This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
Monday, November 30, 2009
COMM 101 Study Sheet: Test #4 I. A. Chapter 10 Language Basics 1. Language is Arbitrary 2. Language is Ambiguous 3. Language is Abstract 4. Language is Active Spoken versus Written Language 1. Dynamic Versus Public 2. Immediate Versus Distant 3. Informal Versus Formal 4. Irreversible Versus Revisable 5. Narratives Versus Facts 6. Rhythm Versus Image Audience-centered Language 1. Put Your Language In Context a) Mention Location b) Referring to Current Events c) Responding to What Happens During the Speech 2. Personalize Your Language a) Integrating Audience Analysis Information b) Remarking on What Other Speakers Have Said Using “we,” “us,” and “I” 3. Us Inclusive Language a) Avoiding Language That Discriminates and Stereotypes 4. Use Visual Language a) Similes, Metaphors, Parallelism, Rhyme, Alliteration, Antithesis 5. Spark Imagination With Your Language a) Imaginative Invitations b) Humor Guidelines for Using Language in Your Speech 1. Use Spoken Language 2. Choose Meaningful Words 3. Balance Clarity and Ambiguity 4. Be Concise 5. Avoid Offensive and Aggressive Language 6. Build in Redundancy 7. Don’t Get Too Attached to Your Words Key Terms 1. Alliteration - Repetition of a sound in a series of words, usually the first consonant 2. Antithesis - Juxtaposition of two apparently contradictory phrases taht are organized in a parallel structure 3. Cliche - An expression so overused it fails to have any important meaning
4. Connotative Meaning - A unique meaning for a word based on an individual’s own experiences 5. Denotative Meaning - An agreed-upon definition of a word, found in a dictionary 6. Euphemism - A word used in place of another word that is viewed as more disagreeable or offensive 7. Hedge - A qualifier, such as probably, that makes a statement ambiguous 8. Idiom - An expression that means something other than the literal meaning of the words 9. Inclusive language - Words that don’t privilege one group over another 10. Interpretation - An individual’s internal process of assigning meaning to words 11. Invitation to Imagine - Asking listeners to create a scene or situation in their minds 12. Jargon - Technical language used by members of a profession or associated with a specific topic 13. Language - The system of words people use to communicate with others 14. Metaphor - A language device that demonstrates the commonalities between two dissimilar things 15. Nonsexist Language - Words that are not associated with either sex 16. Parallelism - Using the same phrase, wording, or clause multiple times to add emphasis 17. Rhyme - Using words with similar sounds, usually at the end of the word, to emphasize 18. Simile - A language device that compares two things that are generally dissimilar but share some common properties, expressed using like or as 19. Slang - Informal, nonstandard language, often used within a particular group 20. Symbol - Something, such as a word, that stands for something else, such as a person, place, thing, or idea 21. Tag Question - A question added onto the end of declarative statement that lessens the impact of that statement 22. Tone - Use of language to set the mood or atmosphere with a speaking situation II. Chapter 14 A. Speeches on Questions of Fact 1. Asks True or False 2. What is Observed or Known 3. How the Observations Were Made 4. Whether New Observations Have Changed What People Once Thought of as Fact B. Speeches on Question of Value 1. Asks Subjective Evaluation of Worth, Significance, or Condition C. Speeches on Question of Policy 1. What Course of Action Should be Taken a) What support can I show for my position
b) How close is my audience to my position How does what i suggest solve the problem 2. Organizational Patterns for Speeches on Questions of Policy a) The Problem-Solution Pattern of Organization b) The Problem-Cause-Solution Pattern of Organization c) Motivated Sequence (1) Attention, Need, Satisfaction, Visualization, and Action D. Persuading Different Types of Audiences 1. The Negative, or Hostile, Audience a) Establish your credibility with the audience b) Take a common-ground approach to the topic c) Help your audience visualize your topic in positive ways d) Prepare for your audience’s negative reaction to your position 2. The Positive, or Sympathetic, Audience a) Rely on narratives to elaborate on your points b) Incorporate engaging evidence that further reinforces the audience’s commitment to the topic c) Use vivid language and images to heighten your audience’s enthusiasm for the topic d) Rally to action 3. The Divided Audience a) Demonstrate that you recognize the legitimacy of the arguments for and against b) Establish your credibility c) Establish common ground among all audience members d) Address the objection e) Reinforce the position of those who agree with you 4. The Uninformed Audience a) Motivate you audience to want to learn b) Demonstrate expertise on the topic and address all perspectives fairly c) Repetition and redundancy d) Keep you persuasion subtle 5. The Apathetic Audience a) Gain attention and pique interest b) Show how topic affects them c) Show audience how much you car about topic; energy and dynamism d) Take a one-sided approach to the topic E. Key Terms 1. Apathetic Audience - An audience that is informed about a speaker’s topi bu not interested n it 2. Divided Audience - An audience that is informed about a speaker’s topic but equally split between those who favor the speaker’s position and those who oppose it 3. Negative (Hostile) Audience - An audience that is informed about a speaker’s topic and holds an unfavorable view of the speaker’s position
4. Persuasion - Using language, images, and other means of communication to influence people’s attitudes, beliefs, values, or actions 5. Persuasive Speech - A speech in which the speaker attempts to reinforce, modify, or change audience members’ beliefs, attitudes, opinions, values, and behaviors 6. Positive (Sympathetic) Audience - An audience that is informed about a speaker’s topic and has a favorable view of the speaker’s position 7. Question of Fact - A question that asks whether something is true or false 8. Question Policy - A question that asks what course of action should be taken or how a problem should be solved 9. Question of Value - A question that asks for a subjective evaluation of something’s worth, significance, quality, or condition 10. Uninformed Audience - An audience that is unfamiliar with a speaker’s topic and has no opinion about it Chapter 15 Using Claims Effectively 1. Types of Claims a) Premises b) Conclusions Using Evidence Effectively 1. Logos: Appeals to Logic 2. Ethos: Appeals to Speaker Credibility 3. Pathos: Appeals to Emotion 4. Mythos: Appeals to Cultural Beliefs 5. Guidelines for Using Evidence Effectively a) Keep your evidence relevant to your topic b) Draw your evidence from highly credible sources c) Select evidence form diverse sources d) Incorporate evidence addressing all types of appeals Using Reasoning Effectively 1. Deductive Reasoning 2. Inductive Reasoning 3. Casual Reasoning 4. Analogical Reasoning Avoiding Fallacies in Argument 1. Fallacies in Claims 2. Fallacies in Evidence 3. Fallacies in Reasoning 4. Fallacies in Responding Key Terms 1. Ad Hominem fallacy - Argument in which a speaker rejects another speaker’s claim based on that speaker’s character rather than the evidence the speaker presents; also called the against the person fallacy
2. Ad Ignorantiam fallacy - Argument in which a speaker suggests that because a claim hasn’t been shown to be false, it must be true; also called an appeal to ignorance 3. Ad Populum fallacy - Argument in which a speaker appeals to popular attitudes and emotions without offering evidence to support claims 4. Analogical Reasoning - Comparing two similar objects, processes, concepts, or events and suggestion that what holds true for one also holds true for the other 5. Appeal to Cultural Belief - Use of values and beliefs embedded in cultural narratives or stories to influence an audience 6. Appeal to Speaker - Use of he audience’s perception of the speaker as competent, trustworthy, dynamic, and likable to influence an audience 7. Appeal to Tradition Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker asserts that the status quo is better than any new idea or approach 8. Argument - Presenting claims and supporting them with evidence and reasoning 9. Begging the Question - Argument in which a speaker uses a premise to imply the truth of the conclusion or asserts that the validity of the conclusion is selfevident; also called circular reasoning 10. Caricature Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker misrepresents another speaker’s argument so that only a weak shell of the original argument remains; also called the straw man fallacy 11. Causal Reasoning - Linking two events or actions to claim that one resulted in the other 12. Claim - A position or assertion that a speaker wants an audience to accept 13. Comparative Evidence Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker uses statistics or compares number in ways that misrepresent the evidence and mislead the audience 14. Conclusion - A primary claim or assertion 15. Deductive Reasoning - Reasoning from a general condition to a specific case 16. Division Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker assumes that what is true of the whole is also true of the parts that make up the whole 17. Emotional Appeal - Use of emotional evidence and stimulation of feelings to influence an audience 18. Enthymeme - An argument in which a premise or conclusion is unstated 19. Evidence - Supporting materials - narratives, examples, definitions, testimony, facts, and statistics - that a speaker presents to reinforce a claim 20. Inductive Reasoning - Supporting a claim with specific cases or instances; also called reasoning by example 21. Fallacy - An error in making an argument 22. False Dilemma Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker reduces available choices to only two even though other alternatives exist; also called the either-or fallacy
23. Guilt by Association Fallacy - argument in which a speaker suggests that something is wrong with another speaker’s claims by association those claims with someone that audience finds objectionable; also called the bad company fallacy 24. Hasty Generalization Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker draws a conclusion based on too few or inadequate examples 25. Loaded Word Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker uses emotional laden words to evaluate claims based on a misleading emotional response rather than the evidence presented 26. Logical Appeal - Use of rational appeals based on logic, facts, and analysis to influence an audience 27. Post Hoc Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker concludes a causal relationship exits simply because one event follows another in time; also called the false cause fallacy 28. Premise - A claim that provides reasons to support a conclusion 29. Qualifier - A word or phrase that clarifies, modifies, or limits the meaning of another word or phrase 30. Reasoning - The method or process used to link claims to evidence 31. Red Herring Fallacy - Argument that introduces irrelevant evidence to distract an audience from the real issue 32. Slippery Slope Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker asserts that one event will necessarily lead to another without showing any logical connection between the two events 33. Syllogism - A form of deductive reasoning consisting of a major premise, minor premise, and conclusion 34. Weak Analogy Fallacy - Argument in which a speaker compares two things that are dissimilar, making the comparison inaccurate IV. Chapter 16 A. Speeches for Special Occasions 1. Speeches of Introduction a) Prepare the Audience b) Be Accurate and Up to Date c) Connect with the Audience 2. Speeches of Nomination 3. Award Presentations 4. Acceptance Speeches a) Be Thankful and Humble b) Be Succinct c) Contextualize the Award 5. After-Dinner Speeches a) Be Entertaining and Lighthearted b) Focus on a Theme 6. Tributes and Eulogies a) Emphasize Emotion Appropriately b) Provide Inspiration 7. Mediated Speaking
Presenting in Small Groups 1. Oral Report 2. Panel Discussion 3. Round Table Discussion 4. Symposium 5. Forum 6. Videoconferencing 7. Preparation and Practice C. Evaluation Small Group Presentations 1. Preparation as a Group 2. Coordinated Presentations 3. Effective Listening 4. Clear References to the Group 5. Goal Achievement D. Key Terms 1. Acceptance Speech - Speech given by an individual who is being recognized, honored, or given an award 2. Award Presentation - Speech that recognizes an individual to celebrate something the person has done well 3. Eulogy - Speech of tribute presented as a retrospective about an individual who has died 4. Forum - The question-and-answer session following a group’s formal presentation 5. Nomination Speech - Speech that demonstrates why a particular individual would be successful at something if given the chance 6. Oral Report - A report in which one member of a group presents the group’s findings 7. Panel Discussion - A discussion in which a moderator asks questions of experts on a topic in front of an audience 8. Round Table Discussion - A discussion in which expert participants discuss a topic in an impromptu format without an audience presents 9. Small Group - A collection of individuals who interact and depend on one another to solve a problem, make a decision, or achieve a common goal or objective 10. Speech of Introduction - A short speech that introduces someone to an audience 11. Speech of Tribute - Speech that gives credit, respect, admiration, gratitude, or inspiration to someone who has accomplished something significant, lives in a way that deserves to be praised, or is about to embark on an adventure 12. Symposium - A presentation format in which each member of a group presents a speech about a part of a larger topic 13. Videoconferencing - a small group presentation in which individuals at multiple physical locations interact in real time orally and visually, suing video and high-speed computer technology
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.