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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION

1.1 OVERVIEW

1.1.1 POWER FACTOR AND CONTROL

According to Indian Electric Company, about 60% of all loads in INDIA


are electric motors. This fact in combination with the India Energy Information
Administration (IEIA) statistic of only about 25,000 out of 200,000
manufacturing companies participating in power factor correction, illustrates a
need for companies to implement power factor correction devices to improve
efficiency and reduce energy waste. One incentive for companies to install
power factor correction devices is the charges that many utility companies
impose for falling below a certain power factor. For example, If a company
requires to install power factor correction devices on their system if the power
factor falls below 0.85. If a customer has a power factor above 0.85 the
customer receives a credit equal to the process described above instead of a
charge.

There are also a couple of reasons for power companies to be concerned


with low power factor. One of the most important reasons they are concerned is
the power losses that occur through their transmission lines or the “I squared R
losses.” This is power that the customer never uses and is not charged for. This
is a problem both for generating and distribution companies as a distribution
company might be charged for running at a low power factor in their system by
a generating company. These charges incurred are also important for keeping
power companies’ rates low to remain competitive. With several power
companies offering incentives and most power companies charging some type of

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fee for falling below their specified power factor, some may wonder why
companies do not actively pursue to improve their power factor. This can be due
to several factors. One is that the companies’ administrators do not think the
company will be able to recover costs from installing power factor correction
devices.

The most common method of controlling power is by the use of


switching capacitor banks and was the method implemented in this project.
Capacitor banks generate “negative” reactive power or absorb the reactive
power produced by inductive loads. However, it is possible to add too much
capacitance to the system and still incur power company charges. This occurs
when the amount of capacitance added is so much greater than the inductance of
the system that the power factor goes below 0.85 leading. The goal of this
project was to obtain a power factor as close to one as possible or to control the
system power factors within a range that will avoid any power company charges
possible.

1.1.2 MAXIMUM DEMAND AND CONTROL

Many High scale Industrial sites similar to the mining, automobile, textile
and paper industries etc., uses large inductive loads, so they have to pay an
additional charge over and above the normal charge for units of electricity
consumed as maximum demand charge. This charge often forms a large part of
the bill which can be tracked at timesof high power usage. This is because the
utility company charges a penalty when the factory draws more power than the
contracted maximum amount.

The maximum power consumed in factories over a calculated period of


time, which is normally anywhere between 8 to 30 minutes is known as
maximum demand. In many countries, 15 minutes is considered as the most
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common time period. There are three terms that appear on majority of the
company electric bills, Active energy consumption (kWh), reactive energy
consumption (kvarh) and Maximum demand. Traditionally companies have
concentrated their energy saving efforts on two terms, Reduction of Kilowatt
Hour Consumption and improving the electrical systems Power Factors.

L.T and High-tension (HT) consumers have to pay a maximum demand


charge in addition to the usual charge for the number of units consumed. This
charge is usually based on the highest amount of power used during some period
(say 30 minutes) during the metering month. The maximum demand charge
often represents a large proportion of the total bill and may be based on only one
isolated 30 minute episode of high power use.

The digital power meter is a Microcontroller based unit which measures


electrical parameters and sequentially displays them on LCD. This unit is meant
for three phase four wire or three wire system. In three phase four wire L.T
systems it requires three current transformers mounted on the supply system.
Hence reference demand point shows the marking of minimum and maximum
demand value to be set. Hence the power stability factor may be achieved and
reduce the economical charges to the consumer from the side of Electrical power
system.

The objective of this work is to improve power factor necessary for


industrial as well as domestic areas & to make power factor as close as unity
without facing penalty from electrical distributers and also to make the load
management operation when maximum demand crosses the limits of permissible
maximum load.

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1.2 LITERATURE REVIEW

1.2.1 MAXIMUM DEMAND LIMITER FOR RELIABLE SUPPLY BY


REDUCING THE POWER CUTS TO DOMESTIC LOADS

Electrical energy is a vital for feature of any developing nation. To meet


the growing demand, power generating plants of all types are being installed;
though the gap between the supply and the demand is continuously increasing,
due to the depletion of natural resources, hence, rise in power demand, the way
to overcome the flaming problem is optimal utilization of available energy
sources, limiting the wastage of electrical energy which includes both technical
and non-technical and limiting the demand during peak hours. In this paper, a
methodology is proposed to solve burning problem with load management
during peak hours, in case of domestic loads aiming to reduce the gap between
the demand and the supply, such that both consumer and supplier get benefited
simultaneously.

1.2.2 A LITERATURE REVIEW ON DYNAMIC PRICING OF


ELECTRICITY

Revenue management and dynamic pricing are concepts that have


immense possibilities for application in the energy sector. Both can be
considered as demand-side management tools that can facilitate the offering of
different prices at different demand levels. This paper studies literature on
various topics related to the dynamic pricing of electricity and lists future
research avenues in pricing policies, consumers’ willingness to pay and market
segmentation in this field. Demand and price forecasting play an important role
in determining prices and scheduling load in dynamic pricing environments.
This allows different forms of dynamic pricing policies to different markets
and customers depending on customers’ willingness to pay. Consumers’
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willingness to pay for electricity services is also necessary in setting price
limits depending on the demand and demand response curve. Market
segmentation can enhance the effects of such pricing schemes. Appropriate
scheduling of electrical load enhances the consumer response to dynamic
tariffs.

1.2.3 NEW THREE PHASE BIDIRECTIONAL SWITCH BASED AC


VOLTAGE CONTROLLER TOPOLOGIES

A new family of three-phase AC voltage controllers has been presented in


this paper. The proposed converters consisting of two three-phase modified
bidirectional switches have supply and load side neutral connections either
directly or indirectly which may be the requirements of three phase AC-AC
switched mode voltage controllers in certain applications. Steady state analysis
and simulation results are presented in this paper using the Boost topology as an
example. Performance of the circuit has been found satisfactory with duty cycle
variation. Because the proposed converters employ only two active devices, they
can reduce cost and complexity with simple control and improve system
reliability.

1.2.4 DEMAND CONTROL & MONITORING SYSTEM AS THE


POTENTIAL OF ENERGY SAVING

The electricity demand for supply system in develops countries nowadays


rising significantly. According to the IPEC Energy Demand and Supply Outlook
- 5th Edition, the electricity demand for Malaysia is expected to increase
significantly from 96.3 TWlh in 2009 to 206 TWlh in 2035. For better control of
the electricity demand, Malaysia must aim to encourage efficient usage of

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energy through available initiatives. The intelligent solution to overcome this
crisis is Demand Side Management (DSM) strategies such as maximum demand
control, increasing the efficiency and etc. This paper implements a strategy of
DSM measures by reducing energy demand. The research will focus on optimal
utilization of available electricity during peak and off peak hours to maintain
consumer loads indirectly by manipulate the supply resource.

1.2.5 3-PHASE SWITCH MODE AC VOLTAGE CONTROLLER WITH


INPUT CURRENT SHAPING

Three schemes of 3 phase AC voltage controller are proposed. The


proposed AC voltage controllers are based on Boost and Buck switch mode
topologies. The proposed AC-AC converters have the advantage of input current
shaping that provides low input current total harmonic distortion (THD) and
high input power factor compared to the conventional AC voltage controllers.
Moreover, only a single control switch is necessary for the AC-AC conversion
compared to 6 thyristors in their conventional counterparts. The reduction in
switch reduces switching loss and a simpler control circuit suffices. Moreover,
an energy recovery snubber has been used to achieve high efficiency. Open loop
sliding control has been employed for the control of the proposed AC voltage
controllers.

1.2.6 IMPROVED RESIDENTIAL ELECTRICITY DEMAND


MANAGEMENT THROUGH ANALYSIS OF THE CUSTOMER
PERSPECTIVE

This thesis examined a successful peak demand reduction project


implemented in a suburban community on an island off the coast of Northern
Queensland from the perspective of the residential consumer. Of academic
interest was the size and longevity of the peak demand reduction, the entire
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community and from multi-disciplinary approach. The key research aim was to
understand the essential actions and interactions of the residential customer and
the energy industry which led to a reduction in peak demand.

1.2.7 DESIGN OF SMART MAXIMUM DEMAND CONTROLLER FOR


PEAK LOAD MANAGEMENT FOR DOMESTIC LOADS

A Way to overcome this problem in the present scenario is to utilize the


existing sources as optimally as possible, limiting the wastage in the usage of
electric energy. In this paper, an Attempt is made to propose a methodology to
solve this critical problem through load management during peak hours, in the
case of domestic loads. This will help in bringing the supply within the range of
demand; in such a way that the consumer and the utility will be benefitted
simultaneously. The paper also presents the application of DSM techniques to
domestic loads, where the power consumption can be optimized during peak
hours; hence the reliability of the power supply can be increased. The proposed
maximum demand limiter is a part of demand side Management. The results are
presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed method for load
management.

1.2.8 DYNAMIC TARIFF STRUCTURES FOR DEMAND SIDE


MANAGEMENT AND DEMAND RESPONSE

To glean the benefits of Smart Grid concepts of Demand Side


Management and Demand Response to the fullest, it is imperative that
innovative dynamic tariff structures be designed through which the benefits of
Smart grids can be realized by all the stakeholders at the revenue generation end
of the electricity value chain right from consumer, distribution company, state
governments and the nation. This white paper highlights one such Dynamic
tariff structure which may help in the wider application of smart grid
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technologies such as demand side management and demand response. Proposed
Dynamic tariff structure includes frequency based tariff component as well as
preannounced Time of Day tariff charging higher price for peak load periods
based on historical data. Reliability surcharge and discounts on pre-payment are
also proposed to be included in the tariff. Consumers may be given an option to
participate in the new tariff scheme with a cap that the revised bill amount will
not exceed the amount payable as per existing tariff plan in that area.

1.2.9 CONTROLLABLE LOAD MANAGEMENT APPROACHES IN


SMART GRIDS

With rapid smart grid technology development, the customer can actively
participate in demand-side management (DSM) with the mutual information
communication between the distributor operation company and the smart
devices in real-time. Controllable load management not only has the advantage
of peak shaving, load balance, frequency regulation, and voltage stability, but is
also effective at providing fast balancing services to the renewable energy grid
in the distributed power system. The load management faces an enormous
challenge as the customer has a large number of both small residential loads and
dispersed renewable sources. In this paper, various controllable load
management approaches are discussed. The traditional controllable load
approaches such as the end users’ controllable appliances, storage battery,
Vehicle-to-Grid (V2G), and heat storage are reviewed. The “broad controllable
loads” management, such as the microgrid, Virtual Power Plant (VPP), and the
load aggregator are also presented. Furthermore, the load characteristics, control
strategies, and control effectiveness are analyzed.

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1.3 EXISTING SYSTEM

There are several existing procedures for power factor correction in


modern days.

1.3.1 SYNCHRONOUS CONDENSER:

It is a synchronous motor that rotates under no load condition.


Asynchronous motor shows capacitive behavior while operating in over-excited
mode. By controlling the field excitation power factor can be adjusted
continuously. It provides step-less PF correction and not affected by system
harmonics. But its installation and maintenance is costly.

1.3.2 STATIC CAPACITOR BANK

Capacitors cause leading power factor as it shifts current ahead of the


voltage. So to correct lagging power factor, it is a convenient method for which
this method is practiced worldwide vastly. Though it has some limitations like
the inability to absorb harmonics and doesn’t provide step-less correction, it is a
popular choice for PFC for its low cost of installation and maintenance.

1.3.3 OTHERS METHODS

There are also some other complicated methods invented for PF


correction which are not much popular for economical purpose and some
methods are under research. Phase Advancer, Three-phase buck-boost PFC
circuit and controlling method etc.

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CHAPTER 2

PROPOSED SYSTEM

The proposed system consist of automated control system of load


management here purpose of controlling the demand is, not to exceed the
contracted maximum demand limit. The way to do this is to shed non-critical
loads... Possible loads to be disconnected: Lights, Compressors, Air
conditioners, Pumps, Fans and extractors, Packaging machinery, Shredders,
Others... Generally, all those machine which do not affect the main production
process or which are not essential. Hence the load parameters like Kva, W, and
A etc... in these any one is taken for value and limited values are setted though
automated control by predicted and calculation takes place thus demand
management can be achieved, when compared to Existing system this gives
relevant option for modern load managing.

In the proposed system of power factor control takes 230v 50Hz mains
supply as a power source and steps down the voltage level to 12v through a PT.
The power supply unit, then converts this 12v AC into two different DC power
consisting of +9v and +5v. The sample voltage signal is obtained from this 12v
AC signal and processed through the voltage sensor circuit for microcontroller
input. A current signal sample is also obtained from the mains supply by a
current transformer and processed by a current sensor circuit for another
microcontroller input. The microcontroller performs power factor calculations
and switches capacitors from the bank.

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CHAPTER 3

SYSTEM DISCRIPTION

3.1 BLOCK DIAGRAM

Fig 5.1 Block diagram of proposed Hybrid Load Management system

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3.2 CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION OF APFC

Fig 5.2.1 Circuit diagram of microcontroller based power factor correction

A 120 [VAC] source was used to power an inductive load as seen in


Figure 4-1 above, since the load power factor can be easily changed by adjusting
the inductance of the load. The load used in this project was a three phase
Hampden 1.4[A] 1/3 [HP] motor with attached pony brake to easily vary the
power factor of the motor. Capacitor banks were used in parallel with the motor
to improve the power factor due to the inductive load. The SATEC
programmable power meter shown in Figure 2-1 was used to measure the power
factor, current, voltage, and the active, reactive, and apparent power. The meter
was also used to energize the relays that switched the capacitors in and out of
the system. The software program, Power Analysis Software, used with the
power meter allowed to specify a set point that when set to true, switched on a
relay when the power factor dropped below a certain point.

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3.3 CIRCUIT DISCRIPTION OF ADC

Fig 5.2.2 Circuit diagram of Microcontroller based automatic demand control

The maximum input voltage that can be applied at the input is


35V.Normally there is a 2-3 Volts drop across the regulator so the input voltage
should be at least 2-3 Volts higher than the output voltage. If the input voltage
gets below the Vmin of the regulator due to the ripple voltage or due to any
other reason the voltage regulator will not be able to produce the correct
regulated voltage. We require 5V output so we use IC 7805 where 78 indicates
that it’s a positive series & the 05 indicates the output voltage. Another capacitor
C4 is used after the voltage regulator, this is used to remove any ripples or noise
generated in the Vcc. D7 is an LED used to indicate the Power Status.

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Figure 5.2.3 Circuit diagram of hybrid load management system

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3.4 HARDWARE DISCRIPTION

3.4.1 POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER


Transformers convert AC electricity from one voltage to another with a
little loss of power. The potential transformer (PT) essentially uses a step-down
transformer to reduce the dangerously high voltage to a safer low voltage
(typically 110 Volts) in any substation. The PT used here steps-down the supply
voltage of 230 Volts to 12 Volts as required by the circuit to operate. The output
of a PT is used for all measurement and monitoring purposes in conjunction
with relay operation

Figure 3.4.1 Potential Transformer

The ratio of the number of turns on each coil, called the turn’s ratio,
determines the ratio of the voltages. A step-down transformer has a large
number of turns on its primary (input) coil which is connected to the high
voltage mains supply, and a small number of turns on its secondary (output) coil
to give a low output voltage.

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3.4.2 CURRENT TRANSFORMER
In an electrical circuit, a current transformer (CT) is used for
measurement of electric currents. Current transformers, together with voltage
transformers (VT) (potential transformers (PT)), are known as instrument
transformers. When current in a circuit is too high to directly apply to measuring
instruments, a current transformer produces a reduced current accurately
proportional to the current in the circuit, which can be conveniently connected to
measuring and recording instruments. It also isolates the measuring instruments
from what may be very high voltage in the monitored circuit. They are
commonly used in metering and protective relays in the electrical power
industry.

Figure 3.4.2 Schematic working of a current transformer

3.4.3 ZERO CROSSING DETECTORS


The zero crossing detectors is a sine-wave to square-wave converter. To
calculate the phase lag between the voltage and current, two detectors are used
to find the arrival instance of each signal. Then the difference in the arrival
instance calibrated to angle gives the phase angle lag. By taking the cosine of

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this phase lag, power factor of the circuit is calculated. The reference voltage in
this case is set to zero. The output voltage waveform shows when and in what
direction an input signal crosses zero volts. If input

Figure 3.4.3 LM339 IC and its pin diagram

Voltage is a low frequency signal, and then output voltage will be less
quick to switch from one saturation point to another. And if there is noise in
between the two input nodes, the output may fluctuate between positive and
negative saturation voltage Vsat. The LM339 IC is used as the comparator
circuit to function as zero crossing detector.

3.4.4 POWER SUPPLY FOR CURCUIT

The embedded system circuit typically uses 12 volt and 5 volt DC as its
operating voltage. Therefore, there is a need to convert the 230 Volt AC supply
to the required DC supply. In the 1st stage the 230 V AC is step-down to 12 V
AC by using a transformer. In this case the output from the potential transformer
(PT) can be utilized instead of going for another step-down transformer. The
2nd stage is the rectification process. By using a full bridge rectifier circuit, the

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12 V AC is rectified to a 12V pulsating DC voltage. This pulsating DC is passed
through a capacitive filter for smoothening in the 3rd stage and gives a normal
12V DC as output. The 4th stage consists of using a 12 V and a 5 V voltage
regulator for generating the required stable supply voltage to be used in the
control circuit.

3.4.5 VOLTAGE REGULATOR

The LM78XX/LM78XXA series of three-terminal positive regulators are


available in the TO-220/D-PAK package and with several fixed output voltages,
making them useful in a wide range of applications. Each type employs internal
current limiting, thermal shutdown and safe operating area protection, making it
essentially indestructible. In the LM78XX, the output voltage is specified by the
last 2 digits XX. The output of LM7805 will be 5 Volts and the same for 7812
will be 12 volts.

Figure 3.4.4LM7805 AND ITS CONNECTION DIAGRAM

3.4.6 MICRCONTROLLER
The heart of any embedded system is a microcontroller which is
responsible for all the logical processing. It takes input, processes it according to
the program written to it and then gives the processed output. It also has some
on chip memory which is utilized to store some temporary variables during
processing is going on. The microcontroller used here is AT89S52 which is a 8-
bit controller.
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Figure 3.4.5 89S52 Microcontroller and its pin diagram

The AT89S52 is a low-power, high-performance CMOS 8-bit


microcontroller with 8K bytes of in-system programmable flash memory. The
device is manufactured using Atmel’s high-density nonvolatile memory
technology and is compatible with the industry standard instruction set and pin
out. The on-chip flash allows the program memory to be reprogrammed in-
system or by a conventional nonvolatile memory programmer. By combining a
versatile 8-bit CPU with in-system programmable flash on a monolithic chip, the
Atmel AT89S52 is a powerful microcontroller which provides a highly-flexible
and cost-effective solution to many embedded control applications. The
AT89S52 provides the following standard features: 8K bytes of flash, 256 bytes
of RAM, 32 I/O lines, watchdog timer, two data pointers, three 16-bit
timer/counters, a six-vector two-level interrupt architecture, a full duplex serial
port, on-chip oscillator, and clock circuitry.

3.4.7 RELAY
A relay is an electrically operated switch. Relays are used where it is
necessary to control a circuit by a low-power signal (with complete electrical
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isolation between control and controlled circuits), or where several circuits must
be controlled by one signal. Current flowing through the coil of the relay creates
a magnetic field which attracts a lever and changes the switch contacts.

The relay's switch connections are usually labeled COM, NC and NO:

COM = Common, always connect to this; it is the moving part of the switch.

NC = Normally Closed, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is off.

NO = Normally Open, COM is connected to this when the relay coil is on.

Figure 3.4.6 Relay and its internal connection

3.4.8 RELAY DRIVER

As the current supplied by the output pin of microcontroller is not


sufficient for the relay coil to operate the relay, a relay driver ULN2003 is used.
ULN2003 is a high voltage and high current Darlington transistor array. The
ULN2003 is a monolithic high voltage and high current Darlington transistor
arrays.

Figure 3.4.7 Relay Driver


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It consists of seven NPN Darlington pairs that feature high-voltage
outputs with common-cathode Clamp diode for switching inductive loads. The
collector-current rating of a single Darlington pair is 500mA. The Darlington
pairs may be paralleled for higher current capability. Applications include relay
drivers, hammer drivers, lamp drivers, display drivers (LED gas discharge), line
drivers, and logic buffers.

3.4.9 CAPACITOR BANK

Shunt capacitor banks are used to improve the quality of the electrical
supply and the efficient operation of the power system. Studies show that a flat
voltage profile on the system can significantly reduce line losses. Shunt
capacitor banks are relatively inexpensive and can be easily installed anywhere
on the network. The capacitor bank consists of number of shunt capacitors
which are switched ON or OFF depending on the reactive power requirement.
The switching of capacitors can be done manually or automatically by using
relays.

Figure 3.4.8 Shunt capacitor

Shunt capacitors, either at the customer location for power factor


correction or on the distribution system for voltage control, dramatically alter
the system impedance variation with frequency. Capacitors do not create

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harmonics, but severe harmonic distortion can sometimes be attributed to their
presence.

3.4.10 CONTACTOR

A contactor is an electrically-controlled switch used for switching an


electrical power circuit. A contactor is typically controlled by a circuit, which
has a much lower power level than the switched circuit, such as a 24-volt coil
electromagnet controlling a 230-volt motor switch.

Unlike general-purpose relays, contactors are designed to be directly


connected to high-current load devices. Relays tend to be of lower capacity and
are usually designed for both normally closed and normally open applications.
Devices switching more than 15 amperes or in circuits rated more than a few
kilowatts are usually called contactors.

Figure 3.4.9 Contactor

Contactors come in many forms with varying capacities and features.


Unlike a circuit breaker, a contractor is not intended to interrupt a short
circuit current. Contactors range from those having a breaking current of several
amperes to thousands of amperes and 24 V DC to many kilovolts. The physical
size of contactors ranges from a device small enough to pick up with one hand,
to large devices approximately a meter (yard) on a side.Contactors are used to

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control electric motors, lighting, heating, capacitor banks, thermal evaporators,
and other electrical loads.

3.4.11 CIRCUIT BREAKERS

A circuit breaker is an automatically operated electrical switch designed


to protect an electrical circuit from damage caused by excess current from an
overload or short circuit. Its basic function is to interrupt current flow after a
fault is detected. Unlike a fuse, which operates once and then must be replaced,
a circuit breaker can be reset (either manually or automatically) to resume
normal operation.

Figure 3.4.10 Circuit Breaker

Circuit breakers are made in varying sizes, from small devices that protect
low-current circuits or individual household appliance, up to
large switchgear designed to protect high voltage circuits feeding an entire city.
The generic function of a circuit breaker, RCD or a fuse, as an automatic means
of removing power from a faulty system is often abbreviated as OCPD (Over
Current Protection Device).

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3.5 OPERATION

The two part of operation power factor control system takes 230v 50Hz
mains supply as a power source and steps down the voltage level to 12v through
a PT. The power supply unit, then converts this 12v AC into two different DC
power consisting of +9v and +5v. The sample voltage signal is obtained from
this 12v AC signal and processed through the voltage sensor circuit for
microcontroller input. A current signal sample is also obtained from the mains
supply by a current transformer and processed by a current sensor circuit for
another microcontroller input. The microcontroller performs power factor
calculations and switches capacitors from the bank and also demand controller
to perform control of maximum and minimum demand at which load intake of
high current. The results are displayed on a 20x4 LCD display. The functional
block diagram of the complete project is shown in the following figure.

The operation of demand control circuit is simple and easy. Firstly the
input is tapped from a 230V AC Source and it is stepped down to 9V AC and
then is converted to DC 5V by using a cascaded connection of a Bridge rectifier
and a 7805-Voltage regulator. This 5V supply is used for 555, 8051MC, 16*2
LCD Display Segment. The data is completely controlled by using the
instructions given in the controller. According to the instructions in controller,
when the maximum demand crosses its specified value/range, the buzzer is
activated(as an alarm/indication) and the amount of power being consumed is
displayed on LCD Segment , and if the load is not set back within specified
limits in the given time, one of the port of 8051MC(the port-as specified in the
program) gets activated(active high state), then the signal from this port is
driven and amplified by current driving circuit and is given to relay based circuit
breaker and the load is tripped off. Multi-function meter is a Microcontroller

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based unit which measures electrical parameters and sequentially displays them
on LCD. This unit is meant for three phase four wire or three wire system. In
three phase four wire L.T systems it requires three current transformers mounted
on the supply system. Hence reference demand point shows the marking of
minimum and maximum demand value to be set. Hence the power stability
factor may be achieved and reduce the economical charges to the consumer from
the side of Electrical power system.

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3.6 FLOWCHART

Figure 3.6.1 Flow chart of Demand control

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Figure 3.6.2 Flow chart of power factor control

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3.7 OUTPUT

Figure 3.7.1 load output waveform

Figure 3.7.2 output voltage waveform

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Figure 3.7.3 output current waveform

3.8 SALIENT FEATURES

1. 8K bytes of In-System Programmable Flash with Read-While-Write


capabilities.

2. 512 bytes of EPROM, 1K byte of SRAM.

3. 23 general purpose I/O lines.

4. 32 general purpose working registers.

5. Three flexible Timer/Counters with compare modes. Internal and external


interrupts.

6. A serial programmable USART.

7. A byte oriented Two-wire Serial Interface.

8. A 6-channel ADC (eight channels in TQFP and QFN/MLF packages) with


10-bit accuracy.

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9. A programmable Watchdog Timer with Internal Oscillator.

 Four Quadrant Measurement


 Accuracy of +0.8% for Reactive Power, + 0.5% for Current 6 or 12 steps
to operate Capacitor Circuits.
 Precise and quick relay controls
 Continuous monitoring of defective capacitor stages.
 Counting, Storing and Display of number of switching operation

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CHAPTER 4

CONCLUSION

Automatic power factor correction and demand control techniques can be


applied in industries, commercial lines and power distribution system to increase
stability and efficiency of the system. Care should be taken so that the capacitors
are not subject to rapid on off-on conditions as well as overcorrection otherwise
the lifespan of capacitor bank decreases significantly. The APFC and Demand
control device helps to pull in high current drawn from the system and reduce
charges on utility bills. Reduced power consumption results in lower greenhouse
gas emissions and fossil fuel depletion by power stations and would benefit the
environment. Also economical parameters on both customers and load can be
achieved.

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APPENDIX I

CALCULATING POWER FACTOR

Ratio between true power and apparent power is called the power
factor for this circuit. Because true power and apparent power form the adjacent
and hypotenuse sides of a right triangle, respectively, the power factor ratio is
also equal to the cosine of that phase angle

Power factor can be an important aspect to consider in an AC circuit because of


any power factor less than 1 means that the circuit’s wiring has to carry more
current than what would be necessary with zero reactance in the circuit to
deliver the same amount of (true) power to the resistive load. If our last example
circuit had been purely resistive, we would have been able to deliver a full
169.256 watts to the load with the same 1.410 amps of current, rather than the
mere 119.365 watts that it is presently dissipating with that same current
quantity. The poor power factor makes for an inefficient power delivery system.

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DEMAND FACTOR
It is the ratio of Maximum demand on the power station to its connected
load.

LOAD FACTOR
The ratio of average load to the maximum demand during a given period
is known as load factor

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APPENDIX II

6.3 MATLAB SIMULATION

Figure 6.3MATLAB Simulation of Automatic load management system

36
APPENDIX III

PPROGRAMMING

PROGRAM FOR DEMAND MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

PROGRAM:

#include<EEPROM.h>

#include <LiquidCrystal.h>

LiquidCrystal lcd(7,6,5,4,3,2);

int led=13;

#define pulsein 8

#define relay1 12

#define relay2 9

#define relay3 10

#define relay4 11

unsigned int pusle_count=0;

float units=0;

unsigned int Energy=0;

float watt_factor=0.3125;

unsigned int temp=0,i=0,x=0,k=0;

char str[70],flag1=0,flag2=0;

String bal="";

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void setup()

lcd.begin(16,2);

Serial.begin(9600);

pinMode(led, OUTPUT);

pinMode(pulsein, INPUT);

pinMode(relay, OUTPUT);

digitalWrite(pulsein, HIGH);

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print("Maximum");

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print(" Meter ");

delay(2000);

lcd.clear();

lcd.print("Demand Controller");

delay(2000);

lcd.clear();

lcd.print("System Ready");

Serial.println("AT+CNMI=2,2,0,0,0");

init_sms();

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send_data("System Ready");

send_sms();

delay(1000);

digitalWrite(led, LOW);

lcd.clear();

// EEPROM.write(1,0);

// Energy=EEPROM.read(1);

void loop()

serialEvent();

rupees=EEPROM.read(1);

units=rupees/5.0;

lcd.setCursor(0,0);

lcd.print("Units:");

lcd.print(units);

lcd.print(" ");

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

if(rupees<15)

lcd.print("LOW Energy:");

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else

lcd.print("Energy:");

lcd.print(rupees);

lcd.print(" ");

read_pulse();

check_status();

if(temp==1)

decode_message();

send_confirmation_sms();

void serialEvent()

while(Serial.available())

char ch=(char)Serial.read();

str[i++]=ch;

if(ch == '*')

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temp=1;

lcd.clear();

lcd.print("Message Received");

delay(500);

break;

void init_sms()

Serial.println("AT+CMGF=1");

delay(200);

Serial.println("AT+CMGS=\"+918287114222\"");

delay(200);

void send_data(String message)

Serial.println(message);

delay(200);

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}

void send_sms()

Serial.write(26);

void read_pulse()

if(!digitalRead(pulsein))

digitalWrite(led, HIGH);

//count++;

//units=watt_factor*count/1000;

if(units<1){}

else

units--;

rupees=units*5;

EEPROM.write(1,rupees);

while(!digitalRead(pulsein));

digitalWrite(led,LOW);

// delay(2000);

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}

void check_status()

if(rupees>15)

digitalWrite(relay, HIGH);

flag1=0;

flag2=0;

if(rupees<15 && flag1==0)

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print("LOW Energy ");

init_sms();

send_data("Energy Meter Energy Alert:");

send_data("Low Energy\n");

Serial.println(rupees);

delay(200);

send_data("Please recharge your energy meter soon.\n Thank you");

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send_sms();

message_sent();

flag1=1;

if(rupees<5 && flag2==0)

digitalWrite(relay, LOW);

lcd.clear();

lcd.print("Light Cut Due to");

lcd.setCursor(0,1);

lcd.print("Low Energy");

delay(2000);

flag2=1;

void decode_message()

x=0,k=0,temp=0;

while(x<i)

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{

while(str[x]=='#')

x++;

bal="";

while(str[x]!='*')

bal+=str[x++];

x++;

bal+='\0';}

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