 54
: xercises U N I T J g
: i 1 Write make/making/made or do/doing/did/done.
1. “Shall I open the window?” “No, that’s OK. I’ll do it.”
2. W hat did y o u ________________ lastweekend? Did you leave town?
3. Do you know how t o _______________ bread?
4. Paper i s ______________ from wood.
5. Richard didn’t help me. He sat in an armchair a n d _______________ nothing.
6. “W hat do y o u _______________ ?” “I’m a doctor.”
7. I asked you to clean the bathroom . Have y o u ________________ it?
8. “W hat do th e y in that factory?” “Shoes.”
9. I’m _______________some coffee. W ould you like some?
10. W hy are you angry w ith me? I didn’t _______________ anything wrong.
11. “W hat are y o u _______________tom orrow afternoon?” “I’m w orking.”

II 2 What are these people doing?

1.He's making a cake.____________________ 6.


2. T h e y _______________________________ 7.
3. H e ________________________________ 8.
4. __________________________________ 9.
5. 10.__________________________________

: 5,3 Write make or do in the correct form.


1. I hate doing housework, especially cleaning.
2. W hy do you alw ays_______________ the same mistake?
3. “Can y o u me a favor?” “It depends w hat it is.”
4. “Have y o u _______________ your hom ew ork?” “N o t yet.”
5. I need to see the dentist, but I haven’t _______________ an appointm ent.
6. J o e ______________ his best, but he didn’t pass his driver’s test.
7. I painted the door, but I didn’t ______________ it very well.
8. H ow many phone calls did y o u _______________ yesterday?
9. W h en you’ve finished Exercise 1, you c a n _______________Exercise 2.
10. T here’s som ething w rong w ith the car. The engine i s a strange noise.
11. It was a bad mistake. It was the worst mistake I’ve e v e r_______________ .
12. Let’s ______________ a list o f all the things we have t o ________________ today.

117
U N I T
have

have and have go t


I have (something) or I?ve g o t (something) = it is mine:
■ I have a new car. or I’ve go t a new car.
■ Sue has long hair, or Sue has g o t long hair.
■ D o they have any children? or H ave they g o t any children?
■ Tim d o esn ’t have a job. or Tim hasn’t g o t a job.
■ H ow m uch tim e do you have? or H ow m uch tim e have you got?
also

I have a headache / a toothache / a pain (in my leg, etc.)


I’ve g ot a cold / a cough / a sore throat / a fever / the flu, etc.

■ I have a headache, or I’ve go t a headache.


■ D o you have a cold? or H ave you go t a cold?
The past is I had (w ithout got) / I d id n ’t have / D id you have?, etc.:
■ W hen I first m et Sue, she had short hair.
■ He d id n ’t have any m oney because he d id n ’t have a job.
■ D id you have enough tim e to do everything you wanted?

have breakfast / have a go o d tim e, etc.


In these expressions have = eat or drink. You can’t use “have got.”

breakfast / lunch / dinner ■ W here’s Liz? ‘She’s havin g lunch.”


a meal / a sandwich / (a) pizza, etc. ■ I d o n ’t usually have breakfast.
have
a cup o f coffee / a glass o f milk, etc. ■ I had three cups o f coffee this m orning.
som ething to eat/drink ■ “H ave a cookie.” “O h, thank you.”

We also use have (not have got) in these expressions:


a party / a m eeting ■ W e ’ r e havin g a party next week. Please com:
a nice tim e / a good trip / fun, etc. ■ Enjoy your vacation. H ave a good trip!
a (nice) day / a (nice) w eekend / ■ I’m havin g a bad day. Everything is going
a (great) vacation wrong. I hope I have a better day tomorrow.
have
a (good) flight / a safe trip ■ We have a 12-hour flight to Lima tomorrow.
a dream / an accident ■ M ark had an accident on his first day in Romt,,
an argum ent / a discussion ■ .Boss, can we have a discussion about my pav:
a baby ■ Sandra has ju st had a baby. It’s a boy.

Com pare: I've got three I'm on bread


cups of coffee I'm h avin g i
have g o t or have
for this office. cup of cohrr;
■ I’ve got / I have three cups of coffee
for this office.
have (not have got)
I have coffee w ith my breakfast every m orning.
(not I’ve g o t coffee every m orning)
A: W h ere’s Paul?
B: H e’s on break. H e’s havin g a cup o f coffee.
(= he’s drinking it now)

I have / lfve got —►Unit 9 I've (done) (present perfect) —►Units 16-17, 19-20 I have to . . . Unit 34
Exercises U N I T
59.1 Write the correct form of have or have got.
/ didn 't h a v e
time to do the shopping yesterday. (I / not / have)
D o e s L is a h a ve OR H as L is a g o t a car?” (Lisa / have?)
“No, she can’t drive.”
3. H e can’t open the d o o r.____________________ a key. (he / not / have)
4. a cold last week. H e’s better now. (Gary / have)
5. W hat’s wrong? . ______________ a headache? (you / have?)
6. We w anted to go by taxi, but ________________ enough money. (we / not / have)
7. Liz is very busy.___________ . m uch free time. (she / not / have)
. any problem s w hen you were on vacation? (you / have?)

2 What are these people doing? Choose from the list:


an a rg u m en t breakfast a cup o f tea d in n er fu n a p arty

1. They 're h avin g a p a rty . 4. T h e y .


2. She. 5. _____
3. He _

: 9.3 What do you say in these situations? Use have.


1. Barbara is going on vacation. W hat do you say to her before she goes?
H ave a n ic e v a ca tio n ! ____________________________________________________________
2. You m eet Claire at the airport. She has ju st gotten off her plane. Ask her about the flight.
D id you h ave a g o od flig h t? ______________________________________________________
3. Tim is going on a long trip. W hat do you say to him before he leaves?

4. It’s M onday m orning. You are at work. Ask Paula about her weekend.

5. Paul has ju st come back from vacation. Ask him about his vacation.

6. Rachel is going out tonight. W hat do you say to her before she goes?

7. Sue’s little boy will be one year old next week. Is there going to be a birthday party? Ask her.

59.4 Complete the sentences. Use have/had and choose from the list,
an a ccid en t a glass o f w ater a baby
a bad d ream a p arty so m e th in g to eat
1. We h a d a p a r t y a few weeks ago. We invited 50 people.
2. “Should w e ?” “N o, I’m not hungry.”
3. I was thirsty, so I .
4. I ______________ . last night. It woke me up.
5. Tina is a very good driver. She has never .
6. Rachel is going t o ____________________ . It will be her first child.
U N I T
I/me he/him they/them, etc.
60 People

subject I we you he she they


)bject me us you h im her th em

subject object
I I know Tom. Tom knows m e. me
we We know Tom. Tom knows us. us
you You know Tom. Tom knows you. you
he H e knows Tom. Tom knows him . h im
she She knows Tom. Tom knows her. her
they T hey know Tom. Tom knows them . th em

Things

They're nice

subject it
object it

I don’t w ant this b ook. You can have it.


I don’t w ant these books. You can have them .
Diane never drinks m ilk . She doesn’t like it.
I never go to parties. I don’t like them .

We use m e /h e r /th e m , etc. (object) after a preposition (fo r /to /w ith , etc.):
■ This letter isn’t for m e. It’s for you.
■ W ho is that woman? W hy are you looking at her?
■ W e’re going to the movies. Do you w ant to come w ith us?
■ Sue and Kevin are going to the movies. Do you w ant to go w ith them ?
■ “W here’s the newspaper?” “You’re sitting on it.”
give it/th e m to . . .
■ I w ant that book. Please give it to m e.
■ R obert needs these books. Can you give th em to him , please?

120 my/his/their, etc. —►Unit 61 Give me that book / Give it to me —►Unit 97


Exercises U N I T £ 0
*: 1 Complete the sentences with him/her/them.
1. I don’t know those girls. Do you know th em ?
2. I don’t know that man. Do you k n o w _________ ?
3. I don’t know those people. Do you k n o w __________ ?
4. I don’t know David’s wife. Do you k n o w __________ ?
5. I don’t know Mr. Stevens. Do you k n o w __________ ?
6. I don’t know Sarah’s parents. Do you k n o w __________?
7. I don’t know the w om an in the black coat. Do you k n o w _

I 2 Complete the sentences. Use l/me/you/she/her, etc.


1. I w ant to see h er, but sh e doesn’t w ant to s e e .

2. T h ey w ant to see m e, b u t don’t w ant to s e e __________ .


3. S he wants to see h im , b u t __________doesn’t w ant to s e e __________ .
4. We w ant to see th e m , b u t don’t w ant to s e e __________ .
5. H e wants to see us, b u t don’t w ant to s e e __________ .
6. T h e y w ant to see h er, b u t __________ doesn’t w ant to s e e __________ .
7. I w ant to see th e m , b u t don’t w ant to s e e __________ .
8. You w ant to see h er, b u t __________doesn’t w ant to s e e __________ .

50.3 W rite se n te n c e s b eg in n in g / l ik e . . . , / don't l i k e . . . , o r Do you l ik e . . . ?


1. I don’t eat tomatoes. / don't like th em .
2. George is a very nice man. I lik e _________________________ .
3. This jacket isn’t very nice. I don’t _________________________ .
4. This is my new car. D o _________________________ ?
5. Mrs. Clark is not very friendly. I _________________________ .
6. These are my new sh o es. ?

50 4 C o m p lete th e se n te n c e s. Use l / m e / h e / h i m , etc.


1. W ho is that woman? W hy are you looking at h e r ?
2. “Do you know that man?” “Yes, I w ork w ith __________ .”
3. W here are the tickets? I can’t f in d __________ .
4. I can’t find my keys. W here a r e __________ ?
5. W e’re going out. You can come w i t h __________ .
6. I have a new computer. Do you w ant to s e e __________?
7. M aria likes m u sic.__________ plays the piano.
8. I don’t like dogs. I’m afraid o f __________ .
9. I’m talking to you. Please listen t o .
10. W here is Anna? I w ant to talk t o __________ .
11. You can have these DVDs. I don’t w a n t__________.
12. My brother has a new job, b u t __________ doesn’t lik e ___________ very much.

50.5 C o m p lete th e se n te n c e s.
1. I need that book. Can you g<ve ^ ___m e __?
2. He wants the key. Can you g iv e ____________________ ?
3. She wants the keys. Can y o u ____________________ ?
4. I w ant that letter. Can y o u ____________________ ?
5. They w ant the money. Can y o u ____________________ ?
6. W e w ant the photos. Can y o u ____________________ ?

121
my/his/their#etc.

k
my umbrella our umbrella your umbrella his umbrella her umbrella their umbrella

I my I like my house.
we -► our We like our house.
you -► your You like your house.
he -► his He likes his house.
she -► her She likes her house.
they -► their T hey like th eir house.

it —► its Hawaii (= it) is famous for its beaches.


W e use m y /y o u r /h is , etc. + noun:
m y hands his new car her parents
our cloth es you r best friend th eir ro o m

h is /h e r /th e ir

''I-- : ■ ■
Mr. and
Donna Andy Mrs. Lee

her
his bicycle their son

her husband
E (= Donna’s his sister their daughter
husband)

her children
(= Donna’s his parents their children
children)

its and it’s


its Hawaii is famous for its beaches.
it’s (= it is) I like Hawaii. It’s a beautiful place. (= It is a beautiful place.)

mine/yours, etc. —►Unit 62 l/me/my/mine —►Unit 63


xercises U N I
Complete the sentences in the same way.
1. I’m going to wash m y hands . 4. H e’s going to w a sh ___
2. She’s going to wash _ hands. 5. T h ey ’re going to wash _
3. W e’re going to wash . 6. Are you going to wash .

Complete the sentences in the same way.


1. He lives w ith his p a r e n ts 5. I . parents.
2. T hey live w i t h __________________ parents. 6. John.
3. W e _____________________________parents. 7. Do you liv e __
4. Jane liv es______________________________ . 8. M ost children .

Look at the family tree, and complete the sentences with his/her/their.
1. I saw Sarah w ith h e r husband, Philip.
2. I saw Laura and Steve w i t h ________ children.
3. I saw Steve w i t h _______ wife, Laura.
4. I saw Gary w i t h _______ brother, Tim .
5. I saw Laura w i t h ______ brother, Tim .
6. I saw Sarah and Philip w i t h _______ son, Tim .
7.__ I saw Laura w i t h ______ parents.
8. I saw B eth and R obert w i t h _______ parents.

Beth Robert

4 4 Write my/our/your/his/her/their/its.
1. Do you like y o u r job?
2. I know Mr. W atson, but I don’t k n o w _____________ wife.
3. Alice and Tom live in San F rancisco._____________ son lives in Mexico.
4. W e’re going to have a party. W e’re going to invite a ll_____________ friends.
5. Anna is going out w ith _____________ friends tonight.
6. I like tennis. It’s _____________ favorite sport.
7. “Is th a t _____________ car?” “N o, I don’t have a car.”
8. I w ant to call Maria. Do you k n o w _____________ phone num ber?
9. Do you think m ost people are happy w ith ____________jobs?
10. I’m going to w a s h ____________ hair before' I go out.
11. This is a beautiful tre e . leaves are a beautiful color.
12. Jo h n has a brother and a sister. brother is 25, a n d sister is 21.

1.5 Complete the sentences. Use my/his/their, etc. with these words:
coat h o m ew o rk h ou se husband jo b key n am e
1. Jim doesn’t like his j o b . It’s not very interesting.
2. I can’t get in. I don’t h a v e ______________________ .
3. Sally is m a rrie d ._______________________ works in a bank.
4. Please take o f f and sit down.
5. “W hat are the children doing?” “They’re d o in g _______________________ .”
6. “Do you know that man?” “Yes, but I don’t k n o w _______________________ .”
7. We live on M ain S treet. is on the corner of M ain and First.
Whose is this? It's mine/yours/hers, etc.

mine ours yours his hers theirs

I 10): wjjsBis- r /'—


ski
/ / / *§ a a a
| p | f i t

I - my m in e It’s m y money. It’s m in e.


we our -► ours It’s our money. It’s ours.
you -► your -► yours It’s your money. It’s yours.
he -► his -► his It’s his money. It’s his.
she -► her hers It’s her money. It’s hers.
they their -► theirs It’s th eir money. It’s theirs.

We use m y /y o u r, etc. + noun (m y hands / your b ook, etc.):


■ M y hands are cold.
■ Is this your book?
■ H elen gave me her um brella.
■ It’s th eir prob lem , not our p roblem .
We use m in e/y o u rs, etc. w ithout a noun:
■ Is this book m in e or yours? (= my book or your book)
■ I didn’t have an umbrella, so H elen gave me hers. (= her umbrella)
■ It’s their problem , not ours. (= not our problem )
■ W e w ent in our car, and they w ent in theirs. (= their car)
You can use his w ith or w ithout a noun:
■ “Is this his cam era or hers?” “It’s h is.”

A friend o f m in e / a friend o f his / some friends o f yours, etc.


■ I w ent to the movies w ith a friend o f m in e, (not a friend of me)
■ Tom was in the restaurant w ith a friend o f his. (not a friend o f him)
■ Are those people friends o f yours? (not friends o f you)

W hose . . . ?
Whose book
■ W hose b o o k is this? (= Is it your book? is this?
his book? my book?, etc.)
You can use w h ose w ith or w ithout a noun:
W hose m o n ey is this?
W hose is this? i
It’s mine.

W hose shoes are these?


| They’re John’s.
W hose are these?

my/his/their, etc. —►Unit 61 l/me/my/mine —►Unit 63 Kate's camera / my brother's car —►Unit 65
Exercises U N I
i2 1 Complete the sentences with mine/yours, etc.
1. It’s your money. It’s y o u rs . 5. It’s their house. It’s ________
2. It’s my bag. It’s _______________________ . 6. T h ey ’re your books. T h ey ’re
3. It’s our car. It’s _______________________ . 7. T h ey ’re my glasses. T hey’re .
4. T h ey ’re her shoes. T h ey ’r e _____________. 8. It’s his coat. It’s ___________

E2 2 Choose the right word.


1. It’s th e ir/ theirs problem , not our /o u rs , (their and ours are right)
2. This is a nice camera. Is it your/yours?
3. T hat’s not m y/m ine umbrella. M y/M ine is black.
4. W hose books are these? Your/Yours or my /m in e ?
5. C atherine is going out w ith h er/h ers friends tonight.
6. M y/M ine room is bigger than h e r/h e rs .
7. They’ve got two children, but I don’t know their/theirs names.
8. Can we use your washing machine? O u r/O u rs isn’t working.

E2 3 Complete these sentences. Use friend(s) o f mine /yours, etc.


1. I w ent to the movies w ith a fr ie n d o f m ine_____________________________
2. They w ent on vacation w ith some frien d s o f th eirs_____________________
3. She’s going out w ith a __________________________________________________
4. We had dinner w ith s o m e ______________________________________________
5. I played tennis w ith a __________________________________________________
6. Tom is going to m eet a _________________________________________________
7. Do you know those people? Are th e y ____________________________________

11 4 Look at the pictures. What are the people saying?


I/me/my/mine

I can see him, but


he can't see me.

You give me your


phone number, and
I'll give you mine.

I, etc. m e, etc. my, etc. m in e, etc.


( - Unit 60) (-+ U nit 60) (-► Unit 61) (-+ U nit 62)

I know Tom. Tom knows m e. It’s m y car. It’s m in e.

i S l
111111
We know Tom. Tom knows us. It’s our car. It’s ours.

You know Tom. Tom knows you. It’s your car. It’s yours.

/ f m

H e knows Tom. Tom knows him . It’s his car. It’s his.

She knows Tom. Tom knows her. It’s her car. It’s hers.

T hey know Tom. Tom knows them . It’s th eir car. It’s theirs.

Study these examples:


■ “D o you know that m an?” “Yes, I know h im , but I can’t rem em ber his n am e.”
■ She was very happy because w e invited her to stay w ith us at our house.
■ A: W here are the children? Have you seen them ?
B: Yes, th ey are playing w ith th eir friends in the park.
■ T hat’s m y pen. Can you give it to m e, please?
■ “Is this your hat?” “No, it’s yours.”
■ H e didn’t have an umbrella, so she gave h im hers. (= she gave her um brella to him)
■ I ’m going out w ith a friend of m in e tonight, (not a friend o f me)

myself/yourself, etc. —►Unit 64 Give me that book / Give it to me —►Unit 97


Ill

<ercises
3 1 Answer the questions in the same way.

Yes, / k n o w him, b u t / c a n 't Yes, I k n o w . ., but I can’t


re m e m b e r his n a m e . mm pmlipr

53 2 Complete the sentences in the same way.


1. We invited her to s ta y w ith us a t our house .
2. He invited us to stay w ith at his house.
3. They invited m e to stay w ith _________________________________________house.
4. I invited them to stay _________________________________________house.
5. She invited us to stay _________________________________________house.
6. Did you invite h i m _________________________________________house?

53 3 Complete the sentences in the same way.


1. I gave him m y address, and h e g a v e m e his .
2. I gave her m y address, and she gave m e _______________________ .
3. H e gave m e his address, and I gave
4. W e gave th e m ________ address, and they gave .
5. She gave h i m address, and he gave :__
6. You gave u s address, and we g av e____
7. They gave y o u ________ address, and you gave _

? 3.4 Write him! h er Iyours, etc.


1. W h ere’s Amanda? Have you seen h e r ?
2. W here are my keys? W here did I p u t _____________ ?
3. This letter is for Bill. Can you give it t o __________ ?
4. We don’t s e e n eighbors much. They’re not at hom e very often.
_

5. “I can’t find my pen. Can I u s e _____________ ?” “Sure.”


6. W e’re going to the movies. W hy don’t you come w ith _____________ ?
7. D id your sister p a ss_________driver’s test?
8. Some people talk a b o u t____________ jobs all the time.
9. Last night I w ent out for dinner w ith a friend o f _____________ .
myself/yourself/themselves, etc.

Help yourself!
i

H e’s looking at h im self.

I -► me m y s e lf ■ I looked at m y se lf in the mirror.


he -► h im -► h im s e lf ■ H e cut h im s e lf w ith a knife.
she -► her -► h e r se lf ■ She fell off her bike, but she didn’t hurt h e r se lf
r y o u r se lf ■ Please help y o u r se lf (one person)
you you
1 yourselves ■ Please help yourselves, (two or more people)
we -► us -► ourselves ■ We had a good vacation. We enjoyed ourselves.
they -► th em them selves ■ They had a nice time. T hey enjoyed them selves.

Com pare:

m e /h im /th e m , etc. m y se lf/h im se lf/th e m se lv e s, etc.

She is looking at h im . i H e is looking at h im s e lf .

different people the same person

You never talk to m e. Sometimes I talk to m y se lf


I didn’t pay for them . They paid for them selves.
I’m sorry. D id I hurt you? Be careful. D on’t hurt yourself.

by m y s e lf / by y o u r se lf etc. = alone:
■ I w ent on vacation by m y s e lf (= I w ent alone)
■ “Was she w ith friends?” “No, she was by h e r s e lf”

each oth er
■ Kate and H elen are good friends. They know each oth er well.
(= Kate knows H elen / H elen knows Kate)
■ Paul and I live near each other. (= he lives near me / I live near him)
Com pare each oth er and -selves:

Tim and Sue looked at each other. Tim and Sue looked at them selves.
(= he looked at her, she looked at him) (= he looked at himself, she looked
at herself)

me/him/them, etc. —►Unit 60


u N1T64
UJ
<ercises
- 1 Complete the sentences with m yself/yourself, etc.
1. He looked at h im s e lf in the mirror.
2. I’m not angry w ith you. I’m angry w i t h _________________
3. Karen had a good tim e in Brazil. She en jo y ed ___________
4. My friends had a good tim e in Brazil. They en jo y ed _____
5. I picked up a very hot plate and b u rn e d ________________
6. He never thinks about other people. H e only thinks about
7. I w ant to know m ore about you. Tell me a b o u t_________ . (one person)
8. Good-bye! Have a good trip and take care o f ____________ ! (two people)


a2 Write sentences with b y m yself / b y yourself, etc.
1. I w ent on vacation alone. / w e n t on vacation b y m y se lf.
2. W hen I saw him, he was alone. W hen I saw him. he
3. D on’t go out alone. D on’t
4. I w ent to the movies alone. I
5. My sister lives alone. My sister
6. Many people live alone. M anv people

i- 3 Write sentences with each other.

- 4 Complete the sentences. Use:


each other or ourselves/yourselves/them selves or us/you/them
1. Paul and I live near each o th e r .
2. W ho are those people? Do you know th em ?
3. You can help Tom, and Tom can help you. So you and Tom can h e lp ________________
4. T here’s food in the kitchen. If you and Chris are hungry, you can h e lp _______________
5. We didn’t go to Linda’s party. She didn’t in v ite ____________________ .
6. W hen we go on vacation, we always en jo y ____________________ .
7. M ary and Jane w ent to school together, but they never s e e ____________________ now.
8. Diane and I are very good friends. W e’ve k n o w n for a long time.
9. “Did you see Sam and Laura at the party?” “Yes, but I didn’t speak t o ______________
10. Many people talk t o w hen they’re alone.

129
-'s (Kate's camera / my brother's car, etc.)

My camera

MANAGER

My brother
K ate’s camera my brother’s car the m anager’s office
(her camera) (his car) (his or her office)

We norm ally use -’s for people:


■ I stayed at m y sister’s house. (not the house o f my sister)
■ Have you m et Mr. B lack ’s wife? (not the wife of Mr. Black)
S Are you going to Jam es’s party?
■ Paul is a m a n ’s name. Paula is a w o m a n ’s name.
You can use -’s w ithout a noun after it:
■ Sophie’s hair is longer than K ate’s. (= Kate’s hair)
■ “W hose um brella is this?” “It’s m y m o th e r’s.” (= my m other’s umbrella)
■ “W here were you last night?” “I was at P aul’s.” (= Paul’s house)

frien d ’s and frien d s’

Our house

my frien d ’s house = one friend my frien d s’ house = two or morefriends


(= his house or her house) (= th eir house)
We w rite ’s after W e w rite ’ after
fr ie n d /stu d e n t/m o th e r , etc. (singular): friends/students/parents, etc. (plural):
my m other’s car (one mother) my parents’ car (two parents)
my father’s car (onefather)

We use o f . . . for things, places, etc.:


■ Look at the ro o f o f that b u ild in g . (not that building’s roof)
■ W e didn’t see the beginning o f the m ovie. (not the m ovie’s beginning)
M W hat’s the nam e o f this town?
■ Do you know the cause o f the problem ?
■ You can sit in the back o f the car.
■ M adrid is the capital o f Spain.

mine/yours, etc. —►Unit 62 whose . . . ? —►Unit 62 -'s (he's / Kate's, etc.) —►Appendix 4.5
•ercises u NI T
65
: 1 Look at the family tree. Complete the sentences about the people in the family.

1. Pedro is s husband.
2. Julia is D aniel’s . m o th er
Blanca Pedro
3. Blanca i s ______ . wife.
4. A lberto is Julia’s _
5. A lberto i s _______ . uncle.
6. Julia i s __________ . wife.

s
7. Blanca is D aniel’s .
Alberto Julia I Paul 8. Julia is A lberto’s _
9. Paul i s __________ . husband.
10. Paul is D aniel’s .
fw** Dam
Daniel
11. D aniel i s _____ . nephew.
Blanca and Pedro are married.
They have a son, Alberto, and a daughter, Julia.
Julia is married to Paul.
Julia and Paul have a son, Daniel.

2 Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use one word only.

Jane

W hose is this? 3.
A lic e s

\
2. W hose is this? 4.

.3 Are these sentences OK? Change them where necessary.


1. I stayed at the house of my sister. m y sister's house
2. W hat is the nam e of this village? OK
3. Do you like the color o f this coat?
4. Do you know the phone num ber of Sim on?
5. The job o f my brother is very interesting.
6. W rite your nam e at the top of the page.
7. For me, m orning is the best part of the day.
8. The favorite color of Paula is blue.
9. W hen is the birthday o f your m o th er?
10. The house o f my parents isn’t very big.
11. The walls o f this house are very thin.
12. The car stopped at the end of the street.
13. Are you going to the party o f Sylvia next week?
14. The m anager o f the hotel is not here right now.

131
a/an

H e has a camera. She’s waiting for a taxi. It’s a beautiful day.

a... = one thing or person:


■ Rachel works in a bank. (not in bank)
■ Can I ask a question? (not ask question)
■ I don’t have a com pu ter.
H T here’s a w om an at the bus stop.

an (not a) before a / e / i /o / u :
■ Do you w ant an apple or a banana?
■ I’m going to buy a hat and an um brella.
■ There was an interesting program on TV last night.
also an h our (h is not pronounced: anj^our)
but a u niversity (pronounced yuniversity)
a E uropean country (pronounced yuropean)
another (= an + other) is one word:
■ Can I have another cup o f coffee?

We use a /an . . . w hen we say w hat a thing or a person is. For example:
■ The sun is a star.
■ Football is a gam e.
■ Dallas is a city in Texas.
■ A m ouse is an anim al. It’s a sm all anim al.
■ Joe is a very n ice person.
W e use a /an . . . for jobs, etc.:
■ A: W hat do you do?
B: I’m a dentist. (not I’m dentist)
■ “W hat does M ark do?” “H e’s an en gin eer.”
■ W ould you like to be a teacher?
■ Beethoven was a com poser.
■ Picasso was a fam ous painter.
■ Are you a student?

a car / some money (countable/uncountable) —►Units 68-69 a/an and the —►Unit 70
U N I
5*6.1 Write a or an.
1. &n old book 4.________ airport 7. university
2. _______ w indow 5.________ new airport 8.________ hour
3. _______ horse 6.________ organization 9. econom ic problem

:6 2 What are these things? Choose from the box.

bird flo w e r fru it gam e m o u n ta in


p la n et river to o l vegetab le m u sica l in stru m en t

1. A duck is a b ir d . 6. Saturn is
2. A carrot is . 7. A banana is
3. Tennis is . 8. T he A m azon is
4. A ham m er is . 9. A rose is
5. Everest is . 10. A tru m p et is

3 What are their jobs? Choose from the box and complete the sentences.

a rch itect d en tist elec tric ia n nurse


p h o to g ra p h er sales clerk ta x i driver

1. She's a dentist. 5. __________________________________


2. H e’s __________________________________ 6.___________________________________
3. S h e___________________________________ 7.___________________________________
4. ______________________________________ 8. And you? I’m _____________________

5 5.4 Write sentences. Choose from the two boxes. Use a/an where necessary.

4-w ant to ask you R eb ecca w orks in old h ou se artist


T om never w ears Jane w ants to learn p arty -qu esti o n-
I can ’t rid e M ik e lives in o ffic e fo reig n lan gu age
My b roth er is T o n ig h t I’m g o in g to hat b icycle
1. / w a n t to ask you a question.________________________________________________
2. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________
train(s) bus(es) (singular and plural)

The plural of a noun is usually -s:


singular (= one) —► plural (= two or more)
a flower some flow ers
a train two trains
one week a few w eeks
MHT a nice place some nice places
this student ■ these students
flower some flow ers

Spelling (see Appendix 5):


-s / -sh / -ch / -x —►-es bus —►buses dish —►dishes
church —►churches box —►boxes
also potato —►potatoes tom ato —►tom atoes
y —►-ies baby —►babies dictionary —►dictionaries
p arty —►parties
mhmn
but -ay / -ey / -oy —► -ys day —►days m onkey —►m onkeys boy —►boys
I f /" - f e ves sh elf —►shelves knife —►knives w ife ■ wives
■■■■

ll®

■ I

scissors glasses

■ Do you wear glasses?


■ W here are the scissors? I need them .
You can also say a pair o f scissors / a pair o f pants / a pair o f pajamas, etc.:
M I need a new pair o fjea n s. or I need som e new jeans. (not a new jeans)

Some plurals do not end in -s:

this m an —►these m en one fo o t —►two feet that sheep —►those sheep


a w o m a n —►some w o m en a to o th —►all my teeth a fish —►a lot of fish
a ch ild —►many ch ildren a m ou se —►some m ice
also a person —►tw o p eo p le / som e p eo p le / a lo t o f p eop le, etc.:
■ She’s a nice person.
but ■ They are nice people, (not nice persons)

P eop le is plural (= they), so we say p eo p le are / p eo p le have, etc.:


■ A lo t o f p eo p le speak English, (not speaks)
■ I like the p eo p le here. T hey are very friendly.
P o lice is plural:
■ T he p o lic e w ant to talk to anybody who saw the accident, (not The police wants)

3
U N I T
xercises
7 1 Write the plural.
1. flower flo w e r s 5. um brella 9. family
2. boat 6. address 10. foot
3. w om an 7. knife 11. holiday
4. citv 8. sandwich 12. potato
' 2 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. T here are a lot o f sh e e p in the field. 4. Lucy has t w o _________________.


2. G ary is brushing h i s __________ . 5. T here are a lot o f in the river.
3. T here are t h r e e __________ at the bus stop. 6. T h e __________ are falling from the tree.

~ 3 Are these sentences OK? Change the sentences where necessary.


1. I’m going to buy some flowers. _______ _________________________
2. I need (an ew jeans). / n e e d a n e w p a ir o f je a n s. OR
/ n e e d so m e n e w je a n s.______________
3. It’s a lovely park w ith a lot of beautiful tree. ___________
4. There was a wom an in the car w ith two mens. ___________
5. Sheep eat grass.______________________________ ___________
6. David is m arried and has three childs.__________ ___________
7. M ost of my friend are student.____________________________
8. He p ut on his pajama and w ent to bed._________ ___________
9. We w ent fishing, but we didn’t catch m any fish. ___________
10. Do you know many persons in this town? ___________
11. I like your pant. W here did you get it? ___________
12. M ontreal is usually full of tourist. ___________
13. I don’t like mice. I’m afraid o f them . ___________
14. This scissor isn’t very sharp. ___________

7.4 Which is right? Complete the sentences.


1. It’s a nice place. M any people g o there on vacation. go or goes?
2. Some p e o p le _______________always late. is or are?
3. T he new city hall is not a very beautiful building. M ost
p e o p le _______________ like it. d o n ’t or d o esn ’t?
4. A lot o f p e o p le _______________ television every day. w atch or watches?
5. T h ree p e o p le injured in the accident. was or were?
6. H ow m any p e o p le in that house? liv e or lives?
7. _______________ the police know the cause o f the explosion? D o or D oes?
8. T he p o lic e _______________looking for the stolen car. is or are?
9. I need my glasses, but I can’t f in d _______________ . it or them ?
10. I’m going to b u y _______________ new jeans today. a or some?
a bottle / some water
(countable/uncountable 1)
A noun can be countable or uncountable.
C ountable nouns
For example: (a) car (a) m an (a) b o ttle (a) h ouse (a) key (an) idea (an) accid en t

You can use o n e /tw o /th r e e , etc. + countable nouns (you can count them ):

one b o ttle two b ottles three m en four houses

Countable nouns can be singular (= one) or plural (= two or more):


r ft a/ % ft/ - 1 Singular a car the car m y car, etc.
Plural cars tw o cars the cars som e cars m any cars, etc.
I’ve got a car.
N ew cars are very expensive.
There aren’t m any cars in the parking lot.

You can’t use the singular (ca r/b o ttle/k ey , etc.) alone. You need a/an:
9 W e can’t get into the house w ithout a key. (not w ithout key)

U ncountable nouns
For example: w ater air rice salt p lastic m o n ey m u sic tennis

n f
't

m o n ey m u sic
You can’t say o n e /tw o /th r e e , etc. + these things: one w ater-- two music
U ncountable nouns have only one form:
m o n ey the m o n ey my m o n ey some m o n ey m uch m on ey, etc.
■ I have som e m oney.
■ T here isn’t m u ch m o n ey in the box.
■ M o n ey isn’t everything.

You can’t use a/an + uncountable nouns: X m oney X in u sic X w ater


B ut you can say a p iece o f . . . / a b o ttle o f . . . , etc. + uncountable noun:
a b o ttle o f w ater a carton o f milk a bar o f soap
a p iece o f cheese a b o ttle o f perfum e a p iece o f music
a b o w l o f rice a cup o f coffee a gam e o f tennis

a/an —►Unit 66 countable/uncountable 2 —►Unit 69


: zeroises u n i
fi: 4 What are these things? Some are countable and some are uncountable. Write a/an if
necessary. The names of these things are:
b ucket eg g en velop e m o n ey p itch er s tilt
sand sp o o n tooth b ru sh tooth p a ste w a llet w ater

It’s s a lt It’s. • spoon

: 5,2 Some of these sentences are OK, but some need a/an. Write a/an where necessary.
1. I don’t have watch, a w a tc h 9. Jam aica is isla n d ._____
2. Do you like cheese? . O K 10. I don’t need k e y ._____
3. I never w ear h a t .___ 11. Everybody needs fo o d ..
4. Are you looking for jo b ? __ 12. I’ve got good id e a .____
5. Kate doesn’t eat m e a t.____ 13. C an you drive car?
.
6 Kate eats apple every day. _ 14. Do you w ant cup of coffee?____
7. I’m going to p arty to n ig h t.. 15. I don’t like coffee w ithout m ilk.
M usic is w onderful thing. _ 16. D on’t go out w ithout c o a t._____

58.3 What are these things? Write a .. . o f ... for each picture. Use the words in the boxes.

bar bow l c a rto n bread h on ey


cup glass jar paper soap soup
lo a f p iece p iece tea w ater w ood

1. a c a rto n o f m ilk 4.
2 . ________________ 5.
3. _____________________ 6.

137
a cake / some cake / some cakes
(countable/uncountable 2)
a /a n and som e
a /a n + singular countable nouns (ca r/a p p le/sh o e, etc.):
■ I need a new car. an apple
H W ould you like an apple?
so m e + plural countable nouns (cars/ap p les/sh oes, etc.):
■ I need som e new shoes. som e apples
■ W ould you like som e apples?
so m e + uncountable nouns (w a te r /m o n e y /m u sic , etc.):
■ I need som e water. som e cheese or
■ W ould you like som e cheese? a p iece o f cheese
(or W ould you like a p iece o f cheese?)

Com pare a and som e:


■ Nicole bought a hat, som e shoes, and som e perfum e.
■ I read a new spaper, made som e p h o n e calls, and listened to som e m usic.

a cake som e cakes som e cake or a p iece o f cake


U

a chicken som e chickens som e ch ick en or a p iece o f chick en

Com pare a paper (= a newspaper) and som e paper:


■ I w ant som ething to read. I’m going to buy a paper.
but ■ I w ant to make a shopping list. I need som e paper / a p iece o f paper, (not a paper)

Be careful with:
advice bread fu rniture hair in fo rm a tio n new s w eather w ork
These nouns are usually uncountable. So you can’t say a/an . . . ( a bread, an advice ) and
they can’t be plural ( advices? furnitures^ etc.).
■ Can I talk to you? I need som e advice, (not an advice)
■ I’m going to buy som e bread, (not a bread)
■ They’ve got som e very nice fu rn itu re in their house, (notfurnitures)
■ Sylvia has very long hair, (not hairs)
■ I’d like som e in fo rm a tio n about hotels in Mexico City,(notinformations)
■ Listen! I’ve got som e good news, (not a good news)
■ It’s nice w eather today, (not a nice weather)
M “Do you like your job?” “Yes, but it’s hard w ork.” (notahard work)
We say a jo b (but not a work):
ffl I’ve got a new job . (not a new work)

countable/uncountable 1 —►Unit 68 some and any —►Unit 77


Exercises
What did you buy? Use the pictures to write sentences (/ b o u g h t. . .).

1. / bought som e perfum e, a h a t a n d som e shoes.___________________________


2. I b o u g h t_______________________________________________________ _________
3. __________________________________________________________________________
4. _______________________________________________________ _________________

2 Write sentences with Would you like a . . . ? or Would you like some . . . ?

1. W ould y o u like so m e c h e e se ? 4. ___________________________________


2. W ould you li k e ______________________ ? 5. ___________________________________
3. W o u ld ______________________________ ? 6. ___________________________________

: 9.3 Write a/an or som e.


1. I read a book and listened to so m e music.
2. I n e e d ________ money. I w ant to b u y ________ food.
3. W e m e t ________ interesting people at the party.
4. I’m going to o p e n ________window to g e t ________ fresh air.
5. Rachel didn’t eat m uch for lunch - o n ly apple a n d ________bread.
6. We live i n big house. T here’s nice yard_w ith ________ beautiful trees.
7. I’m going to make a table. First I n e e d ________ wood.
8. Listen to me carefully. I’m going to give y o u ________ advice.
9. I w ant to w rite a letter. I n e e d paper a n d ________ pen.

59.4 Which is right?


1. I’m going to buy some new shoe / shoes,(shoes is right)
2. M ark has brow n eye / eyes.
3. Paula has short black hair / hairs.
4. The tour guide gave us some inform ation / inform ations about the city.
5. W e’re going to buy some new chair / chairs.
6. W e’re going to buy some new furniture / furnitures.
7. It’s hard to find a w ork / job these days.
8. W e had w onderful w eather / a w onderful w eather w hen we were on vacation.
U N I T
a/an and the

a/an the

Can you open


the w indow ?

Can you open


a w indow ?

There are three windows here, There is only one window here -
a window = w indow 1 or 2 or 3 the window.
I have a car. I’m going to wash the car tomorrow.
(there are m any cars and I have one) (= my car)
Can I ask a question? Can you repeat the question, please?
(there are many questions - can I ask one?) (= the question that you asked)
Is there a h o tel near here? (there are We enjoyed our vacation. T he h o tel was
many hotels - is there one near here?) very nice. (= our hotel)
Paris is an in terestin g city, (there are Paris is the capital o f France.
many interesting cities and Paris is one) (there is only one capital of France)
Lisa is a student. Lisa is the you n gest stu d en t in her
(there are many students and Lisa is one) class, (there is only one youngest
student in her class)

Com pare a and the:

I bought a jack et and a shirt . T he jack et was cheap, but th e shirt was expensive
(= th e jacket and the shirt that I bought)

We say the . . . w hen it is clear which thing or person we mean. For example:
the d oor / the ce ilin g / the flo o r / the carpet / the light, etc. (of a room)
the r o o f / the backyard / the k itch en / the bathroom , etc. (of a house)
the airport / the p o lic e station / the bus station / the m ayor’s office, etc. (of a city)

“W here’s Tom?” “In the k itch en .”


(= the kitchen of this house or apartm ent)
Turn off the lig h t and close the door.
(= the light and the door o f the room)
Do you live far from th e airport?
(= the airport of your town)
I’d like to speak to the m anager, please.
(= the m anager o f this store, etc.)

a/an —►Unit 66 the —►Units 71-74


Exercises U N !
'0.1 Write a/an or the.
1. W e enjoyed our trip. The hotel was very nice.
2. “Can I ask a question?” “Sure. W hat do you w ant to know?”
3. You look very tired. You n e e d ________ vacation.
4. “W h ere’s Tom?” “H e’s i n _______ kitchen.”
5. Eve i s interesting person. You should m eet her.
6. A: Excuse me, can you tell me how to get t o post office?
B: Yes, go straight and then ta k e _______ next left.
7. A: Let’s go and s e e ________ movie tonight.
B: OK, that’s _______ good idea.
8. It’s _______ nice m orning. Let’s go f o r ________ walk.
9. Amanda i s ________ student. W hen she finishes school, she wants to b e _______ journalist.
She lives w ith two friends i n _________ apartm ent n e a r ______ college w here she is
studying._______ apartm ent is small, but she likes it.
10. Peter and M ary have two ch ild ren , boy a n d _______ g irl.________ boy is seven
years old, a n d _______ girl is three. Peter works i n ________ factory. M ary doesn’t have
_______ jo b outside the hom e right now.

' 3.2 Complete the sentences. Use a or the + these words:


a irp o rt cup d ic tio n a ry M oor flo o r p ictu re

3 These sentences are not correct. Put in a/an or the where necessary.
1. D o n ’t forget to (^urn off ligh^w h en you go out. turn o f f th e lig h t
2. Enjoy your trip, and don’t forget to send me postcard. __________________
3. W hat is nam e o f this town? __________________
4. Canada is very big country. __________________
5. W hat is largest city in Canada? __________________
6. I like this room , but I don’t like color o f carpet. __________________
7. “Are you O K ?” “No, I’ve got headache.”________________________________
8. We live in old house near station. __________________
9. W hat is nam e o f director o f movie we saw last night? __________________
U N I T
the
71 We use the w hen it is clear w hich thing or person we mean:
■ W hat is the nam e of this street? (there is only one name)
■ W ho is the best player on your team? (there is only one best player)
■ Can you tell me the tim e, please? (= the time now)
■ My office is on the first floor. (= the first floor o f the building)
D o n ’t forget the:
■ Do you live near the airport? (not near airport)
■ Excuse me, w here is the nearest bank? (not w here is n e a re s t...)

the sam e . . .
■ We live on the sam e street, (not on same street)
■ “Are these two books different?” “N o, they’re the sam e.”(not they’re same)

We say:
the sun / the m o o n / the w orld / the sky / the ocean / the cou n try
■ T he sky is blue and the sun is shining.
■ Do you live in a city or in the country?
the p o lic e / the fire d ep artm en t / the arm y (of a city, country, etc.) '
■ My brother is a soldier. H e’s in the army.
■ W hat do you think of the police? D o they do a good job? the top

the top / the end / the m id d le / the left, etc.


■ W rite your nam e at the top o f the page. the left the right
■ My house is at the end o f this block.
■ The table is in the m id d le o f the room. the bottom
■ Do you drive on the righ t or on th e left in your country?
(play) the piano / the guitar / the trum pet, etc. (musical instrum ents)
■ Paula is learning to play the piano.
the radio
■ I listen to the radio a lot.
the Internet
■ Do you use the In ternet much?

W e do not use th e with:


te le v isio n /T V
■ I watch T V a lot.
■ W h at’s on telev isio n tonight?
but Can you turn off the television? (= the TV set)
b rea k fa st/lu n ch /d in n er
■ W hat did you have for breakfast? (not the breakfast)
■ D in n er is ready!
n e x t/la st + w e e k /m o n th /y e a r /su m m e r /M o n d a y , etc.
■ I’m not working n ext w eek, (not the next week)
■ Did you take a vacation last sum m er? (not the last summer)

142 a/an and the —►Unit 70 the —►Units 72-74 the oldest / the most expensive, etc. —►Unit 91
U N I T
E <ercises
1 Put in the where necessary. Write OK if the sentence is already correct.
1. W hat is nam e o f this street? th e nam e_______________
2. W h at’s on television tonight?__________________________ O K ____________________
3. O u r apartm ent is on second floor.______________________________________________
4. W ould you like to go to moon?______________________ __________________________
5. W hat is best hotel in this town?_____________________ __________________________
6. W hat time is lunch?________________________________ __________________________
7. H ow far is it to football stadium?____________________ __________________________
8. W e’re taking a trip at end o f May.____________________ __________________________
9. W hat are you doing next weekend?__________________ __________________________
10. I didn’t like her first time I m et her. __________________________
11. I’m going out after dinner. __________________________
12. Internet is a good place to get inform ation. __________________________
13. My sister got m arried last m onth. __________________________
14. My dictionary is on top shelf on right. __________________________
15. We live in country about 10 miles from nearest town. __________________________

2 Complete the sentences. Use the same + these words:


ag e c o lo r p ro b le m -s tre e t tim e
1. I live on N o rth Street, and you live on N orth Street. We live on th e sa m e s t r e e t
2. I arrived at 8:30, and you arrived at 8:30. We arrived a t _________________________
3. Jim is 25, and Sue is 25. Jim and Sue a r e __
4. My shirt is dark blue, and so is my jacket. My shirt and jacket a r e ________________
5. I have no money, and you have no money. We h a v e _____________________________

Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use the if necessary.

j U saglack
f Paul Roberts
Ckm’5 Stone
RebeccaW^hon
Sarah tent
*T7mHoWaid

1. The sun___________________ is shining. 4. H e’s w atch in g __________________________.


2. She’s p lay in g _________________________ . 5. They’re swimming i n ___________________ .
3. They’re h av in g _______________________ . 6. T im ’s name is a t _______________ of the list.

’ # 4 Complete these sentences. Choose from the list. Use the if necessary.
cap ital d in n er lu n ch m id d le n am e p o lic e sky telev isio n
1. We had d in n er at a restaurant last night.
2. We stayed at a very nice hotel, but I don’t re m e m b e r_______________________ .
3. ______________________ is very clear tonight. You can see all the stars.
4. Sometimes there are some good programs o n _______________________ late at night.
5. stopped me because I was driving too fast.
6. Tokyo i s ______________________ of Japan.
7. “W hat did you have f o r ________________________ ?” “A salad.”
8. I woke up i n ______________________ o f the night.

143
U N I T
go to work go home go to the movies
72

■ M m

She’s at w ork. They’re going to school. H e’s in bed.

We say:
(go) to w ork, (be) at w ork, start work, finish w ork
■ Bye! I’m g o in g to w ork now. (not to the work)
■ I fin ish w ork at 5:00 every day.
(go) to school, (be) at school, start school, finish school, etc.
■ W hat did you learn at sch ool today? (not at the school)
■ Some children don’t like school.
(go) to co llege, (be) in co lleg e
■ H elen wants to go to c o lleg e w hen she fin ish es h igh school.
■ W hat did you study in college?
(go) to class, (be) in class
■ I can’t talk now. I have to go to class.
■ I’ll be in class until 5:00 today. I’ll call you w hen I get out.
(go) to p riso n /ja il, (be) in p riso n /ja il
■ W hy is he in prison? W hat did he do?
(go) to church, (be) in /a t church
■ David usually goes to church on Sundays.
(go) to bed, (be) in bed
■ I’m tired. I’m g o in g to bed. (not to the bed)
■ “W h ere’s Jane?” “She’s in b ed.”
(go) h om e, (be) (at) h om e, etc.
■ I’m tired. I’m g o in g h om e, (not to home)
■ Are you going out tonight, or are you staying hom e? (or staying at hom e)

We say:
(go to) the m ovies / the theater / the bank / the p ost o ffic e / the
the station /th e airport
■ I never go to the theater, but I go to the m ovies a lot.
■ “Are you going to the bank?” “No, to the p ost o ffic e.”
■ The num ber 5 bus goes to the airport; the num ber 8 goes to
the train station.
(go to) the doctor, the d en tist
■ You’re not well. W hy don’t you go to the doctor?
■ I have to go to the d en tist tomorrow.

144 the —►Units 70-71, 73-74 in/at —►Units 107-108 to/in/at —►Unit 109 (at) home —►Unit 109
Exercises U N I
2.1 Where are these people? Complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the.

1. H e’s in b e d ____________. 3. She’s i n ________________ . 5. They’re at


2. They’re a t _______________. 4. She’s a t ________________ . 6. H e’s i n

'2 2 Complete the sentences. Choose from the list. Use the if necessary.
bank bed efaurefa hom e p ost o ffic e sch o o l station
1. I need to get some money. I have to go to th e bank .
2. David usually goes to church on Sundays.
3. In the U nited States, children s ta rt at the age of five.
4. There were a lot of people a t _______________________ waiting for the train.
5. I called you last night, but you w eren’t a t _______________________ .
6. I’m going t o ______________________ now. Good night!
7. I’m going t o ______________________ to get some stamps.

'2 3 Complete the sentences. Sometimes you need the.


1. If you w ant to catch a plane, you g o to th e a irp o rt______________________
2. If you w ant to see a movie, you go t o ____________________________________
3. If you are tired and you w ant to sleep, y o u _______________________________
4. If you rob a bank and the police catch you, y o u ___________________________
5. If you have a problem w ith your teeth, y o u _______________________________
6. If you w ant to study after you finish high school, y o u ______________________
7. If you are badly injured in an accident, y o u _______________________________

' 2 4 Are these sentences OK? Correct the sentences where necessary.
1. We w ent (fco movies)last night. to th e m o vies
2. I finish w ork at 5:00 every day. O K ____________
3. Lisa wasn’t feeling well yesterday, so she w ent to doctor. _________________
4. I wasn’t feeling well this m orning, so I stayed in bed. _________________
5. W hy is Angela always late for work?____________________ _________________
6. “W here are your children?” “They’re at school.”_________________________
7. We have no m oney in bank.____________________________ _________________
8. W hen I was younger, I w ent to church every Sunday. _________________
9. W hat time do you usually get hom e from work?_________ _________________
10. Sorry I couldn’t call you back earlier. I was in class._______ _________________
11. “W here should we m eet?” “At station.” _________________
12. Kate takes her children to school every day.______________ _________________
13. Jim is sick. H e’s in hospital.____________________________ _________________
14. W ould you like to go to college?_________________________________________
15. W ould you like to go to theater tonight?________________ _________________
U N I T
I like music. I hate exams.

I like music I hate exams.

Do not use the for general ideas:


■ I like m usic, especially classical m usic.
(not the music . . . the classical music)
■ We don’t eat m eat very often, (not the meat)
■ L ife is not possible w ithout water.
(not The life . . . the water)
■ I hate exam s, (not the exams)
■ Do you know w here I can buy foreign newspapers?
■ I’m not very good at w riting letters.
Do not use the for games and sports:
■ My favorite sports are tennis and skiing, (not the tennis . . . the skiing)
Do not use the for languages or school subjects (h isto ry /g eo g r a p h y /p h y sics/b io lo g y , etc.):
■ Do you think E n glish is difficult? (not the English)
■ Tom ’s brother is studying physics and chem istry.

flow ers or the flowers?


Com pare:
■ Flow ers are beautiful. I love your garden.
(= flowers in general) The flow ers are beautiful.
(= the flowers in your
garden)
■ I don’t like cold weather. T he w eather isn’t very
(= cold w eather in general) good today.
(= the w eather today)
■ We don’t eat fish very W e had a great meal last
often. (= fish in general) night. T he fish was
excellent.
(= the fish we ate last
night)
■ Are you interested Do you know m uch
in history? about the h istory of
(= history in general) your country?

146 the —►Units 70-72, 74


U N I T
E<ercises
' 3 1 What do you think about these things?
b ig cities c h o c o la te c o m p u te r g a m e s d ogs ex a m s
h o u s e w o rk ja z z m useum s p a r tie s te n n is

Choose seven of these thingsand write sentences with:


I lik e . . . I d o n ’t lik e . . . I lo v e . . . I h a t e ..................i s /a r e a ll r i g h t
1. / hate exams. OR / like exams. OR Cxam s a re all right, (etc.) ________________
2. ___________

3. ______________
4. __________
5. __________________
6. ________
7. ________________________________________________________________________________ ___
8 . ___
’ 3 2 Are you interested in these things? Write sentences with:
I ’m (very) in te re ste d in . . . I k n o w a lo t a b o u t . . . I d o n ’t k n o w m u c h a b o u t . . .
I ’m n o t in te re ste d in . . . I k n o w a little a b o u t . . . I d o n ’t k n o w a n y th in g a b o u t . .
1. (history) I'm v e ry in te re s te d in history. ____________________________________________
2. (politics) I _______________________
3. (sp o rts)_____________________________________________________ _______________________
4. (a rt)_______________________________________________________________________________
5. (astronom y) ________________
6. (econom ics) __________

73.3 Which is right?


1. My favorite sport is football / the football. (football is right)
2. I like this hotel. Ro oms- / The rooms are very nice. (The rooms is right)
3. Everybody needs friends / the friends.
4. Jane doesn’t go to parties / the parties very often.
5. I w ent shopping at the mall this m orning. Stores / The stores were very crowded.
6. “W h ere’s milk / the m ilk?” “It’s in the fridge.”
7. I don’t like milk / the m ilk. I never drink it.
8. “D o you play any sports?” “Yes, I play basketball / the basketball.”
9. “W hat does your brother do?” “H e sells com puters / the com puters.”
10. W e w ent for a swim in the river. W ater / The w ater was very cold.
11. I don’t like swimming in cold w ater / the cold w ater.
12. Excuse me, can you pass salt / the salt, please?
13. I like this town. I like people / the people here.
14. Vegetables / The vegetables are good for you.
15. Houses / The houses on this street are all the same.
16. I can’t sing this song. I don’t know words / the w ords.
17. I enjoy taking pictures / the pictures. It’s my hobby.
18. Do you w ant to see pictures / the pictures that I took w hen I was on vacation?
19. English / The English is used a lot in international business / the international business.
20. M oney / The m oney doesn’t always bring happiness / the happiness.
the . . . (names of places)

Places (continents, countries, states, islands, towns, etc.)


In general we do not use the w ith names of places:
■ Q uebec is a province o f Canada.
■ B angk ok is the capital of Thailand.
■ H aw aii is an island in the Pacific.
■ Peru is in South A m erica.
But we use the in names w ith rep u b lic /sta tes/k in g d o m :
the D om inican R ep u b lic
the C zech R ep u b lic
the U nited States o f America (the USA)
the U nited K in gd om (the UK)

the -s (plural names)


We use the w ith plural names o f countries/islands/m ountains:
the N etherlands the Hawaiian Islands
the Philippines the Andes [th
Seas, rivers, etc.
We use the w ith names o f oceans/seas/rivers/canals:
the Atlantic (Ocean) the Mediterranean (Sea) the Amazon
the Nile (River) the Panama Canal the Black (Sea)

Places in towns (streets, buildings, etc.)


In general we do not use the w ith names o f streets, squares, etc.:
■ Kevin lives on C entral Avenue.
■ W here is M ain Street, please?
■ T im es Square is in N ew York.
We do not use the w ith names o f airports, stations, universities, and parks.
O ’Hare International Airport Harvard University
Pennsylvania Station Yosem ite (National Park)
B ut we use the w ith names o f m ost hotels, museums, theaters, and m onum ents:
the Regent Hotel the National Theater
the Metropolitan (Museum) the Odeon (movie theater)
the Taj Mahal the Lincoln Memorial

the . . . o f . . .
We use the + names w ith . . . o f . .
the M useum o f M odern Art the University o f California
the Great Wall o f China the Statue o f Liberty
We say the n orth / the sou th / the east / the w est ( o f . ^ .):
■ I’ve been to the n orth o f Italy, but not to the south.

148 the -► Units 70-73


ercises u N i t 74
1 Answer these geography questions. Choose from the box. Use The if necessary.

1. C a iro is the capital of Egypt. Alps


2. The A tla n tic is betw een Africa and America. A m azon
3. is a country in n o rth ern Europe. Andes
4. is a river in South America. Asia
5. is the largest continent in the world. A tlan tic
6. is the largest ocean. Bahamas
7. is a river in Europe. Bangkok
8. is a country in East Africa. U a ir e
9. is betw een C anada and Mexico. Jamaica
10. are m ountains in South America. Kenya
11. is the capital o f Thailand. Pacific
12. are m ountains in central Europe. Red Sea
13. is betw een Saudi Arabia and Africa. R hine
14. is an island in the C aribbean. Sweden
15. are a group o f islands near Florida. United States

"4.2 Write the where necessary. If the sentence is already correct, write OK.
1. Kevin lives on C entral Avenue. O K _____________________
2. W e w ent to see a playQit National Theate^). a t th e N a tio n a l T h ea ter
3. Have you ever been to China?_____________________ __________________________
4. Have you ever been to Philippines?________________ __________________________
5. Have you ever been to south of France?____________ __________________________
6. Can you tell m e w here W ashington M onum ent is? __________________________
7. Can you tell m e where H ollywood Boulevard is? __________________________
8. Can you tell m e w here M useum of A rt is?__________ __________________________
9. Europe is bigger than Australia.____________________ __________________________
10. Belgium is smaller than N etherlands. __________________________
11. W hich river is longer - Mississippi or Nile? __________________________
12. D id you go to N ational Gallery w hen you were __________________________
in W ashington?
13. W e stayed at Park H otel near C entral Park. __________________________
14. H ow far is it from Times Square to __________________________
Kennedy Airport?
15. Rocky M ountains are in N orth America. __________________________
16. Texas is famous for oil and cowboys. __________________________
17. I hope to go to U nited Kingdom next year._________ __________________________
18. M ary comes from west o f Ireland. __________________________
19. Alan is a student at University o f Michigan. __________________________
20. Panama Canal joins Atlantic O cean and____________ __________________________
Pacific Ocean.

— Additional exercises 33-34 (pages 261-262) 149


U N I T
this/that/these/those

this (singular) these (plural) that (singular) those (plural)


Do you like These flowers Do you like Who are
this picture? are for you. that picture? those people?
u jy

this picture that o that picture

A
(= this picture here) th ose (= that picture there)
these flowers those people
(= these flowers here) (= those people there)

W e use this / that / these / th ose w ith a noun (this p ictu re / th ose girls, etc.) or w ithout a no:
■ This h o tel is expensive, but it’s very nice.
■ “W h o ’s that girl?” “I don’t know.”
with a noun
■ Do you like these shoes? I bought them last week.
■ T hose apples look nice. Can I have one?

This is a nice hotel, but it’s very expensive.


“Excuse me, is this your bag?” “O h yes, thank you.”
without a noun
W h o ’s that? (= W ho is that person?)
W hich shoes do you like better - these or those?

that = som ething that has happened:


■ “I’m sorry I forgot to call you.” “T hat’s all right.”
■ That was a really nice meal. Thank you very much.
that = w hat somebody has just said:
■ “You’re a teacher, aren’t you?” “Yes, that’s right.”
■ “M ark has a new jo b .” “H e does? I didn’t know that.”
■ “I’m going on vacation next w eek.” “O h, that’s nice.”

We use th is is . . . and is th is . . . ? on the telephone:


■ Hi Sarah, this is David.
(= the speaker)
■ Is this Sarah?
(= the other person)
We use this is . . . to introduce people:
■ A: Brian, this is Chris.
B: Hello, Chris. Nice to m eet you.
C: Hi.

Amanda

this one / that one —►Unit 76


*ercises U N I
: 1 Complete the sentences. Use this/that/these/those + these words:
birds d ish es h ou se postcards seat shoes

: 2 Write questions: Is this/that r. . . ? or Are these/those y o u r . . . ?


u
o
y

3 3 Complete the sentences with this is or that's or that.


1. :AI’m sorry I’m late. 5. B eth plays the piano very well.
B: aT
hf ll right.
s_ B: Does she? I didn’t know .
2. :Ican’t com e to the p arty tom orrow .
A 6. Mark meets Paul’s sister, Helen.
B: O h , _____________ too bad. W hy not? Paul: M a rk ,____________ my sister, Helen.
3. (onthephone) Mark: Hi, Helen.
Sue: Hello, J a n e ._____________ Sue. 7. A: I’m sorry I was angry yesterday.
Jane: O h, hi Sue. H ow are you? B: _____________ OK. Forget it!
4. :You’re lazy.
A 8. You’re a friend of T im ’s, aren’t you?
:
B not true! B: Y es,______________ right.
U N I T
one/ones
76 on e (= a . . .)

These chocolates are good. W ould you like on e ?


Would you like one?
m ^1
= W ould you like a ch ocolate

on e = a /a n . . . (a chocolate / an apple, etc.)

I need a pen. Do you have one? (one = a pen)


A: Is there a bank near here?
B: Yes, there’s on e on the corner, (one = a bank)

on e and ones
on e (singular) ones (plural) The w hite ones.
Which one
do you w ant? W hich ones
This one. do you w ant?

W hich one? = W hich hat? W hich ones? = W hich flowers?


on e = h a t/c a r /g ir l, etc. ones = flo w e rs/ca rs/g irls, etc.
this on e / that on e th e se /th o se (without ones)
■ W hich car is yours? T his on e or ■ W hich flowers do you want? T hese
that one? (= this car or that car) or those? (usually not these ones or
those ones)
the on e . . . the ones . . .
■ A: W hich h o tel did you stay at? ■ A: W hich b ook s are yours?
B: T he on e near the airport. B: T he ones on the table.
■ I found this key. Is it the on e you lost? ■ I found these keys. Are they the ones
you lost?
the . . . one the . . . ones
■ I don’t like the black coat, but I like ■ I don’t like the red shoes, but I like
the brow n one. the green ones.
■ D on’t buy that cam era. Buy the ■ D on’t buy those apples. Buy the
oth er one. oth er ones.
a /a n . . . one som e . . . ones
■ This cup is dirty. Can I have a ■ These cups are dirty. Can we have
clean one? som e clean ones?
■ That c o o k ie was good. I’m going to ■ My shoes are very old. I’m going to
have an other one. buy som e n ew ones.
I

w hich . . . ? —►Unit 48 another —►Unit 66 this/that, etc. —►Unit 75


<ercises U N I T
76
1 A asks B some questions. Use the information in the box to write B's answers. Use one
(not a!an . . . ) in the answers.

B d o esn ’t need a car B ju st had a cup o f coffee


th ere’s a d rugstore on First A venue B is g o in g to get a b ik e
B d o csn ’t -have a p cix B d o esn ’t have an u m brella

1. A: C an you lend me a pen? B: I’m sorry, _ / don't h a v e one


2. A: W ould you like to have a car? B: No, I don’t
3. A: Do you have a bike? B: No, b u t __
4. A: C an you lend me an umbrella? B: I’m sorry, but _
5. A: W ould you like a cup o f coffee? B: No, thank you.
6. A: Is there a drugstore near here? B: Y es,__________

Complete the sentences. Use a/an one. Use the words in the list,
b etter b ig ele-an d ifferen t n ew old
1. This cup is dirty. Can I have a clean one
2. I’m going to sell my car and b u y _____________
3. T hat’s not a very good picture. This i s .
4. I w ant today’s newspaper. This i s ____
5. This box is too small. I n e e d ________
6. W hy do we always go to the same restaurant? Let’s go to .

S 3 A is talking to B. Use the information to complete the conversations. Use one/ones.

1. A stayed at a hotel. It was near the airport. 6. A is looking at a picture. It's on the wall.
A: W e stayed at a hotel. A T h a t’s an interesting picture.
B: W hich one ? B
A: The one n e a r th e airport. A

2. A sees some shoes in a store window. 7. A sees a girl in a group of people. She's tall
They're green. w\1th long hair.
A: I like those shoes. A Do you know that girl?
B: W hich ? B
A: T he A

3. A is looking at a house. It has a red door. 8. A is looking at some flowers in the garden.
A: T h a t’s a nice house. They're yellow.
B: ? A: Those flowers are beautiful.
A: w ith B. P
A.

4. A is looking at some CDs. They're on the 9. A is looking at a man in a restaurant. He


top shelf. hois a mustache and glasses.
A: Are those your CDs? A W h o ’s that man?
B: ? B
A: A

5. A is looking at a jacket in a store. It's black. 10. A took some pictures at the party last week.
A: Do you like that jacket? A D id I show you my pictures?
B: ? B
A: A

153
U N I T
some and any
77
A som e any
I have some I don't have
money. any money.

Use so m e in positive sentences: Use any in negative sentences:


■ I’m going to buy som e clothes. ■ I’m n ot going to buy any clothes.
■ T here’s som e ice in the fridge. ■ There isn ’t any m ilk in the fridge.
■ We made som e mistakes. ■ We d id n ’t make any mistakes.

B any and so m e in questions


In m ost questions (but not all) we use any (not som e):
■ Is there any ice in the fridge?
■ Does he have any friends?
■ Do you need any help?
We norm ally use som e (not any) w hen we offer things
(W ould you lik e . . . ?) :
■ A: W ould you like som e coffee?
B: Yes, please.
Would you like
or w hen we ask for things (Can I have . . . ?, etc.): some coffee?
■ A: Can I have som e soup, please?
B: Yes. Help yourself.
■ A: Can you lend me som e money?
B: Sure. H ow m uch do you need?

C som e and any w ithout a noun


■ I didn’t take any pictures, but Jane took som e. (= some pictures)
■ You can have some coffee, but I don’t w ant any. (= any coffee)
■ I ju st made some coffee. W ould you like some? (= some coffee)
■ “W h ere’s your luggage?” “I don’t have any.” (= any luggage)
M “Are there any cookies?” “Yes, there are som e in the kitchen.” (= some cookies)

som ething / som ebody (or som eone) anything / anybody (or anyone)
■ She said som eth in g. ■ She d id n ’t say anything.
■ I saw som eb od y (or som eone). ■ I d id n ’t see anybody (or anyone).
■ W ould you like so m eth in g to eat? ■ Are you doing an yth in g tonight?
■ S o m eb od y’s at the door. ■ W here’s Sue? Has anybody seen her?

154 a and some —►Unit 69 somebody/anything, etc. —►Unit 80


*ercises U N I
# Write some or any.
1. I bought so m e cheese, but I didn’t buy a n y bread.
2. I’m going to the post office. I n e e d ________ stamps.
3. There aren’t _______ gas stations in this part o f town.
4. Gary and Alice don’t h a v e ________ children.
5. Do you h a v e brothers or sisters?
6. There a r e _______ beautiful flowers in the garden.
7. Do you k n o w ________ good hotels in Miami?
8. “W ould you lik e tea?” “Yes, please.”
9. W hen we were on vacation, we v isite d ________ very interesting places.
10. D on’t b u y _______ rice. We don’t n e e d ________ .
11. I w ent out to b u y _______ oranges, but they didn’t h a v e _________at the store.
12. I’m thirsty. Can I h a v e ________water, please?

17 2 Complete the sentences. Use some or any + the words in the box.

air b atteries friend s fr u it help


lan g u a g es m ilk p ictu res q u estions sh a m p o o-

1. I w ant to wash my hair. Is there a n y sham poo ?


2. The police w ant to talk to you. They w ant to ask y o u _____________________
3. I don’t have my camera, so I can’t ta k e ______________________________ .
4. Do you sp ea k ______________________________ fo reig n _______________________
5. Last night I w ent to a restaurant w i t h ______________________________ o f mine.
6. Can I h a v e ______________________________ in my coffee, please?
7. This camera isn’t working. There aren’t ______________________________ in it.
8. It’s hot in this office. I’m going out f o r _______________fre s h _________________
9. A: W ould you lik e _______________________________?
B: No, thank you. I’ve had enough to eat.
10. I can do this jo b alone. I don’t n e e d ______________________________ .

3 Complete the sentences. Use some or any.


1. Jane didn’t take any pictures, but / took so m e . (I / take)
2. “W h ere’s your luggage?” “ / don t h a v e a n y ” (I / not / have)
3. “D o you need any m oney?” “N o, thank you .” (I / have)
4. “Can you lend me some m oney?” “I’m sorry, b u t ____________________ .” (I / not / have)
5. The tom atoes at the store didn’t look very good, s o . (I / not / buy)
6. There were some nice oranges at the store, s o ________________________________. (I / buy)
7. “H ow m any phone calls did you make yesterday?” “ _____________ (I / not / make)

"7.4 Write som ething!som ebody or anything/anybody.


1. A wom an stopped me and said so m eth in g , but I didn’t understand.
2. “W h at’s wrong?” “T here’s _______________in my eye.”
3. Do you k n o w _______________ about politics?
4. I w ent to the store, but I didn’t b u y _______________ .
5. _______________ broke the window. I don’t know who.
6. There isn’t _______________in the bag. It’s empty.
7. I’m looking for my keys. H a s seen them?
8. W ould you lik e _______________ to drink?
9. I didn’t e a t _______________because I wasn’t hungry.
10. This is a secret. Please don’t t e l l_______________ .
U N I T
not + any no none
78
The parking lot is empty.
There aren’t an y cars in the parking lot.
There are n o cars
How many cars are there in the parking lot?
N one.

n o t (-n’t) + any
■ T here aren’t any cars in the parking lot.
■ Tracey and Jeff don’t have any children.
■ You can have some coffee, but I, don’t w ant any.
no + noun (no cars / no garage, etc.)
no . . . = n o t any or n o t a
■ T here are no cars in the parking lot. (= there aren’t any cars)
■ We have no coffee. (= we d o n ’t have any coffee)
■ It’s a nice house, but there’s no garage. (= there isn’t a garage)
W e use no . . . especially after have/has and there is/are.
negative verb + any = positive verb + no
■ They d o n ’t have any children, or They have no children.
(not They don’t have no children)
■ There isn ’t any sugar in your coffee, or T here’s n o sugar in your coffee.

N o and n on e
Use no + noun (no m o n ey / no children, etc.):
■ We have no m on ey.
■ Everything was OK. There were no problem s.
Use n o n e alone (without a noun):
■ “H ow m uch m oney do you have?” “N o n e.” (= no money)
■ “W ere there any problem s?” “N o, n on e.” (= no problems)

N o n e and no on e
n on e = 0 (zero)
no on e = nobody

N o n e is an answer for H o w much? / H o w many? (things or people):


■ “H o w m u ch m oney do you have?” “N o n e.” (= no money)
■ “H o w m any people did you m eet?” “N o n e.” (= no people)
N o on e is an answer for Who?:
■ “W ho did you m eet?” “N o on e.” or “N ob od y.”

negatives —►Unit 44 some and any —►Unit 77 anybody/nobody/nothing, etc. —►Units 79-80
Exercises U N I
78.1 Write these sentences again with no.
1. We don’t have any money. We have no money.____
2. There aren’t any stores near here.There a r e ___________________
3. Carla doesn’t have any free time. ____________________________
4. There isn’t a light in this room. ____________________________

Write these sentences again with any.


5. We have no money. We don t h ave a ny money.
6. T here’s no m ilk in the fridge. ____________________________
7. There are no buses today. ____________________________
8. Tom has no brothers or sisters. ____________________________

"8.2 Write no or any.


1. T here’s no sugar in your coffee.
2. My brother is m arried, but he doesn’t h a v e ________ children.
3. Sue doesn’t sp ea k _______ foreign languages.
4. I’m afraid there’s ________ coffee. W ould you like some tea?
5. “Look at those birds!” “Birds? W here? I can’t s e e ________ birds.”
6. “D o you know where Jessica is?” “N o, I h a v e _______ idea.”

Write no, any, or none.


7. There aren’t ________pictures on the wall.
8. The w eather was cold, but there w a s ________ wind.
9. I w anted to buy some oranges, but they didn’t have _ at the store.
10. Everything was correct. There w e r e ________ mistakes
11. “H ow m uch luggage do you have?” “ _______
55
12. “H ow m uch luggage do you have?” “I don’t h a v e __

73.3 Complete the sentences. Use any or no + the words in the box.

air c o n d itio n in g answ er d ifferen ce frien d s fu rn itu re


lin e m o n ey p ro b lem s q uestions

1. Everything was OK. T here were no p ro b lem s .


2. Jack and Emily would like to take a vacation, but they h a v e ____________________________ .
3. I’m not going to an sw e r____________________________ .
4. H e’s always alone. H e h a s ____________________________ .
5. There i s ________________________betw een these two machines. They’re exactly the same.
6. There wasn’t ____________________________ in the room. It was com pletely empty.
7. I tried to call you yesterday, but there w a s ___________________________ .
8. The house is hot because there isn’t ____________________________ .
9. There w a s ___________________________ outside the movie theater, so we didn’t have to
wait to get our tickets.

73.4 Write short answers (one or two words) to these questions. Use none
where necessary.
1. H ow many letters did you w rite yesterday? Two. OR T) lot. OR —None.-----
2. H ow many sisters do you have?____________________________________________________ _
3. H ow m uch coffee did you drink yesterday? ____________________________________ _
4. H ow many pictures have you taken today? ________________________________________ _
5. H ow many legs does a snake have? .
/ II I
not + anybody/anyone/anything
79 nobody/no one/nothing
n o t + an yb od y/an yon e n o t + anything
n o b o d y / no on e n o th in g
(for people) (for things)

(a n y b o d y ,
There isn ’t room. B There isn ’t an yth in g in the bag.
la n y o n e J

There is | ” o b o ‘1y l jn dre room. ■ There is n o th in g in the bag.


I no on e J
■ A: W ho is in the room? ■ A: W hat’s in the bag?
B: N ob od y. / N o one. B: N oth in g.

-body and -on e are the same:


anybody = anyone nobody = no on e

n o t + anybody /a n y o n e n o t + anything
■ I d o n ’t know anybody ■ I can’t rem em ber anything.
(or anyone) here.
n o b o d y = n o t + anybody n o th in g = n o t + anything
no on e = n o t + anyone
■ I’m lonely. I have n ob od y to talk to. ■ She said n oth in g.
(= I don’t have anybody) (= She didn’t say anything.)
■ The house is empty. T here is n o on e ■ T here’s n o th in g to eat.
in it. (= T here isn’t anyone in it.) (= There isn’t an yth in g to eat.)

You can use n ob od y / no on e / n o th in g at the beginning of a sentence or alone


(to answer a question):

■ The house is empty. N o b o d y lives N o th in g happened.


there. (not Anybody lives there) (not Anything happened)
■ “W ho did you speak to?” “N o on e.” “W hat did you say?” “N o th in g .’

Rem em ber: negative verb + anybody / anyone / an ything


positive verb + n ob od y / no on e / n o th in g

■ He doesn’t know anything, (not He doesn’t know nothing)


■ D o n ’t tell anybody, (not D on’t tell nobody)
■ There is n o th in g to do in this town, (not There isn’t nothing)

some and any —►Unit 77 any and no —►Unit 78 som ebody/anything/nowhere, etc. —►Unit 80
ercises uni
Write these sentences again with nobody / no one or nothing.
1. There isn’t anything in the bag. There's noth ing in the bag.
2. There isn’t anybody in the office. T here’s _____________________
3. I don’t have anything to do. I ___________________________
4. There isn’t anything on TV. ____________________________
5. There wasn’t anyone at hom e. ____________________________
6. We didn’t find anything. ____________________________

2 Write these sentences again with anybody/anyone or anything.


1. T here’s nothing in the bag. There isn t an y th in g in the bag.
2. There was nobody on the bus. T here wasn’t ____________________
3. I have nothing to read. _________________________________
4. I have no one to help me. _________________________________
5. She heard nothing._______________ _________________________________
6. W e have nothing for dinner. _________________________________

Answer these questions with nobody / no one or nothing.


la. W h a t did you say? Nothing.___________ 5a.W ho knows the answer? .
2a. W h o saw you? Nobody._______________ 6a. W h at did you b u y ? _____
3a. W h a t do you w a n t? ____________________ 7a.W h at h ap p en ed ?_______
4a. W h o did you m e e t? ___________________ 8a. W ho was la te ? __________

Now answer the same questions with full sentences.


Use nobody / no one / nothing or anybody/anyone/anything:
lb. / didn t sa y anything._________________________________________
2b. N obo dy s a w me._____________________________________________
3b. I don’t ___
4b. I ______________________________________________________________
5b. the answer.
6b. ___________________________________________________________________________________
7b.
8b.

Complete the sentences. Use:


nobody / no one / nothing or anybody/anyone/anything
1. T hat house is empty. N obody lives there.
2. Jack has a bad memory. H e can’t rem em ber a n yth in g .
3. Be quiet! D o n ’t sa y _______________ .
4. I didn’t know about the m e etin g . told me.
5. “W hat did you have to eat?” “ . I wasn’t hungry.”
6. I didn’t e a t ______________ . I wasn’t hungry.
7. H elen was sitting alone. She wasn’t w ith _______________ .
8. I’m sorry, I can’t help you. T here’s I can do.
9. I don’t k n o w _______________about car engines.
10. The m useum is free. It doesn’t c o s t to go in.
11. I heard a knock at the door, but w hen I opened it, there w a s _______________ there.
12. Antonio spoke very fast. I didn’t u n d ersta n d _______________ .
13. “W hat are you doing tonight?” “ _______________ . W hy?”
14. H elen is out o f to w n ._______________knows w here she is. She didn’t t e l l _________
w here she was going.

159
somebody/anything/nowhere, etc.

dD
■0
l— 1 □
□ / -------- ....... \ Id
D

[

S om eb od y (or Som eon e) She has got so m eth in g in Tom lives som ew h ere near
has broken the window. her m outh. Chicago.

so m e b o d y /so m e o n e so m eth in g = a thing, som ew h ere — in /to


= a person, but we but we don’t know w hat a place, but we don’t
don’t know who know w here

People (-body or -one)


so m eb o d y or so m eo n e There is som eb od y (or som eone) at the door.
Is there anybody (or anyone) at the door?
anybody or anyone
There isn’t anybody (or anyone) at the door.
n o b o d y or no on e There is n ob od y (or n o one) at the door.

-body and -on e are the same: som eb od y = som eone, n ob od y = no one, etc.
I
:
• Things (-thing)

I: ; ; -
so m eth in g Lucy said som eth in g, but I didn’t understand w hat she said.
Are you doing an yth in g this weekend?
anyth in g
I was angry, but I didn’t say anything.
n o th in g “W hat did you say?” “N o th in g .”
MM
Places (-where)
som ew here R uth’s parents live som ew h ere in Southern California.
Did you go anyw here interesting on vacation?
anyw here
I’m staying here. I’m n o t going anywhere.
n ow h ere I don’t like this town. There is n ow h ere to go.

so m eth in g/an yb od y, etc. + adjective (b ig /ch ea p /in terestin g , etc.)


■ Did you m eet anybody in terestin g at the party?
■ W e always go to the same place. Let’s go som ew h ere different.
■ “W hat’s in that letter?” “It’s n o th in g im p ortan t.”

so m eth in g /a n y b o d y , etc. + to . . .
■ I’m hungry. I w ant so m eth in g to eat. (= som ething that I can eat)
■ Tony doesn’t have anybody to talk to. (= anybody that he can talk to)
■ There is n ow h ere to go in this town. (= now here where people can go)

some and any —►Unit 77 any and no ►Unit 78 anybody/nothing, etc. —►Unit 79
everything/-body/-where —►Unit 81
ercises
Write som ebody (or someone) / som ething / som ewhere.
U N I T
80
^ -------------
L Lucy sa id . so m eth in g W hat did she say?
2. I lo s t. W hat did you lose?
3. Sue and Tom w e n t. W here did they go?
4. I’m going to c a ll. W ho are you going to call?

2 Write nobody (or no one) / nothing / nowhere.

la. W hat did you say? Nothing.


2a. W here are you going?
3a. W hat do you want?
4a. W ho are you looking for?

Now answer the same questions with full sentences.


Use not + anybody/anything/anywhere.
lb. / didn t s a y anything._________________ 3b. _____
2b. I’m n o t ________________________________ 4b. _____

Write somebody/anything/nowhere, etc.


1. It’s dark. I can’t see a n yth in g .
2 . Tom lives s o m e w h e re near San Francisco.
3. Do you k n o w _______________________ about computers?
4. “Listen!” “W hat? I can’t h e a r _______________________ .”
5. “W hat are you doing here?” “I’m waiting f o r ____________________
6. We need to talk. T here’s __ __________________I w ant to tell you.
7. “D i d ____________________ see the accident?” “N o ,___________
8 . We w eren’t hungry, so we didn’t e a t _____________
9. “W h at’s going to happen?” “I don’t k n o w .______ knows.”
10. “Do you k n o w _______________________ in Tokyo?” “Yes, a few people.”
11. “W h at’s in that suitcase?” “ ___________________ . It’s empty.”
12. I’m looking for my glasses. I can’t find them
13. I don’t like cold weather. I w ant to liv e ____ . warm.
14. Is th e r e ___________________ interesting on television tonight?
15. Have you ever m e t . __________famous?

4 Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.

s o m e th in g a n y th in g n o th in g do d rin k eat go
s o m e th in g a n yw h ere n o w h e re p ark read sit stay
so m e w h e re n o w h ere

1. We don’t go out very m uch because there’s n o w h e re to go


2 . T here isn’t any food in the house. W e don’t h a v e ___________
3. I’m bored. I h a v e ______________________________ .
4. “W hy are you standing?” “Because there isn’t .
5. “W ould you lik e _______ ?” “Yes, please - a glass of water.’
6 . If you’re going downtown, take the bus. D on’t drive because there’s

7. I w a n t. .. I’m going to buy a magazine,


8. I n e e d . in Seoul. Can you recom m end a hotel?

161
U N I T
every and all
81 Every

Every house on the street is the same

every house on the street =


all the houses on the street

We use every + singular noun (every h ou se / every country, etc.):


■ Sarah has been to every cou n try in Europe.
■ Every su m m er we take a vacation at the beach.
■ She looks different every tim e I see her.
Use a singular verb after every . . . :
■ Every h ou se on the street is the same. (not are the same)
■ Every cou n try has a national flag. (not have)
Com pare every and all:

Every stu d en t in the class passed A ll the students in the class passed
the exam. the exam.
Every cou n try has a national flag. A ll cou n tries have a national flag.

Every day and all day

every day = on all days: all day = the com plete day:
How often? How long?
beginning end of
1
SUN + MON + TUE + WED + THUR + FRI + SAT
o f the day the day
I I I I I I I «----------------- A L L D A Y
E V E R Y DAY
■ It rained every day last week. ■ It rained all day yesterday.
■ Bill watches TV for about two hours ■ O n Monday, I watched TV all night.
every night. (= on all nights) (= the whole night)
also every m o r n in g /w e e k /su m m e r , etc. also all m o r n in g /w e e k /su m m e r , etc.

E verybody (or everyone) / everyth ing / everyw here


everybody or everyone m E verybody (or E veryone) needs friends.
(people) (= all people need friends)
everyth ing m Do you have everyth ing you need?
(things) (= all the things you need)
everyw here m I lost my watch. I’ve looked everyw here for it.
(places) (= I’ve looked in all places)

Use a singular verb after everyb od y/everyon e/everyth in g:


■ E verybody has problem s, (not Everybody have)

162 all —►Unit 82


E xercises u N 1T 81
Complete the sentences. Use every + these words:
day ro o m stu d ea t tim e w ord
1. E v e r y s tu d e n t in the class passed the exam.
2. My jo b is very b o rin g .____________is the same.
3. Kate is a very good chess player. W hen we play, she w in s ___
4. ________________________ in the hotel has a TV.
5. “D id you understand w hat she said?” “M ost o f it, but not _

i 4 2 Complete the sentences with every day or all day.


1. Yesterday it rained oil d a y .
2. I buy a n ew sp ap er________________________ , but sometimes I don’t read it.
3. I’m not going out tom orrow. I’ll be at h o m e ________________________ .
4. I usually drink about four cups o f co ffee________________________ .
5. Paula was sick yesterday, so she stayed in b e d ________________________ .
6. I’m tired now because I’ve been working h a r d ________________________ .
7. Last year we w ent to the beach for a week, and it ra in e d _______________________ .

11 3 Write every or all.


1. Bill watches TV for about two hours e v e r y night.
2. Julia gets up at 6 :3 0 __________ m orning.
3. The w eather was nice yesterday, so we sat o u tsid e__________ afternoon.
4. I’m leaving tow n on Monday. I’ll be aw ay __________ week.
5. “H ow often do you go skiing?” “__________ year. Usually in M arch.”
6. A: W ere you at hom e at 10 yesterday?
B: Yes, I was at h o m e __________m orning. I w ent out after lunch.
7. My sister loves new cars. She buys o n e _________ year.
8. I saw Sam at the party, but he didn’t speak to m e _________ night.
9. We take a vacation for two or three w e e k s__________ summer.

31.4 Write everybody/everything/everywhere.


1. E verybody needs friends.
2. Chris k n o w s________________________ about com puters.
3. I like the people h e re .________________________is very friendly.
4. This is a nice hotel. It’s comfortable, a n d ________________________ is very clean.
5. Kevin never uses his car. He g o e s________________________ on his motorcycle.
6. Let’s have d in n e r._____________________ is hungry.
7. Sue’s house is full of books. There are b o o k s ________________________.
8. You are rig h t. you say is true.

31.5 Complete the sentences. Use one word only each time.
1. Everybody h a s problems.
2. Are you ready yet? E verybody_______________ waiting for you.
3. The house is empty. E v ery o n e_______________ gone out.
4. Gary is very popular. E verybody______________ him.
5. This tow n is com pletely different now. E verything _______________ changed.
6. I got hom e very late last night. I came in quietly because ev eryone_______________ asleep.
7. E v erybody______________ mistakes!
8. A: ________________ everything clear?_______________ everybody know w hat to do?
B: Yes, we all understand.

163
U N I T
all most some any no/none

Com pare:

c h ild r e n /m o n e y /b o o k s, etc. (in general): the children / the m oney / these books, etc:
■ C h ild ren like to play. ■ W here are th e children?
(= children in general) (= our children)
■ M on ey isn’t everything. ■ I w ant to buy a car, but I don’t have
(= m oney in general) the m on ey. (= the m oney for a car)
■ I enjoy reading books. ■ Have you read these books?
■ Everybody needs friends. ■ I often go out w ith m y friends.

M ost / m o st o f . . ., som e / som e o f . . ., etc.

all m ost som e any

m o st/so m e , etc. + noun m o st o f/s o m e of, etc. + th e /th is /m y , . . . etc

all all (of)


cities the . . .
m o st m ost
ch ildren t h is /t h a t . . .
som e -e f som e
b ook s of th ese /th o se . . .
any any
m o n ey m y /y o u r . . . , etc.
no n on e
■ M ost children like to play. ■ M ost o f th e ch ildren at this sch ool
(= children in general) are under 11 years old.
■ I don’t w ant any m on ey. ■ I don’t w ant any o f this m on ey.
■ S o m e b ook s are better than others. ■ S om e o f these b ook s are very old.
■ H e has no friends. ■ N o n e o f m y friends live near me.
■ A ll cities have the same problem s. You can say all the . . . or all o f the . . .
(= cities in general) (with or w ithout o f ) :
Do not use o f in these sentences: ■ A ll the students in our class passed
■ M ost p eo p le drive too fast. the exam, (or A ll o f the students . . .)
(not M ost of people) ■ Silvia has lived in M iami all her life.
■ S om e birds can’t fly. (or. . . all o f her life.)
(not Some of birds)

A ll o f it / m o st o f th em / n on e o f us, etc.
all You can have som e o f this cake, but not all o f it.
it I A: Do you know those people?
m o st
th em B: M ost o f them , but not all o f them .
som e of
us S om e o f us are going out tonight. W hy don’t you come w ith us?
any
you I I’ve got a lot o f books, but I haven’t read any o f them .
none
“H ow many o f these books have you read?” “N o n e o f th em .”

the . . . (children / the children, etc.) —►Unit 73 some and any —►Unit 77 no/none/any —►Unit 78
164 all and every —►Unit 81
: *erases U N I
Complete the sentences. Use the word in parentheses (some/most, etc.). Sometimes
you need o f (some o f / m ost of, etc.).
1. /^ lo sf children like to play, (most)
Sonne o f this m oney is yours, (some)
_______________people never stop talking, (some)
_______________the stores dow ntow n close at 6:00. (most)
You can change m oney i n _______________banks, (most)
I don’t like . . the pictures in the living room, (any)
H e’s lo s t__ . his money, (all)
my friends are m arried, (none)
9. Do you k n o w . . the people in this picture? (any)
10. birds can fly. (most)
11. I en jo y ed__ _________ the movie, but I didn’t like the ending, (most)
12. _______________ sports are very dangerous, (some)
13. W e can’t find anywhere to stay._______________ the hotels are full. (all)
14. T r y _______________this cheese. It’s delicious, (some)
15. The weather was bad w hen we were on vacation. It ra in e d ________ . the time, (most)

11.2 Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use:


all I m ost I som e I none + o f them I o f it

'MMM MUM
trnm HfHi
iMffe
1. H ow many o f the people are women? Afo s t o f them.
2. H ow many o f the boxes are on the table?
3. H ow many o f the m en are wearing hats?
4. H ow m any o f the windows are open?
5. H ow many o f the people are standing?
6. H ow m uch o f the m oney is B en’s?

82.3 Are these sentences OK? Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. (M ost o f children)like to play. A lo s f children
2. All the students failed the test. OK
3. Some o f people w ork too hard.
4. Some o f questions on the exam were very easy.
5. I haven’t seen any o f those people before.
6. All of insects have six legs.
7. Have you read all these books?
8. M ost o f students in our class are very nice.
9. M ost o f my friends are going to the party.
10. I’m very tired this m orning - I was awake m ost o f night.
U N I T
both either neither

W e use b o th /e ith e r /n e ith e r to talk about two things or people:

b oth eith er n eith er (n o t + either)

■ Rebecca has two children. B oth are married, (both = the two children)
■ W ould you like tea or coffee? You can have either, (either — tea or coffee)
■ A: Do you w ant to go to the movies or the theater?
B: N either. I w ant to stay home, (neither = not the movies or the theater)
Com pare eith er and neither:
“E ither. It doesn’t m atter.” (= tea or coffee)
■ “W ould you like tea or coffee?” “I d o n ’t w ant either.” (not I don’t w ant neither)
“N eith er.” (= not tea or coffee)

B o th /e ith e r /n e ith e r + noun


b oth + plural b oth w in d o w s/b o o k s/c h ild ren , etc.
eith er eith er
+ singular w in d o w /b o o k /c h ild , etc.
n eith er n eith er

■ Last year I w ent to M iami and Seattle. I liked b oth cities very much.
■ First I w orked in an office and later in a store. N eith er jo b was very interesting.
■ T here are two ways to get to the airport. You can go eith er way.

B o th o f . . . / eith er o f . .. / n eith er o f .
I like both of
both (o f) the . . . those pictures
eith er th e se /th o se . . .
of
n eith er m y /y o u r /P a u l’s . . . , etc.

■ N eith er o f m y parents is Canadian.


■ I haven’t read eith er o f these books.
You can say b oth o f th e /th o s e /m y . . . or
b oth th e /th o s e /m y . . . (with or w ithout o f ) :
■ I like b oth o f those pictures, or I like b oth those pictures.
■ B o th o f Paul’s sisters are m arried, or B oth Paul’s sisters are m arried
but N eith er o f Paul’s sisters is married. (not N either Paul’s sisters)

B oth o f th em / n eith er o f us
both th em
eith er of us
n eith er you

Paul has got two sisters. B oth o f th em are m arried.


Sue and I didn’t eat anything. N eith er o f us was hungry.
W ho are those two people? I d o n ’t know eith er o f them .

I can't either / neither can I —►Unit 43


ixercises U N I
i 3,1 Write both I either I neither. Use o f where necessary.
1. Last year I w ent to Miami and Seattle. I liked both cities very much.
2. T here were two pictures on the wall.I didn’t like e ith e r o f them .
3. It was a good football g am e.___teams played well.
4. It wasn’t a good football g am e._______________ team played well.
5. “Is your friend Canadian or American?” “_______________ . She’s Australian.”
6. W e w ent away for two days, but the w eather was bad. It ra in e d _______________ days.
7. A: I bought two newspapers. W hich one do you want?
B: _______________ . It doesn’t m atter w hich one.
8. I invited D onna and M ike to the party, b u t _____________ them came.
9. “Do you go to w ork by car or by bus?” “______________ . I always walk.”
10. “W hich jacket do you prefer, this one or that one?” “I don’t lik e _______________ them .”
11. “Do you w ork or are you a student?” “ . I work, and I’m a student, too.”
12. Paula and I didn’t know the tim e becau se_______________ us had a watch.
13. H elen has two sisters and a b ro th e r._______________sisters are married.
14. H elen has two sisters and a brother. Iknow her brother, but I haven’t m et
her sisters.

3 2 Complete the sentences for the pictures. Use Both . . . and N eith er. . . .

1. D o th cups a re empty. 4. beards.


2. are open. 5. to the airport.
3. wearing a hat. 6. right.

A man and a woman answered some questions. Their answers were the same. Write
sentences with Both/Neither o f them . . . .

1. Are you married? No N o ----- 3- 1. N e ith e r o f them is m arried.


2. H ow old are you? 21 21 ----- 3►2. D o th o f th em a re 21.
3. Are you a student? Yes Y es----- 3-3 . students.
4. Do you have a car? No No 4. a car.
5. W here do you live? Boston Boston 5.
6. Do you like to cook? Yes Yes 6.
7. Can you play the No No 7.
piano?
8. Do you read the Yes Yes 8.
newspaper?
9. Are you interested No No 9.
in sports?
a lot much many

a lo t o f m o n ey n o t m u ch m o n ey a lo t o f b ook s n o t m any books

We use m u ch + uncountable noun We use m any + plural noun


(m uch fo o d / m u ch m on ey, etc.): (m any b ook s / m any p eop le, etc.):
■ Did you buy m u ch food? ■ Did you buy m any books?
■ We don’t have m u ch luggage. ■ We don’t know m any p eop le.
■ H ow m u ch m o n ey do you want? ■ H ow m any p h otos did you take?
■ A: Do you have any m oney? ■ A: Did you take any photos?
B: I have some, but n o t m uch. B: I took some, but n o t many.
We use a lo t o f + both types of noun:
■ We bought a lo t o f food. ■ W e bought a lo t o f books.
■ Paula doesn’t have a lo t o f free tim e. ■ Did they ask a lo t o f questions?
We say:
■ There is a lot o f fo o d /m o n e y / ■ There are a lot of tr e e s/sh o p s/
w ater . . . (singular verb) p eo p le . . . (plural verb)
■ A lot of p eo p le speak English.
(not speaks)

We use m u ch in questions and negative sentences:


M Do you drink m u ch coffee?
■ I don’t drink m u ch coffee.
B ut we do not often use m u ch in positive sentences:
■ I drink a lo t o f coffee, (not I drink m uch coffee)
■ “Do you drink m uch coffee?” “Yes, a lo t.” (not Yes, much)
We use m any and a lo t o f in all types o f sentences (positive/negative/question):
■ We have m any friends / a lo t o f friends.
■ We don’t have m any friends / a lo t o f friends.
■ Do you have m any friends / a lo t o f friends?

You can use m u ch and a lo t w ithout a noun:


■ D onna spoke to me, but she didn’t say m uch.
■ “Do you watch TV m uch?” “N o, n o t m u ch .” (= not often)
■ W e like movies, so we go to the movies a lot. (not go to the movies much)
■ I don’t like him very m uch.

countable/uncountable —►Units 68-69


•xercises U N
54 1 Write much or many.
1. D id you buy m uch food?
2. There aren’t _________ hotels in this town.
3. We don’t h a v e gas.We need to stop and get some.
4. W ere th e r e people on the train?
5. D id _________students fail the exam?
6. Paula doesn’t h a v e _________money.
7. I wasn’t hungry, so I didn’t e a t _________ .
8. I don’t know w here Gary lives these days. I haven’t seen him f o r _________ years.

Write How much or How many.


9. _________________________people are coming to the party?
10. _________________________milk should I get at the store?
11. _________________________bread did you buy?
12. _________________________players are there on a football team?

- 2 Complete the sentences. Use much or many with these words:


books co u n tries lu g g a g e p eo p le tim e tim es
1. I don’t read very much. I don’t have m any books .
2. H urry up! We don’t h a v e __________________________________ .
3. Do you travel a lot? Have you been t o __________________________________ ?
4. Tina hasn’t lived here very long, so she doesn’t k n o w _________________________
5. “Do you h a v e ?” “No, only this bag.”
6. I know Tokyo very well. I’ve been th e r e ________________________________ .

- 3 Complete the sentences. Use a lot o f + these words:


accid en ts -books- fu n in tere stin g th in g s tr a ffic
1. I like reading. I have u lo t o f books
2. W e enjoyed our visit to the m useum . We saw .
3. This road is very dangerous. There a r e ______
4. W e enjoyed our vacation. We had .
5. It took me a long tim e to drive here. There was .

-.4 In some of these sentences much is not natural. Change the sentences or write OK.
1. Do you drink m uch coffee? OK
2. I drink m uch tea. a !° t o f te a
3. It was a cold winter. W e had m uch snow. _____________
4. There wasn’t m uch snow last winter. _____________
5. It costs m uch m oney to travel around the world. _____________
6. This pen was cheap. It didn’t cost m uch. _____________
7. Do you know m uch about computers?__________ _____________
8. “Do you have any luggage?” “Yes, m uch.” _____________

54.5 Write sentences about these people. Use much and a lot.
1. Jim loves movies, (go to the movies) H e goes to the m ovies a lot.
2. Nicole thinks TV is boring, (watch TV) She doesn 't w a tch T V much.
3. Tina is a good tennis player, (play tennis)________S h e __________________________
4. M artin doesn’t like to drive, (use his car)________ H e _________________________ _
5. Paul spends m ost o f the time at hom e, (go out) ______________________________
6. Sue has been all over the world, (travel) ______________________________
U N I T
(a) little (a) few

(a) little + uncountable noun: (a) few + plural noun


(a) little w ater (a) few b ook s
(a) little tim e (a) few questions
(a) little m o n ey (a) few p eo p le
(a) little soup (a) few days
'***

a little w ater
-

a little = some but not m uch a few = some but not many
■ She didn’t eat anything, but she drank ■ Excuse me, I have to make a few
a little water. p h on e calls.

■ I speak a little Spanish. ■ W e’re going away for a few days.


(= some Spanish but not much) ■ I speak a few w ords of Spanish.
■ A: Can you speak Spanish? ■ A: Do you have any stamps?
B: A little. B: Yes, a few. Do you w ant one?

X lit t le (without a) = almost no or almost )a(few (without a) = almost no


nothing
■ There was little fo o d in the fridge. It ■ There were few p eo p le in the theater.
was almost empty. It was almost empty.
You can say very little: You can say very few:
■ Dan is very thin because he eats very ■ Your English is very good. You make
little. (= almost nothing) very few m istakes.

little and a little few and a few


A little is a positive idea: A few is a positive idea:
■ They have a little money, so they’re not ■ I have a few friends, so I’m not
poor. (= they have some money) lonely. (= I have some friends)
L ittle (or very little) is a negative idea: Few (or very few) is a negative idea:
■ They have (very) little money. They ■ I’m sad and I’m lonely. I have (very)
are very poor. (= almost no money) few friends. (= almost no friends)

I have a little I have little I have a few I have few


money. money. friends. friends.

170 countable/uncountable —►Units 68-69


ercises U N I
Answer the questions with a little or a few.
1. “Do you have any m oney?” “Yes, a little
“Do you have any envelopes?” “Y es,.
3. “Do you w ant sugar in your coffee?” “Y es,_______________ , please.”
4. “Did you take any pictures w hen you were on vacation?” “Y es,_____
5. “Does your friend speak English?” “Y es,_______________.”
6. “Are there any good restaurants in this tow n?” “Y es,_______________

1: 2 Write a little or a few + these words:


chairs days fresh air frien d s m ilk R u ssian tim es years
M artin speaks Italian well. H e lived in Italy for a f e w y e a r s .
Can I h a v e in my coffee, please?
“W hen did Julia leave?” “____________________________ ag°«”
“Do you speak any foreign languages?” “I can speak ___________________________
“Are you going out alone?” “No, I’m going w ith ____________________________ .”
“Have you ever been to Mexico?” “Y es,____________________________ .”
There wasn’t m uch furniture in the room - just a table a n d _______________________
I’m going out for a walk. I n e e d ____________________________ .

s 3 3 Complete the sentences. Use very little or very few + these words:
co ffee h o tels m istak es p eo p le rain tim e w ork
1. Your English is very good. You make v e r y f e w m ista kes .
2. I d rin k . I don’t like it.
3. The w eather here is very dry in summer. There i s .
4. It’s difficult to find a place to stay in this town. There a r e ______________
5. H urry up. W e’ve g o t______________________________ .
6. The town is very quiet at n ig h t. go out.
7. Some people in the office are very lazy. They d o _____________________

35.4 Write little / a little or few / a few.


1. There was little food in the fridge. It was almost empty.
2. “W hen did Sarah go out?” “_______________m inutes ago.”
3. I can’t decide now. I n e e d _______________ tim e to think about it.
4. T here w a s _______________ traffic, so we arrived earlier than we expected.
5. The bus service isn’t very good at night - there a r e _______________buses after 9:00.
6. “W ould you like some soup?” “Y es,_______________ , please.”
7. They sent us a map, so we h a d _______________ trouble finding their house.

35.5 Right or wrong? Change the sentences where necessary. Write OK if the sentence
is correct.
1. W e’re going away(for few days)next week. fo r a f e w d a ys______
2. Everybody needs little luck. ______________________
3. I can’t talk to you now - I’ve got few things to do. ______________________
4. I eat very little m eat - I don’t like it very much. ______________________
5. Excuse me, can I ask you few questions? ______________________
6. There were little people on the bus - it was almost empty. ______________________
7. M artin is a very private person. Few people know him well. ______________________
U N I T
old/nice/interesting, etc. (adjectives)

Adjective + noun (nice day / b lu e eyes, etc.)


adjective + noun
It’s a n ice day today,
Laura has brow n eyes.
T here’s a very old church in this town.
Do you like Italian food?
I don’t speak any foreign languages.
There are some b eau tifu l y ello w flow ers in the garden.

The adjective is before the noun:


■ They live in a m od ern house. (not a house m odern)
■ Have you m et any fam ous people? (not people famous)
The ending o f an adjective is always the same:
a differen t place differen t places (not differents)

B e (a m /is/w a s, etc.) + adjective


■ The w eather is n ice today.
■ These flowers are very beautiful.
■ Are you cold? Should I close the window?
■ Pm hungry. Can I have som ething to eat?
■ The movie w asn ’t very good . It was boring.
■ Please be quiet. I’m reading.

c L o o k /fe e l/s m e ll/ta s te /s o u n d + adjective

It smells good
You sound ha

■ You lo o k tired.” “Yes, I feel tired.”


■ Gary told me about his new job. It sounds very interesting.
■ I’m not going to eat this fish. It doesn’t sm ell good.
Com pare:
is are is
He feels tired. They lo o k happy. It sm ells g ood
lo o k s sound tastes

172 get + adjective (get hungry/tired, etc.) —►Unit 57 som ething/anybody + adjective —►Unit 80
erases
1 Put the words in the right order.
1 (new / live in / house / they / a) They live in a n e w house.________________
2. (like / jacket / I / that / green)
3. (music / like / do / classical / you?) Do _
4. (had / w onderful / a / I / trip) ___
5. (went to / restaurant / a / Japanese / we) ___

The words below are adjectives (dark/foreign, etc.) or nouns (<air/job, etc.). Use an
adjective and a noun to complete each sentence.

air dangerou s foreign- hot k n ife lo n g vacation


clou ds dark fresh jo b la n gu ages- sharp w ater

1. Do you speak any foreign languages ?


2. Look at th o s e _________________________________ . It’s going to rain.
3. Sue works very hard, and she’s very tired. She needs a .
4. You n e e d _________________________________ to make tea.
5. Can you open the window? W e need some
6. I need a to cut these onions.
7. Firefighting is a ________________________________ .

3 Write sentences for the pictures. Choose from the boxes.

feel(s) look(s) sound(s) -happy- n ice surprised


look(s) sm ell(s) taste(s) n ew sick terrib le

(you sound happy .


IJ

.4 A and B don't agree. Complete B's sentences. Use feel/look, etc.

1. You look tired. I do? I don't fe e l t ir e d . (feel)


2. This is a new coat. It is? It doesn’t (look)
3. I’m American. You are? You (sound)
4. You look cold. Reallv? I (feel)
5. These bags are heavy. Thev are? They (look)
6. T hat soup looks good. Maybe, but it (taste)
U N I T
quickly/badly/suddenly, etc. (adverbs)
87
7:10 7:12 7:15

fe sn kh *

He ate his dinner very quickly. Suddenly, the shelf fell down.

Q u ick ly and suddenly are adverbs.


adjective + -ly —►adverb:
adjective quick bad sudden careful heavy
adverb quickly badly su dd en ly carefully heavily etc.

For spelling, see Appendix 5. easy —►easily heavy —►heavily

Adverbs tell you how som ething happens or how somebody does something:
■ The train stop p ed suddenly.
■ I op en ed the door slow ly.
■ Please listen carefully.
■ I understand you perfectly.

It’s rain in g heavily]


Com pare:

| adjective adverb
■ Sue is very quiet. ■ Sue speaks very quietly, (not speaks very quiet)
■ B e careful! ■ Listen carefully! (not listen careful)
■ It was a bad gam e. ■ O ur team played badly, (not played bad)
■ I felt nervous. ■ I w aited nervously.
(= I was nervous)

I H ard fast late early


These words are adjectives and adverb s:

■ Sue’s jo b is very hard. ■ Sue w orks very hard, (not hardly)


■ Ben is a fast runner. ■ Ben can run fast.
M The bus was late/early. ■ I w en t to bed late/early.

| G ood (adjective) —►w ell (adverb)

■ Your English is very good. ■ You speak English very w ell, (not very good)
■ It was a go o d gam e. ■ O ur team played w ell.

B ut w e ll is also an adjective (= not sick, in good health):


■ “H ow are you?” “I5m very w ell, thank you. And you?”

174 adjectives —►Unit 86


: erases U N I T
87
Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with these adverbs:
a n g rily b adly d an gerou sly fast h eavily q u ietly

5.

I i
&
1. It’s raining h e a v ily 4. She shouted at me
2. He sings v e ry _______ 5. She can run very _
3. They came i n _______ 6. H e was d riv in g __

2 Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.

co m e know sleep w in c a re fu lly clearly hard w e ll


ex p la in listen th in k w ork ca refu lly easily q u ick ly w e ll

1. I’m going to tell you som ething very im portant, so please . listen c a re fu lly
2 . T h e y ______________________________ . At the end of the day they’re always tired.
3. I’m tired this m orning. I didn’t ______________________________ last night.
4. You play chess m uch better than me. W hen we play, you alw ays_________________
5. ______________________________ before you answer the question.
6. I’ve m et Alice a few times, but I don’t __________________ her v e ry ______________
7. O ur teacher doesn’t __________________ things v e ry ___ . W e never
understand him.
8. Helen! I need your help.

,3 Which is right?
1. D o n ’t eat so quick / quickly. It’s not good for you. (quickly is right)
2. W hy are you angry / angrily? I didn’t do anything.
3. Can you speak slow / slowly, please?
4. Com e on, Dave! W hy are you always so slow / slowly?
5. Bill is a very careful / carefully driver.
6. Jane is studying hard / hardly for her exams.
7. “W h ere’s Diane?” “She was here, but she left sudden / suddenly.”
Please be quiet / quietly. I’m studying.
Some companies pay their workers very bad / badly.
10. Those oranges look nice / nicely. Can I have one?
11. I don’t rem em ber m uch about the accident. Everything happened quick / quickly.

57.4 Write good or well.


1. Your English is very . g o o d . You speak it very w e ll
Jackie did v e ry _____ on the quiz today.
The party was very _ . I enjoyed it a lot.
M artin has a difficult job, but he does i t _______________ .
H ow are your parents? Are th e y _______________ ?
Did you have a _______________ vacation? Was the w eather .

175
old/older expensive / more expensive

I'm 92.

I'm 93.

old old er heavy heavier ex p en siv e m ore expensive

O ld er / heavier / m ore exp en sive are comparative forms.


The comparative is -er (older) or m ore . . . (m ore expensive).

O ld er/h eavier, etc.

Short words (1 syllable) —►-er:


old —►old er slow —►slow er cheap —►cheaper
nice n icer late —►later big —►bigger

For spelling, see Appendix 5. big —►bigger h o t —►h o tte r thin —►th in n er
W ords ending in -y —►-ier:
easy —►easier heavy —►heavier early —►earlier

■ Rome is old, but Athens is older. (not m ore old)


■ Is it cheaper to go by car or by train? (not m ore cheap)
■ H elen wants a b igger car.
■ This coat is OK, but I think the other one is nicer.
■ D o n’t take the bus. It’s easier to take a taxi. (not m ore easy)
Far —►farther:
■ “H ow far is it to the station? A m ile?” “N o, it’s farther. About two miles.”

M ore . . .

Long words (2 /3 /4 syllables) m ore . . . :


careful —►m ore careful polite —►m ore p o lite
expensive —►m ore exp en sive interesting —►m ore in terestin g

You should be m ore careful.


I don’t like my job. I w ant to do som ething m ore interesting.
Is it m ore exp en sive to go by car or by train?

G o o d /w e ll —►b etter bad —►w orse


■ The w eather wasn’t very go o d yesterday, but it’s better today.
■ “Do you feel b etter today?” “N o, I feel w orse.”
■ W hich is w orse - a headache or a toothache?

older than . . . / more expensive than —►Unit 89 the oldest / the most expensive —►Unit 91
E■
ercises u N 1T 8 8
k 1 Look at the pictures and write the comparative (older / more interesting, etc.).

3. slow

6. dangerous

\ 2 Write the comparative.


1. old older 6. good
2. strong ___________________________ 7. large
3. happy ___________________________ 8. serious
4. m odern ___________________________ 9. pretty
5. im portant ___________________________ 10. crowded

: 3.3 Write the opposite.


1. younger older 4. better _
2. colder _____________________________ 5. nearer _
3. cheaper _____________________________ 6. easier _

33.4 Complete the sentences. Use a comparative.


1. H elen’s car isn’t very big. She wants a big g er one.
2. My jo b isn’t very interesting. I w ant to do som ething m o re in te re stin g
3. You’re not very tall. Your brother i s ___________________________ .
4. David doesn’t w ork very hard. I w o rk 1 .
5. My chair isn’t very comfortable. Yours is .
6. Your idea isn’t very good. My idea i s .
7. These flowers aren’t very nice. The blue ones are .
My suitcase isn’t very heavy. Your suitcase i s .
9. I’m not very interested in art. I’m in history.
10. It isn’t very w arm today. It w a s ___________________________ yesterday.
11. These tom atoes don’t taste very good. The other ones ta ste d ____________
12. Peru isn’t very big. Brazil i s ___________________________ .
13. Los Angeles isn’t very beautiful. San Francisco i s _______________________
14. This knife isn’t very sharp. Do you have a ___________________________ one?
15. People today aren’t very polite. In the past they w e r e ______________________
16. The w eather isn’t too bad today. O ften it is m u c h _________________________

177
U N I T
older than . . . more expensive than . .
89
m taller than you. H* fegasss*
_________ -U»l x g j

H otel Prices [per room per night]

Capitol Hotel $350


Grand Hotel $130
Western Hotel $175

She’s taller than him. The Capitol H otel is m ore exp en sive than the Grand Hotel.

We use than after comparatives (older than . . . / m ore exp en sive than . ., etc.):
■ Athens is o ld er than Rome.
■ Are oranges m ore exp en sive than bananas?
■ It’s easier to take a taxi than to take the bus.
■ “H ow are you today?” “N ot bad. B etter than yesterday.”
■ The restaurant is m ore crow ded than usual.

We usually say: than m e / than h im / than her / than us / than them .


You can say:
■ I can run faster than him . or I can run faster than he can.
■ You are a better singer than m e. or You are a better singer than I am.
■ I got up earlier than her. or I got up earlier than she did.

M o re/less than . . . 60 —
M O R E T H A N 50
■ A: H ow m uch did your shoes cost? Fifty dollars?
B: No, m ore than that. (= m ore than $50)
■50-
■ The movie was very short - less than an hour.
■ They’ve got m ore m o n ey than they need.
■ You go out m ore than me. 40-
LESS TH A N 50

A little old er / m u ch older, etc.

Box A is a little b igger than Box B. Box C is m u ch b igger than Box D.

Canada is m u ch b igger than France.


bigger
Sue is a little old er than Gary - she’s 25 and
older
a little h e’s 24.
better than
m u ch The hotel was m u ch m ore exp en sive than
m ore difficult
I expected.
m ore expensive
You go out m u ch m ore than me.

old —►older, expensive —►more expensive —►Unit 88 not as . . . as —►Unit 90


Exercises U N I
Write sentences about Liz and Ben. Use than.

Liz Ben

1. I’m 26. 1. I’m 24.


2. I’m not a very good swimmer. 2. I’m a very good swimmer.
3. I’m 5 feet 10 inches tall. 3. I’m 5 feet 8 inches tall.
4. I start w ork at 8:00. 4. I start w ork at 8:30.
5. I don’t w ork very hard. 5. I w ork very hard.
6. I don’t have m uch money. 6. I have a lot of money.
7. I’m a very good driver. 7. I’m not a very good driver.
8. I’m not very patient. 8. I’m very patient.
9. I’m not a very good dancer. 9. I’m a good dancer.
10. I’m very intelligent. 10. I’m not very intelligent.
11. I speak Spanish very well. 11. I don’t speak Spanish very well.
12. I don’t go to the movies very much. 12. I go to the movies a lot.
V
1. Liz is older than Ben 7. Liz is a
2. Ben is a better swimmer than Liz 8. Ben
3. Liz i s ___ B en.
4. Liz starts . . Ben 10. Liz _
5. B e n ____ 11. Liz _
6. Ben h a s . 12. Ben .

: .2 Complete the sentences. Use than.


1. H e isn’t very tall. You’re taller than him OR taller than he is
2 . She isn’t very old. You’re .
3. I don’t w ork very hard. You w o rk ____
4. He doesn’t w atch TV very much. You .
5. I’m not a very good cook. Y o u _______
6. W e don’t know many people. You _
7. They don’t have m uch money. You .
8. I can’t run very fast. You can .
She hasn’t been here very long. You .
10. T hey didn’t get up very early. Y o u _
11. H e wasn’t very surprised. Y o u _____

:9.3 Complete the sentences with a little or much + comparative {older/better, etc.).
1. Em m a is 18 m onths old. Gary is 16 m onths old.
Em m a /s a little o ld er than O a ry ____________________________________________
2 . Jack’s m other is 52. His father is 69.
Jack’s m o th e r.
3. My camera cost $100. Yours cost $96.
My ca m e ra.
4. Yesterday I felt terrible. Today I feel OK.
I fe e l_________________________________
5. Today the tem perature is 12 degrees Celsius. Yesterday it was 10 degrees Celsius.
It’s ______________________
6. Sarah is an excellent volleyball player. I’m not very good.
S arah ______________________________________________
U N I T
not as as
90
N o t as . . . as
I'm 93.

She’s old, but she’s not as old as he is. Box A isn’t as b ig as Box B.

B Rome is n o t as old as Athens. (= Athens is older)


B The Grand H otel isn’t as exp en sive as the W estern. (= the W estern is m ore
expensive)
B I don’t play soccer as often as you. (= you play m ore often)
B The w eather is better than it was yesterday. It isn’t as cold. (= as cold as it was
yesterday)

N o t as m u ch as . . . / n o t as m any as . . .
fl I don’t have as m u ch m o n ey as you. (= you have m ore m oney)
B I don’t know as m any p eo p le as you. (= you know m ore people)
B I don’t go out as m u ch as you. (= you go out m ore)

C om pare n o t as . . . as and than:


B Rome is n o t as old as Athens.
Athens is old er than Rome. (not older as Rome)
B Tennis isn’t as p opu lar as soccer.
Soccer is m ore p opu lar than tennis.
B I d o n ’t go out as m u ch as you.
You go out m ore than me.

W e usually say: as m e / as h im / as her, etc.


You can say:
B She’s not as old as him . or She’s not as old as he is.
B You don’t work as hard as m e. or You don’t work as hard as I do.

W e say the sam e as . . . :


B The w eather today is the sam e as yesterday.
B My hair is the sam e co lo r as yours.
B I arrived at the sam e tim e as Tim.

180 much/many —►Unit 84 older than . . . / more expensive than . . . —►Unit 89


E <ercises U N I
§C 1 Look at the pictures and write sentences about A, B, and C.

6* I don't w ork I work


very hard. very hard.

I have I have I have


: $5 ,0 0 0 . $ 4 ,0 0 0 . $ 3 ,0 0 0 . i I w ork hard, but not too hard.

1. A is <er than C, but not as ' as 3


2 . A i s ____ _B, but n o t .
3. C i s ____ A, b u t _
4. A i s ____ , b u t __
5. B h a s __
6. C works

Write sentences with as . . . as ..


1. Athens is older than Rome. Rom e isn t as old as Athens
2. My room is bigger than yours. Your room isn’t .
3. You got up earlier than me. I didn’t _______
4. W e played better than them . T h e y _________
5. I’ve been here longer than you. Y o u __________
6. She’s m ore nervous than him. H e ___________

Write as or than.
1. Athens is older than Rome. 5. Joe isn’t as intelligent. he thinks.
2. I don’t watch TV as m u c h _____ . you. 6. Belgium is sm aller__ . Switzerland.
3. You eat m o re ________me. 7. Brazil isn’t as b ig ___ _ Canada.
4. I’m more tired today . . I was yesterday. 8. I can’t wait more . . an hour.

*0.4 Complete the sentences about Julia, Andy, and Laura. Use the same age /
the same street, etc.

I'm 22. I'm 24. I'm 24.


I live on Hill Street. I live on Baker Street. I live on Hill Street.
I got up at 7 :1 5 . I got up at 7 :1 5 . I got up at 7 :4 5 .
I don't have a car. My car is dark blue. I have a car. It's dark blue.

Julia Andy Laura


1. (age) Andy is the same age as Laura
2. (street) Julia liv es_
3. (time) Julia got up .
4. (color) Andy’s ____
U N I T
the oldest the most expensive

-K tix

MOTEL PRICES IN

J A M E S 't o w i
[Per room per nig ht]£
Best West Motel $135 Oak Tree Motel $85
Sleep Inn $105 Cozy Cabins $60
Rainbow Motel $95 Lake View Inn $50

Box A is b igger than Box B. The Best W est M otel is m ore exp en sive than
the Sleep Inn.
Box A is b igger than all the other boxes. The Best W est M otel is m ore exp en sive than ah
the other motels in town.
Box A is the b ig g est box. The Best W est M otel is the m o st expensive
m otel in town.

B ig g er / old er / m ore expensive, etc. are comparative forms (—►U nit 88).
B ig g est / old est / m o st expensive, etc. are superlative forms.

The superlative form is -est (oldest) or m o s t . . . (m ost expensive).

Short words (o ld /c h e a p /n ic e , etc.) —►the -est:


old —►the old est cheap —►the cheapest nice —►the n icest
but good —►the best bad —►the w orst
For spelling see Appendix 5. big —►the biggest h o t —►the h o ttest
Words ending in -y (easy/heavy, etc.) —►the -iest:
easy —►the easiest heavy —►the heaviest pretty —►the p rettiest
Long words (ca refu l/ex p en siv e/in terestin g , etc.) - the m o s t . . . :
careful —►the m o st careful interesting ►the m o st in terestin g

We say the o ld e st. . . / the m ost expensive . . ., etc. (with the):


■ The church is very old. It’s the old est building in the town.
(= it is old er than all the other buildings)
■ W hat is the lo n g est river in the world?
■ M oney is im portant, but it isn’t the m o st im p ortan t thing in life.
■ Excuse me, w here is the nearest bank?

You can use the old est / the best / the m o st expensive, etc. w ithout a noun:
■ Ken is a good player, but he isn’t the best on the team.
(the best = the best player)

You can use superlative + I’ve ever . . . / y o u ’ve ever . . ., etc.:


■ The movie was very bad. I think it’s the w orst movie I’ve ever seen.
■ W hat is the m o st unusual thing y o u ’ve ever done?

present perfect + ever —►Unit 16 older / more expensive —►Units 88-89


erases
Write sentences with comparatives (older, etc.) and superlatives (the oldest, etc.).
U N I T
91
1.
big/sm all
(A /D ) A is bigger than V.

C 11D (A)
(B)
A is the biggest.
23 is the smallest.

A. long/short
B . (C /A ) C i s . A.
C. (D) D is .
D- D (B) B is _

3. I'm 23. I'm 19. I'm 24.



young/old
(D /C ) D _
(C) ___
(B) ------

expensive/cheap
(D/A) _____
(C) _______
(A) _____
D.
RESTAURANT A excellent good/bad
RESTAURANT B not bad (A /C ) _
RESTAURANT C good but not wonderfuL (A) _
RESTAURANT D awfuL (D) -

Complete the sentences. Use a superlative (the oldest, etc.).


1. This building is very old. It’s th e o ld est building in town.
2. It was a very happy day. It w a s _____________________________ of my life.
3. It’s a very good movie. It’s . I’ve ever seen.
4. She’s a very popular singer. She’s . in the country.
5. It was a very bad mistake. It was _ I’ve ever made.
6. It’s a very pretty city. It’s _______ I’ve ever seen.
7. It was a very cold day. It w a s ___ of the year.
8. H e’s a very boring person. H e’s _ _______I’ve ever met.

1 3 Write sentences with a superlative (the longest, etc.). Choose from the boxes.

Sydr Alaska h ig h -erty - river A frica South A m erica


Everest the N ile large cou n try state A u s tr a lia the w orld
B ra zil Jupiter lo n g m ou n tain planet the U n ited States the solar system

1. Sydney is the largest city in Australia.


2. E v erest_____________________________
3. ____________________________________
4. ____________________________________
5. ____________________________________
6. ____________________________________

183
enough

I only have two dollars


not enough for a taxi.

She isn’t going to take a taxi. H e can’t reach the shelf.


She doesn’t have en ou gh m on ey. H e isn’t tall enough.

E n o u g h + noun (enou gh m o n ey / en ou gh p eop le, etc.)


■ “Is there en ou gh salt in the soup?” “Yes, it’s fine.”
■ We w anted to play football, but we didn’t have en ou gh players.
■ W hy don’t you buy a car? You’ve got en ou gh m on ey. (not m oney enough)
E n ou gh w ithout a noun
■ I’ve got some money, but not en ou gh to buy a car.
(= I need m ore m oney to buy a car)
■ “W ould you like some m ore to eat?” “N o, thanks. I’vehad en ou gh .”
■ You’re always at home. You don’t go out enough.

Adjective + en ou gh (good en ou gh / tall en ough, etc.)


■ “Do you w ant to go swimming?” “No, it isn’t w arm en o u g h .”(not enough warm)
M Can you hear the radio? Is it lo u d en ou gh for you?
■ D on’t buy that coat. It’s nice, but it isn’t lo n g en ough. (= it’s too short)
Rem em ber:
en o u g h + noun but adjective + en ou gh
en o u g h m oney tall en ou gh
en o u g h time good en ou gh
en o u g h people old en ou gh

W e say:
en o u g h for som ebody/som ething This sweater isn’t b ig en ou gh for m e.
I don’t have en ou gh m o n ey for a n ew car.
en o u g h to do som ething I don’t have en ou gh m o n ey to buy a new
car. (not for buy)
Is your English g o o d en ou gh to have a
conversation? (not for have)
en o u g h for som ebody/som ething There aren’t en ou gh chairs for everybody
to do som ething to sit down.

to and for —►Unit 55 t o o —►Unit 93


xercises u N ' T 92
: 1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use enough + these words:
chairs m o n ey- p ain t w in d

1. She doesn’t have enough money . 3. She doesn’t h a v e __________________


2. There aren’t ________________________ . 4. There isn’t ________________________

I 2 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use these adjectives + enough:
b ig lo n g strong ta ll

1. H e _ isn f tall enough 3. His legs aren’t .


2. The c a r . 4. H e __________

Complete the sentences. Use enough with these words:


b ig eat len d - old p ractice salt space tim e tired
“Is there enough s a lt in the soup?” “Yes, it’s fine.”
Can you hear the radio? Is it loud enough for you?
He can quit school if he wants - he’s _______________________
W hen I visited N ew York last year, I didn’t h a v e ____________ to see all
the things I w anted to see.
5. This house isn’t for a large family.
6. Tina is very thin. She doesn’t _____
7. My office is very small. T here isn’t .
8. It’s late, but I don’t w ant to go to bed now. I’m n o t ___
9. Lisa isn’t a very good tennis player because she doesn’t .

2.4 Complete the sentences. Use enough with these words:

1. W e don’t have _ enough m o n e y to b u y a new car. (money / buy)


2 . This knife isn’t __ tom atoes, (sharp / cut)
3. The w ater wasn’t . _ swimming, (warm / go)
4. Do we h a v e _____ . sandwiches? (bread / make)
5. W e played well, but n o t . . the game, (well / win)
6. I don’t h a v e ___________ the newspaper, (time / read)

185
U N I T
too

The shoes are to o b ig for him. There is to o m u ch sugar in it.

Too + adjective / adverb (too b ig / too hard, etc.)


■ Can you turn the radio down? It's too loud.
It’s too loud. (= louder than I want)
■ I can’t work. I’m to o tired.
■ I think you work to o hard.

Too m u ch / to o m any = m ore than you want, m ore than is good:


■ I don’t like the w eather here. T here is to o m u ch rain. (= m ore rain than is good)
■ Let’s go to another restaurant. There are to o m any p eo p le here.
■ Emily studies all the time. I think she studies to o m uch.
■ Traffic is a problem in this town. There are to o m any cars.

Com pare to o and n o t enough:

The hat is to o b ig for him.


The radio is to o loud. Can you turn it down, please?
T here’s to o m u ch sugar in my coffee.
(= m ore sugar than I want)
I don’t feel very well. I ate to o m uch.

The hat isn’t b ig en ou gh for him. (= it’s to o sm all)


The radio isn’t lo u d en ou gh. Can you turn it up, please':
T here’s n o t en ou gh sugar in my coffee.
(= I need m ore sugar)
You’re very thin. You don’t eat en ough.
n o t b ig en ou gh

W e say:
to o . . . for som ebody/som ething These shoes are to o b ig for me.
It’s a small house - to o sm all for a large fami_rT|
to o . . . to do som ething I’m to o tired to go out. (not for go out)
It’s to o cold to sit outside.
to o . . . for somebody to do som ething She speaks to o fast for m e to understand.

186 to . . . and f o r . . . —►Unit 55 much/many —►Unit 84 enough —►Unit 92


erases U N
1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use too + these words:
b ig crow d ed fast h eavy -loud- lo w

1. The music is . too loud 4. She’s d riv in g __


2. The box i s __ 5. The ball i s ____
3. The net i s __ 6. The m useum is .

Write too / too much / too many or enough.


1. You’re always at home. You don’t go out enough
2. I don’t like the w eather here. T here’s . too m uch rain.
3. I can’t wait for them . I don’t h a v e _______________ time.
4. There was nowhere to sit on the beach. T here w e re ____ . people.
5. You’re always tired. I think you w o rk ___________ hard.
6. “Did you h a v e to eat?” “Yes, thank you.
7. You d rin k _______________ coffee. It’s not good for you.
8. You don’t e a t . ___________vegetables. You should eat m ore o f them .
9. I don’t like the w eather here. It’s _______________ cold.
10. O ur team didn’t play well. We m a d e _______________ mistakes.
11. “W ould you like some ice in your tea?” “Yes, but n o t _______________ .

3 Complete the sentences. Use too or enough with these words:

1. I couldn’t work. I was too tired (tired)


2. Can you turn the radio up, please? I t . isn t loud enough (loud)
3. I don’t w ant to walk home. It’s _____ (far)
4. D o n ’t buy anything in that store. I t _ (expensive)
5. You can’t put all your things in this bag. I t . (big)
6 . I couldn’t do the exercise. I t _____________ (difficult)
7. Your w ork needs to be better. I t _________ (good)
I can’t talk to you now. I (busy)
9. I thought the movie was boring. I t . (long)

Complete the sentences. Use too (+ adjective) + to . . . .


1. (I’m not going out / cold) It’s too cold to go out
2. (I’m not going to bed / early) It’s __________________
3. (they’re not getting m arried / young) They’re .
4. (nobody goes out at night / dangerous)
It’s ________________________________________
5. (don’t call Sue now / late)
It’s _____________________
6. (I didn’t say anything / surprised)
I w a s _________________________
U N I T
He speaks English very well,
94 (word order 1)
Verb + object

Sue reads a new spaper every day.


subject verb object

HB The verb (reads) and the object (a new spaper) are


usually together. We say:
■ Sue reads a new spaper every day.
(not Sue reads every day a newspaper)

Sue (subject) a newspaper (object)

verb + object
He speaks E n glish very well. (not He speaks very well English)
I lik e Italian fo o d very m uch. (not I like very m uch . . .)
Did you w atch telev isio n all night? (not Did you watch all n ig h t. . .)
Paul often wears a black hat. (not Paul wears often . . .)
We in vited a lo t o f p eo p le to the party.
I op en ed the d oor slowly.
W hy do you always m ake the sam e m istake?
I’m going to b orrow som e m o n ey from the bank.

B W here and w hen

We w ent to a party last n ig h t .


where? when?
Place (where?) is usually before tim e (when?). We say:

W | ■ We w ent to a party last night. (not We w ent last night to a party)

place time
(where?) (when? how long? how often?)
Lisa walks to w ork every day. (not .. . every day to work)
W ill you be at hom e tonight? (n o t. ., . tonight at home)
I usually go to bed early. (not .., . early to bed)
We arrived at the airport at 7:00.
They’ve lived in the sam e h ou se for 20 years.
Jo e’s father has been in the h ospital since June.

188 w ord order in questions —»►Units 45-47 always/usually/often, etc. —►Unit 95


: <ercises U N I
34 1 Right or wrong? Correct the sentences that are wrong.
1. Did you watch (all nighTtelevisior^? V id you watch television all night?
2. Sue reads a newspaper every day. OK______________
3. I like very m uch this picture. _
4. Tom started last week his new job. _
5. I w ant to speak English fluently. _
6. Jane bought for her friend a present. _
7. I drink every day three cups o f coffee. _
8. D o n ’t eat your dinner too quickly! _
9. I borrow ed from my brother 50 dollars. _

54.2 Put the words in order.


1. (the door / opened / I / slowly) / opened the door slowly.
2. (a new com puter / I / last week / bought) I _____________________
3. (finished / Paul / quickly / his work)
4. (Emily / very well / French / doesn’t speak)
5. (a lot o f shopping / did / I / yesterday)
6. (N ew York / do you know / well?)
7. (we / enjoyed / very m uch / the party)
8. (the problem / carefully / I / explained)
9. (we / at the airport / some friends / met)
10. (did you buy / in Canada / that jacket?)
11. (every day / do / the same thing / we)
12. (football / don’t like / very m uch / I)

hi .3 Put the words in order.


1. (to w ork / every day / walks / Lisa) Lisa walks to work every day.
2. (at the hotel / I / early / arrived) I ______________________________
3. (goes / every year / to Puerto Rico / Julia) J u lia __________________
4. (we / since 2002 / here / have lived) W e ________________________
5. (in Florida / Sue / in 1984 / was born)
S u e ___________________________________________________________
6. (didn’t go / yesterday / Paul / to work)
P a u l__________________________________________________________
7. (to a wedding / last w eekend / w ent / Helen)
H e le n ________________________________________________________
8. (I / in bed / this m orning / my breakfast / had)
I _______________________________________ ______________________
9. (in Septem ber / Barbara / to college / is going)
B arb a ra_______________________________________________________
10. (I / a beautiful bird / this m orning / in the garden / saw)
I _____________________________________________________________
11. (many times / have been / my parents / to Tokyo)
M y ______________________________________________________ ____
12. (my um brella / I / last night / left / in the restaurant)
I _____________________________________________________________
13. (to the movies / tom orrow night / are you going?)
Are _______________________________________________________
14. (the children / I / took / this m orning / to school)
I _____________________________________________________________
always/usually/often, etc.
(word order 2)
These words (always/never, etc.) are with the verb in the middle of a sentence:
always often ever rarely also already all
usually so m etim es never seld om ju st still b oth

■ My brother never speaks to me.


■ She’s always late.
■ Do you often go to restaurants?
■ I so m etim es eat too m uch, (or S o m etim es I eat too much.)
■ “D o n’t forget to call Laura.” “I’ve already called her.”
■ I’ve got three sisters. T hey’re all married.

A lw ays/n ever, etc. are before the verb:


verb
always I always drink coffee in the m orning.

o ften play (not I drink always coffee)
never have H elen often goes to Chicago on business.
etc. etc. (not H elen goes often)
You so m etim es lo o k unhappy.
■ They usually have dinner at 7:00.
■ We rarely (or seld om ) w atch television.
■ Richard is a good swimmer. H e also plays tennis and volleyball.
(not H e plays also tennis)
■ I’ve got three sisters. They all live in the same city.
B ut alw ays/never, etc. are after a m /is/a r e /w a s/w e r e :
am 1 I am always tired, (not I always am tired)
always I They are never at hom e during the day.
1S
often It is usually very cold here in the winter.
are
never I W hen I was a child, I was often late for school.
was
etc. I “W here’s Laura?” “She’s still in bed.”
w ere
I’ve got two brothers. T hey’re b oth doctors.

A lw ays/never, etc. are between two verbs (have . . . been / can . . . find, etc.):
verb 1 verb 2
w ill I w ill always rem em b er you.

can find It d o esn ’t often rain here.
always D o you usually drive to work?
do rem em ber
often I can never fin d my keys.
etc. etc.
never H ave you ever been to Egypt?
gon e
have etc. D id the phone ju st ring?
been
has The children have all fin ish ed their hom ework.
etc.

always/never + simple present —►Unit 5 just/already + present perfect —►Unit 20 all —►Units 81-82
190 b o th —►Unit 83 still —►Unit 96
: <ercises U N I
1 Read Paul's answers to the questions. Write sentences about Paul with often/never, etc.

Pau l

1. Do you ever play tennis? Yes, often. Paul often plays tennis.
2. Do you get up early? Yes, always. H e.
3. Are you ever late for work? No, never. He
4. Do you ever get angry? Sometimes.
5. Do you ever go swimming? Rarely.
6. Are you at hom e in the evenings? Yes, usually.

2 Write these sentences with never/always/usually, etc.


1. My brother speaks to me. (never) P\y brother never speaks to me.
2. Susan is polite, (always) S usan _________________________
3. I finish work at 5:00. (usually) I _____________________________
4. Sarah has started a new job. (just) S arah _________________________
5. I go to bed before m idnight, (rarely)
6. The bus isn’t late, (usually)
7. I don’t eat fish, (often)
8. I will forget w hat you said, (never)
9. Have you lost your passport? (ever)
10. Do you w ork in the same place? (still)
11. They stay at the same hotel, (always)
12. Jane doesn’t w ork on Saturdays, (usually)
13. Is Tina here? (already)
14. W hat do you have for breakfast? (usually)
15. I can rem em ber his name, (never)

5 3 Write sentences with also.


1. Do you play football? (basketball) Yes, and I also play basketball.
2. Do you speak Italian? (French) Yes, and I .
3. Are you tired? (hungry) Yes, and _
4. Have you been to Mexico? (Guatem ala) Y es,_____
5. Did you buy any clothes? (some books)

r 3 4 Write sentences with both and all.


I'm m arried.
I was born in Venezuela.
I live in Miami.

I live in Lima. I live in Lima.


I play soccer. I play soccer.
I'm a student. I'm a student.
I have a car. I have a car.

1. They both live in Lima. 2. T h e y . . married.


T hey. soccer. They. . Venezuela.
students.
. cars.
U N I T
still yet already
96 A Still
an hour ago now

The rain
hasn’t stopped

An hour ago it was raining. It is still raining now.

still = som ething is the same as before:


■ I had a lot to eat, but I’m still hungry. (= I was hungry before, and I’m hungry now)
■ “D id you sell your car?” “No, I still have it.”
IK “Do you still live in Los Angeles?” “No, I live in San Francisco now.”

T w enty m inutes ago they were They are still waiting for Bill,
waiting for Bill. Bill hasn’t co m e yet.

yet = until now


We use yet in negative sentences (He hasn’t come yet.) and in questions (Has he come yet?).
Yet is usually at the end of a sentence:
■ A: W here’s Emma?
B: She isn ’t here yet. (= she will be here, but until now she hasn’t come)
■ A: W hat are you doing tonight?
B: I d o n ’t know yet. (= I will know later, but I don’t know now)
■ A: Are you ready to go yet?
B: N o t yet. In a m inute. (= I will be ready, but I’m not ready now)
■ A: Have you decided w hat to do yet?
B: No, I’m still thinking about it.
Com pare yet and still:
■ She hasn’t left yet. — She’s still here, (not she is yet here)
■ I haven’t finished my hom ew ork yet. = I’m still doing it.

A lready = earlier than expected:


■ “W hat tim e is Joe coming?” “H e’s already here.” (= earlier than we expected)
■ “I’m going to tell you w hat happened.” “T hat’s not necessary. I already know.”
■ Sarah isn’t coming to the movies w ith us. She has already seen the film.

192 already/yet + present perfect/simple past —►Unit 20 word order (still/already) —►Unit 95
U N I T
: <ercises
1 You meet Tina. The last time you saw her was two years ago. You ask her some
questions with still.
Tina - two years ago
1. Do you still play the piano?
1. I play the piano. 4. I'm studying
Japanese. 2. Do y o u ___________________
3. A r e _______________________
2 I have an old car. 5. I go to the 4. ___________________________
movies a lot.
5. ___________________________
3. I'm a student. 6 . I w ant to be a teacher. 6*

2 Write three sentences for each situation. Look at the example carefully.
now

They w e re w a itin g fo r the bus.


They a re s t ill w aiting._________
The bus hastn t com e yet._______

2. I'm looking for a job.


(before) He w a s .
(still) H e ____
(yet) ----------- . yet.

3.
(before) She . asleep.
(still) ____
(yet) ------

4.
(before) They .
(still) _____
(yet) --------
dinner dinner

:6.3 Write questions with yet.


1. You and Sue are going out together. You are waiting for her to get ready. Maybe she is
ready now. You ask her: A re you ready yet?
2. You are waiting for H elen to arrive. She wasn’t here 10 m inutes ago. Maybe she is here now.
You ask som ebody:____________ H e le n ______________________________________________
3. Anna had a blood test and is waiting for the results. Maybe she has gotten her results.
You ask h e r :____________ y o u _______________________________________________________
4. A few days ago you spoke to Tom. H e wasn’t sure w here to go for his vacation. Maybe he
has decided.
You ask h im :____________________________________________________________________ _

96.4 Complete the sentences. Use already.

1. W hat tim e is Joe coming? H e's a lre a d y here.


2. Do you and Joe w ant to see the movie? No, we i/g a lre a d y seen it.
3. I have to see Julia before she leaves. It’s too late. S h e _______________
4. Do you need a pen? No, thanks. I _________________ . one.
5. Should I pay the bill? No, that’s OK. I .
6. Should I tell Paul about the m eeting? No, h e ________ . I told him.
U N I T
Give me that book! Give it to me!

give len d pass send show

After these verbs (give/len d , etc.), there are


two possible structures:
give so m eth in g to som eb od y
■ I gave the keys to Sarah.
give som eb od y so m eth in g
■ I gave Sarah the keys.

G ive so m eth in g to som eb od y


som ething to somebody
T h at’s my book. G ive it to me.
T hese are Sue’s keys. C an you give them to her?
C an you give these flowers to your m other?
I len t my car to a friend o f mine,
D id you send a postcard to Kate?
W e’ve seen these pictures. You show ed them to us yesterday.

G ive som eb od y so m eth in g


somebody som ething
Give me that book. It’s mine,
Tom gave his m other some flowers,
I len t Joe some money.
H ow m uch m oney did you len d him?
I sent you an e-mail. Did you get it?
N icole show ed us her vacation photos,
C an you pass me the salt, please?

You can also say “b u y /g e t somebody som ething”:


■ I b ou g h t my m other some flowers. (= I bought some flowers for my mother.)
■ Can you get me a new spaper w hen you go out? (= get a newspaper for me)

You can say:


■ I gave the keys to Sarah.
and I gave Sarah the keys.
(but not I gave to Sarah the keys)
■ T hat’s my book. Can you give it to me?
and Can you give m e that book?
(but not Can you give to me that book?)
We prefer the first structure (give som ething to somebody) w ith it or them :
■ I gave it to her. (not I gave her it)
■ H ere are the keys. Give th em to your father, (not Give your father them )

194 it/him/them, etc. —►Unit 60


u N I
E <ercises
1 Mark had some things that he didn't want. He gave them to different people.

Write sentences beginning He gave . . . .


1. W hat did M ark do w ith the armchair? He gave it to his brother._____________________
2. W hat did he do w ith the tennis racket? He g av e_____________________________________
3. W hat happened to the books? H e ____________________________ ______________
4. W hat about the lamp?-------------------------- --------------------------------------------------------------------
5. W hat did he do w ith the pictures?______ ___________________ __________________________
6. And the ladder?_______________________ _____________________________ ________________

2 You gave presents to your friends. You decided to give them the things in the pictures.
Write a sentence for each person.

1. / pave Paul a book.______________________ 4.


2. I g av e________________________________ 5.
3. I _____________________________________ 6.

3 Write questions beginning Can you give me .. . ? / Can you pass me . . . ?, etc.
1. (you w ant the salt) (pass) Can you pass me the salt? ________________
2. (you need an umbrella) (lend) Can y o u __________________________________
3. (you w ant my address) (give) C a n _________________ y o u r _______________
4. (you need 20 dollars) (lend) _________________________________________
5. (you w ant some inform ation) (send) _________________________________________
6. (you w ant to see the letter) (show) _________________________________________
7. (you w ant some stamps) (get)_____________________________________ _________

Which is right?
1. I gave to -Sarah th e keys---/ I gave Sarah the keys. (Igave Sarah the keys is right)
2. I’ll lend to you some m oney if you want. / I’ll lend you some m oney if you want.
3. D id you send the letter m e? / Did you send the letter to m e?
4. I w ant to buy for you a present. / I w ant to buy you a present.
5. Can you pass to me the sugar, please? / Can you pass me the sugar, please?
6. This is Lisa’s bag. Can you give it to h e r? / Can you give her it?
7. I showed to the police officer my driver’s license. /
I showed the police officer my driver’s license.
and but or so because

and but or so b eca u se

We use these words (conjunctions) to jo in two sentences. They make one longer sentence from
two shorter sentences:

The car stopped. The driver got out.

The car stopped, and the driver got out.

A n d /b u t/o r
sentence A sentence B
W e stayed at hom e and (we)* w atched television. T t is not necessary to
M y sister is m arried and (she)* lives in Houston. repeat “w e” and “she.”
H e doesn’t like her, and she doesn’t like him.
I b ought a newspaper, but I didn’t read it.
It’s a nice house, b ut it doesn’t have a garage.
D o you w ant to go out, or are you too tired?

In lists, we use commas (,). We use and before the last two things:
■ I got home, had som ething to eat, sat down in an armchair, and fell asleep.
/ / /
■ Karen is at work, Sue has gone shopping, and Chris is playing football.

So (the result of something)


sentence A sentence B
It was very hot, so I opened the window,
Joe plays a lot o f sports, so he’s very fit.
T hey do n ’t like to travel, so they haven’t been to many places.

B ecause (the reason for something)


sentence A sentence B
I opened the w indow because it was very hot.
Joe can’t com e to the party because he’s leaving town.
Lisa is hungry because she didn’t have breakfast.

B ecause is also possible at the beginning. We use a comma.


■ B ecause it was very hot, I opened the window.

In these examples there is m ore than one conjunction:


■ It was late and I was tired, so I w ent to bed.
■ I love N ew York, b ut I w ouldn’t like to live there because it’s too big.

when/while/before, etc. —►Unit 99


U N I T
<ercises
: 1 Write sentences. Choose from the boxes and use and/but/or.

I stayed at hem e; I didn’t have your number.


I bought a n ewspaper. Should I wait here?
I w ent to the window. I dicbTt-read it.
I w anted to call you. I took the bus this m orning.
I ju m p ed into the river. I watched television;.
I usually drive to work. I swam to the other side.
Do you w ant me to come w ith you? I looked out.

1. / stayed at home and watched television.


2. / bought a newspaper, but / didn't read it.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.

2 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use and/but/so/because.

1. It was vervJ hot.1 ............... .. he opened


/ the window.
2. Thevj couldn’t rplav tennis
j

3. Thevj w ent to the m useum .7


4. Bill wasn’t hunerv.
O J 7 "■ ........................
5. H elen was late
6. Sue said

: 3 Write sentences about what you did yesterday. Use and/but, etc.
1. (and) L a st night / stayed at home and studied._____________
2. (because) / went to bed very early because / was tired._________
3. (but) ________________________________________________ ___
4. (and) ____________________________________________________
5. (so) ____________________________________________________
6. (because) ____________________________________________________

197
When

W hen I w en t ou t, it was rain ing.

This sentence has two parts:


w h en I w en t ou t + it was rain in g > > !&

You can say:


■ W hen I w en t out, it was raining, or
It was rain in g w hen I w ent out.
W e w rite a com m a (,) if W hen . . . is at the
beginning:
W hen you’re tired, don’t drive.
D on’t drive w h en you’re tired.
H elen was 25 w h en she got m arried.
W hen H elen got m arried, she was 25.

We do the same in sentences w ith b e fo r e/w h ile /a fter :


Always look both ways b efore you cross the street.
B efore you cross the street, always look both ways.
W h ile I was waiting for the bus, it began to rain.
It began to rain w h ile I was waiting for the bus.
H e never played football again after he broke his leg.
A fter he broke his leg, he never played football again.

W hen I am . . . / W hen I go . . . , etc.

N ext week Sarah is going to N ew York. I'll be in Mexico


She has a friend, Lisa, who lives in N ew York, when you're here.
but Lisa is also going away - to Mexico.
So they w on’t see each other in N ew York.

Lisa w ill be in Mexico w h en Sarah is in


N ew York.

The time is future (next w eek) but we say:


. . . w h en Sarah is in N ew York.
(not w hen Sarah will be)

We use the present (I am / I go, etc.) w ith a future meaning after when:
■ W hen I get hom e tonight, I’m going to take a shower, (not W hen I will get home)
■ I can’t talk to you now. I’ll talk to you later w h en I have m ore time.
We do the same after b e fo r e /w h ile /a fte r /u n til:
■ Please close the window b efore you go out. (not before you will go)
■ Rachel is going to stay in our apartm ent w h ile we are away, (not while we will be)
■ I’ll wait here u n til you co m e back, (not until you will come back)

if and w hen —►Unit 100 until —►Unit 105 before/while/after —►Unit 106
tercises u N
1 Write sentences beginning with when. Choose from the boxes.

I w ent out - I turned off the TV


I’m tired I always go to the same place
I called her there were no rooms
W hen +
I go on vacation + h ^ a s-rain-m g-
the program ended there was no answer
I got to the hotel 1 like to watch TV

1. When / w ent out it was raining.


2
3.
4.
5.
6.

Complete the sentences using the following:

somebody broke into the house before they came here when they heard the news
b efore t-hey crossed th e -street while they were away they didn’t believe me
they went to live in France

1. They looked both ways before they crossed the street.________________________


2. They were very su rp rised ____________________________________________________
3. After they got m a rrie d ,.
4. T heir house was damaged in a storm .
5. W here did they liv e _______________
6. W hile we were asleep,_____________
7. W hen I told them w hat happened,

Which is right?
1. I stay -/ I’ll stay here until you come / you’ll come- back.(Yll stay and youcome are right)
2. I’m going to bed w hen I finish / I’ll finish my work.
3. We m ust do som ething before it’s / it will be too late.
4. H elen is moving away soon. I’m / I’ll be very sad w hen sheleaves / she’ll leave.
5. D on’t go out yet. W ait until the rain stops / will stop.
6. We come / W e’ll come and visit you w hen w e’re / w e’ll be in Toronto again.
7. W hen I come / I’ll come to see you tom orrow, I bring / I’ll bring your DVDs.
8. I’m going to Q uebec next week. I hope to see some friends of m ine while I’m / I’ll be there.
9. “I need your address.” “OK, I give / I’ll give it to you before I go / I’ll go.”
10. I’m not ready yet. I tell / I’ll tell you w hen I’m / I’ll be ready.

Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.


1. Can you close the window before you go out________________________________________?
2. W hat are you going to do w h e n ____________________________________________________ ?
3. W hen I have enough m oney,_______________________________________________________ .
4. I’ll wait for you w h ile ______________________________________________________________ .
5. W hen I start my new j o b , __________________________________________________________ .
6. W ill you be here w hen ____________________________________________________________ ?
If we go If you see . . . , etc.

Should we take the W e'll get there more quickly «


bus or a taxi? if we take a taxi.

I f can be at the beginning of a sentence or in the middle:


. -
I f at the beginning
' 1 ■'I S mm ■

I f we take the bus, it will be cheaper.


I f you don’t hurry, you’ll miss the train.
I f you’re hungry, have som ething to eat.
I f the phone rings, can you answer it, please?

i f in the m iddle
It will be cheaper if we take the bus.
You’ll miss the train if you don’t hurry.
I’m going to the concert if I can get a ticket.
Is it O K if I use your phone?

In conversation, we often use the if-part o f the sentence alone:


■ “Are you going to the concert?” “Yes, i f I can get a tick et.”
■ i
I f you see A nn to m o rro w . . . , etc.
msmm After if, we use the present (not will). We say i f you see . . . (not if you will see):
■ I f you see Ann tom orrow, can you ask her to call me?
■ I f P m late tonight, don’t wait for me. (not if Iwill be)
■ W hat should we do i f it rains? (not if it will rain)
■ I f I d o n ’t feel well tomorrow, I’ll stay hom e.

I f and w h en
lllli I f I go out = it is possible that I will go out, but I’m not sure:
■ A: Are you going out later?
B: Maybe. I f I go out, I’ll close the windows.
W hen I go out = I’m going out (for sure):
■ A: Are you going out later?
111 B: Yes, I am. W hen I go out, I’ll close the windows.
Com pare w h en and if:
I ■ W hen I get hom e tonight, I’m going to take a shower.
m I f I’m late tonight, don’t wait for me. (not W hen I’m late)
■ W e’re going to play basketball i f it doesn’t rain, (not w hen it doesn’t rain)

w hen —►Unit 99 if I had / if w e w en t , etc. —►Unit 101


U N I T
ercises
i 1 Write sentences beginning with if. Choose from the boxes.

you don’t-hurry we can have lunch now


you pass the driving test you can have them
you fail the driving test I can lend you some
you don’t want this magazine + you’ll get your license
you want those pictures you’ll be late
you’re busy now I’ll throw it away
you’re hungry we can talk later
you need money you can take it again

1. I f you don t hurry, you II be late.


2. If you
J Jpass
T
3. If
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.

0.2 Which is right?


1. If Fm / T i l b e- late tonight, don’t wait for me. (Fm is right)
2. W ill you call me if I give / I’ll give you my phone num ber?
3. If there is / will be a fire, the alarm will ring.
4 . If I don’t see you tom orrow m orning, I call / I’ll call you in the afternoon.
5. I’m / I’ll be surprised if M artin and Jane get / will get married.
6. Do you go / W ill you go to the party if they invite / they’ll invite you?

0.3 Use your own ideas to complete these sentences.


1. I’m going to the concert if / can get a ticket._________________________________
2. If you don’t hurry, you'll miss the train.______________________________________
3. I don’t w ant to disturb you i f ________________________________________________
4 . If you go to bed early to n ig h t,______________________________________________
5. Turn the television off i f _______________ ____________________________________
6. Tina w on’t pass her driving test i f ___________________________________________
7. If I have tim e to m o rro w ,___________________________________________________
8. We can go to the beach tom orrow i f _________________________________________
9. I’ll be surprised i f __________________________________________________________

0.4 Write if or when.


1. I f . I’m late tonight, don’t wait for me.
2. I’m going shopping n o w ._______________ I come back, we can have lunch.
3. I’m thinking o f going to see T im ._______________I go, will you come w ith me?
4 . _______________ you don’t w ant to go out tonight, we can stay at home.
5. Is it O K _______________ I close the window?
6. Jo h n is still in high school._______________ he finishes, he wants to go to college.
7. Do you w ant to go on a picnic to m o rro w _______________the w eather is good?
8. W e’re going to Mexico City next week. W e’re going to look for a h o te l_________
we get there. I don’t know w hat w e’ll d o _______________we don’t find a room.
If I had . . . If we w e n t .. ., etc.

Dan likes fast cars, but he doesn’t have one. If I had the
He doesn’t have enough money. mo n e y , . . .

I f he had the money, he w o u ld buy a fast car.

Usually had is past, but in this sentence had is


not past. I f he had the m oney = if he had the
m oney now (but he doesn’t have it).

I h a d /k n e w /liv e d /w e n t (etc.) . . . , I buy . ..


w o u ld (n ’t)
you d id n ’t have / d id n ’t k n ow (etc.) . . . , you be . . .
If
it w ere . . ., it have . . .
co u ld (n ’t)
they, etc. cou ld . . . , they, etc. go . . . , etc-1

You can say:


■ I f he had the money, he w ould buy a car.
or He w ould buy a car i f he had the money.
Fd / she’d / th ey’d, etc. = I w o u ld / she w o u ld / they w ou ld, etc.:
■ I don’t know the answer. I f I k n ew the answer, I’d tell you.
■ It’s raining, so w e’re not going out. W e’d get w et i f we w en t out.
■ Jane lives in a city. She likes cities. She w o u ld n ’t be happy i f she lived in the country.
■ I f you d id n ’t have a job, w hat w o u ld you do? (but you have a job)
■ I’m sorry I can’t help you. I’d help you i f I could, (but I can't)
■ i f we had a car, we cou ld travel m ore, (but we don't have a car, so we can't travel much)

I f (I) w a s/w ere . . . I w ouldn't ao out if I were


You can say i f I/h e /s h e /it was or i f I /h e /s h e /it were:
■ It’s not a very nice place. I w ouldn’t go there i f I
w ere you. (or . . . i f I was you)
■ It would be nice i f the w eather was better.
(or . . . i f the w eather w ere better)
■ W hat would Tom do i f he w ere here?
(or . . . i f he was here)

Com pare:

i f I have / i f it is, etc. i f I had / i f it was, etc.


■ I w ant to go and see Helen. ■ I w ant to go and see Helen.
I f I have time, I w ill go today. I f I had time, I w o u ld go today.
(= maybe I’ll have time, so maybe (= I don’t have tim e today, so I will
I’ll go) not go)
■ I like that jacket. ■ I like that jacket, but it’s very expensive
I’ll buy it i f it isn ’t too expensive. I’d buy it i f it w asn ’t so expensive.
(= maybe it will not be too expensive) (= it is expensive, so I’m not going
to buy it)
■ I’ll help you i f I can. (= maybe ■ I’d h elp you i f I cou ld, but I can’t.
I can help)

if w e go / if I have / if I can, etc. —►Unit 100


xercises
‘ 1 Complete the sentences.
U N I T
101
1. I don’t know the answer. If I k n e w the answer, I’d tell you.
2. I have a car. I couldn’t travel very m uch if I didn't h a v e a car.
3. I don’t w ant to go out. If I _________________________ to go out, I’d go.
4. W e don’t have a key. If w e _________________________ a key, we could get into the house.
5. I’m not hungry. I w ould have som ething to eat if I _________________________ hungry.
6 . Sue enjoys her work. She w ouldn’t do it if s h e ____ . it.
7. He can’t speak any foreign languages. If h e _______ speak a foreign
language, maybe he would get a better job.
You don’t try hard enough. If y o u _______________ . harder, you would have
m ore success.
9. I have a lot to do today. If I _____________________ . so m uch to do, we could go out.

.2 Put the verb in the correct form.


1. If h e h a d the money, he w ould buy a fast car. (he / have)
2. Jane likes living in a city. S h e w ouldn t b e happy if she lived in the country,
(she / not / be)
3. If I w anted to learn Italian ,______________________ to Italy. (I / go)
4. I haven’t told H elen w hat happened. She’d be angry i f ______________________
(she / know)
5. I f _______________________ a map, I could show you where I live, (we / have)
6. W hat w ould you do i f ___ . a lot of money? (you / win)
7. It’s not a very good h o te l.. . there if I were you. (I / not / stay)
8. If_ closer to Miami, we w ould go there m ore often, (we / live)
9. I’m sorry you have to go n o w .__________________ nice if you had m ore time, (it / be)
10. I’m not going to take the job. I’d take it i f _____________ . better, (the salary / be)
11. I don’t know anything about cars. If my car broke d o w n ,. . w hat to
do. (I / not / know)
12. If you could change one thing in the world, w h a t______
(you / change)

.3 Complete the sentences. Use the following (with the verb in the correct form):

we (have) a bigger house it (be) a little cheaper I (watch) it


we (buy) a bigger house every day (be) the same I (be) bored
we (have) some pictures on the wall the air (be) cleaner

1. I’d buy that jacket if i t w a s a little c h e a p e r


2. If there was a good movie on TV to n ig h t,.
3. This room w ould be nicer i f __
4. If there wasn’t so m uch traffic,
5. Life would be boring i f ______
6. If I had nothing to do,
7. W e could invite all our friends to stay if _
If we had m ore m oney,_______________

1.4 Complete the sentences. Use your own ideas.


1. I’d be happier if / h a d less w o rk
2. If I could go anywhere in the world, _
3. I w ouldn’t be very happy i f _________
4. I’d b u y if _
5. If I saw an accident in the stre e t,____
6. The world would be a better place if _

203
a person who . . . a thing that/which . . .
(relative clauses 1)
I m et a woman. She can speak six languages.
2 sentences

she who

1 sentence •
I m et a w om an w h o can speak six languages.

Jack was wearing a hat. It was too big for him.


2 sentences

it —►that or w h ich
1 sentence •
Jack was wearing a hat that was too big for him

Jack was wearing a hat w h ich was too big for him.

W ho is for people (not things):


A thief is a person who steals things,
Do you know anybody who can play the piano?
T he m an w ho called didn’t give his name,
T he p eo p le who w ork in the office are very friendly.

T hat is for things or people:


An airplane is a m ach in e that flies.
Em m a lives in a h ouse that is 100 years old.
T he p eo p le that w ork in the office are very friendly.

You can use that for people, but w h o is m ore common.

W hich is for things (nor people):


An airplane is a m achin e w h ich flies. (not a m achine w ho . . .)
Em m a lives in a h ouse w h ich is 100 years old.

Do not use w h ich for people:


■ Do you rem em ber the w om an w h o played the piano at the party?
(not the w om an w hich . . .)

204 w ho and w hich in questions —►Units 46, 48 the people w e met (relative clauses 2) —►Unit 103
U N I T
ercises
1 Choose from the boxes and write sentences: A . . . is a person who . . . . Use a
dictionary if necessary.

a th ief a dentist doesn’t tell the truth is sick in the hospital


a butcher a fool takes care o f your teeth steak-fehmgs
a musician a genius is very intelligent does stupid things
a patient a liar plays a musical instrum ent sells m eat

1. t h ie f is a p e rso n who stea ls things.


2. A butcher is a person .
3. A m usician _________
4. ____________________
5. ____________________
6. _________________
7.

2 Make one sentence from two.


1. (A m an called. H e didn’t give his name.)
The man who ca lle d didn 't g iv e his name. _
2. (A w om an opened the door. She was wearing a yellow dress.)
The w o m a n ___________________________________________________________a yellow dress.
3. (Some students took the test. M ost o f them passed.)
M ost o f the stu d en ts______________________________________________________________ _
4. (A police officer stopped our car. He wasn’t very friendly.)
T h e _______________________________________________________________________________

3 Write who or which.


1. I m et a w om an w ho can speak six languages.
2. W h at’s the nam e of the m a n ____________ ju st started working in your office?
3. W h at’s the nam e o f the riv e r_____________ flows through the town?
4. W here is the p ic tu re _____________ was hanging on the wall?
5. Do you know anybody____________ wants to buy a car?
6. You always ask q uestions_____________ are difficult to answer.
7. I have a frie n d _____________ is very good at fixing cars.
8. I think everybody w ent to the party really enjoyed it.
9. W hy does he always wear clo th es_____________ are too small for him?

4 Right or wrong? Correct the mistakes.


1. A th ief is(a person which stealj)things. a p e rs o n who stea ls _______________
2. An airplane is a machine that flies. OK________________________________
3. A coffee m aker is a machine w ho makes coffee. _____________________________________
4. Have you seen the m oney that was on the table? _____________________________________
5. I don’t like people which never stop talking. _____________________________________
6. I know somebody that can help you. _____________________________________
7. I know somebody who works in that store._______ _____________________________________
8. C orrect the sentences who are wrong. _____________________________________
9. My neighbor bought a car who cost $60,000. _____________________________________
U N I T
the people we met
103 A
the hotel you stayed at (relative clauses 2)
The m an is carrying a bag.
2 sentences
It’s very heavy.

The bag (that) he is carrying is very heavy


1 sentence — ——————— ^

Kate w on some money.


2 sentence;
W hat is she going to do w ith it?

W hat is Kate going to do with the m on ey


(that) she won?
— — -----i sentence ■
— ---------- —---- '
Kate

You can say:


■ The bag that he is carrying . . . or The bag he is carrying . . . (with or w ithout that)
■ . . . the m oney that Kate won? or . . . the m oney Kate won?
You do not need th a t/w h o /w h ic h w hen it is the object:
subject verb object
The m an was carrying a bag —►the bag (that) the m an was carrying
Kate won some m oney —►the m o n ey (that) Kate w on
You w anted some books —►the b ook s (that) you w anted
We m et some people —►the p eo p le (who) w e m et
■ Did you find the b ook s you wanted? (or . . . the books that you wanted?)
■ T he p eo p le w e m e t were very friendly, (or The people w h o we m e t . . .)
■ E verythin g I said was true, (or Everything that I said . . .)
W e say:
■ The movie w e saw was very good, (not The movie we saw it was . . .)

Sometimes there is a preposition (to /in /a t, etc.) after the verb:


Eve is talk in g to a man, Do you know the m an Eve is talk in g to?
We stayed at a hotel, T he h o tel w e stayed at was near the station.
I to ld you about some books, These are the b ook s I told you about.

W e say:
. . . the books I told you about, (not the books I told you about them )
You can say (a place) w here . . . :
■ T he h o tel w here we stayed was near the station. (= The hotel we stayed a t . . .)

C You m ust use w h o /th a t/w h ic h w hen it is the subject (-► U nit 102):
■ I m et a w om an w h o can speak six languages, (w ho is the subject)
■ Jack was wearing a hat that was too big for him. (that is the subject)

206 a person who , a thing that/which (relative clauses 1) —►Unit 102


: <ercises uni t
. 1 Make one sentence from two.
1. (H elen took some pictures. Have you seen them?)
Have you seen the pictures Helen took?______________________________________________
2. (You gave me a pen. I’ve lost it.)
I’ve lost t h e ________________________________________________________________________
3. (Sue is wearing a jacket. I like it.)
I like t h e _______________________________________________________________ ___________
4. (I gave you some flowers. W here are they?)
W here are t h e __________________________
5. (He told us a story. I didn’t believe it.)
I __________________________________
6. (You bought some oranges. H ow m uch were they?)
H o w __________________________________________

Make one sentence from two.


1. (I was carrying a bag. It was very heavy.)
The bag / was carrying was very heavy.
2. (You cooked a meal. It was excellent.)
T h e.
3. (I’m wearing shoes. They aren’t very comfortable.)
The sh o es_____________________________________
4. (We invited some people to dinner. They didn’t come.)
T h e ______________________________________________

pi 3 3 You ask your friend some questions. Complete the sentences.


1. Your friend stayed at a hotel. You ask:
W h at’s the nam e of the hotel you stayed at?
2. Your friend was talking to some people. You ask:
W ho are the people .
3. Your friend was looking for some keys. You ask:
D id you find the
4. Your friend is going to a party. You ask:
W here is t h e ________________________
5. Your friend was talking about a movie. You ask:
W h at’s the nam e o f _________________________
6. Your friend is listening to some music. You ask:
W h at’s th a t _________________________________
Your friend was waiting for an e-mail. You ask:
Did you g e t______________________________ __

3 4 Complete the questions. Use where.


1.Jo h n stayed at a hotel. You ask him:
Did you like the hotel where you stayed
2. Sue had dinner in a restaurant. You ask her:
W h at’s the nam e o f the re sta u ran t________
3. Sarah lives in a town. You ask her:
H ow big is the
4. Richard works in a factory. You ask him:
W here exactly i s _____________________
U N I T
at 8:00 on Monday in April

At
8:00 ■ I start w ork at 8:00 in th e m orn in g.
10:30 ■ The banks close at 5:00.
at m idnight, etc.
night ■ I can’t sleep at night.
the end o f . . . ■ I’m taking a trip at the end o f O ctober.

On
Sunday(s) / Monday(s), etc.
April 25 / June 6, etc.
(on)
M onday m orning / Tuesday afternoon / Friday night, etc.
N ew Year’s Day, etc.
You can say:
■ Bye! See you on Friday, or See you Friday, (with or w ithout on)
■ Do you work on Sundays? or Do you w ork Sundays?
■ The concert is on N ovem b er 20. or The concert is N ovem b er 20.
■ I’m leaving on Friday n ight, or I’m leaving Friday night.
We say on the w eek en d / on w eek en ds (always w ith on).
■ They like to eat out on the w eek en d / on w eekends.

In
APRIL A pril/June, etc. I’m taking a trip in O ctober.
Su Mo Tu We Th Fr Sa
2009/1968, etc. Amy was born in 1988.
in The park is beautiful in the fall.
the spring/sum m er/fall/w inter
the m orning/afternoon/evening Do you often go out in the evening

We do not use a t /o n /in before:


this . . . (this m o rn in g / this week, etc.) W hat are you doing this w eekend?
every . . . (every day / every w eek, etc.) We go on vacation every sum m er. Last
l a s t . . . (last A ugust / last w eek, etc.) su m m er we w ent to Europe.
n e x t . . . (next M onday / n ext week, etc.) I’m leaving next Monday. (not on next M on:

In five m in u tes / in a few days / in six w eeks / in tw o years, etc.

Hurry! The train leaves in five m inutes.


(= it leaves five m inutes from now)
Bye! I’ll see you in a few days.
now in five m in u tes (= a few days from now)

208 in/at/on (places) —►Units 107-108


U N
: ;ercises 104
Write at or in.
1. Amy was born in 1988.
I got u p ____________ 8:00 this m orning.
I like to get up e a rly __________ the m orning.
I like to look at the sta rs__________ night.
My brother got m a rrie d __________ May.
We often go to the b e a c h the summer.
Let’s m e e t. 7:30 tom orrow night.
8. The company sta rte d __ 1989.
9. I’ll send you the m oney . the end of the m onth.
10. The cafe is o p e n ______ the evening. It closes . m idnight.

2 Write at/on/in.
1. on June 6 7. . Septem ber 24 13. Friday m orning
2. m the evening 8. . Thursday 14. . Saturday night
3. half past two 9. . 11:45 15. . night
4. W ednesday 10 . . Christmas Day 16. . the end of the day
5. 1997 11. . noon 17. . the w eekend
6 . Septem ber 12 . . the m orning 18. . the w inter

3 Which sentence is correct - A, B, or both of them?


B
1. I’m taking a trip in October. I’m taking a trip on October. A
.
2 Do you w ork Sundays? Do you w ork on Sundays? both
3. I always feel tired at the evening. I always feel tired in the evening.
4. I’m leaving next Saturday. I’m leaving on next Saturday.
5. T im started his new job on May 18. Tim started his new jo b May 18.
.
6 Laura finished high school in 2002. Laura finished high school 2002.
7. We m eet on every Tuesday. W e m eet every Tuesday.
We don’t often go out in night. W e don’t often go out at night.
I can’t m eet you Thursday. I can’t m eet you on Thursday.
.
10 Lisa saw Sam M onday night. Lisa saw Sam on M onday night.
.
11 I’m leaving in the end of this m onth. I’m leaving at the end of this m onth.
12. Tim goes to the gym on Fridays. Tim goes to the gym Fridays.

A Write sentences with in . . . .


1. It’s 8:25 now. The train leaves at 8:30. The tra in lea ve s in fiv e m inutes.
2. It’s M onday today. I’ll call you on Thursday. I’ll days.
3. Today is June 14. My exam is on June 28. My
4. It’s 3:00 now. Tom will be here at 3:30. Tom

4.5 Write at/on/in if necessary. Sometimes the sentence is already complete, and no word
is necessary.
1. They like to eat out on weekends. 7. W hat are you d o in g the weekend?
2. I’m going - next Friday, (already complete) I call R o b e rt every Sunday.
3. I always feel tir e d __ . the evening. Should we play te n n is next Sunday?
4. W ill you be at hom e . this evening? 10 . I couldn’t go to the p a rty last weekend.
5. We w ent to France _ _ last summer. 11 . I’m going out. I’ll be b a c k _____ an hour.
Laura was b o r n ____ 1994. 12. I don’t often go o u t . light.

209
U N I T
from . . . to until since for

F rom . . . to . . .
■ We lived in Japan from 1996 to 2005.
■ I w ork from M onday to Friday. from M onday to Friday
You can also say from . . . u n t i l . . . : Monday Friasf
■ W e lived in Japan from 1996 u n til 2005.

U n t i l . ..
Friday They’re leaving tow n tomorrow.
D ecem ber They’ll be away u n til Friday. u n til Friday
u n til
3:00 I w ent to bed early, but I wasn’t tired.
I read a book u n til 3:00 a.m . Fridc j
I come back
W ait here u n til I co m e back.

You can also say till (= u n til):


■ W ait here till I come back.
Com pare:
■ “H o w lo n g will you be away?” “U n til Monday.”
■ “W hen are you coming back?” “O n Monday.”

Since + a tim e in the past (to now)


We use since after the present perfect (have been / have done, etc.):
■ Joe is in the hospital. He has been
in the hospital since M onday. since M onday
(— from M onday to now)
■ Sue and Dave have been Monday
m arried since 2002.
(= from 2002 to now)
■ It has been raining since I arrived.
Com pare:
■ W e lived in Japan from 1996 to 2005.
We lived in Japan u n til 2005.
■ N ow we live in Denver. W e came to Denver in 2005.
We have lived in D enver since 2005. (= from 2005 until now)
We use for (not since) + a period of time (three days / 10 years, etc.):
■ Joe has been in the hospital for three days. (not since three days)

For + a period of time

three days ■ Gary stayed w ith us for


three days. for three days
10 years
for
five m inutes ■ I’m going away for Sunday Monday Tu
a long time a few weeks.

They’ve been m arried for 10 years.

210 present perfect + for/since —►Units 17-18 present perfect (I have lived) and simple past (I lived) —►Unit 21
^erases U N I T
105
1 Read the information and complete the sentences. Use from . .. to / until / since
Alex Jin Sook Beth Adam

I live in Japan now. I live in Australia now. I work in a restaurant I'm a journalist now.
I lived in Canada I lived in South Korea now. I w as a teacher
before. before. I worked in a hotel before. before.
I came to Japan in I came to A ustralia I started w ork in the I started work as a
2003. in 2007. restaurant in 2005. journalist in 2002.

1. (A1ex / Canada / 1995 -+ 2003) Alex lived in C anada fro m 1995 to 2003
2. (Alex / Canada / —►2003) Alex lived in C an ad a_ .2003
3. (Alex / Japan / 2003 —► ) Alex has lived in Japan .
4. (Jin Sook / South Korea —►2007) Jin Sook lived in .
5. (Jin Sook / Australia / 2007 —► ) Jin Sook has lived in .
6. (Beth / a hotel / 2002-2005) B eth w o rk e d ______ . 2002

7. (Beth / a restaurant / 2005 -►) B eth has w o rk e d ___


8. (Adam / a teacher / 1996-2002) Adam was a _______
9. (Adam / a journalist / 2002 -►) Adam has b e e n ____

Now write sentences with for.


10. (Alex / Canada) A le x liv e d in C anada fo r e ig h t y e a r s
11. (A le x /Ja p an ) Alex has lived in Japan .
12. (Jin Sook / Australia) Jin Sook h a s _________
13. (Beth / a hotel) B eth w o rk e d _________
14. (Beth / restaurant) B e th ________________
15. (Adam / a teacher) A d a m _______________
16. (Adam / a journalist) A d a m _______________

2 Write until/since/for.
1. Sue and Dave have been m arried . sin ce 2002.
.
2 I was tired this m orning. I stayed in b e d 1 10:00.
3. We waited for S u e _____________ half an hour, but she didn’t come.
4. “Did you ju st get here?” “N o, I’ve been h e r e _____________ 7:30.”
5. “H ow long did you stay at the party last night?” “_____________ m idnight.”
6 . Dan and I are good friends. We have know n each o th e r _____________ 10 years.
7. I’m tired. I’m going to lie d o w n _____________ a few minutes.
.
8 (in an airplane that's landing) Please stay in your seats_________ the airplane reaches the gate.
9. This is my house. I’ve lived h e r e _____________ I was seven years old.
.
10 Jack is out o f town. H e’ll be away . _ Wednesday.
11. N ext week I’m going to Chicago _ . three days.
.
12 I usually finish w ork at 5:30, but sometimes I work . 6 :00 .
13. “H ow long have you know n Anna?” . we were in high school.”
14. W here have you been? I’ve been waiting for you _________ 20 minutes.

211
before after during while

Before, during, and after

b efore the movie d u rin g the movie after the movie


TO':-? "

Everybody feels nervous before a test.


I fell asleep d urin g the m ovie.
We were tired after our visit to the m useum .

B efore, w h ile, and after

b efore we played w h ile we were playing after we played

D o n’t forget to close the window b efore you go out.


I often fall asleep w h ile P m reading.
They w atched TV after they d id the dishes.

D u rin g, w h ile, and for


We use d urin g + noun (during the m ovie). We use w h ile + verb (while P m reading):
■ We didn’t speak d u rin g the m eal.
but We didn’t speak w h ile w e w ere eating. (not during we were eating)
Use for (not during) + a period of time (three days / tw o hours / a year, etc.):
■ We played basketball for tw o hours, (not during two hours)
■ I lived in Florida for a year, (not during a year)

You can use b efo re/a fter + -in g (before g o in g / after eating, etc.):
■ I always have breakfast b efore g o in g to work. (= before I go to work)
■ A fter d o in g the dishes, they w atched TV. (= after they did)
Rem em ber: W e say b efore g o in g (not before to go), after d o in g (not after to do), etc.:
■ B efore eatin g the apple, I washed it carefully, (not before to eat)
■ I started w ork after reading the newspaper, (not after to read)

past continuous (I was -ing) —►Units 13-14 before/after/while/when —►Unit 99


for —►Unit 105 prepositions + -ing —►Unit 113
U N I T
: <ercises
In.:, 1 Complete the sentences. Choose from the boxes.

r . lunch the end they w ent to Mexico


alter during . , , . .
° + the concert the test- you re waiting
before while . i • i
the course the night

1. Everybody was nervous b e fo re th e te s t


2. I usually w ork four hours in the m orning and another three h o u rs .
3. The movie was really boring. W e l e f t.
4. Anna w ent to night school to learn Germ an. She learned a l o t .
5. My aunt and uncle lived in Chicago .
6. A: Somebody broke a w in d o w ________________________________ . Did you hear anything?
B: No, I was asleep all the time.
7. W ould you like to sit down .
“Are you going h o m e ?” “Yes, I have to get up early tom orrow .”

6.2 Write during/while/for.


1. W e didn’t speak w h ile we were eating.
2. W e didn’t speak during the meal.
3. Gary called _____________ you were out.
4. I stayed in R o m e ____________ five days.
5. Sally didn’t read any new spapers_____________ she was on vacation.
6. The students looked very b o re d the class.
7. I fell out of b e d ____________ I was asleep.
8. Last night I w atched T V _____________ three hours.
9. I don’t usually watch T V the day.
10. Do you ever watch T V _____________you are having dinner?

:5.3 Complete the sentences. Use -ing (doing, having, etc.).


1. After doing the dishes, they w atched TV.
2. I felt sick a fte r_______________too m uch chocolate.
3. I’m going to ask you a question. Think carefully b e fo re _______________ it.
4. I felt awful w hen I got up this m orning. I felt better a fte r a shower.
5. A fte r_______________my work, I left the office and w ent home.
6. B e fo re _______________ to a foreign country, you should try and learn a little of
the language.

76.4 Write sentences with before + -ing and after + -ing.


1. They did the dishes. Then they w atched TV.
After doing th e dishes, th e y w a tc h e d TV.__________________________________________
2. Jo h n finished high school. T hen he w orked in a bookstore for two years.
Jo h n w o rk e d __
3. I read for a few minutes. Then I w ent to sleep.
B e fo re ________________________
4. W e walked for three hours. We were very tired.
A fte r________________________________________________________________ ______________
5. Let’s have a cup o f coffee. T hen w e’ll go out.
Let’s _
U N I T
in at on (places 1)
107 In

in a store in a garden
in a room in a tow n
in a car in a park
in the w ater in Brazil

“W here’s David?” “In the kitchen. / In the garden. / In S eou l.”


W hat’s in that b ox / in that bag / in that closet?
Rachel works in a store / in a bank / in a factory.
I w ent for a swim in the river / in the p o o l / in the ocean.
M ilan is in the n orth o f Italy. Naples is in the south.
I live in a b ig city, but I’d like to live in the country.

At

i;
at the bus stop at the door at the traffic light at her desk

■ T here’s somebody at the bus stop / at th e door. at the top (of the page)
■ The car is waiting at th e traffic light.
■ Jane is working at her desk.
at the top / at the b o tto m / at the end (of. . .):
■ W rite your nam e at the top o f the page.
■ My house is at the end o f the street. at the bottom (of the page

On
: on a shelf on a wall
on a plate on the ceiling
on a balcony on a door,
on the floor, etc.
etc.

Thereare some books on the s h e lf and some pictures on the wall.


Thereare a lot of apples on th ose trees.
D on’t
sit on the grass. It’s wet. .
Thereis a stamp on the en velope. / S M a p h S tr e e t
O n a horse / on a b icycle / on a m otorcycle: Aforthport, NY
11768
■ W ho is that m an on the m otorcycle? envelore

214 the top / the bottom, etc. —►Unit 71 at/on/in (time) —►Unit 104 in/at/on (places 2) —►Unit 108
xercises U N I T | Q 7

',1 Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on.

5. (the bus stop) 6. (the field) 7. (the balcony) 8. (the pool)


/o V -
'hfyr'

f
SI

10. (the ceiling) 11. (the table) 12. (the table)

1. W here is he? In th e kitchen.______ 7. W here are they standing?


2. W here are the shoes?______________ 8. W here is she swimming?
3. W here is the p e n ? _________________ 9. W here is he standing?__
4. W here is the clock?________________ 10. W here is the spider?____
5. W here is the b u s? __________________ 11. W here is he sitting?____
6. W here are the h orses?______________ 12. W here is she sitting?___

7 2 Write in/at/on.
1. D o n ’t sit on the grass. It’s wet.
2. W hat do you h a v e _____ your bag?
3. Look! T here’s a m a n ___ the roof. W hat’s he doing?
4. There are a lot o f fis h this river.
5. O u r house is num ber 45 - the num ber i s the door.
6. “Is the post office near here?” “Yes, turn l e f t the traffic light.”
7. I have a small vegetable g a rd e n ______ the backyard.
8. My sister liv es_______Prague.
9. T here’s a small p a r k _______ the top of the hill.
10. I think I heard the doorbell. T here’s som ebod y______ the door.
11. M unich is a large c ity _______the south o f Germany.
12. T here’s a gas statio n ______ the end o f the block.
13. It’s difficult to carry a lot of th in g s_a bicycle.
14. I looked at the list of names. My nam e w a s ______ the bottom .
15. There is a m irro r the w a ll the living room.

215
U N I T
in at on (places 2)
1
In
in bed “W h ere’s Kate?” “She’s in b ed.”
in the hospital David’s father is sick. H e’s in the hospital.
in the sky I like to look at the stars in the sky at night.
in the world W hat’s the largest city in th e world?
in a newspaper / in a book I read about the accident in the new spaper.
in a photograph / in a picture You look sad in this p hotograph.
in a car / in a taxi Did you come here in your car?
in the middle ( o f . . .) T here’s a big tree in the m id d le of the yard.

At
at w ork / at school “W here’s Kate?” “She’s at w ork.”
at the station / at the airport Do you w ant me to m eet you at the station'
at the post office / at the superm arket I saw your brother at the p ost o ffic e todav
at Jan e’s (house) / at my sister’s (house) / A: W here were you yesterday?
at the doctor’s / at the hairdresser’s, etc. B: At m y sister’s.
I saw Tom at the d o cto r’s.
at a concert / at a party / at a football T here w eren’t many people at the party.
game, etc.

You can say b e/sta y h o m e or b e/sta y at h o m e (with or w ithout at).


■ Is Tom at hom e? or Is Tom hom e?
O ften it is possible to use at or in for buildings (hotels, restaurants, etc.):
■ We stayed at a nice hotel, or W e stayed in a nice hotel.

You can say at sch ool or in school, but there is a difference.


She’s at school = she’s there now
■ “W here’s your sister? Is she hom e?” “No, she’s at sch ool.”
She’s in school = she’s a student (in high school / college / medical school, etc.)
■ “Does your sister have a job?” “N o, she’s still in sch ool.”

On

A
m
i
D
on the second floor

on a bus / on a train / on a plane / on a ship Did you come here on the bus?
on the first floor (or ground floor), on the The office is on the second floor.
second floor, etc. (not in the second floor)
on the way (to . . .) / on the way hom e I m et Ann on the w ay to w ork /
on the way home.
on a street My brother lives on a nice street.

6 in/at/on (places 1) —►Unit 107 to/in/at—►Unit 109 on the left/right —►Unit 110
U N I T
E ercises
f!«: 1 Look at the pictures and answer the questions. Use in/at/on.

1. (the hospital) 2. (the airport) 3. (bed) 4. (a ship)


CHECK- IN
A lR P O & T ^ \ r - T -----

J | p i l

5. (the sky) 6. (a party) 7. (the doctor’s) 8. (the second floor)

* #
C * ^

1 £nd flOOH?
Steve *
9. (work) 10. (a plane) | 11. (a taxi) 12. (a wedding)

f i t

1. W here is she? In th e hospital._______ 7. W here is Steve?__________________


2. W here are th e y ?_____________________ 8. W here is the restaurant?___________
3. W here is h e ? ________________________ 9. W here is sh e? ____________________
4. W here are th e y ? ________________ 10. W here are_th e y ? __________________
5. W here are the stars?____________ 11. W here are_th e y ? __________________
6. W here are th e y ? ________________ 12. W here are_th e y ? __________________

5.2 Write in/at/on.


1. “W h ere’s your sister? Is she hom e?” “N o, she’s a t school.”
2. There was a big ta b le the m iddle o f the room.
3. W hat is the longest riv e r______ the world?
4. W ere there many p e o p le ______ the concert last night?
5. W ill you b e _______hom e tom orrow afternoon?
6. W ho is the m a n ______ this picture? Do you know him?
7. “Is your son going to get m arried soon?” “No, h e’s s till_______college.”
8. Gary is coming by bus. I’m going to m eet h im ______ the station.
9. Charlie i s _____ the hospital. H e had an operation yesterday.
10. H ow many pages are th e r e ____ this book?
11. “Are you hungry after your trip?” “Yes, there was nothing to e a t _______the plane.”
12. I’m sorry I’m late. My car broke d o w n the way here.
13. “Is Tom here?” “N o, h e’s _______ his brother’s.”
14. D o n ’t believe everything you re a d _______the newspaper!
15. I walked to work, but I came h o m e _____ the bus.
16. A: (on the phone) Can I speak to Anne, please?
B: No, sorry. She’ll b e the university until 5:00 today.
U N I T
to in at (places ) 3
109
To In /a t (-* Units 106-107)
g o /c o m e /r e tu r n /w a lk (etc.) to be / stay / do so m eth in g (etc.) in
f Jk

■to New York City

W e’re g o in g to N ew York on Sunday. ■ The Statue o f Liberty is in N ew York.


I w ant to go to M exico next year. ■ My brother lives in M exico.
W e w alk ed from my house to the m all. ■ The best stores are in the m all.
W hat tim e do you go to bed? ■ I like to read in bed.

be / stay / do so m eth in g (etc.) a t . . .


S : S'

I A

T he bus is g o in g to th e airport. The bus is at the airport.


Karen didn’t go to w ork yesterday. Sarah w asn ’t at w ork yesterday.
I w en t to a party last night. I m et a lo t o f p eo p le at the party.
W e’d like you to co m e to our house. H elen stayed at her b roth er’s house.

H om e

g o /c o m e /w a lk (etc.) h o m e (without to) b e/sta y (at) h o m e (with or w ithout at)


■ I’m tired. I’m g o in g h om e. ■ I’m staying h o m e tonight.
(not to home) (or I’m staying at hom e.)
■ Did you w alk hom e? But: do som ething (work, w atch TV, etc.)
at h o m e
■ Dan doesn’t go to an office. He w orks
at h om e.

A rrive and get

jj| arrive in a country or tow n (arrive in M exico / arrive in Tokyo, etc.):


■ They arrived in B razil last week, (not arrived to Brazil)
arrive at other places (arrive at the station / arrive at w ork, etc.):
■ W hat time did you arrive at the hotel? (not arrive to the hotel)
get to (a place):
■ W hat time did you get to the hotel?
■ W hat time did you get to Tokyo?
get h o m e / arrive h o m e (no preposition):
I I was tired w hen I g o t h om e, or I was tired w hen I arrived hom e.

been to —►Unit 16 get (to Unit 57 in/at —►Units 107-108


U N I T
ercises
: 1 Write to or in.
1. I like reading in bed. 5. I was tired, so I stayed_______bed.
2. W e’re g o in g ______Italy next m onth. 6. W hat tim e do you usually g o ______ bed?
3. Sue is on v acatio n______ Mexico 7. Does this bus g o the airport?
right now. 8. W ould you like to liv e _______another country?
4. I have to g o ______ the bank today.

5 2 Write to or at if necessary. Sometimes no preposition is necessary.


1. Paula didn’t go to w ork yesterday.
2. I’m tired. I’m going - hom e, (already complete)
3. Tina is sick. She w e n t_______ the doctor.
4. W ould you like to c o m e _______ a party on Saturday?
5. “Is L iz __________hom e?” “No, she w e n t________ w ork.”
6. There were 20,000 p e o p le the football game.
7. W hy did you g o hom e early last night?
8. A boy ju m p ed into the river and sw am _______ the other side.
9. There were a lot of people w a itin g _______ the bus stop.
10. We had d in n e r_______ a restaurant, and then we w ent b a c k ________ the hotel.

: 3 Write to, at, or in if necessary. Sometimes no preposition is necessary.


1. Joe is coming tom orrow. I’m m eeting him a t the airport.
2. W e’re g o in g _______ a concert tom orrow night.
3. I w e n t_______ Chile last year.
4. How long did you stay ________ Chile?
5. N ext year we hope to g o _______ Japan to visit some friends.
6. Do you w ant to g o ________ the movies tonight?
7. Did you park your c a r _______the station?
8. After the accident,three people were ta k e n ________ the hospital.
9. H ow often do you g o _______ the dentist?
10. “Is Sarah here?” “N o, she’s ________ H elen’s.”
11. My house i s _______ the end of the block on the left.
12. I w e n t_______ M aria’s house, but she wasn’t ________ home.
13. There were no taxis, so we had to w a lk _______ home.
14. “W ho did you m e e t the party?” “I didn’t g o ________ the party.”

r 4 Write to, at, or in if necessary. Sometimes the sentence is already complete, and no
word is necessary.
1. W hat time do you usually get 4. W hen did you a rriv e________ Dallas?
________ work? 5. W hat time does the plane g e t _______
2. W hat time do you usually get Paris?
________ home? 6. We arriv ed ________ hom e very late.
3. W hat tim e did you a rriv e_______
the party?

r,5 Complete these sentences about yourself. Use to/in/at.


1. At 3:00 this m orning I was in b e d
2. Yesterday I w e n t.
3. At 11:00 yesterday m orning I w a s .
4. O ne day I’d like to g o __________
5. I don’t like going .
6. At 9:00 last night I was
next to, between, under, etc.

N ex t to / b etw een / in front o f / in back o f


a
-Eric Alice is n ext to Bob. or Alice is b eside Bob.
Bob
Bob is b etw een Alice and Carla.
-Carla D on is in front o f Bob.
Alice Eric is in back o f Bob.

also
Alice is on the left.
Carla is on the right.
Don Bob is in the m id d le (of the group).

Across from / in front o f

Bruce Chris

Anne is sitting in fron t o f Bruce.


Anne is sitting across from Chris.
Chris is sitting across from Anne.

B y (= next to)

W ho is that m an standing by the w indow ?


O ur house is by the ocean. (= next to the ocean)
If you feel cold, why don’t you sit by th e fire?

by the w indow

J*

■ The cat is under the table.


■ The girl is standing under a tree.
■ I’m wearing a jacket under m y coa:

under the table under a tree

A is above the line. The pictures are


(= higher than the line)
HI above the shelves.

B is b elo w the line. The shelves are


(= lower than the line) b elo w the picture
B
m ilit ia
up/over/through, etc. —* Unit 111 b y —* Unit 112
ercises u N ' T 110
1 Where are the people in the picture? Complete the sentences.
Barbara Kevin 1. Kevin is standing in back o f Fred.
2. Fred is sitting Emily.
3. Emily is sitting Barbara.
4. Emily is sitting D onna and Fred.
5. D onna is sitting Emily.
6. Fred is sitting Kevin.
7. Alan is standing Donna.
8. Alan is standing left.
9. Barbara is standing middle.
Donna Emily Fred

: 2 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. The cat is u n d er the table. 7. The calendar is the clock.


2. T here is a big tree the house. 8. The cabinet is the sink.
3. The plane is flying the clouds. 9. There are some shoes the bed.
4. She is standing the piano. 10. The plant is the piano.
5. The movie theater is the right.
D 11. Paul is sitting Anna.
6. She’s sitting the phone. 12. In Japan people drive the left.

*0.3 Write sentences about the picture.


supermarket I theater I
s office 1. (next to) The bank is n e x t to th e________
bookstore._____________________________
NOW
SHOWING 2. (in front of) T h e _______________ in front of

3. (across from)
bookstore
4. (next to)
fountain

5. (above)

6. (between)

221
upf over, through, etc.

Jane is going to France next week. from


to
We walked from the hotel to the station.
A lot o f English words come from Latin.

M We ju m p ed in to the water.
■ A m an came ou t o f the house and got
in to a car.
■ W hy are you looking ou t o f the window?
I ■ I took the old batteries ou t o f the radio. !
in to (in) We say p u t som ething in . . . (not usually into): ou t o f
■ I p u t new batteries in the radio.

D on’t pu t your feet on the table.


on
Please take your feet o f f the table.
I’m going to hang some pictures on the wall.
Be careful! D on’t fall o f f your bicycle.
We got on the bus downtown. o ff

We walked up the hill to the house. d uow


w nu
n I
Be careful! D on’t fall d ow n the stairs.
\ p t \
_____________

over ■ The plane flew over the m ountains.


■ I ju m p ed over the wall into the garden.
■ Some people say it is unlucky to walk
■ 1 i' under a ladder. under

th rou gh A bird flew into the room th rou gh a around


window.
T he old highway goes th rou gh the town.
The new road goes around the town.
.I ■ The bus stop is ju st around the corner.
I walked around the tow n and took
some pictures.

I was walking alon g the road w ith my dog.


Let’s go for a walk alon g the river.
The dog swam across the river.
across

They walked past me w ithout speaking.


hospital
A: Excuse me, how do I get to the hospital?
B: Go along this street, past the movie movie theater y
theater, under the bridge, and the
hospital is on the left. bridge
: 1ercises U N I
1 Somebody asks you how to get to a place.
Excuse me, Go .
You say which way to go. Look at the pictures where i s . . . ?
and write sentences beginning Go . . . .

2 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences.

1. The dog swam a cro ss the river. 6. Suddenly a car c a m e ____________ the corner.
2. A book f e ll____________ the shelf. 7. They d ro v e _____________ the town.
3. A plane fle w ____________ the town. 8. They g o t the train.
4. A wom an g o t ____________ the car. 9. The m oon travels______________the earth.
5. A girl r a n _____________ the street. 10. They g o t________the h o u se ________ a window.

.3 Complete the sentences. Use over/from/into, etc.


1. I lo o k e d ____________ the window and w atched the people in the street.
2. My house is near here. It’s j u s t _________ the corner.
3. “W h ere’s my phone?” “You put i t __________ your bag.”
4. H ow far is i t ____________ h e r e ______________the airport?
5. W e w a lk e d ____________ the m useum for an hour and saw a lot o f interesting things.
6. You can p u t your c o a t_____________ the back of the chair.
7. In tennis, you have to hit the b a ll the net.
8. Silvia took a k e y ____________ her bag and opened the door.
U N I T
on at by with about
112
On
on vacation Jane isn’t at w ork this week. She’s on vacation.
on television We w atched the news on television .
on the radio W e listened to the news on the radio.
on the p h on e I spoke to Rachel on the p h o n e last night.
on fire The house is on fire! Call the fire departm ent.
on tim e (= not late) “Was the train late?” “N o, it was on tim e.”

At
at (the age of) 21 / at 50 k ilo m eters an h ou r / at 100 degrees, etc.:
■ Lisa got m arried at 21. (or. . . at the age o f 21.)
■ A car uses m ore gas at 70 m iles an h our than at 55.
■ W ater boils at 100 degrees C elsius.

By
by car / by bus / by plan e / by bike, etc.:
B Do you like traveling by train?
■ Jane usually goes to w ork by bike.
but on foot:
■ You can’t get there by car. You have to
go on foot. (= you have to walk)
a book by . . . / a painting by . . . / a piece
o f music by . . . , etc.:
■ Have you read any books by
Charles Dickens? the title
■ W ho is that painting by? Picasso? by
by after the passive (-+ U nit 22): the writer
H I was bitten by a dog.

W ith /W ith o u t
■ Did you stay at a hotel or w ith friends?
■ W ait for me. Please don’t go w ith o u t m e.
■ Do you like your coffee w ith or w ith o u t m ilk?
■ I cut the paper w ith a pair o f scissors.
a m an w ith a beard / a w om an w ith glasses, etc.:
■ Do you know that m an w ith the beard? a man a woman
■ I’d like to have a house w ith a b ig yard.
w ith a beard w ith glasses

A b ou t
ta lk /sp e a k /th in k /h e a r /k n o w about
■ Some people talk about th eir w ork all the time.
■ I don’t k n ow m uch about cars.
a b o o k / a q uestion / a p rogram / in fo rm a tio n (etc.) about
■ There was a program about volcanoes on TV last night. Did you see it?

by —►Units 22, 64, 110 at/on Units 104, 107-108 preposition + -ing -► Unit 113
U N I T
E <ercises
If I 1 Complete the sentences. Use on + these words:
the p h o n e th e rad io te le v isio n tim e vacation
1. We heard the news on th e radio .
2. Please don’t be late. Try to get h e r e _________________________ .
3. I w on’t be here next week. Pm g o in g _________________________ .
4. “Did you see Linda?” “No, but I talked to h e r _________________________ .”
5. “W h at’s _________________________ tonight?” “N othing that I w ant to watch.”

I* 12 Look at the pictures. Complete the sentences with atlbylwith, etc.

1. I cut the paper w ith a pair o f 6. She’s listening to some m u sic ________M ozart.
scissors. 7. The plane is fly in g _______ 600 miles an hour.
2. Last year they took a trip around the 8. They’r e ________vacation.
w o rld ________ boat. 9. Do you know the m a n ________ sunglasses?
3. W ho is the w o m a n _______ short hair? 10. H e’s reading a b o o k ________ gramm ar
4. They are talk in g ________ the weather. Vera P. Bull.
5. The car i s ________ fire.

1 3 Complete the sentences. Use atlbylw ith, etc.


1. In tennis, you hit the b a ll_______________ a racket.
2. It’s cold today. D on’t go o u t _______________ a coat.
3. Hamlet, Othello, and Macbeth are p lay s W illiam Shakespeare.
4. Do you know an y th in g _______________ computers?
5. My grandm other d ie d _______________ the age of 98.
6. H ow long does it take to go from N ew York to Los A ngeles_______________ plane?
7. I didn’t go to the football game, but I watched i t _______________ television.
8. My house is the o n e ______________ the red door on the right.
9. These trains are very fast. They can tra v e l_______________ very high speeds.
10. You can’t get th e r e _______________car. T here’s no road.
11. Can you give me some in fo rm atio n _______________ hotels in this town?
12. I was a rrested _______________ two police officers and taken to the police station.
13. The buses here are very good. They’re almost alw ays__________ time.
14. W hat would you like to d rin k _______________ your meal?
15. W e traveled from Los Angeles to S eattle___________train.
16. The m useum has some p ain tin g s_______________Frida Kahlo.
afraid of . . . , good a t . . . , etc.
of/at/for, etc. (prepositions + -ing)
Afraid o f . . . / good a t . . . , etc. (adjective + preposition)
Help! I'm not very I'm fed up
good at math with my job.

He's afraid
of me.

afraid o f . . . Are you afraid o f dogs?


a n g ry /m ad at somebody W hy are you m ad at me? W hat did I do?
a n g ry /m ad about som ething Are you angry about last night? (= som ething
that happened last night)
d ifferen t from . . . Lisa is very d ifferen t from her sister.
fed up w ith . . . I’m fed up w ith my job. I w ant to do som ething
different. (= I’ve had enough o f my job)
fu ll o f . . . The room was fu ll o f p eop le.
good a t . . . Are you g o o d at math?
bad a t . . . Tina is very bad at tennis.
interested in . . . I’m not interested in sports.
m arried to . . . Sue is m arried to a dentist. (= her husband is
a dentist)
n ic e /k in d o f somebody to . . . ■ It was k in d o f you to help us. Thank you very much.
be n ic e /k in d to somebody ■ David is very friendly. H e’s always very n ice to me.
sorry about a situation I’m afraid I can’t help you. I’m sorry about that.
sorry fo r /a b o u t doing I’m sorry fo r /a b o u t not calling you yesterday.
something (or I’m sorry I didn’t call you)
b e/feel sorry for somebody I feel sorry for them . They are in a very difficult situar

O f/a t/fo r (etc.) + -in g


After a preposition (o f/a t/fo r , etc.), a verb ends in -ing:
I’m not very good at te llin g stories.
Are you fed up w ith d o in g the same thing every day?
I’m sorry for not callin g you yesterday.
T hank you for h elp in g me.
M ark is thinking o f b u yin g a new car.
Tom left w ith o u t saying good-bye. (= he didn’t say good-bye)
A fter d o in g the housework, they w ent shopping.

226 before/after -ing —►Unit 106 think about/of —►Unit 114


U N I T
: <ercises
W : 1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with of/with/in, etc.

1. H e’s afraid o f dogs. 4. She’s very good . languages.


2. She’s in tere ste d _______ science. 5. H e’s fed up . the weather.
3. She’s m a rrie d _________ 6. A: Can I help you?
soccer player. B: Thanks, that’s very kind . . you.

Complete the sentences with in/of/with, etc.


1. I’m not interested in sports.
I’m not very g o o d __________sports.
3 I like Sarah. She’s always very n ic e __________ me.
4 I’m s o rry __________your broken window. It was an accident.
5 H e’s very brave. He isn’t a fraid __________ anything.
6 It was very n ic e __________ Jane to let us stay in her apartm ent.
7 Life today is very d iffe ren t______ life 50 years ago.
8 Are you in tere ste d __________ politics?
9 I feel sorry __________ her, but I can’t help her.
10 Chris was a n g ry . . w hat happened.
11 These boxes are very heavy. They are f u ll___ . books.
12 W h at’s wrong? Are you m a d __________ me?

3 Complete the sentences.


1. I’m not very g o o d a t telling stories, (good / tell)
2. I w anted to go to the movies, but Paula wasn’t _ (interested / go)
3. Sue isn’t v e ry . up in the m orning, (good / get)
4. Let’s go! I’m _ (fed up / wait)
5. I’m _________ you up in the m iddle of the night, (sorry / wake)
6. Sorry I’m la te !. __________ . (thank you / wait)

4 Complete the sentences. Use w ithout -ing.


1. (Tom left / he didn’t say good-bye) Tom
(Sue walked past me / she didn’t speak)
Sue w a lk e d __________________________
3. (don’t do anything / ask m e first)
D o n ’t _________________________
4. (I w ent out / I didn’t lock the door)
I

5 Write sentences about yourself.


1. (interested) I'm in te re s te d in sports.
2. (afraid) I’m .
3. (not very good) I’m n o t .
4. (not interested)
(fed up)
listen to . . . , look at etc.
(verb + preposition)
ask (somebody) for . . . ■ A m an stopped me and asked me for money.

b elo n g to . . . ■ Does this book b elo n g to you? (= Is this


your book?)
happen to . . . ■ I can’t find my pen. W hat’s h appened to it?

listen to . . . ■ L isten to this music. It’s great.

lo o k a t . . . ■ H e’s lo o k in g at his watch.


■ L ook at these flowers!
They’re beautiful.
■ W hy are you lo o k in g at
me like that?
lo o k for . . . ■ She’s lost her key.
She’s lo o k in g for it.
■ I’m lo o k in g for Sarah.
Have you seen her?

sp ea k /ta lk to somebody Did you talk to Paul about


about som ething the problem ?
(on the phone) Can I speak to Chris, please?
take care o f . . . W hen Pat is at work, a friend of hers takes
care of her children.
D on’t lose this book. Take care o f it.
thank somebody for . Thank you very m uch for your help.
th ink about . . . He never thinks about (or of) other people.
or th in k o f . . . M ark is th in k in g o f (or about) buying a new
computer.
w ait for . . . W ait for me. I’m almost ready.
w rite (to) . . . I tried calling the company, but they didn’t
answer, so I w rote to them , (or I w rote them )

Call, e-m ail, and text


call som ebody, e-m a il som ebody, text som eb od y (no preposition)
■ I have to call my parents tonight, (not call to . . .)
■ A: C ould you use your cell phone w hen you were in Europe?
B: No. My friends and family e-m a iled me instead of calling.
■ Let Sam know where to m eet us. E -m a il or text him before he leaves work.

D ep en d
We say d epend on . . . :
■ A: Do you like eating in restaurants?
B: Sometimes. It depends on the restaurant, (not it depends of)
You can say it depends w h a t/w h e r e /h o w (etc.) w ith or w ithout on:
■ A: Do you w ant to come out w ith us?
B: It d epends w here you’re going, or It d epends on w here you’re going.

228 w ait —►Unit 55 preposition + -ing —►Unit 113


E ercises
1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences with to/for/at, etc.

1. She’s looking a t her watch. 4. Paul is talk in g __________ Jane.


2. H e’s listen in g__________ the radio. 5. They’re lo o k in g a picture.
3. They’re w a itin g __________ a taxi. 6. Sue is lo o k in g ___________ Tom.

* - 2 Complete the sentences with a preposition (to/for/about, etc.) if necessary.


1. T hank you very m uch fo r your help.
2. This isn’t my umbrella. It b elo n g s__________a friend of mine.
3. W h o ’s going to take c a re __________ your dog while you’re out o f town?
4. (on the phone) Can I sp ea k Steven Davis, please?
5. (on the phone) Thank y o u __________ calling. Good-bye.
6. Excuse me, I’m lo o k in g ___________ Hill Street.Can you tell me w here it is?
7. W e’re th in k in g __________g°in g to Australia next year.
8. We asked the w a ite r__________ tea, but he brought us coffee.
9. “Do you like to read books?” “It d ep e n d s_________ the book.”
10. Jo h n was talking, but nobody was listen in g ________ w hat he was saying.
11. I w ant to take your picture. Please lo o k __________ the camera and smile.
12. We w a ite d Karen until 2:00, but she didn’t come.
13. W hat h a p p e n e d __________ Ella last night? W hy didn’t she come to the party?
14. D o n ’t forget to c a ll__________ your m other tonight.
15._H e’s alone all day. H e never ta lk s__________ anybody.
16.__ “H ow m uch does it cost to stay at this hotel?” “It d ep e n d s_________ the room .”
17. It will be faster if you e -m a il__________ me, but you can also w r ite __________ me
at this address.
18. C atherine is th in k in g ___________ changing jobs.
19. I lo o k e d __________ the newspaper, but I didn’t read it carefully.
20. W hen you’re sick, you need somebody to take c a re __________ you.
21. Barry is lo o k in g __________ a job. H e wants to w ork in a hotel.
22. I don’t w ant everyone_to hear my conversation w ith Jane. I’ll t e x t___________her.

14.3 Answer these questions with It depends . . . .

1. Do you w ant to go out w ith us? It depends w h e r e you 're qoinc/.


2. Do you like to eat in restaurants? It depends on th e resta u ra n t.
3. Do you enjoy watching TV? It depends
J:

4. Can you do som ething for me? It


5. Are you leaving tow n this weekend?
6. Can you lend me some money? V
U N I T
go in, fall off, run away, etc.
115 (phrasal verbs 1)
A phrasal verb is a verb (g o /lo o k /b e, etc.) + in /o u t/u p /d o w n , etc.

out
■ Kate opened the door o f the car and I w ent to the w indow and lo o k e d out.
g o t in. (= in to the car) A car stopped, and a wom an g o t out.
■ I waited outside the store. I didn’t go in. (= ou t o f the car)
o ff

°7 f \

The bus came, and I g o t on. Be careful! D on’t fall off.


up d ow n

I stand up
i
She stood up and left the room. The picture fe ll dow n.
I usually get up early. (= get out o f bed) W ould you like to sit down?
We lo o k e d up at the stars in the sky. Lie d ow n on the floor.
away or o f f back

run away

■ The th ief ran away, (or . . . ran o ff) ■ Go away and don’t co m e back!
■ Em m a got into the car and drove away. ■ We w ent out for dinner and then w ent
(or. . . drove o ff) back to our hotel.
b e /g o away (= in /to another place) be back
■ Tim has gon e away for a few days. ■ Tim is away. H e’ll be back on Monday
over around Johr

move over turn around


There was an em pty seat, so he ■ Somebody shouted my name, so I
m oved over. turned around.
I was tired of driving and p u lled over. ■ We w ent for a long walk. After an hoc:
we turned around and w ent back.

230 get —►Unit 57 put on / take off, etc. (phrasal verbs 2) —►Unit 116 more phrasal verbs —►Appendix 6
<ercises ||
Ill

uni t j
5 1 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use these verbs + in/out/up, etc.
got got l o o k ed - lo o k e d rod e sat tu rn ed w en t

1. I w ent to the window and lo o ked o u t . 5. I said hello, and h e _________


2. The door was open, so w e ______________. 6. The bus stopped, and s h e ___
3. He heard a plane, so h e ________________ . 7. There was a free seat, so she .
4. She got on her bike a n d ________________ . 8. A car stopped, and two m en .

’5.2 Complete the sentences. Use out/away/back, etc.


1. “W hat happened to the picture on the wall?” “It fell d o w n ”
2. Please don’t w a lk . I have som ething to tell you.
3. Lisa heard a noise in back of her, so she tu r n e d _____________ to see w hat it was.
4. I’m g o in g _____________ now to do some shopping. I’ll b e _____________ at 5:00.
5. I’m really tired. I’m going to l i e ____________ on the sofa.
6. I can’t see the movie screen. W ould you please m o v e _____________ ?
7. M ark is from U tah. He lives in Boston now, but he wants to g o _____________ to U tah.
8. W e don’t have a key to the house, so we can’t g e t _____________ .
9. I was very tired this m orning. I couldn’t g e t __________ .
10. A: “W hen are you g o in g ____________ ?”
B: “O n the fifth. And I’m co m in g _____________ on the tw enty-fourth.”

15.3 Before you do this exercise, study the verbs inAppendix 6 (page242). Complete the
sentences. Choose a verb from the box + on/off/up, etc. If necessary, put the verb into
the correct form.
break get go slow take w ork t cc , , .
f + a lo n g /o n /o ll/u p /d o w n /o v e r /o u t
fall glve h old speak w ak e

1. I w ent to sleep at 10:00 and w o ke up at 8:00 the next m orning.


2. “It’s time to go.” “______________________________ a m inute. I’m not ready yet.”
3. The tr a in ______________________________ and finally stopped.
4. I like flying, but I’m always nervous w hen the plane .
5. Tony doesn’t see his sister much. They don’t ______________________________ very well.
6. It’s difficult to hear you. Can y o u ______________________________ a little?
7. This car isn’t very good. It h a s ______________________________ many times.
8. W h en babies try to walk, they som etim es______________________________ .
9. Ben isn’t in good shape because he doesn’t at the
gym anymore.
10. I tried to find a job, but I ______________________________ . It was impossible.
11. The fire a la rm ______________________________ , and everyone had to leave the building.

231
U N I T
put on your shoes put your shoes on
116 (phrasal verbs 2)
Sometimes a phrasal verb (put on / take ofF etc.) has an object. For example:

verb object verb object


p u t on your coat take o f f your shoes

You can say: You can say:


m p ut on your coat take o f f your shoes
or p ut your coat on or take your shoes o f f

But it/th e m (pronouns) always go before o n / o f f etc.:


put it on (not put on it) take th em o f f (not take off them )
■ It was cold, so I p u t on my coat. I’m going to take o f f my shoes.
(or I p ut my coat on) (or take my shoes o ff)
■ H ere’s your coat. Put it on. Your shoes are dirty. Take th em o f f

Some m ore phrasal verbs + object:


turn on / turn o f f (lights, machines, faucets, etc.):
turn off
■ It was dark, so I turned on the light.
(or I turned the light on)
■ I don’t w ant to watch this program .
11 You can turn it off.

11 p ick up / p u t down:
Ij ■
■ Those are my keys on the floor. Can you
i p ick th em up for me?
1 ■ I stopped reading and p ut my book dow n.
(or p u t d ow n my book)

b rin g back / take back / give back / p ut back:


■ You can take my umbrella, but
please b rin g it back.
■ I to o k my new sweater back to
the store. It was too small for me.
■ I have Rachel’s keys. I have to
give th em back to her.
■ I read the letter and then p u t it
back in the envelope.

go in / fall off, etc. (phrasal verbs 1) —►Unit 115 more phrasal verbs + object —►Appendix 7
xercises U N I T
116
5.1 Look at the pictures. What did these people do?

1.

1. He tu rn e d on the light 4. She


2. S h e ____________________ 5. He _
3. H e _____________________ 6. She

* 2 You can write these sentences in three different ways. Complete the table.

1. I turned on the radio. / tu rn e d the radio on. / tu rn e d it on.

2. He p ut on his jacket. He He

3. She She took her glasses off.

4. I picked up the phone.

5. They gave back the key.

6. We turned the lights off.

3 Complete the sentences. Use these verbs with it or them.

b rin g back p ick up take back turn o f f turn o n

1. I w anted to watch som ething on television, so I tu rn e d it on .


2. My new lamp doesn’t work. I’m going t o _______________________ . to the store.
3. There were some gloves on the floor, so I _______________________ _ and put them
on the table.
4. W hen I finished working on the computer, I ____________________
5. Thank you for lending me these books. I w on’t forget to

4 Before you do this exercise, study the verbs in Appendix 7 (page 243). Complete
the sentences using one of the following verbs. Sometimes you will also need to
use it/them/me.

fill o u t k n ock over p u t ou t "tear d ow n try on


give up lo o k up show around th row away turn d ow n

1. They to re a lot o f houses dow n w hen they built the new road.
2. T hat music is very loud. Can you turn it dow n ?
3. I _______________________ a glass and broke it.
4. “W hat does this word m ean?” “H ere’s a dictionary. You c a n _____________________
5. I w ant to keep these magazines. Please don’t ________________________ .
6. I a pair o f shoes at the store, but I didn’t buy them .
7. I visited a school last week. O ne of the teac h ers_________________
8. “Do you play the piano?” “No, I started to learn, but I _________ . after a m onth.’
9. Somebody gave me a form and told me t o ______________________
10. Smoking isn’t allowed here. P lease_______________ your cigarette .

233
IPPENDIX 1
-ctive and passive
Present and past
Active Passive
Simple W e m ake butter from milk. ■ B utter is m ade from milk.
present Somebody cleans these rooms ■ These rooms are cleaned
every day. every day.
People never in vite me to ■ I am never in vited to parties.
parties.
H ow do they m ake butter? ■ H ow is butter made?
Simple Somebody stole my car last My car was stolen last week.
past week.
Somebody stole my keys My keys w ere stolen yesterday.
yesterday.
They d id n ’t in vite me to the I w asn ’t in vited to the party.
party.
W h en did they b u ild these W hen w ere these houses built?
houses?

Present They are b u ild in g a new airport A new airport is b ein g b u ilt at
:3ntinuous at this time. (= it isn’t finished) this time.
They are b u ild in g some new Some new houses are b ein g
houses near the river. b u ilt near the river.
Past W h en I was here a few years W hen I was here a few years
:: ntinuous ago, they w ere b u ild in g a new ago, a new airport was b ein g
airport. (= it wasn’t finished at built.
that time)

Present Look! They have painted ■ Look! The door has been
perfect the door. painted.
These shirts are clean. ■ These shirts are clean. They
Somebody has w ashed them . have been washed.
Somebody has stolen my car. ■ My car has been stolen.
Past Tina said that somebody had Tina said that her car had been
perfect stolen her car. stolen.

Will / can / must / have to, etc.


Active Passive
Somebody w ill clean the office tomorrow. The office w ill be cleaned tomorrow.
Somebody m u st clean the office at night. The office m u st be cleaned at night.
I think they’ll in v ite you to the party. I think you’ll be in vited to the party.
They can’t repair my watch. My watch can’t be repaired.
You sh ould w ash this sweater by hand. This sweater should be w ashed by hand.
They are g o in g to b u ild a new airport. A new airport is g o in g to be built.
Somebody has to wash these clothes. These clothes have to be washed.
They had to take the injured man to The injured m an had to be taken to
the hospital. the hospital.

APPENDIX 1 235
APPENDIX 2
List of irregular verbs (see Unit 25)
Infinitive Simple past Past participle Infinitive Simple past Past participle
be w as/w ere been lie lay lain
beat beat beaten lig h t lit lit
b eco m e became become lose lost lost
b egin began begun m ake made made
b ite bit bitten m ean m eant (ment)* m eant (ment
b lo w blew blown m eet m et m et
break broke broken pay paid paid
b ring brought brought p ut put put
b u ild built built quit quit quit
buy bought bought read (reed)* read (red)* read (red)*
catch caught caught ride rode ridden
ch oose chose chosen rin g rang rung
co m e came come rise rose risen
cost cost cost run ran run
cut cut cut say said (sed)* said (sed)*
do did done see saw seen
draw drew drawn sell sold sold
drink drank drunk send sent sent
drive drove driven shine shone shone
eat ate eaten sh oot shot shot
fall fell fallen show showed shown
feel felt felt shut shut shut
fig h t fought fought sing sang sung
fin d found found sit sat sat
fly flew flown sleep slept slept
forget forgot forgotten speak spoke spoken
get got gotten spend spent spent
give gave given stand stood stood
g° w ent gone steal stole stolen
grow grew grown sw im swam swum
hang hung hung take took taken
have had had teach taught taught
hear heard heard tear tore torn
h id e hid hidden tell told told
h it hit hit th ink thought thought
h o ld held held throw threw throw n
hurt hurt hurt understand understood understood
keep kept kept w ake woke woken
k n ow knew know n wear wore w orn
leave left left w in won won
len d lent lent w rite wrote w ritten
let let let * pronuncu:m

236 APPENDIX 2
PENDIX 3
'regular verbs in groups
. simple past and past participle are the same: The simple past and past participle are different:

1. broke broken
cost —► cost let -► let break
cut —► cut put -► put choose —► ch ose -► ch osen
hit —► h it quit -* quit speak —► spoke -► spoken
h u rt —► h urt shut shut steal -► stole -► stolen
wake —► w o k e w ok en

lend —► len t lose lo st


2. —► driven
send —► sent shoot -► shot drive drove
spend —► spent light lit ride -► rod e -► rid d en
build -► b u ilt sit sat rise -► rose -+ risen
w rite w ro te w r itten
keep —► kept
sleep —► slept beat beat beaten
bite —► b it b itten
feel felt hide h id h id d en
leave le ft
m eet —► m et
3. eaten
m ean —► m ea n t (ment)* eat ate
fall -► fe ll fa llen
forget -+ fo r g o t fo r g o tten
bring b ro u g h t get got -► g o tten
buy bought give gave -► give
fight fo u g h t see -► saw -► seen
th in k th o u g h t take to o k taken
catch cau gh t
teach tau gh t 4.
blow b lew b lo w n
grow —► grew -► grow n
sell sold know -► k n ew -► k n o w n
tell to ld throw -► th rew -► th ro w n
fly -► fle w flo w n
find fin d draw d rew draw n
have had
show - sh ow ed sh ow n
hear heard (herd)*
hold h eld
read read (red) 5.
begin began b eg u n
say said (sed)
drink -► drank -► d ru n k
swim -* sw am sw u m
pay paid
make m ad e ring rang ru n g
sing sang sung
stand sto od
run ran run
understand u n d erstood

6. co m e
*pronunciation come cam e
become b eca m e b eco m e

APPENDIX 3 237
APPENDIX 4
Short forms (he's / I'd / don't, etc.)
4.1 In spoken English we usually pronounce / am as one word. The short form (I'm) is
a way of writing this:
I am —►I’m ■ F m feeling tired this m orning.
it is —►it ’s ■ “Do you like this jacket?” “Yes, it ’snice.”
they have —►th ey’ve, etc. ■ “W here are your friends?” “T hey’ve gone hom e.”

W h en we w rite short forms, we use ’ (an apostrophe):


I)s(m—►I’m heXs—►h e’s you ja<ve-> you’ve she>^fll —►she’ll

4.2 We use these forms with l/he/she, etc.:


am ’m I’m
is -► ’s h e’s sh e’s it’s
are -► ’re w e ’re y o u ’re th ey ’re
have -► ’ve I’ve w e’ve y o u ’ve th ey ’ve
has -► ’s h e ’s she’s it’s
had -► ’d I’d h e ’d she’d w e ’d y o u ’d th ey’d
will -► ’11 I’ll h e’ll sh e’ll w e ’ll y o u ’ll th ey ’ll
would ’d I’d h e ’d she’d w e ’d y o u ’d th ey’d

■ I’ve got some new shoes.


■ W e’ll probably go out tonight.
■ It’s 10:00. You’re late again.
’s = is or has:
■ She’s going out tonight, (she’s going = she is going)
■ She’s gone out. (she’s gone = she has gone)
’d = w o u ld or had:
■ A: W h a t w ould you like to eat?
B: I’d like a salad, please. (I’d like = I w o u ld like)
■ I told the police that I’d lost my passport. (I’d lost = I had lost)
Do not use ’m / ’s / ’d, etc. at the end o f a sentence (see U n it 41):
■ “Are you tired?” “Yes, I am .” (not Yes, I’m.)
■ She isn’t tired, but he is. (not he’s)

4.3 We use short forms with l/you/he/she, etc., but you can use short forms
(especially's) with other words, too:
■ W h o ’s your favorite singer? (= who is)
■ W h a t’s the time? (= w hat is)
■ T h e re’s a big tree in the yard. (= there is)
■ M y sister’s w orking in London. (= my sister is working)
■ P a u l’s gone out. (= Paul has gone out)
■ W hat c o lo r ’s your car? (= W h a t color is your car?)

238 APPENDIX 4
APPENDIX 4
5hort forms (he's / I'd / don't, etc.)
-- Negative short forms (see Unit 44):
isn ’t (= is not) d o n ’t (= do not) ca n ’t (= cannot)
a ren ’t (= are not) d o e sn ’t (= does not) c o u ld n ’t (= could not)
w a sn ’t (= was not) d id n ’t (= did not) w o n ’t (= w ill not)
w e ren ’t (= w ere not) w o u ld n ’t (= w ould not)
h asn ’t (= has not) sh o u ld n ’t (= should not)
h aven ’t (= have not) m u stn ’t (= m ust not)
h a d n ’t (= had not)

■ W e w ent to her house, but she w a sn ’t at home.


■ “W h e re’s David?” “I d o n ’t know. I h aven ’t seen him .”
■ You w ork all the tim e. You sh o u ld n ’t w ork so hard.
■ I w o n ’t be here tom orrow . (= I w ill not)

*5 's (apostrophe + s)
’s can m ean different things:
(1) ’s = is or has (see section 4.2 of this appendix)
(2) l e t ’s = let us (see U nit 37)
■ It’s a beautiful day. L e t’s go outside. (= L et us go outside.)
(3) K ate’s camera = her camera
my b ro th er’s car = his car
the m anager’s office = h is/h e r office, etc.
(see U nit 65)
Com pare:
■ K ate’s cam era was very expensive. (K ate’s camera = h er camera)
■ K ate’s a very good photographer. (K ate’s = Kate is)
■ K ate’s got a new camera. (K ate’s got = Kate has got)

APPENDIX 4 239
APPENDIX 5
Spelling
5.1 Words + -s and -es (birds/watches, etc.)
noun + s (plural) (see U nit 67)
bird —►birds m istake ■ ►m istakes hotel —►hotels
verb + s (h e /sh e /it -s) (see U nit 5)
th in k —►thinks live —►lives rem em ber —►rem em bers

but
+ es after -s / -sh / -c h / -x
bus —►buses pass —►passes address —►addresses
d ish —►dishes w ash —►washes finish —►finishes
w atch —►w atches teach —►teaches sandw ich —►sandwiches
box —►boxes
also
potato —►potatoes tom ato -+ tom atoes
do —►does go ►goes

- f / -fe —►-ves
sh elf —►shelves k n ife knives but ro o f —►roofs

5.2 Words ending in -y (baby -► babies / study -► studied, etc.)


-y —►-les
study —►studies (not studys) fam ily —►fam ilies (not fam ily:
story —►stories city —►cities baby —►babies
try —►tries m arry —►m arries fly —►flies
-y —►-ie d (see U nit 11)
study —►stu d ied (not studyed)
try -> trie d m arry —►m a rrie d copy —►copied
-y —►-ie r / -ie st (see U nits 88, 91)
easy —►ea sie r/easie st (not easyer/easyest)
happy —►h a p p ie r/h a p p ie st lucky —►lu c k ie r/lu c k ie st
heavy —►h ea v ie r/h ea v ie st funny —►fu n n ie r/fu n n ie s t
-y —►-ily (see U nit 87)
easy —►easily (not easyly)
happy -► happily heavy -► heavily lucky —►luckily

y does not change to i if the ending is -a y /-e y /-o y /-u y :


holiday —►holidays (not holidaies)
enjoy —►enjoys/enjoyed stay —►stay/stayed b u y —►buys key —►keys
but
say —►said p ay —►
p a id (irregular verbs)

240 APPENDIX 5
- 3PENDIX 5
selling
Ln


mg
Verbs that end in -e (m ak e/w rite/d riv e, etc.) —►Xing
m ake —►m a k in g w rite —►w ritin g com e —►co m in g dance —►dan cin g
Verbs th at end in -ie -► -ying:
lie -► ly in g die -► d y in g tie —►ty in g

stop -► stopped, big -► bigger, etc.


Vowels and consonants:
Vowel letters: a e i o u
Consonant letters: b c d f g k l m n p r s t w y
Sometimes a w ord ends in a vowel + a consonant. For example: stop, big, get.
Before - i n g /- e d /- e r /- e s t, the consonant ( p /g /t, etc.) becomes p p / g g / t t , etc.
For example:
V+C V = vowel
stop ST O P p -► p p stopping stopped C = consonant
ru n R U N n -► n n ru n n in g
get G E T t tt getting
swim SW I M m —► m m sw im m in g
big B I G g “ ► gg bigger biggest
hot H O T t -► t t h o tte r h o ttest
th in TH I N n -► n n th in n e r th in n est

This does not happen:


(1) if the w ord ends in two consonant letters (C + C):
C+C
help HE L P helping helped
work WO R K w o rk in g w o rk ed
fast FA S T faster fastest

(2) if the w ord ends in tw o vowel letters + a consonant letter (V + V + C):


v+v+c
need N E E D needing needed
w ait W A I T w aiting w aited
cheap CH E A P cheaper cheapest

(3) in longer words (two syllables or more) if the last p art of the w ord is not stressed:
stress
happen H A P -p e n h ap p e n in g /h a p p en ed (not happenned)
visit V IS -it visiting/visited
rem em ber re-M E M -ber rem em b erin g /rem em b ered
but
prefer p re-F E R (stress at the end) preferring/preferred
begin b e-G IN (stress at the end) beginning

(4) if the w ord ends in -y or -w. (At the end of words, y and w are not consonants.)
enjoy —►enjoying/enjoyed snow —►snow ing/snow ed few —►few er/few est

APPENDIX 5 241
APPENDIX 6
Phrasal verbs (take off / give up, etc.)
This is a list of some im portant phrasal verbs (see U nit 115).

ou t lo o k ou t / w atch ou t = be careful
■ L ook out! T here’s a car coming.
w ork ou t — exercise (to becom e stronger or m ore fit)
■ Sarah w orks ou t at the gym two or three times a week.

on co m e on = be quick / hurry
■ C o m e on! Everybody is waiting for you.
go on = continue Hold on
■ I’m sorry I interrupted. G o on. . a minute.
(= continue w hat you were saying)
■ H ow long will this hot w eather go on?
keep on = continue (talking, etc.)
■ I asked them to be quiet, but they k ep t on talking.
h o ld on = wait
■ Can you h o ld on a m inute? (= can you wait?)
o ff take o f f = leave the ground (for planes) take o ff
■ The plane to o k o f f 20 m inutes late but arrived on time.
go o f f = explode (a bomb, etc.) or ring (an alarm, an alarm clock, etc.)
■ A bom b w en t o f f and caused a lot of damage.
■ A car alarm goes o f f if somebody tries to break into the car. 'g> fl
up clean up = make neat or clean
■ After the party, it took two hours to clean up.
give up = stop trying
■ I know it’s difficult, but don’t give up. (= don’t stop trying)
grow up = become an adult
■ W hat does your son w ant to do w hen he grow s up?
hurry up = do something more quickly
grow up
■ H urry up! W e don’t have m uch time.
speak up = speak more loudly
■ I can’t hear you. Can you speak up, please?
w ake up = stop sleeping
■ I often w ake up in the middle of the night.
d ow n slo w d ow n = go more slowly
■ You’re driving too fast. S low down!
break d ow n = stop working fo r cars, machines, etc.)
■ Sue was very late because her car b rok e down,
a lo n g get a lon g = be together w ithout problems
■ Sam doesn’t visit his parents often. He doesn’t
get alon g w ith his father.
over fall over = lose your balance
■ I fe ll over because my shoes were too big for me.

242 APPENDIX 6
- ’pendix7 Phrasal verbs + object
put out a fire / try on clothes, etc.)
:s a list o f some im p o rtant phrasal verbs + object (see U nit 116).

-: fill ou t aform = complete aform


■ Can you fill ou t this form , please?
p ut o u t a fire, a cigarette, etc.
■ The fire departm ent arrived and p ut the fire out.
cross ou t a mistake, a word, etc.
■ If you make a mistake, cross it out.

put out cross out


try on clothes = put on clothes to see if they fit you
■ (in a store) W here can I try these pants on?
give up som ething = stop doing/having something
■ Sue gave up her jo b w hen her baby was born. (= she stopped working)
■ Tom ’s doctor told him he had to give up smoking.
lo o k up a word in a dictionary, etc.
■ I didn’t know the m eaning of the word, so I lo o k e d it up in a dictionary.
turn up the TV, radio, music, heat, etc. = make it louder or warmer
■ Can you turn the radio up? I can’t hear it.
w ake up somebody who is sleeping
■ I have to get up early tomorrow. Can you w ake m e up at 6:30?
vn tear d ow n a building = demolish it fear down
B They are going to tear d ow n the school
and build a new one.
turn d ow n the TV, radio, music, heat, etc. = make it
quieter or less warm
■ The music is too loud. Can you turn it down?
kn ock over a cup, a glass, a person, etc.
■ Be careful. D on’t k nock your cup over.

knock over I

iway th row away garbage, things you don’t w ant


B These apples are bad. Should I th row th em away?
B D on’t th row away that picture. I w ant it.
p u t som ething away = put it in the place where you usually keep it
B After they finished playing, the children p u t their
toys away.
pay somebody back = give back money that you borrowed
T hank you for lending me the money. I’ll pay you
back next week.
ro u n d sh ow somebody around = take somebody on a tour of a place
■ We visited a factory last week. The m anager show ed us around.

APPENDIX 7 243
Additional Exercises
List o f exercises:
1-2 am/is/are Units 1-2
3 Present continuous Units 3-4
4 Simple present Units 5-7
5-7 Simple present, am/is/are and have (got) Units 1-2, 5-7, 9
8-9 Present continuous and simple present Units 3-8
10-13 was/were and simple past Units 10-12
14 Simple past and past continuous Units 11-14
15 Present and past Units 3-14
16-18 Present perfect Units 16-21
19-22 Present perfect and simple past Units 19-21
23 Present, past, and present perfect Units 3-21
24-27 Passive Units 22-23, Appendix 1
28 Future Units 26-29
29 Past, present, and future Units 3-21, 26-29
30-31 Past, present, and future Units 3-23, 26-29, 53, 55, 99, 106
32 -ing and to. . . Units 52-56, 106, 113
33-34 a and the Units 66, 70-74
35 Prepositions Units 104-109, 112

amlislare Units 1-2


1 Write sentences for the pictures. Use the words in the boxes + is!isn't!are!aren't.

Kate

Gary

T he w in d ow s on the table 1. The w in d ow s a re open.


Lisa hun gry 2. L is a isn't happy.
Kate asleep 3.
T he children -open- 4.
G ary fu ll 5.
T he books near the station 6.
T he h otel a doctor 7.
T he bus happy 8.

244 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


: nplete the sentences.
L 'Are you hungry?” “No, but Tm thirsty.”
1 * H o w a re your parents?” “T h ey ’re fine.”
Ts A nna at hom e?” “N o ,__________________ . at w ork.”
* my keys?” “O n your desk.”
T h ere is Paul fro m ? _______________________ A m erican or Canadian?
_______________________very hot today. T he tem perature is 38 degrees Celsius.
‘Are you a teacher?” “N o , a student.”
a * ___ . your um brella?” “G reen.”
W here’s your car? _________________ in the parking lot?
ML *________________
“_______________________tired?” “No, I’m fine.”
'T hese shoes are nice. H o w _______________________ ?” “Seventy-five dollars.”

^resent continuous ( w orking I Units 3-4


ire you working?, etc.)
. the words in parentheses to write sentences.
A W here are your parents?
B: They 're w atching TV.___________________ (they / w atch / TV)
A: Paula is going out.
B: W h ere 's sh e going? (where / she / go?)
L .4; W h ere’s David?
B: _________________ (he / take / a shower)
- A: _______________ (the children / play?)
B: No, they ’re asleep.
x. .4; (it / rain?)
B: No, not any more.
<L A: W here are Sue and Steve?
B: (they / come / now)
" A: (why / you / stand / here?)
B: (I / w ait / for somebody)

5 mple present (/ w ork / she doesn't w ork / Units 5-7


Jo you work?, etc.)
lomplete the sentences. Use the simple present.
9L to w ork early.
Su e a lw a ys c/ets (Sue / always / get)
I We don't w a tch T V very often. (we / not / watch)
How often do you w ash your hair? (you / wash)
I want to go to the movies, b u t . ------------------------------------- to go. (Sam / not / want)
. to go out tonight? (you / want)
near here? (Helen / live)
a lot of people. (Sarah / know)
|L I enjoy traveling, b u t . ____________________ very much. (I / not / travel)
1 W hat t i m e _________ in the m orning? (you / usually / get up)
My parents are usually at hom e at night.
______________________________very often. (they / not / go out)
______________________________w ork at 5:00. (Tom / always / leave)
A: W h at (Julia / do)
B: ______ . m a hotel. (she / work)

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 245


Simple present, amlislare and have (got) Units 1-2, 5-7, 9
5 Read the questions and Claire's answers. Then write sentences about Claire.

C laire 1. S h e isn t m arried.


1. Are you married? No.
2. Do you live in Houston? Yes. 2. S h e lives in Houston.
£j(>\ r\ \
3. Are you a student? Yes. 3.
4. Do you have a car? No. 4.
5. Do you go out a lot? Yes. 5.
6. Do you have a lot o f friends? Yes. % 6-
7. Do you like Houston? No. 7.
8. Do you like to dance? Yes. 8.
9. Are you interested in sports? No. 9.

6 Complete the questions.

What's y o u r name Brian.


. married? Yes, I am.
W here . O n State Street.
any children? Yes, a daughter.
H ow . She’s three.

2. I’m 29.
I w ork in a superm arket.
. yourjob? No, I hate it.
a car? Yes, I do.
to w ork by car? No, I usually go by bus.

r--------------------------
3. Who is this man T h a t’s my brother,
Michael.

. in N ew York? \ H e’s a travel agent


No, in Los Angele

7 Write sentences from these words. All the sentences are present.
1. Sarah often / tennis) S a ra h often p la y s tennis.
2 . my parents / a new car) M y p a r e n ts have a n e w car. OR
M y p a re n ts have g o t a n e w car.
3. my shoes / dirty) M y sho es a re dirty. _______________
4. Sonia / 32 years old) Sonia.
5. I / tw o sisters)
.
6 we often / T V at night)
7. Jane never / a hat)
8 . my car / a flat tire)
9. these flowers / beautiful)
10. M ary / G erm an very well)

246 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


; -esent continuous (I'm working) and Units 3-8
oiple present (I work)
: nplete the sentences,

^Please be quiet.
I'm w orking (I/w ork).

f (1/leavelN __________________ (it/rain).


\n o w . Good-bye! Can I take this um brella?

(l/not/watch) TV very much.

yVhich is right?
1 •‘A re yen speaking -/ Do you speak English?” “Yes, a little.” (Do you speak is right)
1 Sometimes w e’re going / we go away on weekends.
It’s a nice day today. T he sun is shining / shines.
- (You meet Kate in the street.) Hello, Kate. W here are you going / do you go?
5. How often are you taking / do you take a vacation?
6. Em ily is a w riter. She’s w riting / She w rites children’s books.
". I’m never reading / I never read newspapers.
8. “W h ere are M ichael and Jane?” “T h ey ’re w atching / T hev w atch TV in the living room .”
9. H elen is in her office. She’s talking / She talks to somebody.
1). W h a t tim e are you usually having / do you usually have dinner?
11. Joh n isn’t at hom e right now. H e’s visiting / H e visits some friends.
12. “W ould you like some coffee?” “No, thanks. I’m not drinking / I don’t d rin k coffee.”

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 247


was/were and simple past (/ w orked I Units 10-12
did you work?, etc.)
10 Complete the sentences. Use one word only.
1. I got up early and took a shower.
2 . Tom was tired last night, so h e __________ to bed early.
3. I _______________ this pen on the floor. Is it yours?
4. Kate got m arried w hen s h e _______________23.
5. H elen is learning to drive. S h e ___________ . her first lesson yesterday.
6. “I’ve got a new job.” “Yes, I know. David . _______ m e.”
7. “W h ere did you buy that book?” “It was a present. J a n e _______________ it to m e.”
8 . W e _______________hungry, so we had som ething to eat.
9. “D id you enjoy the m ovie?” “Yes, I _______________ it was very good.”
10 . :‘D id Andy come to your party?” “N o, we . . him , but he didn’t come.”

11 Look at the questions and Kevin's answers. Write sentences about Kevin when he was
a child. ^
Kevin

W hen you were a child . . .


A H e w asn t tall.
W ere you tall? No. l
Did you like school? Y es. 2. H e liked school.
W ere you good at sports? Y es. 3. H e .
D id you play basketball? Y es. 4.
Did you work hard at school? No. 5.
Did you have a lot of friends? Y es. 6.
D id you have a bicycle? No. 7.
W ere you a quiet child? No. 8.
v. j

12 Complete the questions

t .
1. D id you have a nice vacation? Yes, it was great, thanks.
2 . W h ere d id yo u go P To the Bahamas.
3. _______ there? Five days.
4. the Bahamas? Yes, very much.
5. P I have friends there, so I stayed w ith them .
6 . good? Yes, it was w arm and sunny.
7. _ back? Yesterday.

13 Put the verb in the right form (positive, negative, or question).


1. It was a good party. / e n jo y e d it. (I / enjoy)
.
2 “ D id you do the dishes?” (you / do) “N o ,. / didn t have time. (I / have)
3. “D id you call Adam ?” “No, I’m s o rry ,_______ (I / forget)
4. I like your new watch. W h e r e ________________ it? (you / get)
5. I saw Lucy at the party, b u t ________ to her. (I / speak)
.
6 A: _______________________________ a nice weekend? (you / have)
B: Yes, I visited some friends o f m ine.
7. Paul w asn’t well yesterday, s o ________ to work, (he / go)
8. “Is M ary here?” “Y es,______________ ______________ five m inutes ago.” (she / arrive)
9. W h e r e _____________________________ before he m oved here? (R obert / live)
10. T he restaurant wasn’t expensive.. _________________ very m uch, (the m eal / cost

248 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


: nple past (I worked) and past continuous Units 11-14
was working)
I -nplete the sentences. Use the simple past or past continuous.

Good morning.

: w a s raining (rain) w hen we W h en I arrived at the office, Jane and Paul


w e n t (go) out. _____________________ (work) at their desks.

(open) the T he phone . (ring) w hen


window because it was hot. S u e ______ (cook) dinner.

D.

(hear) a noise outside, T o m ____________________________ (look)


sol. (look) out o f the out o f the w indow w hen the accident
______________________ (happen).

/ E r in

Richard had a book in his hand, but he E rin bought a m agazine, but she
____________________________(not/read) it. (not/read)
H e __________________________ (watch) TV. it. She didn’t have time.

Hi, Kate!

K ate
_ (finish) lunch, I. (see) Kate this
(pay) the bill, m orning. I __________ (walk)
and. (leave) the along the street and she
restaurant. ____________________ (wait) for the bus.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 249


Present and past Units 3-14
15 Complete the sentences. Use one of these forms:
simple present (I w o r k /d riv e, etc.) present continuous (I am w o r k in g /d r iv in g , etc.)
simple past (I w o rk ed /d ro v e, etc.) past continuous (I was w o r k in g /d riv in g , etc.)

1. You can tu rn off the TV. I 'm n o t w a tch in g (not / watch) it.
2. Last night Jenny fe ll (fall) asleep w hile she w a s reading (read).
3. Listen! S om ebody _______________________ (play) the piano.
4. “Do you have my key?” “No, I _______________________ (giye) it back to you.”
5. David is very lazy. H e _______________________ (not / like) to w ork hard.
6. W h e r e ______________________ (your parents / go) on vacation last year?
7. I _______________________ (see) D iane yesterday. S h e _______________________ (drive)
her new car.
8. A: ______________________ (you / watch) T V very much?
B: No, I don’t have a TV.
9. A: W h a t ______________________ (you / do) at 6:00 last Sunday m orning?
B: I was in bed asleep.
10. Andy isn’t at hom e very much. H e _________________________(go)out a lot.
11. I (try) to find a jo b right now. It’s very hard.
12. I’m tired this m orning. I _______________________ (not / sleep) very well last night.

Present perfect (/ have done / she has been, etc.) Units 16-21
16 Look at the pictures and complete the sentences. Use the present perfect.

I'm looking for Julia.


More coffee?

Yes, she was here a No, thanks.


few minutes ago. I _______________________________ e n o u g h y

250 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


The w eather is terrible today. It
____________________________ all day,

lomplete the sentences (1, 2, or 3 words).


M ark and Liz are m arried. T hey h a v e b een m arried for five years.
1 David has been w atching T V sin ce 5:00.
M artin is at work. H e ______________________________ at w ork since 8:30.
“Did you ju st arrive in M iam i?” “No, I’ve been h e r e ___________________ . five days.”
I’ve know n H e le n . we were in high school.
'My brother lives in Los Angeles.” “Really? H ow long . there?”
George has had the same jo b . . 20 years.
Some friends o f ours are staying w ith us. T hey . here since Monday.

1 Complete the sentences. Write about yourself.


-. I’ve never ridden a horse.
1. I’ve b een to M o n tr e a l m any times.
3. I’ve ju s t___________________________________
-. I’v e ________________________________________
(once / tw ice / a few tim es / m any times)
I haven’t _______________________________ . yet.
I’ve n e v e r.
I’v e _____ . since .
I’v e _____ . f o r __

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 251


Present perfect (/ have done, etc.) and
simple past (I did, etc.)
19 Present perfect or simple past? Complete the sentences (positive or negative).
1. A: Do you like London?
B: I don’t know. I h a v e n 't b ee n there.
2. A: Have you seen Kate?
B: Yes, I s a w her five m inutes ago.
3. A: T h a t’s a nice sweater. Is it new?
B: Yes, I ______________________________ it last week.
4. A: Are you tired this m orning?
B: Yes, I ______________________________ to bed late last night.
5. A: Is the new French movie good?
B: Yes, really good. I . it three times.
6. A: Do you like your new job?
B: I _____________________________ . My first day is next Monday.
7. A: T he w eather isn’t very nice today, is it?
B: No, but i t nice yesterday.
8. A: W as Helen at the party on Saturday?
B: I don’t th in k so. I ______________________________ her there.
9. A: Is your son still in school?
B: No, h e ______________________________ college tw o years ago.
10. A: Is Silvia m arried?
B: Yes, s h e ______________________________ m arried for five years.
11. A: Have you heard of George W ashington?
B: O f course. H e ______________________________the first president of the U nited States.
12. A: H ow long does it take to m ake a pizza?
B: I don’t know. I a pizza.

20 Write sentences with the present perfect or simple past.


1. A:
B:
2. A:
B:
3. A:
B: (live / there / since last Mav
4. A:
B: _______ (she / leave / at 4:00)
5. A:
B: ? (how m any tim es / you / there?
6. A:
B: (I / tired / all day
7. A:
B: (it / on the table / last night
8. A:
B: _ (I / eat / there a few times
9. A:
B: ? (what tim e / they / get / here? ^

252 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


:e n t perfect or simple past? Complete the sentences.

.4: H ave y o u b ee n to France?


B: Yes, m any times.
.4; W h e n __________________ the last time?
B: Two years ago.

.4: Is this your car?


B: Yes, it is. Is this your car?
A: H ow lo n g _____ _ it?
B: It’s new. I _____ . it yesterday.

A: W here do you live?


B: O n Maple Street.
A: H ow lo n g . there?
B: Five years. Before t h a t .
on Mill Road.
A: H ow lo n g . . on
Mill Road?
B: A bout three years.

4. A: W hat do you do?


B: I w ork in a store.
A: H ow long there?
B: N early two years.
A: W hat before that?
B: I a taxi driver.

.Vrite sentences about yourself.


(yesterday m orning) / w a s la te fo r w o rk y e s te r d a y morning.
1. (last night) _________________________________________
3. (yesterday afternoon) ________________________________________
(.. . days ago)________ _________________________________________
5. (last week) ________________________________________ _
6. (last year) _________________________________________

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 253


Present, past, and present perfect Units 3-21
23 Which is right?
1. “ /s Sue_ w ork[ng?_ (O ” “N o, she’s on vacation.”
A Does Sue work? B Is working Sue? C Is Sue working? D Does work Sue?
2. “W h e r e ?” “In Dallas.”
A lives your uncle B does your uncle live C your uncle lives D does live your uncle
3. I speak Italian, b u t ______________________________ French.
A I no speak B I’m not speaking C I doesn’t speak D I don’t speak
4. “W h e re’s Tom ?” “______________________________ a shower at the m om ent.”
A H e’s taking B He take C He takes D He has taken
5. W h y ______________________________angry w ith me yesterday?
A were you B was you C you were D have you been
6. My favorite movie is Cleo’s Dream.____________________________ it four times.
A I’m seeing B I see C I was seeing D I’ve seen
7. I ______________________________ out last night. I was too tired.
A don’t go B didn’t went C didn’t go D haven’t gone
8. Liz is from Chicago. S h e _______________________________ there all her life.
A is living B has lived C lives D lived
9. My frie n d ______________________________ for me w hen I arrived.
A waited B has waited C was waiting D has been waiting
10. “H ow lo n g ________________________ English?” “Six m onths.”
A do you learn B are you learning C you are learning D have you been learning
11. Joel is C anadian, but he lives in Peru. He has been th e r e __________________ .
A for three years B since three years C three years agoD during three years
12. “W h a t t i m e _______________________ ?” “A bout an hour ago.”
A has Lisa called B Lisa has called C did Lisa call D is Lisa calling
13. W h a t ________________________________ w hen you saw her?
A did Sue wear B was Sue wearing C has Sue worn D was wearing Sue
14. “C an you drive?” “N o ,______________________________ a car, but I w ant to learn.”
A I never drive B I’m never driving C I’ve never driven D I was never driving
15. I saw H elen at the station w hen I was going to w ork this m orning, but she
______________________________ me.
A didn’t see B don’t see C hasn’t seen D didn’t saw

254 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


: assive Units 22-23, Appendix 1
^plete the sentences.
now

Taese houses w e r e b u ilt (build) 20 years This bridge . (build) in 1955.


10. Before th at there was a movie theater N ow i t ____ (use) by
:rre, but the b u ild in g _____________________ hundreds o f people every day. T he bridge
carnage) in a fire and had to (paint) now.
______________________________ (tear down).
now in the past

HNKiilH

iiBARBERl

This s tre e t____________ (call) K ennedy This is a bicycle factory. B icycles__________


5:reet. It used t o _______ _________ (call) i _______________(make) here since 1961. It’s
Hill Street, but the nam e [ the largest bicycle factory in the country.
change) a few years ago. j Thousands o f bicycles____________________
_________________(produce) here every year.

Complete the sentences.


We w e r e in v ite d (invite) to the party, but we didn’t go.
The m useum is very popular. Every year i t ___________________(visit) by thousands of people.
M any b u ild in g s_______________________________(damage) in the storm last week.
A new road is going t o (build) next year.
“W h ere’s your jacket?” “I t ___________________________ (clean). It w ill be ready tom orrow .”
She’s famous now, but in a few years her nam e w i l l _______________________________(forget).
“Are you happy w ith your w ashing m achine?” “N o t really. I t __________________________
_________________________________________(repair) three tim es since we bought it.”
M ilk s h o u ld ______________________________ (keep) in a fridge.
__________________________________________(you / ever / bite) by a snake?
My b a g _____________________________ (steal) from my car yesterday afternoon.

Nrite a new sentence with the same meaning.


I. Somebody has stolen my keys. M y k e y s h a v e b een stolen.____________
I. Somebody stole my car last week. My c a r ________________________________
3. Somebody wants you on the phone. Y o u ___
4. Somebody has eaten all the bananas. All t h e ________________________________
5. Somebody w ill repair the m achine. T h e ___________________________________
6. Somebody is w atching us. W e ____________________________________
7. Somebody has to do the housework. T h e ___________________________________

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 255


27 Active or passive? Complete the sentences.
1. T hey o re building (build) a new airport now.
.
2 These shirts are clean now. They h a v e b een w a s h e d OR w e r e w a s h e d (wash).
3. “H ow did you fall?” “S om ebody__________________ (push) m e.”
4. “H ow did you fall?” “I ___________________________ (push).”
5. I can’t find my bag. Somebody . (take) it!
6. My w atch is broken. I t _______ (repair) at the m om ent.
7. W h o _______________________ (invent) the camera?
8. W hen. _ (the camera / invent)?
9. These shirts are clean now. T hey . (wash).
10. These shirts are clean now. I ____ (wash) them .
11. T he letter was for me, so w h y ___ (they / send) it to you?
12. T he inform ation w i l l __________ (send) to you as soon as possible.

Future Units 26-29


28 Which is the best alternative?
1. W e 're having ( 3 ) a party next Sunday. I hope you can come.
A W e have B W e’re having C W e’ll have
2. Do you know about K a ren ? _______________________ her job. She told me last week.
A She quits B She’s going to quit C She’ll quit
3. T h ere’s a program on T V that I w ant to w a tc h .______________________ in five m inutes.
A It starts B It’s starting C It will start
4. T he w eather is nice now, but I t h i n k _______________________ later.
A it rains B it’s raining C it will rain
5. “W h a t next w eekend?” “N othing. I have no plans.”
A do you do B are you doing C will you do
6. “W h en you see Tina, can you ask her to call m e?” “O K ,_______________________ her.”
A I ask B I’m going to ask C I’ll ask
7. “W h a t w ould you like to drink, tea or coffee?” “______________________ tea, please.”
A I have B I’m going to have C I’ll have
8. D o n ’t take that new spaper aw ay.______________________it.
A I read B I’m going to read C I’ll read
9. Rachel is sick, s o to the party tom orrow night.
A she doesn’t come B she isn’t coming C she won’t come
10. I w ant to m eet Sarah at the station. W h a t t i m e ______________________ ?
A does her train arrive B is her train going to arrive C is her train arriving
11. “W ill you be at hom e tom orrow night?” “N o ______________________ .”
A I go out B I’m going out C I’ll go out
12. “_______________________ you tom orrow ?” “Yes, fine.”
A Do I call B Am I going to call C Shall I call

256 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


ast, present, and future Units 3-21, 26-29
: mplete the sentences.
1L -4; D id y o u g o (you / go) out last night?
B: N o,_ (I / stay) home,
.4: W h a t. (you / do)?
B: ______ (I / watch) TV.
A: ____________ (you / go) out tom orrow night?
B: Y es,________ (I / go) to the movies.
*4: W h at movie . (you / see)?
B: ____________ (I / not / k n o w ).. (I / not / decide) yet.

A: Are you visiting here? Are you


visiting here?
B: Yes, we are.
A: H ow lo n g ___________ (you / be) here?
B: __________________________ (we / arrive) yesterday.
A: And how lo n g ____________ __________(you / stay)?
B: U ntil the end o f next week.
A: A n d _____________________ (you / like) it here?
B: Yes, (we / have) a w onderful tim e.

A: O h , ____________________________ (I / j u s t / rem em ber) - .


(Karen / call) w hile you were out.
B: (she / always / call) w hen I’m not here.
(she / leave) a message?
A: No, b u t . (she / want) you to call her back as soon as possible.
B: O K , ___ (I / call) her now.
(you / know) her num ber?
A: It’s in my address b o o k .____ _______________________(I / get) it for you.

A: ______________________________ (I / go) out w ith C hris and Steve tonight.


______________________________ (you / want) to come w ith us?
B: Yes, w h e re _______________________________(you / g°)?
A: To the Italian restaurant on N o rth A venue.__________________________ (you / ever / eat)
there?
B: Y es,______________________ (I / be) there tw o or three times. In fact I
(go) there last night, but I’d love to go again!

5. A: (I / lose) my glasses again,


(you / see) them?
B: (you / wear) them
w hen. (I / come) in.
A: W ell,. (I / not / wear)
them now, so w here are they?
B: ____ (you / look) in the kitchen?
A: No, . (I / go) and look now.

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 257


Past, present, and future Units 3-23, 26-29, 53, 55, 99, 106
30 Rachel is talking about her best friend, Carolyn. Put the verbs in the correct form.
S \

Carolyn is my best friend. I remem ber very well the first time
( l ) ______________________ (we / meet). It was our first day at high
school, and (2) (we / sit) next to each other in
the first class. (3)_______________________ (we / not / know) any other
students in our class, and so (4)______________________ (we / become)
friends. W e found that (5). . (we / like) the
same things, especially music and sports, and so
(6) _______________________ (we / spend) a lot of time together.
(7 ) -----------------------------------(w e / finish) school five years ago, but
(8) _______________________ (we / meet) as often as we can. For the last
six months Carolyn (9)_______________________ (be) in Mexico - right
now (10)___ . (she / work) in a school as a teaching
assistant. (11). (she / come) back to the States
next m onth, and when (12). . (she / come) back,
(13)------------------------------- . (we / have) lots of things to talk about,
Rachel N ------------------------- (it / be) really nice to see her again.

31 Nick and his friend Jon are from London. They are traveling around the world. Read the
e-mails between Nick and his parents, and put the verbs in the correct form.

9 0 8 . . . . . . . r ~ '

Dear M om and Dad,

W e’re in Los Angeles, the first stop on our round-the-world


trip! (l) t/l/fe a r r iv e d (we / arrive) here yesterday, and now
; (2 )--------------------------------------(we / stay) at a hotel near the
airport. The flight was twelve hours, but
Nick
(3) _________________________ (we / enjoy) it.
(4) _________________________ (we / watch) some movies and
» San Francisco
(5) _________________________ (sleep) for a few hours, which is
unusual for me - usually (6)_________________________
(I / not / sleep) well on planes. USA

Today is a rest day for us and (7 )_________________________


Los Angeles
(we / not / do) anything special, but tomorrow
Pacific
(8) (we / go) to Hollywood Ocean i San Diego
(9) (see) the movie studios.
(10) _________________________ (we / not / decide) yet what MEXICO
to do after Los Angeles. Jon (11)_________________________
(want) to drive up the coast to San Francisco, but I’d prefer
(12)_________________________ (go) south to San Diego.

I hope all is well with you - (13)_______________________


(I / send) you another e-mail next week.
Love,
Nick

258 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


9 ^ 0
Dear Nick,

Thanks for your e-mail. It’s good to hear that (14)___________________________


you / have) a good time. W e’re fine - Ellie and Jo (15)___________________________
study) hard for their exams next month. Dad has been busy at work, and last week
(16)____________________________ (he / have) a lot of im portant meetings. H e’s a little
nred - I think (17)____________________________ (he / need) a good rest.

S Keep in touch!
Love,
Mom

* month later . . .
9 ^ 0 ______________ I 1

Hi M om and Dad,

18)-------------------------- (we / be) in California for a m onth now.


19)-------------------------- (we / get) back to Los Angeles yesterday after
(20)-------------------------- . (see) many wonderful places. I think the place
(21)_------------------------ . (I / like) most was Yosemite National Park - it’s
beautiful there and (22). . (we / go) cycling a lot. The day
before (23)___________ ______ (we / leave), Jon
(24) -------------------------- . (have) an accident on his bike. Luckily
(25) _________________ . (he / not / injure), but the bike
(26) -------------------------- . (damage).

(27) -------------- . (we / change) our travel plans since my last


message: now (28). _____________ (we / leave) for Hawaii on Monday
not Tuesday). (29). (we / stay) there for a week before
(30) ____________ . (fly) to N ew Zealand.
(31) _____________ . (that / be) different, I’m sure!
All the best to Ellie and Jo for their exams.
Love,
Nick

9 0 © ~ >
r
Hi Nick,

Have a good time in Hawaii! Ellie and Jo (32) (finish)


rheir exams yesterday - (33) (I / let) you know when
(34) (we / get) the results.

We’re all OK. Dad and I (35) (look) forward to our


vacation next month. (36) (we / go) to Italy for two
weeks - (37) (we / send) you an e-mail from there.

Take care!
Love,
Mom

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 259


-ingandto . . . Units 52-56, 106, 113
32 Which is correct?
1. D on’t forget to turn (D) off the light before you go out.
A tu rn B to tu rn C turning
2. It’s late. I s h o u ld ______________________________ now.
A go B to go C going
3. I’m sorry, but I don’t have t i m e __________________________ to you now.
A for talking B to talk C talking
4. G ary is always in the kitchen. H e enjoys__
A cook B to cook C cooking
5. W e’ve d e c id e d __________________________ away for a few days.
A go B to go C going
6. You’re m aking too m uch noise. C an you please stop .
A shout B to shout C shouting
7. W ould you li k e ______________________________ to dinner on Sunday?
A come B to come C coming
8. T h at bag is too heavy for you. Let m e _________ . you.
A help B to help C helping
9. T h ere’s a sw im m ing pool near my house. I g o __ every day.
A to swim B to swimming C swimming
10. D id you use a d ic tio n a ry _____________________ . the letter?
A to translate B for translating C for translate
11. I’d lo v e _________________________ _ a car like yours.
A have B to have C having
12. C ould you me w ith this bag, please?
A help B to help C helping
13. I don’t m in d _____________________ _ here, but I’d prefer to sit by the window.
A sit B to sit C sitting
14. Do you w ant _ . you?
A that I help B me to help C me helping
15. I usually read the new spaper b e fo re ________________ . work.
A start B to start C starting
16. I w asn’t feeling very well, but the m edicine m ade me . better.
A feel B to feel C feeling
17. Shall I call the re sta u ra n t__________________________ a table?
A for reserve B for reserving C to reserve
18. Tom looked at me w ith o u t________________________ anything.
A say B saying C to say

260 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


3 and the Units 66, 70-74
lomplete the sentences.

1- ( Can you pass^ the sugar . please?^)

ADDITIONAL EXERCISES 261


34 Write a/an or the if necessary. If a/an/the are not necessary, leave an empty space (-).
1. W h o is th e best player on your team?
2. I don’t watch - T V very often.
3. “Is there a bank near here?” “Yes, at the end o f this block.”
4. I can’t r i d e ________ horse.
5. ________ sky is very clear tonight.
6. Do you live here, or are y o u _______ tourist?
7. W h a t did you have f o r ________ lunch?
8. W ho w a s first president o f ________ U nited States?
9. “W h a t tim e is it?” “I don’t know. I don’t h a v e _______ w atch.”
10. I’m sorry, but I’ve forgotten your name. I can never re m e m b e r________ names.
11. W h at tim e i s ________ next train to Boston?
12. Kate never sen d s________ e-mails. She prefers to call people.
13. “W h e re’s Sue?” “She’s i n ________ backyard.”
14. Excuse me, I’m looking f o r _______ M ajestic H otel. Is it near here?
15. Gary was s ic k ________ last week, so he didn’t go t o _______ work.
16. Everest i s ________ highest m ountain i n ________ world.
17. I usually listen t o ________ radio w hile I’m h a v in g ________ breakfast.
18. I l i k e _______ sports. My favorite sport i s ________ basketball.
19. Julia i s _______ doctor. H er husband i s ________ art teacher.
20. My apartm ent is o n ________ second floor. T urn left a t ________top o f stairs, and it’s
o n ________ right.
21. A fte r_______ dinner, we w a tc h e d _________TV.
22. I’ve been t o ________ no rth ern M exico but not t o ________ south.

Prepositions Units 104-109, 112


35 Write a preposition {in/for/by, etc.).
1. Helen is studying m ath in college.
2. W h at is the longest riv e r _______ Europe?
3. Is there a n y th in g T V tonight?
4. W e a rriv e d ________ the hotel after m idnight.
5. “W h e re’s M ike?” “H e’s _______ vacation.”
6. Tom hasn’t gotten up yet.H e’s s till________ bed.
7. Lisa is away. She’s been aw ay ________ Monday.
8. T he next m eeting i s April 15.
9. W e traveled across C a n a d a _______ train.
10. T h ere’s too m uch su g a r________ my coffee.
11. Kevin lived in Las V egas_______ six m onths. He didn’t like it very much.
12. W ere there a lot of p e o p le _______ the party?
13. I don’t know any o f the p e o p le ________ this photo.
14. T he train was very slow. It sto p p e d ____ every station.
15. I like this room . I like the p ic tu re s _______ the walls.
16. “Did you paint that picture?” “No, it was given to m e _______ a friend of m ine.”
17. I’m going aw ay _______ a few days. I’ll be b a c k ________ Thursday.
18. Silvia has g o n e Italy. She’s ________ M ilan right now.
19. Em m a quit sch o o l____ sixteen and got a j o b ________ a bookstore.

262 ADDITIONAL EXERCISES


Study Guide
> guide will help you decide which units you need to study.
.. ;;i sentence can be com pleted using one or m ore o f the alternatives (A, B, C, etc.). You
re to decide which alternative (A, B, C, etc.) is right. SO M ETIM ES M O R E T H A N O N E
_TERNATIVE IS C O RRECT.
rou don’t know or if you are not sure which alternatives are correct, study the unit(s) in the
* on the right. You will find the correct sentence in the unit.
ere is an A nsw er Key to this Study G uide on page 306.

F YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

: resent
1.1 . Can you close the window, please?
A I cold B I’m cold C I have cold D It has cold
1.2 T o m . . in politics.
A isn’t interested B not interested C doesn’t interested
D doesn’t interest
1.3 __________________ ?” “No, she’s out.”
A Is at home your m other B Does your m other at home
C Is your m other at home D Are your m other at home
1.4 These postcards are n ice.____________________
A How m uch are they? B How many are they?
C How m uch they are? D How much is they?
1.5 Look, there’s Sarah.________ ___________ a brown coat.
A She wearing B She has wearing C She is wearing
D She’s wearing
1.6 You can tu rn off the television.____________________ it.
A I’m not watch B I’m not watching C I not watchi
D I don’t watching
1.7 “____________________today?” “Yes, he is.”
A Is working Paul B Is work Paul C Is Paul work
D Is Paul working
1.8 Look, there’s Em ily!____________________
A W here she is going? B W here she go? C W here’s she going?
D W here she going?
1.9 The e a rth ___________ _________ around the sun.
A going B go C goes D does go E is go
1.10 W e ____ ____________ late on weekends.
A often sleep B sleep often C often sleeping D are often sleep
1.11 W e ____________________television very often.
A not watch B doesn’t watch C don’t watch D don’t watching
E watch not

STUDY GUIDE 263


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

1.12 on Sundays?” “No, not usually.” 7, 24


A Do you work B Are you work C Does you work
D Do you working E W ork you
1.13 I don’t understand this sentence. W h a t________ 7, 24
A mean this word B means this word C does mean this word
D does this word mean E this word means
1.14 Please be qu iet.____________________ 8, 24
A I working. I work. C I’m working. D I’m work.
1.15 T o m _______ a shower every morning. 8
A takes B taking C is taking D take
1.16 W h a t. on weekends? 7, 8, 2
A do you usually B are you usually doing C are you usually do
D do you usually do E you do usually
1.17 Sarah isn’t feeling w ell.________
__________________ a headache. 9, 59
A She have B She have got C She has D She’s got
1.18 Mr. and Mrs. H a rris__________ ______ any children. 9, 59
A don’t have B doesn’t have C no have D haven’t got
E hasn’t got

Past
2.1 The weather. ____________________ last week. 10
A is nice B was nice C were nice D nice E had nice
2.2 W h y ______ late this morning? 10
A you was B did you C was you D you were were you
2.3 T e rry _____ in a bank from 2001 to 2008. 11
A work B working C works D worked E was work
2.4 C aroline________ ________ to the movies three times last week. 11
A go B went C goes D got E was
2.5 I _______________ television yesterday. 12, 24
A didn’t watch B didn’t watched C wasn’t watched
D don’t watch E didn’t watching
2.6 “H ow . _________ ?” “I don’t know. I didn’t see it.” 12
A happened the accident B did happen the accident
C does the accident happen D did the accident happen
E the accident happened
2.7 W h a t____________________ at 11:30 yesterday? 13
A were you doing B was you doing C you were doing
D were you do E you was doing

264 STUDY GUIDE


= YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

2.8 Jack was reading a book when the p h o n e ___________ 14


A ringing B ring C rang D was ringing E was ring
2.9 I saw Lucy and Steve this morning. T h e y ___________ at the bus stop. 14
A waiting B waited C were waiting D was waiting
E were waited
2.10 D av e. ________ in a factory. Now he works in a supermarket. 15
A working B works C work D use to work
E used to work

esent perfect
3.1 “W here’s Rebecca?” “___________ _______to bed.” 19
A She is gone B She has gone C She goes D She have gone
E She’s gone
3.2 “Are Diane and Paul here?” “No, th e y ________ 20
A don’t arrive yet B have already arrived C haven’t already arrived
D haven’t arrived yet
3.3 My sister____________________ by plane. 16, 24
A has never travel B has never traveled C is never traveled
D has never been traveled E have never traveled
3.4 ____________________ that wom an before, but I can’t remember where. 16, 24
A I see B I seen C I’ve saw D I’ve seen E I’ve seeing
3.5 “How lo n g ____________________ married?” “Since 1998.” 17
A you are B you have been C has you been D are you
E have you been
3.6 “Do you know Lisa?” “Yes, _________________ her for a long time.” 17
A I knew B I’ve known C I know D I am knowing
3.7 Richard has been in Canada _ 18, 105
A for six months B since six months C six months ago
D in six months
3.8 “W hen did Tom leave?” 18
A For ten minutes B Since ten minutes C Ten minutes ago
D In ten minutes
_________________ a vacation last year.
3.9 W e _____________ 21
A don’t take B haven’t taken C hasn’t taken D didn’t take
E didn’t took
3.10 W here _________________ on Sunday afternoon? I couldn’t find you. 21
A you were B you have been C was you D have you been
E were you

STUDY GUIDE 265


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

Passive
4.1 This h ouse 100 years ago. 22, 24
A is built B is building C was building D was built E built
4.2 W e __________________ to the party last week. 22, 24
A didn’t invite B didn’t invited C weren’t invited
D wasn’t invited E haven’t been invited
4.3 “W h e re born?” “In Cairo.” 22
A you are B you were C was you D are you E were you
4.4 My car is at the garage.I t ____________________ . 23
A is being repaired B is repairing C have been repaired
D repaired E repairs
4.5 I can’t find my keys. I th in k ____________________ . 23
A they’ve been stolen B they are stolen Cthey’ve stolen
D they’re being stolen

Verb form s
5.1 I t __ , so we didn’t need an umbrella. 24
A wasn’t rained B wasn’t rain C didn’t raining D wasn’t raining
5.2 Som ebody this window. 25
A has broke B has broken C has breaked D has break

Future
6.1 A n d rew . . tennis tomorrow. 26
A is playing B play C plays D is play
6.2 ____________________ out tonight? 26
A Are you going B Are you go C Do you go D Go you
E Do you going
6.3 “W hat time is the concert tonight?” “I t ____________________ at 7:30.” 26
A is start B is starting C starts D start E starting
6.4 W h a t____________________ to the wedding next week? 27
A are you wearing B are you going to wear C do you wear
D you are going to wear
6.5 I think K elly________________ . her driver’s test. 28
A passes B will pass C will be pass D will passing
6.6 to the movies on Saturday. Do you want to come 26, 28
with us?
A W e go B W e’ll go C W e’re going D W e will going
6.7 “ you tomorrow, OK?” “OK, bye.” 29
A I call B I calling C I’m calling D I’ll call
6.8 There’s a good program on TV to night.____________________ it. 27, 29
A I watch B I’ll watch C I’m going to watch D I’ll watching
6.9 It’s a nice day.____________________ for a walk? 29
A Do we go B Shall we go C Should we go D W e go
E Go we

266 STUDY GUIDE


F YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)
lodals , im perative, etc.
7.1 to the movies tonight, but I’m not sure. 30
A I’ll go B I’m going C I may go D I might go
7.2 here?” “Sure.” 3 0 , 31
A Can I sit B Do I sit C May I sit D Can I to sit
7.3 I’m having a partv next week, but Paul and Rachel 31
A can’t come B can’t to come C can’t coming D couldn’t come
7.4 Before Maria came to the United States, she understand 31
much English.
A can B can’t C not D couldn’t E doesn’t
7.5 W e walk home last ni^ht. There were no buses. 32, 34
A have to B had to C must D must to E must have
7.6 You worked 10 hours todav. You tired. 32
A must B can C must be D can be E must to be
7.7 It’s a good movie. You ?o and see it. 33
A should to B ought to C ought D should E have
7.8 W hat time q-o
to the dentist tomorrow? 34
A you must B you have to C have you to D do you have to
7.9 W e wait very long for the bus - it came in a few minutes. 34
A don’t have to B hadn’t to C didn’t have to D didn’t had to
E m ustn’t
7.10 some coffee?” “No, thank you.” 35
A Are you liking B You like C W ould you like D Do you like
7.11 I don’t reallv want to eo out. home. 36
A I rather stay B I’d rather stay C I’d rather to stay
D I’d prefer to stay
7.12 Please . Stav here with me. 37
A don’t go B you no go C go not D you don’t go
7.13 It’s a nice dav. out. 37
A Let’s to go B Let’s go C Let’s going D W e go

There and it
8.1 Excuse me. a hotel near here? 38
A has there B is there C there is D is it
8.2 a lot of accidents on this road. It’s very dangerous. 38
A Have B It has C There have D They are E There are
8.3 I was hungrv when I e-ot home, but anvthin? to eat. 39
A there wasn’t B there weren’t C it wasn’t D there hasn’t been
8.4 two miles from our house to downtown. 40
A It’s B It has C There is D There are
8.5 true that you’re moving to Dallas? 40
A Is there B Is it C Is D Are you

STUDY GUIDE 267


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)
A uxiliary verbs
9.1 I haven’t seen the movie, but my sister.
A does B is C has seen D has E hasn’t
9.2 I don’t like hot weather, but S u e______________
A does B doesn’t C do D does like likes
9.3 “Nicole got m arried last week.” “____________ _ ? Really?’5
A Got she B She got C She did D She has
9.4 You haven’t m et my m other,_______________
A haven’t you B have you C did you D you have
E you haven’t
9.5 Bill doesn’t watch TV. He doesn’t read newspapers,
A too B either C neither D never
9.6 “I’d like to go to Australia.” “_________________
A So do I B So am I C So would I D Neither do I
E So I would
9.7 S u e____________________much on weekends.
A don’t B doesn’t C don’t do D doesn’t do

Q uestions
10.1 “W h e n ___________________ ?” “I’m not sure. More than 100 years ago.”
A did the telephone invent B has the telephone invented
C was invented the telephone D was the telephone invented
E the telephone was invented
10.2 “I broke my finger last week.” “H o w ____________________ that?”
A did you B you did C you did do D did you do
10.3 W h y ____________________ me last night? I was waiting for you to call.
A didn’t you call B you not call C you don’t call D you didn’t call
10.4 “W ho _ _ in this house?” “I don’t know.”
A lives B does live C does lives D living
10.5 W h a t_____ _ when you told him the story?
A said Paul B did Paul say C Paul said D did Paul said
10.6 “Tom’s father is in the hospital.” “____________________”
A In which hospital he is? B In which hospital he is in?
C W hich hospital he is in? D W hich hospital is he in?
10.7 Did you have a good vacation?____________________
A How was the weather like? B W hat was the weather like?
C W hat the weather was like? D Was the weather like?
10.8 ____________________ taller - Joe or Gary?
A W ho is B W hat is C W hich is D W ho has
10.9 There are four umbrellas h ere.____________________ is yours? 48, 76
A W hat B W ho C W hich D How E W hich one

268 STUDY GUIDE


F YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

10.10 How lo n g ___________________ to cross the Atlantic by ship?


A is it B does it need C does it take D does it want
10.11 I don’t remember w h a t. __________________ at the party.
A Jenny was wearing B was wearing Jenny C was Jenny wearing
10.12 “Do you k n o w _______
________________ ?” “Yes, I think so.”
A if Jack is at home B isja c k a th o m e C whether Jack is at home
D that Jack is at home

sorted speech
l l .l i saw Steve a week ago. He said th a t. . me, but he didn’t.
A he call B he calls C he’ll call D he’s going to call
E he would call
11.2 “W hy did T im go to bed so early?” “H e ____________________ .”
A said he was tired B said that he was tired C said me he was tired
D told me he was tired E told that he was tired

-g and to . . .
12.1 You shouldn’t . ___________________ so hard.
A working B work C to work D worked
12.2 It’s late. I ____ . now.
A must to go B have go C have to going D have to go
12.3 _______ her car.
Tina has decided_________________
A sell B to sell C selling D to selling
12.4 I don’t m in d ____________________ early.
A get up B to get up C getting up D to getting up
12.5 Do you lik e ____________________ early?
A get up B to get up C getting up D to getting up
12.6 Do you w a n t you some money?
A me lend B me lending C me to lend D that I lend
12.7 H e’s very funny. He m akes____________________ .
A me laugh B me laughing C me to laugh D that I laugh
12.8 Paula went to the store____________________ some fruit.
A for get B for to get C for getting D to get E get

So, get, do, make, and have


13.1 The water looks nice. I’m going
A for a swim B on a swim C to swimming D swimming
13.2 I’m sorry your m other is sick. I hope sh e _______________ better soon.
A has B makes C gets D goes
13.3 K a te ________ the car and drove away.
A went into B went in C got in D got into
13.4 “Shall Iopen the window?” “No, it’s OK. I’l l _________ . it.”
A do B make C get D open

STUDY GUIDE 269


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

13.5 Fm sorry, I _______ . a mistake. 58


A did B made C got D had
13.6 enough time to do everything you wanted? 59
A Have you B Had you C Do you have D Did you have

Pronouns and possessives


14.1 I don’t want this book. You can h av e___ 60, 63
A it B them C her D him
14.2 Sue and Kevin are going to the movies. Do you want to go with 60, 63
?
A her B they C them D him
14.3 I know Donna, but I don’t k n o w . ________________husband. 61, 63
A their B his C she D her
14.4 Hawaii is famous f o r ____ . beaches. 61
A his B its C it’s D their
14.5 I didn’t have an umbrella, so Helen gave m e _______________ 62. 63
A her B hers C her umbrella D she’s
14.6 I went to the movies with a friend o f ____________________ . 62, 63
A mine B my C me D I E myself
14.7 W e had a good vacation. W e enjoyed____________________ . 64
A us B our C ours D ourself E ourselves
14.8 Kate and Helen are good friends. They k n o w . . well. 64
A each other B them C themselves D theirselves
14.9 Have you m e t____________________ ? 65
A the wife of Mr. Black B Mr. Black wife C the wife Mr. Black
D Mr. Black’s wife E the Mr. Black’s wife
14.10 Have you seen _________ ? 65
A the car of my parents B my parent’s car C my parents’ car
D my parents car
A and the
15.1 I’m going to b u y _______ 66, 68
A hat and umbrella B a hat and a umbrella
C a hat and an umbrella D an hat and an umbrella
15.2 “W hat do you do?” “____________________ .” 66
A I dentist B I’m a dentist C I’m dentist D I do dentist
15.3 I’m going shopping. I n e e d ____________________ . 67
A some new jeans B a new jeans C a new pair of jeans
D a new pair jeans
15.4 I like the people h ere.____________________ very friendly. 67
A She is B They are C They is D It is E He is
15.5 W e can’t get into the house w ith o u t____________________ . 68
A some key B a key C key

270 STUDY GUIDE


YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

15.6 I’d lik e ____________________about hotels in Mexico City. 69


A some information B some informations C an information
71

*O
15.7 W e enjoyed our vacation.. . was very nice.
A Hotel B A hotel C An hotel D The hotel
15.8 The table is i n __________ 71
A middle of room B middle of the room
C the middle of the room D the middle of room
15.9 W hat did you have fo r________________ 71
A the breakfast B breakfast C a breakfast
5.10 I fin ish . . at 5:00 every day. 72
A the work B work C a work
15.11 Pm tired. I’m go ing_______ 72
A in bed B in the bed C to a bed D to the bed E to bed
15.12 W e don’t eat. . very often. 73
A the meat B some meat C a meat D meat
15.13 ____________ is in N ew York. 74
A The Times Square B Times Square
15.14 My friends are staying at 74
A the Regent Hotel B Regent Hotel

I terminers and pronouns


16.1 “I’m going on vacation next week.” “O h ,. . nice. 75
A it’s B this is C that’s
16.2 “Is there a bank near here?” “Yes, there’s _ . on 76
the corner.”
A some B it C one D a one
16.3 This cup is dirty. Can I h av e_______________ 76
A clean one B a clean one C clean D a clean
16.4 I’m going shopping. I’m going to b u y _________________ . clothes. 77
A any B some
16.5 “W here’s your luggage?” “I don’t have______________ 77
A one B some C any
16.6 Tracey and J e ff____________________ . 78, 79
A have no children B don’t have no children
C don’t have any children D have any children
16.7 “How much money do you have?” “________________ 78
A No B No one CAny D None
16.8 There i s ____________________ in the room. It’s empty. 79, 80
A anybody B nobody C anyone D no one
16.9 “W hat did you say?” “____ 79, 80
A N othing B Nobody C Anything D Anybody

STUDY GUIDE 271


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

16.10 I’m hungry. I w a n t__


A something for eat B something to eat C something for eating
16.11 It rain ed ___________ _______ last week.
A all day B all days C every days D every day
16.12 ________ friends.
A Everybody need B Everybody needs C Everyone need
D Everyone needs
16.13 ____________________ children like to play.
A Most B The most C Most of D The most of
16.14 Hike ________________ those pictures.
A both B both of C either D either of
16.15 I haven’t re a d these books.
A neither B neither of C either D either of
16.16 Do you h av e____________________ friends?
A a lot of B much C many D much of E many of
16.17 W e like movies, so we go to the m ovies____________________.
A a lot of B much C many D a lot
16.18 There w e re people in the theater. It was almost empty.
A a little B few C little D a few of
16.19 They have. _______ money, so they’re not poor.
A a little B a few C few D little E little of

A djectives and adverbs


17.1 I don’t speak a n y _____
A foreign languages B languages foreign C languages foreigns
17.2 He ate his dinner v e ry ____________________ .
A quick B quicker C quickly
17.3 You speak English v e ry _________
A good B fluent C well D slow
17.4 Helen w an ts___________________
A a more big car B a car more big C a car bigger D a bigger car
17.5 “Do you feel better today?” “No, I fe el____________________ .”
A good B worse C more bad D more worse
17.6 Athens is o ld er____________________ Rome.
A as B than C that D of
17.7 I can run faster____________________.
A than him B that he can C than he can D as he can E as he
____________soccer.
17.8 Tennis isn’t ________________
A popular as B popular than C as popular than
D so popular that E as popular as

272 STUDY GUIDE


F YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

17.9 The weather today is the sam e_________ . yesterday.


A as B that C than D like
17.10 The Best W est Motel i s _______________ . m town.
A the more expensive motel B the most expensive motel
C the motel most expensive D the motel the more expensive
E the motel more expensive
17.11 The movie was very bad. I think it’s the _ . movie I’ve
ever seen.
A worse B baddest C most bad D worst E more worse
17.12 W hy don’t you buy a car? You’ve g o t____________________ .
A enough money B money enough C enough of money
17.13 Is your E nglish____________________ a conversation?
A enough good to have B good enough for have C enough good for
D good enough to have
17.14 I’m __________________ . out.
A too tired for go B too much tired for going C too tired to go
D too much tired to go

fiord order
18.1 Sue is interested in the news. She .
A reads every day a newspaper B reads a newspaper every day
C every day reads a newspaper
18.2 ____________________coffee in the morning.
A I drink always B Always I drink C I always drink
18.3 ____________________during the day.
A They are at home never B They are never at home
C They never are at home D Never they are at home
18.4 “W here’s Emma?” “S h e____________________.”
A isn’t here yet B isn’t here already C isn’t here still
18.5 I locked the door, and I gave____________________.
A Sarah the keys B to Sarah the keys C the keys Sarah
D the keys to Sarah

Conjunctions and clauses


19.1 I can’t talk to you now. I’ll talk to you later w h e n ________________
more time.
A I’ll have B I had C I have D I’m going to have
19.2 _______ late tonight, don’t wait for me.
A If I’m B If I’ll be C W hen I’m D W hen I’ll be
19.3 I don’t know the answer. If I ____________ the answer, I’d tell you.
A know B would know C have known D knew
19.4 I like that jack et._____ ___________ it if it wasn’t so expensive.
A I buy B I’ll buy C I bought D I’d bought E I’d buy

STUDY GUIDE 273


IF YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

19.5 Em m a lives in a h o u se__________ ________is 100 years old.


A who B that C which D it E what
19.6 The people____________________ work in the office are very friendly.
A who B that C they D which E what
19.7 Did you find the books____________________ ?
A who you wanted B that you wanted C what you wanted
D you wanted E you wanted it
19.8 I m e t____________________ can speak six languages.
A a wom an who B a wom an which C a woman D a wom an she

Prepositions
20.1 Bye! See y o u ____________________ .
A Friday B at Friday C in Friday D on Friday
20.2 Hurry! The train leaves____________________ five minutes.
A at B on C from D after E in
20.3 “How long will you be away?” “____________________ Monday.”
A On B To C Until D Till E Since
20.4 W e played basketball yesterday. W e played _ . two hours.
A in B for C since D during
20.5 I always have breakfast before . . to work.
A I go B go C to go D going
20.6 W rite your n a m e ____________________ the top of the page.
A at B on C in D to
20.7 There are a lot of apples____________________ those trees.
A at B on C in D to
20.8 W h at’s the largest c ity __ . the world?
A at B on C in D of
20.9 The office i s ___________ . the second floor.
A at B on C in D to
20.10 I m et a lot of people_____ . the party.
A on B to C in D at
20.11 I want to g o ____________ . Mexico next year.
A at B on C in D to
20.12 W hat time did you arrive . . the hotel?
A at B on C in D to
20.13 “W here is Don in this picture?” “Don i s __________ . Bob.”
A at front of B in the front of C in front of D in front from
20.14 I jum ped. . the wall into the garden.
A on B through C across D over E above
20.15 Jane isn’t at work this week. She’s ____________________ vacation.
A on B in C for D to E at

274 STUDY GUIDE


; YOU ARE NOT SURE WHICH ANSWER IS RIGHT, STUDY UNIT(S)

10.16 Do you like traveling____________________ ?


A with train B with the train C in train D on train
E by train
1 0.17 Fm not very g o o d ____________________ telling stories.
A on B with C at D in E for
20.18 Tom left w ith o u t____________________good-bye.
A say B saying C to say D that he said
20.19 I have to ca ll____________________ tonight.
A w ith my parents B to my parents C at my parents D my parents
10.20 “Do you like eating in restaurants?”“Sometimes.It depends
_______________ the restaurant.”
A in B at C of D on E over

Phrasal verbs
21.1 A car stopped and a woman g o t.
A off B down C out D out of
21.2 It was cold, so I ______________
A put on my coat B put my coat on C put the coat on me
D put me the coat on
21.3 I have Rachel’s keys. I have t o _____ . to her.
A give back B give them back C give back them D give it back

STUDY GUIDE 275


Answer Key to Exercises
UNIT 1________________________ 9. I’m /I am a good swimmer. 4. He’s/H e is lying
or I’m not / I am not a good 5. They’re/They are having
1.1 swimmer.
2. they’re 6. She’s/She is sitting
10. I’m / I am interested in
3. it isn’t / it’s not politics, or I’m not / I am 3.2
4. that’s not interested in politics. 2. ’s/is cooking
5. I’m not 3. ’re/are standing
6. you aren’t / you’re not UNIT 2 4. ’s/is swimming
2.1 5. ’re/are staying
1.2
2. ’m /am 6. are 2. f 6. e 6. ’s/is taking
3. is 7. is . . . are 3. h 7. b 7. ’re/are building
4. are 8. ’m /am . . . is 4. c 8. i 8. ’m /am leaving
5. ’s/is 5. a 9. d
3.3
2.2 3. She’s/She is sitting on
1.3 the floor.
2. I’m / I am 3. Is your job interesting?
4. Are the stores open today? 4. She isn’t/She’s not reading
3. He’s / He is a book.
4. they’re / they are 5. Where are you from?
Are you interested in sports? 5. She isn’t/She’s not playing
5. It’s / It is 6.
the piano.
6. You’re / You are 7. Is the post office near here?
6. She’s/She is laughing.
7. She’s / She is 8. Are your children at school?
7. She’s/She is wearing a hat.
8. Here’s / Here is 9. Why are you late?
8. She isn’t/She’s not writing
2.3 a letter.
1.4
Example answers: 2. W here’s / Where is
3.4
1. My name is Robert. 3. How old are 3. I’m sitting on a chair, or
2. I’m from Brazil. 4. How much are I’m not sitting on a chair.
3. I’m 25. 5. W hat’s / W hat is 4. I’m eating, or I’m not
4. I’m a cook. 6. W ho’s / Who is eating.
5. My favorite colors are black 7. W hat color are 5. It’s raining, or It isn’t
and white. raining. / It’s not raining.
2.4 6. I’m studying English.
6. I’m interested in plants. 2. Are you Australian?
7. I’m listening to music, or
1.5 3. How old are you? I’m not listening to nyisic.
2. They’re / They are cold. 4. Are you a teacher? 8. The sun is shining, or
3. He’s / He is hot. 5. Are you married? The sun isn’t shining.
4. He’s / He is afraid. 6. Is your wife a lawyer? 9. I’m wearing shoes, or
5. They’re / They are hungry. 7. W here’s/W here is she from? I’m not wearing shoes.
6. She’s / She is angry. 8. W hat’s/W hat is her name? 10. I’m not reading a newspap;
9. How old is she?
1.6 UNIT 4_______________________
2. It’s/ It is windy today. 2.5
or It isn’t / i t ’s not windy 2. Yes, I am. or No, I’m not. 4.1
today. 2. Are you leaving now?
3. Yes, it is. or No, it isn’t. /
3. My hands are cold, or No, it’s not. 3. Is it raining?
My hands aren’t / are 4. Yes, they are. or No, they 4. Are you enjoying the movi:
not cold. aren’t. / No, they’re not. 5. Is that clock working?
4. Brazil is a very big country. 5. Yes, it is. or No, it isn’t. / 6. Are you waiting for a bus?
5. Diamonds aren’t / are not No, it’s not.
cheap. 4.2
6. Yes, I am. or No, I’m not.
2. Where is she going?
6. Toronto isn’t / is not in the
United States. UNIT 3 3. W hat are you eating?
8. I’m /I am hungry, or I’m 4. Why are you crying?
not / I am not hungry.
3.1 5. W hat are they looking at:
2. ’s/is waiting
6. Why is he laughing?
3. ’re/are playing

276 ANSWER K EY TO EXERCISES


UNIT 6 _________ ___ 5. Does your brother speak
! 3 Are you listening to me? English? / Does he speak
6.1 English?
- Where are your friends 2. Jane doesn’t play the piano
going? 6. Do you do yoga every
very well.
Are your parents watching morning?
3. They don’t know my phone
Television? 7. Does Paul often travel on
number.
il What is Jessica cooking? business? / Does he often
4. We don’t work very hard. travel on business?
Why are you looking at me? 5. Mike doesn’t have a car. 8. Do you want to be famous?
& Is the bus coming? 6. You don’t do the same thing 9. Does Anna work hard? /
•4 every day. Does she work hard?
. Yes, Iam. or No, I’m not. 6.2 7.2
I. Yes, Iam. or No, I’m not. 1. Carol doesn’t like classical 3. How often do you watch TV?
- Yes, it is. or No, it isn’t. / music.
4. W hat do you want for dinner?
No, it’s not. I like (or I don’t like) classical
music. 5. Do you like football?
Yes, I am. or No, I’m not.
2. Bill and Rose don’t like 6. Does your brother like
il Yes, I am.