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Dhieyatul Husna Ismail,
Ratnasamy Muniandy,
Salihudin Hassim
Graduate Student1, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), MALAYSIA

Professor2, University Putra Malaysia (UPM), MALAYSIA

Associate Professor3 , University Putra Malaysia (UPM), MALAYSIA


There are an abundance of wastes from the ceramic industries which are usually disposed in
landfills without any intention of recycle. The use of crushed ceramic waste in road construction
is an attractive option to increase usage of industrial waste and enhance the properties of asphalt
mixtures. In this study, the crushed ceramic waste aggregate was utilized and incorporated into
asphalt mixtures to investigate their performance and the potential future usage. A laboratory
investigation was carried out to determine the properties of ceramic waste aggregates. For the
asphalt mixture, only sizes of 5.0 mm down to filler size of crushed ceramic waste were collected
and added to asphalt mixture to replace the fine aggregates. The replacement was done
proportionally by 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100 percent by weight of fine aggregates. The
conventional coarse aggregates and combined fine aggregates were used to make Marshall
Specimens. The volumetric properties of mixtures were determined. The results showed the
incorporating of ceramic waste aggregates into asphalt mixtures is very effective in improving
the Marshall Stability and Resilient Modulus values. Sample containing 100 percent ceramic
waste in the proportion has the highest Resilient Modulus value which is 13.5% higher than
reference mixture. Based on this performance test, it was also found that the optimum asphalt
content increased by increasing of ceramic proportion. This could be due to the fact that porous
nature of ceramic and lower density of ceramic material which contributed higher volume to get
the required weight of sample.
Key words: Ceramic waste aggregate, fine aggregate replacement, Marshall stability, resilient
modulus, hot mix asphalt.


Ceramic tile factory in Malaysia is facing serious problems of dumping and management of
wastes ceramic tile. The rejected tiles of various types and sizes go to waste with no intention to
recycle in any form. Approximately 10% of total production per year has gone to waste. The
crushing process which cost million ringgit per ton is a real challenge to the industry to dispose
this waste properly. After all, dumping constitute significant visual impact and environmental
degradation. The use of ceramic tile waste in construction not only reduces the amount of
dumping waste but can earn monetary saving from the disposal process. The costly crushing
process is a real challenge to the ceramic tile industry to dispose the waste properly but through
the idea of utilization ceramic tile in construction, it directly can solve their problem.
A review of earlier research showed that ceramic waste has been used in construction
specifically in alternate of aggregate and filler. A study has been done by Huang et al. (2009) on
the effect of ceramic waste material from automotive manufacturing used as filler incorporated
in Portland cement and Asphaltic concrete. The ground ceramic waste has been substituted the
natural sand in concrete specimen and also incorporated as mastic in asphalt binder. Slump test
and compressive test have been done for concrete specimens and dynamic shear rheometer
(DSR) test has been done for asphalt binders and Dynamic modulus, flow number and indirect
tensile test have been done for HMA mixtures. The results showed an improvement to slump test
as well as compressive test for concrete. It also showed an improvement in rutting resistance and
permanent deformation for asphalt and HMA mixture.
Ratnasamy et. al. (2009) also carried out many studies on the use of ceramic tile waste as a filler
for asphalt mixture. The study started with the initial investigation on feasibility of utilizing
ceramic waste in asphalt binder which focuses into the physical and chemical analysis as well the
composition of the material. The results had been check with the standard specification. Then,
the study was continued to explore the effect of ceramic tile waste as a filler to asphalt binder in
permanent deformation, indirect tensile test, moisture induced damage, dynamic modulus test
and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) test. All the tests carried out showed an improvement in
rutting, fatigue and permanent deformation. However, ceramic glaze usually exists on the surface
of ceramic waste materials especially on ceramic tile and sanitary ware industry (Medina, 2012).
This glaze prevents interfacial adhesion and bonding between asphalt and ceramic waste
aggregates in the mixture.
The study on ceramic waste incorporated in concrete and asphalt mixture were not stopped to
that. Studies on ceramic material are a kind of inorganic, nonmetallic materials produced by the
action of heat and subsequent cooling. Ceramic also had a thermal resistance and insulator
properties which can stand higher temperature with low thermal conductivity. Due to that, a
study has been done by Feng (2013) to evaluate the thermal performance when incorporated
ceramic waste in wearing layer of asphalt pavement. It showed that substitution of ceramic waste
aggregate can reduce thermal conductivities of asphalt mixtures and reducing the temperature
gradient of pavement.
There are many studies have been done by replacing or substituting sand with ceramic waste in
concrete and developed a ceramic waste as filler or modifier for asphalt binder in pavement

mixes. Due to limited study on the use of ceramic waste as aggregates either fully replaced or
partially replaced, and its effect on properties and mechanical performance, it will be covered in
this paper. This paper presents the study on effect of ceramic waste aggregate on properties of
asphalt mixture.


To satisfy the objective of study, the HMA specimens were prepared to determine the optimum
asphalt content (OAC). Granite aggregate, crushed ceramic waste, asphalt with 80/100
penetration, one gradation and six types of proportion were used in preparing HMA specimens.
Each HMA mixture was evaluated for resilient modulus. The resilient modulus test carried out
accordance with ASTM D 4123.


Granite is widely used as aggregates in pavement construction in Malaysia.


According to a survey carried out in 2012, a tile factory in Malaysia had produced 5% ceramic
wastes and dumped without recycling to any form. In building construction, ceramic waste is
produced on the transportation to the building site, on the execution of several construction
elements (facades and partition walls, roofs and precast joist slabs) and on subsequent works,
such as opening of grooves. The waste is regionally deposited in dumping grounds, without any
separation or reuse.
For this study, the ceramic wastes were obtained from Ceramic tile manufacturing company,
Kawasan Perindustrian Selayang, Batu Caves, Selangor. Waste ceramics collected from tile
manufacturing factory. The ceramic was crushed by using portable crushing machine available in
Universiti Putra Malaysia. The process of crushing is showed in Figure 1. The nominal
maximum size obtained through the tiles crushing process is 6 mm. Due to that, only 5 mm and
down to filler size of ceramic waste aggregate is used in this study to substitute the granite
aggregates. The replacement of granite to ceramic waste was done by proportionally 0, 20, 40,
60, 80 and 100 percent by weight.

Raw ceramic waste Crushing using Portable
from factory Crushing Machine

Figure 1. The process of raw ceramic waste crushing into small sizes


The method of Optimum Asphalt Content (OAC) determination based on the Marshall Method
of mix design is available in another literature. The mixtures were designed in accordance to the
design procedures outlined by ASTM D 1559. The HMA mixtures were prepared at established
mixing and compacting temperatures using Marshall Mix Design procedure to sustain heavy
traffic using 50 blows per side. The Marshall samples were tested by employing the following
standard procedures: Bulk specific density (ASTM D2726), stability and flow test (ASTM
D6927) and maximum theoretical specific gravity (ASTM D2041). The theoretical maximum
density was determined through the rice method test. For this purpose, a loose (not compacted)
asphalt mixture samples were prepared at every each asphalt content.

2.3.1 Samples preparation

Asphalt mixtures with different percentages of ceramic waste substituted for granite aggregates
were prepared. Only 5 mm to filler size ceramic waste scraps were collected and added to asphalt
mixtures to partially replace fine aggregates. The substitution values include 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and
100% weight of aggregates. A total of six mix designs were made with the same blend of coarse
aggregates but varied in the weight of fine aggregates. Table 1 below shows the replacement of
aggregate by percentage of weight. Samples made with granite became the control sample which
was named as GC, and the samples named by 20 C to 100 C indicate the percentage of ceramic
waste aggregate substituted in the sample. In this study triplicate specimens were prepared to
evaluate the performance of substitution and replacement of ceramic on the stiffness and stability
of HMA mixtures.

Table 1. Replacement of ceramic waste aggregate
Sieve Granite
size control 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C
(mm) (GC)

10.00 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 % 100 %

20 % 40 % 60 % 40 %
100% Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic Ceramic 100 %
Fine Aggregate

1.18 Granite waste waste waste waste Ceramic

0.425 waste
80% 60% 40% 20%
0.150 Granite Granite Granite Granite
*% of aggregate weight

1.3.2 Resilient Modulus Test

An important input for the computation of flexible pavement responses under traffic loading is
the resilient modulus of HMA (5). The Indirect Tensile Stiffness Modulus (ITSM) test is defined
by BS DD 213 is nondestructive test. It has been identified as a potential means of measuring the
stiffness modulus and effects of temperatures and load rate. Under uniaxial loading the stiffness
modulus is generally defined as the ratio between the maximum stress and maximum strain
(ASTM D 4123 and BS DD 213). The ITSM (Sm) in Mega Pascal (MPa) is calculated by the
following equation:

Where L is the peak value of the applied vertical load (N). D is the mean amplitude of the
horizontal deformation obtained from 5 applications of the load pulse (mm). t is the mean
thickness of the test specimen (mm), and v is the Poisson’s ratio (a value of 0.35 is normally
used). The magnitude of the applied force conditioning pulses such that the specified target
transient diametral deformation was achieved. The test was performed at 25 °C.


The physical test was carried out for granite as well as for crushed ceramic waste. The
aggregates were tested with compliance with the applicable specifications in the “Standard
Specification of Designing Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA)”. Both granite and ceramic aggregates were
found suitable for use in roadwork. The physical properties of aggregates, asphalt, the standard
used and the results are presented in Tables 2 and 3 respectively.

Table 2. Physical Properties of Aggregates

Type of Aggregate
Types of Test Standard used
Granite Ceramic Waste
Los Angeles Abrasion ASTM C 131 20.12 % 20.00 %
Aggregate Impact Value BS 812: Part 3 8.80 % 4.30 %
Specific Gravity ASTM C127 2.612 2.381
Water Absorption AASHTO T85 0.5 % 1.038 %
ASTM D 4791,
Flakiness Index 6.12 % 95.56 %
BS 812
ASTM D 4791,
Elongation Index 0.07 % 0%
BS 812
Soundness Test ASTM C88 0.12 % 0.08 %

Table 3. Physical properties of Asphalt

Type of Test Standard used Results

Specific gravity at 25°C, (g/cm3) ASTM D 70 1.04
Penetration at 25°C, (0.1 mm), 100 g, 5s ASTM D5 82

Softening point (R&B), °C ASTM D36 46.5

Viscosity at 135°C, Pascal second (Pa.s) ASTM D4402 0.353
Viscosity at 165°C, Pascal second (Pa.s) ASTM D4402 0.115
Note: 1 Pascal second (Pa.s) = 1000 centipoise (cP)
The gradation and the corresponding mix designations are given in Table 4 and the resultant
particle size distribution for HMA Mixture together with JKR specification limits are shown in

Figure 2. Sieve analysis was carried out on a representative granite and ceramic waste. The dry
sieve analysis was carried out according to ASTM D546 and AASHTO T37.

Table 4. JKR Specification for Gradation ACWC 14 (HMA 14)

Sieve size 20.00 14.00 10.00 5.00 3.35 1.18 0.425 0.150 0.075 Pan
% passing 100 90-100 76-86 50-62 40-54 18-34 12-24 6-14 4-6 0
% passing 100 95 81 56 47 26 18 10 6 0

100 10 upper 1used lower 0.1 0.01

Figure 2. Aggregate gradation for HMA mixture by JKR Specification


The asphalt mixtures were prepared using Marshall Method with 4.5, 5, 5.5, 6 and 6.5 percent
rate of asphalt content. The maximum value of density, stability and 4 percent air void are
calculated among all the said asphalt content to determine the optimum asphalt content (OAC).
Table 5 indicates the optimum asphalt content together with the value of stability, flow, density,
percentage of air voids and Voids Filled with Aggregates (VFA) at optimum asphalt content.

Table 5. Marshall mix properties at optimum asphalt content (OAC)

Specimen Optimum Stability Flow Density Air Voids VFA

Content (%)
GC 5.260 10.55 3.90 2.310 2.84 79.0
20 C 5.260 13.15 3.32 2.310 1.48 90.0
40 C 5.333 12.37 3.41 2.288 2.39 83.6
60 C 5.400 11.90 4.19 2.257 2.49 80.3
80 C 5.800 10.50 3.76 2.221 3.11 74.3
100 C 5.810 9.72 3.44 2.150 2.39 82.1

The optimum asphalt content for all specimens is shows in Figure 3. The graph shows the
percentage of asphalt content is increasing with the increase of ceramic waste aggregate due to
the porosity of ceramic and a slightly high absorption capability. The density of specimen also
caused an increase of asphalt content. The lower density of specimens tends to absorb more
asphalt. Figure 3 indicates the bulk density is decreasing along the addition of ceramic waste

Asphalt Content, %




GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 3 Optimum asphalt content for all types of specimen


Density, g/cm3




GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 4. Bulk density for all result at OAC

The specimens gave a dramatic trend in the stability results in Figure 5. It showed that
substitution of 20% ceramic waste aggregates in the mixture were drastically increased the value
of stability 0.25 higher than the control sample (GC). After that, when 40% ceramic content
substituted to the mix, the value of stability became lower but still higher compared to the
control sample (GC) until 80% ceramic content mixture. The stability of fully ceramic waste
aggregates mixture (100C) shows lower value than the control sample. Overall, the result of
Marshall Stability for all proportions meets the requirements. The stability test was done together
with the flow measurement. Figure 6 indicated the flow value for all specimens. The value
decreased at 20C but then slightly increased at 40C, rapidly increased at 60C and then decreased
steadily until 100C. However, the flow value met the specification.


Stability, kN




GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 5. Stability for all types of specimen at OAC

Flow, mm

GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 6. Flow for all types of specimen at OAC

From the stability’s graph trend, it proves that the substitution of ceramic waste in the mixture is
able to resist higher loading before it is failed. Moreover, the good interaction and bonding
between granite and ceramic waste aggregates also influenced the strength and stability of the
The percentage of air voids for all specimens is shows in Figure 7. The result shows that the air
voids dropped drastically at 20C mixture and increased when 40C to 80C mixture. After that, the
air voids is dropped for 100% waste ceramic mixture.



Air Voids, %



GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 7. Air voids at all types of specimen at OAC

The value of voids filled with aggregates (VFA) showed an increasing value at 20C compared to
granite control sample and then dropped steadily until 80C mixtures as indicated in Figure 8. The
100C mixture then showed some increment for VFA value.



VFA, %



GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 8. Voids Filled with Aggregates (VFA) for types of specimen at OAC


The Resilient Modulus results in mega Pascal (MPa) for all samples at 25°C are presented in
Table 6 and Figure 9 respectively. The resilient modulus for 20C mixtures has higher value
compared to the granite control sample. However, the value of resilient modulus dropped
drastically at 40% ceramic substituted and further dropped for 60C mixture. The value of
resilient modulus then showed improvement when at 80% ceramic substitution and then goes
higher value at 100C mixture. Hence, the resilient modulus for 100 C showed an increment of
13.5% than reference mixture. The higher resilient modulus indicates that higher load cycle
frequency and shorter time of strains to take place which gives benefit to deformation resistant.

Table 6. Resilient modulus test results

GC 20C 40C 60C 80C 100C

Results 3555 4000 3168 3000 3092 4035

Resilient Modulus, kPa

GC 20 C 40 C 60 C 80 C 100 C

Figure 9. Resilient Modulus Test Results


The use of ceramic waste aggregate in replacement of part or fully granite has shown some
improvements and acceptable results. The stability, resilient modulus and density of each type of
samples were ranked as presented in Table 7.
Table 7: Ranking of mixture properties
Parameter Ranking by
Stability Modulus Density
JKR 2500 Resilient
> 8 kN g/cm3 Stability Density
Requirement kPa Modulus
GC 10.55 3555 2.31 4 3 1
20 C 13.15 4000 2.31 1 2 2
40 C 12.37 3168 2.288 2 4 3
60 C 11.9 3000 2.257 3 6 4
80 C 10.5 3092 2.221 5 5 5
100 C 9.72 4035 2.15 6 1 6

 The use of ceramic waste aggregate in asphalt mixture shows an improvement in both
stability and resilient modulus compared to the granite control sample. By referring to
the rank, the best performing sample which meets the entire standard requirement is 20C
mixtures. The 20C mixture not only shows a good performance in term of stability and
resilient modulus, but also indicates lower amount of asphalt consumed which
comparable to granite control (GC) mixture.
 The incorporation of ceramic waste aggregate into HMA mixtures shows an acceptable
result. The results of stability and resilient modulus for all proportions met the JKR
specification. It proved that ceramic waste aggregates can be used by the industry for
pavement construction and can acquire the benefit in terms of environmental and cost


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