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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

Human life, as with all animals and plants on the planet, is dependent upon

water. Not only do we need water to grow our food, generate our power and run our

industries, but we need it as a basic part of our daily lives. Water is one of the most

precious resources and abundant compound on earth. If there is no water there would

be no life (DOH). Water is a basic need for various domestic purposes like drinking,

cooking, sanitation, and irrigation. Besides domestic use, people also need water for

other diversified livelihoods including livestock, gardening, cropping, food processing,

aquaculture and fisheries (Soussan 2003; Kopper et al. 2006). Safe and readily

available water is important for public health, whether it is used for drinking, domestic

use, food production or recreational purposes. Improved water supply and sanitation,

and better management of water resources can boost countries economic growth and

can contribute greatly to poverty reduction.

The water supply system is a hydraulic infrastructure consisting of elements such

as pipes, tanks, reservoirs, pumps, valve and etc. (V. N. Mehta & Joshi G.S, 2017). It is

made for the collection, transmission, treatment, storage, and distribution of potable

water for homes, commercial establishment, industry, and irrigations. It has two primary

requirements. First, it needs to deliver adequate amounts of water to meet consumer

consumption requirements. Second, the water system needs to be reliable in the

required amount of water needs, to be available 24 hours a day, 365 days a year

(Hickey, Ph.D., 2008).

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Out of 100 million Filipinos in 2015, there are still 5 million relying on unimproved,

unsafe and unsustainable water sources and 27 million without access to improved

sanitation (UNICEF/WHO JMP). This includes the resident of Sitio Taganilao, Brgy.

Tamisan, which currently have a level I water supply system. Families in this community

without a safe water source near their homes often spend significant time and energy in

collecting water and give them less time to do trade and earn for a living. For them easy

access to safe potable water has been considered one of the most basic needs in the

community, which they can use for drinking, cooking, washing, cleaning toilets, taking

bath and other domestic needs.

Sitio Taganilao is one of the largest Sitio in Brgy. Tamisan, it consist of 5 puroks

namely, San Pedro, Sto. Niño, Talisay, Centro, and Mangingisda. It has a total

population of 739 individuals, consisting of 155 households and 195 families (Barangay

Profile 2018). This community has 18 communal faucet systems that are no longer

functional due to lack of water supply from the spring source. Currently, the sources of

water in this community are 4 communal shallow wells, dug well, rainwater and

seawater. Water for their domestic use is collected either by dipping the container inside

the water supply, collecting rainwater from a roof catchment system and by using

communal hand pumps. They transport water from the source of water supply using a

cart, a bicycle, a motor vehicle, a rolling system or in the most inconvenient way,

carrying the container by hand or on the head. This scarcity and difficult access to water

source forced this community to rely on unsafe water sources.

Through an accessible water supply system, Sitio Taganilao, Brgy. Tamisan can

solve their existing problems, which will provide them safe potable water. For them,

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access to safe water means access to education, work, and an opportunity to have a

better kind of life.

Objectives of the study

The general objective of this study is to address the need for a water supply

system for Sitio Taganilao, Brgy. Tamisan, City of Mati. Specifically, this aims to achieve

the following;

I. To find a potential source of groundwater supply for Sitio Taganilao, Barangay

Tamisan.

II. To design an adequate water supply system capable of distributing potable water

to the community.

III. To quantify the economic benefit of constructing a water supply system at Sitio

Taganilao, Barangay Tamisan.

Significance of the study

This feasibility study will serve as a basis for any proposed construction of water

supply system project in Sitio Taganilao, Barangay Tamisan. Among the persons who

will directly or indirectly benefit in this study are the following:

To the residents, this will help them by providing them convenience for any

domestics needs, improve their way of life and develop community involvement of the

project.

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To the LGU City of Mati, this study will serve as their basis to pursue the

viability of the construction of the water supply system, enable them to provide social

service to the residents of Sitio Taganilao.

To the future researchers, this study would help the student researchers to be

aware and knowledgeable of the process involved in designing a water supply system,

also this will be a useful reference for the researcher who would plan to make any

related topics.

Scope and Limitation

This study focuses on designing a water supply system in Sitio Taganilao, Brgy.

Tamisan. The designed water supply system will only augment the existing water supply

system in the area since it cannot accommodate the need of the residents.

Furthermore, the study will only cover the wide area of Sitio Taganilao of Barangay

Tamisan.

In addition, the water treatment will also be done in order to provide potable

water to the community. Maintenance of water supply system is excluded in this study.

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Conceptual Framework

This conceptual framework illustrates the chronological order of the feasibility

study that is categorized by the aspect of each field of work.

Research Design

-Includes the research methods

Data Collection

-Barangay Profile
-Topographic Survey
- Water Sampling
- Geo resistivity survey

Data Analysis and Interpretation

- Confirmation of water potability Did the collected data satisfy


- Assessment of Geologic and the condition and standards?
Hydrologic data that will be gathered

Yes No
Technical Evaluation

-Design and details of proposed


Water Supply System and Water
Treatment

Economic and Financial Analysis


Did the design satisfy the
- Cost of the Project
standards and considerations?

Yes No
Verification of the Feasibility Study

Figure 1.1 Conceptual Framework Diagram

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Definition of Terms

Aquifer - a geologic formation that will yield water to a well in sufficient quantities to

make the production of water from this formation feasible for beneficial use; permeable

layers of underground rock or sand that hold or transmit groundwater below the water

table.

Freshwater - water containing less than 500 ppm dissolved common salt, sodium

chloride, such as that in groundwater, rivers, ponds, and lakes.

Gravity-flow water system - the network of pipes where the water flows through the

pipeline using only gravity.

Groundwater - subsurface water that occurs beneath a water table in soils and rocks,

or in geological formations.

Recharge - refers to water entering an underground aquifer through faults, fractures, or

direct absorption.

Groundwater recharge - inflow to a groundwater reservoir.

Hydrologic cycle - natural pathway water follows as it changes between liquid, solid,

and gaseous states. This biogeochemical cycle moves and recycles water in various

forms through the ecosphere. Also called the water cycle.

Level I - (Point Source) this level provides a protected well or a developed spring with

an outlet, but without a distribution system. A Level I facility normally serves an average

of 15 households within a radius of 250 meters.

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Level II - (Communal Faucet System or Stand Posts) this type of system is composed

of a source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, and communal faucets. Usually,

one faucet serves four to six households within a radius of 25 meters.

Level III - (Waterworks System or Individual House Connections) this system includes a

source, a reservoir, a piped distribution network, and individual household taps.

Renewable Resource - resource that potentially cannot be used up because it is

constantly or cyclically replenished.

Reservoir - a pond, lake, tank, or basin (natural or human-made) where water is

collected and used for storage. Large bodies of groundwater are called groundwater

reservoirs; water behind a dam is also called a reservoir of water.

Surface water - all water which is open to the atmosphere and subject to surface

runoff. Also defined as water that flows in streams and rivers and in natural lakes, in

wetlands, and in reservoirs constructed by humans.

Water quality - a term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological

characteristics of water with respect to its suitability for a particular use.

Potable water - is water that is safe to drink or to use for food preparation.

Primary data - is an original data source, that is, one in which the data are collected

firsthand by the researcher for a specific research purpose or project. The most

common techniques are self-administered surveys, interviews, field observation, and

experiments.

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Secondary data - refers to data which is collected by someone who is someone other than

the user. Common sources of secondary data for social science include censuses, information

collected by government departments, organizational records and data that was originally

collected for other research purposes.

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To augment the existing water supply system in the Brgy. Tamisan by providing a

new design of a water supply system in Sitio Taganilao.

OR

To provide Sitio Taganilao, Barangay Tamisan with a new design of a water

supply system that will increase the existing water supply