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BASIC GAS TURBINE

Engine Oil/Lubrication System

Engine Oil/Lubrication
System

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 1


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Introduction
Function:
The lubrication system supplies oil to various parts within the engine which are
subjected to friction loads from engine rotation and heat loads from gas path. The
oil is supplied under pressure along the main rotor shafts and to the gear boxes to
reduce friction, to cool, and to clean. It is then returned by a scavenge system to the
oil storage tank to be used again and again.

The lubrication system is required to provide lubrication and cooling for all gears,
bearings and splines. It must also be capable of collecting foreign matter which, if
left in a bearing housing or gearbox, can cause rapid failure. Additionally, the oil
must protect the lubricated components which are manufactured from non-corrosion
resistant materials. The oil must accomplish these tasks without significant
deterioration.

The requirements of a turbo-propeller engine are somewhat different to any other


types of aero gas turbine. This is due to the additional lubrication of the heavily
loaded propeller reduction gears and the need for a high pressure oil supply to
operate the propeller pitch control mechanism.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Introduction

Requirements:
• Should supply adequate/sufficient amount of oil for cleaning and cooling
bearings/gears
• Working oil pressure and temperature should be appropriate
• Should have a system of efficiently cooling

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Introduction

Compared to a piston engine, the bearings in a gas turbine engine are very lightly
loaded in that there is no pulse power to be absorbed. All the energy released by
the engine is done so smoothly. There may, and on larger engines there certainly
is, quite a large pressure felt on the bearing surfaces within the engine but this
pressure is progressive and without large fluctuations. Indeed, the greatest loading
is often when the aircraft ‘turns a corner’ which will cause the spool(s) in the engine
to precess like a gyro.

Also, unlike a piston engine, the oil does not lubricate any parts that are directly
heated by the effects of combustion.

Because of the load factor and the lower direct temperatures imposed on it, the loss
of oil from a turbine engine is probably only a quarter that of a piston engine.
Turbopropeller engines require oil to operate the propeller pitch change mechanism
and so will often use a heavier oil with higher pressures than that used in a turbojet
or turbofan engine.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Requirements of Lubricating Oils:

The oil used must fulfil the following requirements:


• It must be able to absorb and release heat easily.
• It must resist oxidation at high temperatures.
• It must retain its lubricating properties under high loads and temperatures.

The oil is used to:


• lubricate
• cool
• prevent corrosion
• resist oxidation at high temperatures
• possess suitable viscosity at all operating temperatures

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Requirements of Lubricating Oils:

The choice of oil is initially decided by the loads and operating temperatures of the
bearings and the effect that temperature will have on the viscosity of the oil. Special
engine tests are carried out to prove the suitability of an oil for a specific engine and
to assess the extent to which it deteriorates and the corrosive effects it may have on
the engine.

The viscosity of an oil is a measure of its resistance to flow. This measurement is in


stokes; a hundredth part of which is a centistokes.

The turbo jet engine is able to use a low viscosity oil due to the absence of
reciprocating parts. The turbo propeller engine requires a slightly higher viscosity oil
due to the reduction gear and the propeller pitch change mechanism. These thin
oils reduce the power requirements for starting, particularly at low temperatures,
normal starts being possible at –40 C.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Types of Lubricating Oils:

1. Solids
• Boric powder
• Graphite powder
• Graphite grease

2. Liquids
• Water
• Oils: Vegetable based: The source of these oils is vegetable in origin, e.g.,
castor oil, olive oil. Note that vegetable oils are not used on gas turbines.
Mineral based: The source for these oils is refined crude oil.
Synthetic: Synthetic lubricating oils are now used on all modern gas
turbine engines.
3. Gas
Air Bearings

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Types of Lubricating Oils:

Mineral based Oils: Early gas turbines used thinner oils than those used in piston
engines but were produced from the same mineral crude oil. As gas turbines were
developed to operate at higher speeds and temperatures these mineral oils oxidized
and blocked the filters and oil-ways.

An SAE (Society of Automotive Engineers) rating for petroleum base oils is


determined by heating 60 ml of oil to one specific temperature and measuring the
flow time as the oil is poured through a calibrated orifice. One such device for this
calculation is the Saybolt-Universal Seconds (SUS) Viscosimeter.

Example: SAE 30 oil has a flow time of 65 seconds at 210 deg F


SAE 5W-20 oil when cold has the viscosity of SAE 5 and at normal
operating temperature, will thin out no more than SAE 20.

An SAE number merely indicates the viscosity grade and does not indicate the
quality of oil.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Types of Lubricating Oils:

Synthetic Oils: The development of low viscosity (thin) synthetic oils overcame the
major problems encountered with the early mineral oils.
Synthetic oils have multi-viscosity properties.
They are a blend of certain diesters, which are themselves man made (synthesized)
extracts of mineral, vegetable, and animal oils.

Synthetic oils are not compatible and cannot be mixed with petroleum (mineral
based) oils. In addition, most manufacturers recommend that different brands or
types of synthetic oils cannot be mixed or mixed with strict guidelines of same type
and certain compatible brands.

There are two different types of synthetic lubricants being used in turbine engines
today:
• Type-1: (MIL-L-7808) Most commonly used oil since long and still in use
• Type-2: (MIL-L-23699) Most recent oil to be developed

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Types of Lubricating Oils:

Synthetic Oils:

Viscosity Index: is determined by measuring the viscosity change when a liquid


lubricant is heated to two different temperatures. An important quality of synthetic
oils is determined in this way.

There are two different types of synthetic lubricants being used in turbine engines
today:
• Type-1: (MIL-L-7808) Most commonly used oil since long and still in use
• Type-2: (MIL-L-23699) Most recent oil to be developed

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Salient features of Synthetic Oil:
• Low viscosity
• High viscosity index
• Good lubrication properties
• Good conductor of heat
• High boiling point
• Low freezing point
• Low volatility
• High flash point
• Low pour point

Disadvantages:
• Peels of paint, damages rubber insulation/seals
• Corrosive
• Harmful to skin
• Two different oils cannot be mixed together unless compatible
• Expensive

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL ADDITIVES

The earliest gas turbine engines used straight mineral oils, but progressive
development of the gas turbine to provide higher thrust, required a lubricant that
was stable over a wide range of conditions and would not break down at high
temperatures. So synthetic oils were developed. These first generation synthetic
oils are referred to as 'Type l' oils and are still used on some of the older gas turbine
engines. These oils did not meet all the requirements for a lubricant for today's gas
turbines, therefore, Type 2 oils were developed. This was done by adding small
quantities of various compounds and elements to the basic synthetic lubricant.

Examples of Additives
Some or all of the following may be added in small quantities to an oil to give that oil
some desirable property:-
• Extreme pressure additive.
• Anti-corrosion additive.
• Detergent additive.
• Inhibitors.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Standardization of Synthetic Oil:
• TYPE-1 (MIL-L-7808) TYPE-2 (MIL-L-23699)
Aeroshell 300 Aeroshell 500 or 700
Mobil Jet I Mobil Jet II
BP 2389 BP 2380, BP 2197
Caltex 15 Caltex 2380
Castrol 3c Castrol 205

Disadvantages:
• Peels of paint, damages rubber insulation/seals
• Corrosive
• Harmful to skin
• Two different oils cannot be mixed together unless compatible
• Expensive

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 13


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAIN FRAMES AND BEARING SUPPORTS

All the rotating parts of the engine, e.g. fan, compressors, turbines, shafts, spools
etc. are supported on a number of bearings.
The shaft/rotors transfer the thrust and radial loads to outer race through bearings,
from there to hub and then to frames. The frames transfer the load to pylon through
engine mounts and eventually to the whole airframe.

Frames are main structural members, while casing interconnects two frames.

Main Frames:
• Fan Frame ‘A’ sump
• Compressor Rear Frame ‘B’ sump
• Turbine Mid Frame ‘C’ sump
• Turbine Rear Frame ‘D’ sump

Two types of supports are provides:


• Radial: More than one point
• Axial: Can be at one point only

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAIN FRAMES AND BEARING SUPPORTS cont’d

Each rotor (N1 & N2) has a number of Roller bearings for radial support and at least
one Ball bearing for axial support.

One compartment may have a number of bearings and jet nozzles for oil spray.

Engine bearings, located within the support cases must be lubricated and the oil
must be contained within the bearing area. An arrangement of oil seals, air seals
and oil and air vent tubes provides a system known as a Bearing Sump. Bearing
sumps can be any size and may contain more than one bearing.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAIN FRAMES AND BEARING
SUPPORTS cont’d

Fan case: forward part of LP


compressor. No.1 bearing.

Intermediate Case: aft of LP


compressor and forward part of
HP compressor, No.2 & 3
bearings.

Diffuser case: aft part of HP


compressor, No.4 bearing.

Turbine case: supports HP and


LP turbines with bearings No. 5
& 6.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 16


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
TYPES OF OIL SYSTEMS

Most gas turbines use a self contained re-circulatory oil system, where the oil is
distributed and returned to the oil tank by pumps.

Another system, which is sometimes used by turbo jet engines, is the total loss or
expendable system where the oil is spilled overboard after the engine bearings
have been lubricated.

There are two basic re-circulatory systems; the 'pressure relief valve' and 'full flow'
systems. The major difference between them being in the control of the oil flow to
the bearings. Temperature and oil pressure are critical to both system, so these
readings will be indicated in the crew compartment.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Total Loss (Expendable) System
This system is normally only used for engines that run for periods of short duration,
e.g., vertical lift and booster engines. The system is simple and of low weight,
because it requires no oil cooler, scavenge pump or filters.

The oil is delivered in a continuous flow to the bearings in some installations, or


delivered as a single shot, with a further shot after a predetermined period. The oil
is then ejected into the main gas stream via an ejector nozzle.

Single-shot pumps have a quantity of oil contained within a cylinder. When the
piston is forced up the cylinder bore, under the control of the throttle unit, the oil
forces the outlet valves to open allowing a flow of oil to the parts required to be
lubricated. When the piston reaches the top of the cylinder bore the outlet valves
close due to the reduced oil pressure. Recharging of the oil pump cylinder is
achieved by a spring forcing the piston to its original position. This reduces the
pressure between the cylinder and the oil tank which allows the oil replenishing
valves to open until the cylinder is recharged.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Total Loss (Expendable) System

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 19


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Total Loss (Expendable) System

Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Dry Sump/Re-circulatory System

Most gas turbines use a self contained, dry sump, re-circulatory system. The oil is
stored in a tank and pumped around the system by a spur gear, positive
displacement pump. The oil is then recovered to the tank by a scavenge pump, or
pumps.

There are two basic re-circulatory oil systems:


• Pressure Relief Valve System
• Full Flow System

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Wet Sump System

The wet sump system is the oldest design and is still seen in APUs and Ground
Power Units but rarely seen in modern aircraft engines.

Components of a wet sump system are similar to dry sump system, except for the
location of the oil supply. The dry sump carries its oil in a separate tank, whereas
the wet sump oil is contained integrally in the engine sump.

Most wet sump engines do not incorporate a pressure relief valve and are known as
variable pressure systems. With this system, the pump output pressure depends
directly on engine RPM.

Scavenged oil is returned to the sump by a combination of gravity flow from the
bearings and also suction created by a gear-type pump located within the pump
housing.
The vent line is present to prevent over-pressurization of the gearboxes. Gas path

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Dry Sump/Re-circulatory System

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Dry Sump/Re-circulatory System

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 24


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Dry Sump/Re-circulatory System

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 25


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Sump Philosophy

Oil seals are those adjacent


to the bearings, and must
retain the oil in the sump.
Air seals are next away
from the oil seals and
bearings, and they are
separated by pressurizing
cavity. The air seals
maintain an adequate
pressure within the cavity.

Pressurizing cavity is
pressurised by a supply of
air from an engine
compressor stage. The flow
of air must be sufficient to
produce a flow of air across

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
Sump Philosophy cont’d

The oil seals to blow the oil inwards into the sump, and if the air pressure is higher
than the oil pressure, the oil will be maintained in the bearing sump.

To keep the air flowing inwards to the sump the air must have some place to go, the
cavity drain allows the air to exit the air cavity along with any oil that may leak
across the oil seal. Air that has leaked across the oil seals is vented to atmosphere
via the sump vent, gravity keeps the oil out of the vent port.

This system described above is incorporated into most turbine engine designs;
although the terminology may be different, the principles are the same.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

OIL TANK
The oil tank may be:-
• An integral part of the engine structure.
• Separate from the engine and mounted on the airframe.
• A removable tank mounted on the engine casing.

The last method is the most common location. The tank is normally mounted so
that oil will flow under gravity to the pressure pump. Although an oil tank will be
vented, it is not normally pressurized.

It has provision for filling and draining, and will have a sight glass or dipstick to
allow the contents to be checked. The tank can be replenished by gravity or
pressure filling. To assist in removing air from the oil, the return oil passes over a
de-aerator tray in the top of the tank.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, OIL TANK


Materials of Construction.
Oil tanks will be constructed from one of the following materials:-
• Aluminum alloy.
• Stainless steel.
• Composite material.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY FUNCTIONS


Primary
The primary function of an oil tank is to store the oil and provide a continuous
supply of oil for distribution to the engine components.
Secondary
An oil tank may also provide:-
• A method of checking the system level.
• A method of filling the system.
• For expansion of the oil within the system and for venting.
• A method for draining a major part of the lubrication system.
• A signal to the flight deck quantity indicator.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, OIL TANK

Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, OIL TANK

In order to carry out the secondary functions the oil tank will have some of the
following components:-
• Gravity fills port with a gauze filter.
• Dipstick.
• Scupper drain.
• Pressure refill connection.
• Contents sight glass.
• De-aerator.
• Drain valve.
• Quality probe.
• Vent or breather connection.

Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


OIL TANK

Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, OIL TANK


Gravity Fill Port:
The gravity fill port is the access for filling the system. The gauze filter inside the fill
port protects the system from the ingress of debris.
Pressure Refill Port:
The pressure refill port and sight glass may be fitted to the tank in place of the
gravity fill port and dipstick.
De-aerator:
The de-aerator is a device within the tank. It allows air which is trapped in the
returning scavenge oil to separate out. It can then pass out through the vent.
Drain Valve:
The drain valve permits draining of the oil from the tank when required.
Examples of this would be:-
· Contamination of the oil system.
· Placing an engine into 'long-term storage'. The oil may be drained and replaced
with a storage oil.
Oil is not normally drained and replaced from gas turbine lubricating systems as a
routine servicing item. Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, OIL TANK


Scupper Drain:
The scupper drain allows any fluid which may be around the filler port to drain
overboard.

Quantity Probe:
The quantity probe is an electrical device which sends quantity signals to the flight
deck contents instrument.

Vent or Breather:
The vent or breather connection prevents a build up of air pressure within the tank,
by allowing the air to escape. There will always be an air space above the oil level
in the tank, even when the tank is at its indicated full level.

Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

FILTERS
The pressure filter consists of one or more wire-wound elements to give edge
filtration.

The scavenge strainers are usually of wire mesh construction. Occasionally an


element will be a wire mesh backed with resin.

Oil filters can be cleaned so that the dirt on them can be analysed to see if there is
a mechanical break-down within the engine.

Last Chance Filters


Immediately before the bearings there are normally fitted ‘Last Chance Filters’
(LCF’s). These are designed to catch any dirt that gets through the main filter(s)
and prevent it from reaching the bearing surfaces. LCF’s can be thread type or fine
gauze mesh.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


FILTERS

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 36


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


FILTERS

The main types of filter found in lubrication systems are:


• Wire wound
• Stack screen
• Paper
• Thread
• Wire mesh (Gauze)

Wire Wound
This filter consists of a closely wound coil of flattened wire. This coil has small
raised portions on one side of the flattened surface. Oil will flow from the outside to
the inside of the coil, therefore any .particles of dirt or foreign matter will be trapped
on the outside of the coil. This type of filter element, which is shown in Fig. 5, can
be cleaned.

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 38


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS

Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS

The corrugated paper element is a common type of filter now used in lubrication
systems. The corrugations give a large surface area for the oil to pass through. A
perforated outer sleeve normally fits over the outside. This type of filter, shown in
Fig. 7, is a throwaway filter.

Fig. 7 CORRUGATED FILTER Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS

Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS


Thread
This type of filter is normally located in a pressure oil line just before an oil jet or
bearing. It consists of a plug which has a series of concentric grooves around it.
Running axially from both ends are a number of oil channels: these channels
overlap but do not run the full length of the plug. Oil flow is along the channels and
across the grooves to the channels at the outlet end of the plug. This type of
element is shown in Fig. 8, and can be cleaned.
SECTION THROUGH PASSAGE

DIRECTION OF FLOW

Fig. 8 THREAD TYPE FILTER Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS


Wire Mesh or Gauze
This type of filter is normally to be found in the scavenge side of a lubrication
system. It consists of a closely woven wire mesh, shown in Fig. 9. This filter may
be cleaned, and maybe backed up by a magnetic type filter.

SECTION THROUGH PASSAGE

Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS


POP-OUT Indicators

Although most modern filters have a by-pass, they may also have a 'clogging' or
'pop out' indicator, as shown in Fig. 12, on the filter housing. This will indicate if a
filter element is blocked or partially blocked. A pop out indicator also works as a
result of the differential pressure across the filter element. A spring loaded
permanent magnet holds a lightly loaded pop out indicator pin flush with its
housing. At a predetermined differential pressure, the spring loaded magnet
pushes it away from the pop out indicator and it then moves out under the lightly
loaded spring. This type of indicator can be reset by simply pushing it back in
when there is no pressure in the system.

Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, FILTERS


POP-OUT Indicators

Source: ATITA

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Magnetic Chip Detectors (MCD’s)
To give early warning of bearing failure magnetic chip detectors are fitted in the
system. They are normally of the bayonet type fitting and can be removed,
inspected and replaced very quickly, with no oil spillage. Some Magnetic Chip
Detectors (MCD’s) have an electrical indication to the flight deck to inform the
pilot of contamination.
The low resistance across the MCD,
that gives the indication, can be caused
by small carbon deposits or tiny
metallic deposits that are insignificant
as far as engine wear is concerned. In
this case there may be a ‘fuzz burner’
fitted that will pass an electrical charge
through the MCD and clear off the fine
debris and leave only major particles
If the warning light remains ‘ON’ then the pilot knows that the debris is of a more
serious nature. Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Magnetic Chip Detectors (MCD’s)

Engine and turbine components undergo continual wear under normal


operating conditions; this is minimized by the use of lubricating oils. Lubricating
oils from petroleum are mainly composed of paraffinic, naphthenic and, to a
lesser extent, aromatic hydrocarbons. Several additives, including metallo-
organic ones, are also part of the final composition of commercial lubricating
oil. Wear has both physical (friction between metallic parts, high temperature
and pressure) and chemical (corrosion) sources. Chemical wear may produce
not only metallic particles but also soluble metallo-organic species, whereas
physical wear generates metallic particles of varying sizes (up to a few
micrometers).

Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS Magnetic Chip Detectors (MCD’s)

Part of the metallic debris is not retained by filters and collectors, remaining in
the lubricating oil and being transported through the whole system. Increasing
amounts of some key elements in the lubricating oil may indicate the extent of
the wear of wetted components. For instance, an abrupt increase of Ni, Sn or
Cr indicates corrosion in bearings, valves and pistons, Fe indicates corrosion in
various parts, Na indicates oil contamination with anti-freeze fluids and so on.
The diagnosis based on elemental analysis of used lubricating oils may indicate
the need for preventive maintenance of engines and turbines before irreversible
damage occurs. Besides bringing economic benefits, such diagnoses save
lives. The Spectroscopy Oil Analysis Program (SOAP) of the United States Air
Force was the pioneer program based on this type of monitoring. Elements
such as Ag, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mo, Ni, P, Sb, Se, Sn, Ti and
Zn, are also deliberately introduced in small portions to lubricating oils to
address requisites for special applications. In these cases, metallo-organic
compounds containing these elements act as additives, improving lubricating
capability and properties such as antioxidant, anticorrosive, dispersing, anti-
wear, and others. Source: RR

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BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Magnetic Chip Detectors (MCD’s)

The improvement of performance of the oil is dependent upon the amount of


the additive introduced; therefore, these amounts must be strictly controlled.
Sensitive techniques are required for analysis of used lubricating oils since the
capability of monitoring small concentration changes in the key elements is
needed. The complexity of the oil matrix, its viscosity and the high organic load
impose serious difficulties for elemental analysis. Such determinations are also
an analytical challenge because all wear metals (solid particles of different
sizes and metallo-organic species) must be accurately determined for
information purposes. Apart from the existence of a few electroanalytical and
XRF methods for the determination of Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Cr, Ni, As and Cd in
lubricating oils, the majority of analytical methods reported in the literature are
based on atomic spectrometric techniques such as FAAS, ET AAS, DC or ICP
OES, ICP MS and AFS.

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 49


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Oil Pumps
The oil pump assembly consists of spur gear type pressure and scavenge pumps,
usually fitted to a common shaft, and driven from an engine gear train.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 50


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS

Oil Pumps
The pumps used for both the pressure and the scavenge requirements of a
lubrication system are generally one of two types:-
• Spur Gear
• Gerotor

Spur Gear Pump


It consists of two gears meshing together; one is driven by the other. Oil flows to
the inlet side of the pump where the oil is picked up by the gear teeth and then
forced around the outside of the gears and pumped out into the system.
The output of this of pump is dependent on the:-
• Size of the gears.
• Width across the gears.
• Speed of rotation.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 51


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Pumps

L.P. OIL
H.P. OIL
OIL PUMP PACK

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 52


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Pumps

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 53


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Gerotor Pump
Gerotor pump, which consists of a multi-lobed driven gear, which rotates a multi-
lobed ring inside an eccentric housing. The multi-lobed ring has one more lobe
than the driven gear. As the driven gear rotates it also rotates the ring, which
causes the spaces between the two gears progressively to open and close. During
rotation oil is introduced into the spaces between the gears which is opening; it is
then squeezed out into the system as the space closes. Fig. 2 shows the
construction and operation of a gerotor oil pump.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 54


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS


Gerotor Pump

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 55


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS,

VALVES
The relief and by-pass valves are nearly always spring-loaded plate valves and
are not usually provided with any form of pressure adjustment.

In some oil systems using a fuel cooled oil cooler a pressure maintaining valve is
fitted. This will ensure that the oil pressure through the cooler is always higher
than the fuel pressure. In the event of an internal leak in the cooler oil will leak into
the fuel system rather than fuel leaking into the oil system.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 56


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS,

PRESSURE CONTROL
Pressure control is required in order to limit the pressure in the pressure side of a
lubrication system. This control also protects the pump and prevents it pumping
against very high pressures. A relief or regulator valve such as the one shown in
Fig. 3 is fitted for this purpose. At a predetermined value this valve will open and
allow oil to be ported back to the inlet side of the pressure pump. These valves are
normally adjustable.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 57


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, PRESSURE CONTROL

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 58


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS,

OIL COOLERS
Consist of a matrix that is divided into sections by baffle plates, a large number of
tubes convey the cooling medium through the matrix, with the oil being directed by
the baffle plates in a series of passes across the tubes.

The oil flow is controlled by a thermostatic by-pass valve since it is pointless to


cool oil that is already cold.

The cooling medium can either be ram air or fuel. On some air-cooled coolers, the
air-flow through the cooler can be controlled by a flap valve that is operated
automatically by the oil temperature.

Fuel flow through the cooler is uninterrupted unless the cooler becomes blocked
when a differential by-pass will open and allow the fuel to go around the cooler.

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 59


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Coolers

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 60


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Coolers

Fig. 5 FUEL COOLED OIL COOLER Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 61


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Coolers
BY-PASS VALVES
By-pass valve is the safety device for the cooler.
This may be one of two types:-
• Spring loaded.
• Thermostatic.
Spring Loaded By-Pass Valve
This is a simple spring loaded relief type valve. In normal operation the valve is
closed by the spring pressure when the oil pressure between "oil in" and "oil out"
ports is approximately equal. When the differential pressure between "oil in" and "oil
out" ports reaches a certain value, the "oil in" pressure will open the valve against
its spring. oil will then pass directly back to the system. This action protects the
inside of the cooler from damage and makes sure that the oil flow continues to pass
through the system.
Thermostatic By-Pass Valve
This is a variation on the spring operated by-pass valve. In this case the centre core
of the valve contains a capsule which is filled with a wax like compound. The
capsule can expand and contract with temperature changes. Fig. 6 over the page
shows a typical thermostatic by-pass valve. Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 62


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Coolers
Operation of Thermostatic By-pass valve

On engine start up the oil is cold, and the wax compound in the capsule is solid.
The capsule has contracted and the valve is pulled open against its spring. This
results in the oil by-passing the cooler, enabling the engine oil temperature to
quickly increase to its normal operating value.

As the oil temperature increases the wax compound melts and the capsule expands
allowing the valve to close off under the action of its spring. Now the valve will act
as a simple spring loaded relief valve. It will only open if there is a large differential
oil pressure between "oil in“ and "oil out" ports.

Note: Failure of an oil cooler by-pass valve to close would be indicated by a high oil
temperature.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 63


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS, Oil Coolers
Operation of Thermostatic By-pass valve

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 64


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SYSTEM COMPONENTS
Oil System Indicators

Oil system indicators generally consist of oil temperature, oil pressure and oil
quantity. Also, many cockpits include warning lights for low oil pressure and for filter
bypass.

Oil temperature sensor may be placed in either the pressure sub-system or the
scavenge subsystem.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 65


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

Cabin contamination

The flight crews of aircraft often report symptoms including dizziness, nausea,
disorientation, blurred vision and tingling in legs and arms. Many of these
incidents have been traced to contamination of cabin air with lubricating oil, as
well as hydraulic fluid, constituents. Considering that these air contaminants are
often subjected to temperatures in excess of 500°C, a large number of different
exposures can be expected. Although the reported symptoms are most consistent
with exposures to volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, and the
organophosphate constituents in these oils and fluids, the involvement of these
agents has not been clearly demonstrated. Possible exposure to toxic elements,
such as lead, mercury, thallium and others, have not been ruled out.

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 66


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System

OIL SEALS

Introduction:
There are many types of oil seal fitted in a lubrication system, and each one has a
specific task to perform within the system. It may be that its prime purpose is to
prevent leakage at a joint, or it may also help to prevent the ingress of foreign
matter into the system.

Types of Seals:
Following types of seal are fitted to a typical gas turbine lubrication system:
• ‘O’ Ring
• Labyrinth
• Carbon
• Spring Ring
• Hydraulic
• Screw Back

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 67


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS
'0' Ring Seal
This is perhaps one of the most common types of seal found in a lubrication
system. Typical locations would be on filters, filter housings and pipelines. These
seals fit into recessed grooves in their respective housings (see Fig. 1). They form
an effective seal when they are compressed. To ensure the most effective seal, the
retaining devices would be torque loaded. This type of seal is always changed
each time the component on which it is located is removed.

When fitting '0' ring seals to some components, a smear of oil for lubrication may
assist in fitment. Some manufacturers may also advise the use of a seal assembly
tool. Never use a sharp metallic instrument such as a screwdriver for fitting. If a
seal becomes nipped or cut when fitting, damage may not be apparent until the
component is assembled and the system pressurized.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 68


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS, '0' Ring Seal

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 69


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS
LABYRINTH SEAL
This type of seal is used extensively within the engine to protect bearing areas from
loss of oil. It consists of a series of knife edges rotating in close proximity to a
series of seal lands.

Principle of Operation
Oil and air pressures are felt at opposite ends of the seal; the air pressure is higher
than oil pressure. The oil pressure is lower than air pressure because it has passed
across a bearing. The result is that there will be a gradual leak of air across the
seal into the oil system.

The pressure of the air will drop progressively across each knife edge; oil loss from
the bearing is thus prevented. This also means that a significant amount of air will
enter the oil scavenge system, and will have to be separated out of the oil and
removed via the breather assembly.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 70


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS,
Labyrinth Seal

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 71


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS
CARBON SEAL
This type of seal can be used as an alternative to the labyrinth seal.
Typical uses for carbon seals would be:-
• Protection of main bearings on the rotating assembly of a gas turbine.
• Protection of engine driven component on an accessory gearbox.
Construction and Operation
This type of seal is a mirror finished, spring loaded carbon seal ring, which is
normally stationary. Bearing against the carbon seal is a mirror finished rotating
steel ring. The spring pressure keeps the carbon face against the steel ring: this
contact pressure provides an effective seal between a rotating and non-rotating
surface. A typical seal location is illustrated in Fig. 3.

As a carbon seal is self lubricating, there is very little friction. Should a carbon seal
become damaged or malfunction it would be changed as a complete assembly.
Caution
Do not touch the mirror polished surfaces of the seals with bare hands as any
grease or dirt on the faces of seals causes them to lose their sealing properties.
The seal can harden and carbonize if oil flows across it. Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 72


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS,
Carbon Seal

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 73


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS
SPRING RING SEAL
This type of seal would normally be used around a main bearing assembly within
the engine. It may be used in conjunction with a labyrinth or screw back type of
seal. The location of a spring ring seal is shown in Fig. 4.

Construction and Operation


This type of seal is similar to a large stepped piston ring; it is located on a rotating
shaft. When the shaft is stationary, the seal clamps tightly to the shaft. As the shaft
rotates, the spring ring can expand slightly, under centrifugal force, when it then
forms an effective seal with the
adjacent stationary housing.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 74


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS,
Spring Ring Seal

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 75


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS
HYDRAULIC SEAL
This type of seal may also be found protecting the bearings on the main rotating
assembly of an engine. It is fitted between the rotating shafts on a twin or triple
spool engine. A hydraulic seal would be used in conjunction with another type of
seal, as shown in Fig. 5.

Construction and Operation


The seal consists of a circular baffle ring mounted on a rotating shaft; the rim of this
ring sits in the centre of a circular depression in an outer rotating shaft. Oil from the
bearing will fill this depression, and be held there by centrifugal force. This oil
reservoir will form a liquid seal with the rim of the rotating baffle ring. Any tendency
for the oil to leak across this seal will be counteracted by air leakage across a
back-up seal.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 76


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS,
Hydraulic Seal

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 77


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS
SCREW BACK SEAL
This type of seal will be found close to a bearing. It is mounted on a rotating shaft
and will be backed up by one of the types of seal previously described.
Fig. 6 shows the location of a screw back seal.

Construction and Operation


This seal consists of a raised screw thread on a rotating shaft; the thread form is
facing towards the bearing. Any oil from the bearing which gets onto this threaded
section is then 'screwed back' to the bearing, thus preventing oil loss. Air pressure
on the outer end of this seal will also be screwed towards the bearing, and helps to
prevent a loss of oil.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 78


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
OIL SEALS,
Screw Back Seal

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 79


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES

1. Oil quantity:
check 5-30 minutes after shut-down
2. Filter clogging:
Check Supply & Scavenge filters, replace filter elements after specified
intervals, e.g. Check A
3. MCD:
Check Master & individual pump MCDs, inspect for metal particles, install new
o-rings. After installation, make sure there is no leakage during engine run-up
at ground idle. All engines should not be checked at same time, i.e. stagger
tasks.
4. Oil cooler :
Check for leakage, damage
5. Oil system Flushing:
Required if oil is contaminated, decomposed due high oil temperature, after
engine preservation, or oil brand change.

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 80


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES cont’d

Oil Servicing Procedure:


1. Before servicing an engine oil system, the technician should refer to the
engine or aircraft Type Certificate Data Sheets or Maintenance Manual.
2. Synthetic oil is usually supplied in one quart containers to minimize chance of
contaminants entering the oil system.
3. Pay careful attention to cleanliness during servicing to maintain integrity of the
lubricant.
4. Insure that servicing is accomplished within a short time after engine
shutdown, in order to prevent over-servicing. Over-servicing may occur on
some engines which have the tendency to allow oil in the storage tank to seep
into the lower portions of the engine after periods of inactivity (oil hiding).
5. When oil level is checked later than the prescribed time after shutdown, then
depending upon oil level, the tank has to be serviced and may be required to
motor for few seconds after which the oil level will be re-checked.
6. An important consideration after oil servicing is recording the amount of oil
serviced. A steady oil consumption within allowable limits provides a valuable
trend analysis to indicate that wear at main bearing oil-seal location is normal.
Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 81


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES cont’d

Oil Servicing Procedure: Warnings and Precautions


WARNING:
SYNTHETIC LUBRICANTS USED IN AIRCRAFT TURBINE ENGINES CONTAIN
ADDITIVES WHICH ARE READILY ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN AND
ARE HIGHLY TOXIC. EXCESSIVE AND/OR PROLONGED EXPOSURE OF
THESE LUBRICANTS TO THE SKIN SHOULD BE AVOIDED.

WARNING:
WAIT AT LEAST FIVE (5) MINUTES AFTER ENGINE SHUT DOWN BEFORE
REMOVING OIL CAP TO ALLOW TANK PRESSURE TO BLEED OFF. HOT
OIL GUSHING FROM TANK COULD CAUSE SEVERE BURNS.

CAUTION: IF LUBE SYSTEM IS INADVERTENTLY SERVICED WITH FLUID


DISSIMILAR TO SYNTHETIC OIL, OR HYDRAULIC FLUID, THE ENGINE
SHOULD NOT BE OPERATED UNTIL THE EFFECTS ON THE ENGINE HAVE
BEEN ASSESSED.

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 82


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES cont’d

Oil Servicing Procedure: Precautions

The following precautions must be taken when filling an engine oil system:-
• Use only the type of oil stated in the maintenance schedule.
• The correct oil type will also be stencilled on the oil tank or the access panel to
the oil filler.
• Use only clean, unopened cans of oil to fill up the tank.
• Equipment used for filling must be clean and dry.
• Only use the filling equipment for one type of oil.
• Make sure the area around the oil tank filler is clean and dry before opening.
• Clean up any oil spilt during a filling operation.

NOTE: The oil level must be checked not less than 10 minutes and not more
than 30 minutes after engine shut down to allow the oil level to settle down in the
tank after de-aeration. It also makes sure that the oil has not had time to drain to
a lower level in the system.

Source: ATITA

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 83


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES cont’d

Oil Flushing Procedure:


1. Drain oil tank
2. Drain the gear box
3. Remove all filters
4. Motor the engine for 2-3 minutes (all lines will become empty)
5. Allow dipping of oil till stop
6. Place and tighten all drain plugs and filter housing, but not the filter elements
7. Fill the tank with new oil and motor the engine for 2-3 minutes.
8. Again open the drain plugs and filter housing and wait for oil dripping
9. Place new filters, tighten all drain plugs and lock wire for safety
10. Charge the tank with new oil again
11. Start the engine and carry out leak check
12. Check quantity of oil in tank and check operation of complete oil system

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 84


BASIC GAS TURBINE
Engine Oil/Lubrication System
MAINTENANCE PRACTICES cont’d

Oil Contamination Check:


Taking sample at regular intervals and sending to Lab for analysis
A. Lubricant Reference Number (LRN)
- In MCD, the metal particles that can be analyzed are of dia10µ or bigger.
- For fine particles, not visible on MCD:
• Electrical conductivity of oil sample is checked
• More the conductivity, more are the number of metal particles
• This information, however, does not tell about the type of metal particles
and which area the particles are coming from

B. Spectroscopic Oil Analysis Program (SOAP)


Oil sample is burnt at high temperature and the radiation is taken on a
photographic plate (spectrum). Thus each metal present in the oil can be
identified and faulty components/area can be isolated. Different areas have
different materials for bearings.

Source: RR

M.Omar Yazdani PIA Training Centre July 2009 85