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ISBN 978-83-7396-313-9

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© Virginia Evans, 2004

© Express Publishing, 2004

Polish edition copyright © by EGIS

Redakcja: Joanna Gołąb, Paweł Gruchała, Marta Kapera


Tłumaczenie: Małgorzata Słota
Skład: Marta Kapera
Naświetlanie: Lettra Graphic
Druk: Zakłady Graficzne „Drukarz”

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First published 2004

ISBN 960-361-633-8

This edition is published in 2004


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ISBN 83-7396-313-8 (Polish edition)


ADVANCED

Companion
Virginia Evans
Contents
A. Upstream Advanced – Coursebook

Unit 1 Something to Shout About ......................................................................................................... 5

Unit 2 Escape Artists .............................................................................................................................. 20

Self-Assessment Module 1 ........................................................................................................................... 35

Unit 3 People Power .............................................................................................................................. 37

Unit 4 Growing Concerns ...................................................................................................................... 52

Self-Assessment Module 2 ........................................................................................................................... 71

Unit 5 Our Changing World ................................................................................................................... 74

Unit 6 A Job Well Done ......................................................................................................................... 88

Self-Assessment Module 3 ........................................................................................................................... 101

Unit 7 Fit for Life ................................................................................................................................... 103

Unit 8 Live and Learn ............................................................................................................................. 119

Self-Assessment Module 4 ........................................................................................................................... 130

Unit 9 The Image Business ..................................................................................................................... 133

Unit 10 Shop Around .............................................................................................................................. 146

Self-Assessment Module 5 ........................................................................................................................... 165

B. Index to the Vocabulary ..................................................................................................................... 167

C. Upstream Advanced – Key to Companion ................................................................................... 181

D. Upstream Advanced – Workbook Glossary .................................................................................. 187

3
Key to Phonetic Symbols – Wykaz symboli fonetycznych
Vowels and diphthongs – Samogłoski i dwugłoski
≤ calm, heart ø note, coat
± act, mass ¥ claw, faun
¡ drive, cry √ boy, joint
¡º fire, tyre μ could, stood
¬ out, down ∂ you, use
¬º flour, sour Δ lure, pure
e met, lend ª turn, third
Ω say, weight ∑ fund, must
≈ fair, care º pierwsza samogłoska w słowie about
æ fit, win i druga samogłoska w słowie very
∞ feed, me u druga samogłoska w słowie actual
ƒ near, beard º druga samogłoska w słowach takich jak bottle
≥ lot, spot lub shorten, zanikająca w szybkiej wymowie

Consonants – Spółgłoski
b bed, rub s soon, bus
d done, red t talk, bet
f fit, if v van, love
g good, dog w win, wool
h hat, horse z zoo, buzz
j yellow, you « ship, wish
k king, pick » measure, leisure
l lip, bill … sing, working
m mat, ram ∏ cheap, witch
n not, tin ı thin, myth
p pay, lip ∫ then, bathe
r run, read π joy, bridge
r „r” łączące, występujące na końcu takich
wyrazów jak mother lub far, jeśli następuje
po nich samogłoska

Akcent główny oznaczony jest symbolem ` poprzedzającym akcentowaną sylabę (np. attic /`±tæk/), natomiast akcent poboczny
oznaczony jest symbolem ¿ poprzedzającym akcentowaną sylabę (np. disappoint /¿dæsº`p√nt/).

Abbreviations – Wykaz skrótów


abbr = abbreviation (skrót) pl = plural (liczba mnoga)
adj = adjective (przymiotnik) phr v = phrasal verb (czasownik złożony)
adv = adverb (przysłówek) prep = preposition (przyimek)
conj = conjunction (spójnik) pron = pronoun (zaimek)
excl = exclamation (wykrzyknik) sb = somebody (ktoś)
idm = idiom (idiom) sth = something (coś)
n = noun (rzeczownik) v = verb (czasownik)

4
Something to Shout About 1
1.8 pursue a goal = to make efforts to achieve sth,
Lead-in (p. 7)
often over a long period of time / dążyć
1.1 block out a thought = to try not to think do celu
about sth / nie myśleć o czymś, wyrzucić myśl e.g. John pursued a goal to become a writer until
z głowy, odpędzić myśl he finally succeeded in getting his work published.
e.g. He blocked out all thoughts that he might fail; 1.9 gut instinct /`g∑t ¿ænstæ…kt/ (n) = a feeling based on
he desperately needed to win this race. emotion rather than reason / przeczucie, instynkt
1.2 channel one’s efforts into sth = to attempt e.g. The frightened woman increased her pace; she
to do one thing rather than a wider range had a gut instinct that she was about to be robbed.
of things, to concentrate on sth / ukierunkować 1.10 push beyond one’s limits = to try to do sth new
na coś wysiłki, skoncentrować wysiłki na czymś or difficult, sth that requires effort / przełamywać
e.g. She decided to channel all her efforts swoje ograniczenia, podejmować nowe wyzwania
into meeting the deadline she had set herself. e.g. After a serious illness, he had to push beyond
1.3 foresight /`f¥saæt/ (n) = the ability to see what his limits to be back to work again.
is likely to happen in the future and to take 1.11 interpret /æn`tªpræt/ (v) = to decide on what the
appropriate action / dalekowzroczność, umiejętność meaning or significance of sth is / interpretować
przewidywania e.g. The man’s body language and evasiveness were
e.g. They had the foresight to prepare themselves interpreted by the police as signs of guilt.
financially in case of an accident. Der.: interpretation (n)
1.4 diplomacy /dæ`plømºsi/ (n) = the skill of being 1.12 javelin /`π±vlæn/ (n) = a long spear used in sports
careful to say or do things that will not offend competitions / oszczep
people / dyplomacja, takt e.g. When Odysseus threw the javelin, it landed
e.g. With great diplomacy and soothing words, far beyond the furthest throw of the other men.
he persuaded the delegate to resume his place 1.13 claw one’s way = to move somewhere with great
at the bargaining table. difficulty, trying desperately to find things
Der.: diplomatic /¿dæplº`m±tæk/ (adj) to hold on to / przedrzeć się, (prze)dostać się
1.5 persuasion /pº`swΩ»n/ (n) = the ability to make e.g. Despite his lack of formal education, he still
sb believe that sth is true / perswazja managed to claw his way to the top.
e.g. She was using all her powers of persuasion 1.14 be in contention for sth = to have a chance
to make him return home. of winning sth / mieć szanse na wygraną, stanąć
Der.: persuasive (adj) w zawodach
1.6 team spirit /`t∞m ¿spæræt/ (n) = the feeling of pride e.g. He was in contention for getting a place on the
and loyalty that exists among the members of national team; he thought he had every chance.
a team and makes them want their team to do 1.15 potential /pº`ten«ºl/ (adj) = likely, possible /
well or be the best / poczucie jedności w zespole potencjalny
lub grupie, duch zespołowy e.g. All potential employees must attend
e.g. The management encouraged the employees an interview with the manager.
to play sports in the belief that it would improve Der.: potential (n)
team spirit in the office. 1.16 hurdle /`hªdºl/ (n) = an obstacle, difficulty /
dosł. płotek (w biegu przez płotki); tu: przeszkoda
e.g. The majority of candidates fail at the first hurdle
Reading (pp. 8-9)
and never get the job.
1.7 set a goal = to decide on what one hopes Der.: hurdle (v)
to achieve / wyznaczyć cel 1.17 diabetic /¿daæº`betæk/ (n) = sb who suffers from
e.g. The counsellor advised the young woman to set diabetes / cukrzyk
a goal that was achievable before moving on to the e.g. He is · diabetic and needs insulin injections
next step. every day.
Der.: diabetic (adj)

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UNIT 1

1.18 low /lø/ (adj) = week or depressed / słaby e.g. ”For the second month running there has been
lub przygnębiony a dip in the sales figures,” said the director.
e.g. We felt very tired and low after a hard day’s work. “I want to see an improvement this month.”
1.19 spur /spªr/ (n) = sth that encourages sb to do 1.29 put sth into perspective = to judge the importance
things / dosł. ostroga; bodziec, zachęta of sth by considering it in relation to everything
e.g. She wanted her son to pass his driving test else / spojrzeć na coś z dystansu, rozważyć z wielu
and, as a spur, offered to buy him a car. punktów widzenia
Der.: spur (v) e.g. The doctor told him to put things into
1.20 prevent sb from doing sth /præ`vent/ (v) = to make perspective. He had escaped with a few bruises
it impossible for sb to do sth / przeszkodzić, when he could have been killed.
zapobiec, nie pozwolić komuś na coś 1.30 keep at sth = to continue to do sth although it is
e.g. She had to prevent the angry boys from hurting difficult / nie szczędzić wysiłków, nie poddawać się
each other. e.g. I know you work much too hard, but don’t
1.21 Ôbstacle /`≥bstºkºl/ (n) = anything that makes it give up. Keep at it!
difficult for sb to do sth / przeszkoda 1.31 en route /≥n `r∂t/ (adv) = on the way / w drodze,
e.g. The government put every obstacle in his way po drodze
to prevent publication of the book. e.g. They were already en route to France when
1.22 insurmountable /¿ænsº`m¬ntºbºl/ (adj) = (of a they heard that the concert had been postponed.
problem) that cannot be dealt with successfully / 1.32 get side-tracked /`get `saædtr±kt/ = to forget what
(o problemie, przeszkodzie, itp.) nie do pokonania one intended to do or say and instead start
e.g. The fact that the will had not been witnessed doing or saying a different thing / odejść
properly presented an insurmountable problem. od najważniejszych kwestii, od tematu
1.23 plug away at sth /`pl∑g º`weæ/ (phr v) = to keep e.g. The witness got skilfully side-tracked by the
trying very hard to do sth even though it is lawyer and was tricked into saying the complete
difficult / starać się, ciężko nad czymś pracować opposite of what he meant to say.
e.g. John’s assignment was due to be handed 1.33 tackle /`t±kºl/ (v) = to deal with sth in a very
in the following morning. He would plug away determined or efficient way / zabrać się do czegoś,
at it all night if necessary. załatwić coś, poradzić sobie z czymś
1.24 inch /ænt«/ (v) = to move on very slowly or carefully / e.g. The government is determined to tackle
posuwać (się) naprzód powoli, centymetr the problem of unemployment.
po centymetrze 1.34 tension /`tenǼn/ (n) = the feeling that is produced
e.g. She carefully inched her car out into in a situation when people are anxious / napięcie
the traffic flow. e.g. The tension mounted in the crowd as the two
1.25 mark off /`m≤k `≥f/ (phr v) = to put a line through players came to the end of the second set.
an item on a list to show that it has been 1.35 ride on /`r¡d ºn/ (v) = to depend on / zależeć
completed or dealt with / „odfajkować” od czegoś
(np. jakąś pozycję na liście) e.g. Luckily, his last risky venture had been successful,
e.g. In order not to forget anything, Jane carefully so he allowed his reputation and career to ride on it.
marked off each item as she packed it in her case. 1.36 assertive /º`sªtæv/ (adj) = able to state one’s needs
1.26 will /wæl/ (n) = one’s wish, desire / wola and opinions clearly, so that people take notice /
e.g. He exclaimed angrily that in this case his will asertywny
would prevail and that his orders would be obeyed e.g. She had always been assertive, so no one
without question. was surprised when she was made supervisor.
1.27 mature /mº`∏Δr/ (v) = to become an adult / Der.: assertiveness (n), assertively (adv)
dojrzeć, dorosnąć 1.37 proactive /prø`±ktæv/ (adj) = intended to cause
e.g. In a few short years, she matured changes rather than just reacting to change /
into a strikingly attractive young woman. nastawiony na działanie i zmiany
Der.: maturity (n) e.g. Women’s suffrage was achieved by a proactive
1.28 dip /dæp/ (n) = here: a drop, reduction / tu: spadek, group of determined campaigners.
obniżenie (np. nastroju) Opp.: reactive

6
UNIT 1

1.38 boost /b∂st/ (v) = to improve, increase / poprawić, e.g. The architect had a visualisation of what the
zwiększyć building would look like when it was finished.
e.g. Winning an Oscar boosted immensely 1.48 transfer /tr±ns`fªr/ (v) = to take from one place
her confidence in her acting skills. to another / przenieść
1.39 fraction /`fr±k«ºn/ (n) = a tiny amount or proportion e.g. Grace felt uncomfortable working next
of sth / ułamek, drobna część to her ex-husband, so she asked her boss
e.g. The demonstration was peaceful until a small to transfer her to another branch.
fraction of the crowd began throwing stones Der.: transfer /`tr±nsfªr/ (n)
at the police. 1.49 run through /`r∑n `ır∂/ (phr v) = to read or think
1.40 workload /`wªklød/ (n) = the amount of work of a list of items quickly / przelecieć, przebiec
that has to be done / ilość pracy, jaką należy (wzrokiem lub myślą)
wykonać, obciążenie pracą e.g. The cabin attendant ran through the list
e.g. Junior hospital doctors have a huge workload of instructions in the event of an emergency.
and sometimes work as long as thirty-six hours 1.50 permutation /¿pªmj∂`tΩ«ºn/ (n) = one of the ways
without a break. in which a number of things can be ordered or
1.41 concentrate on sth /`k≥nsºntreæt/ (v) = to give all arranged / permutacja (w matematyce); kombinacja
one’s attention to sth / koncentrować się, skupiać e.g. The decorator showed them several colour
na czymś permutations until the couple finally decided
e.g. The politician retired to his library to concentrate on the one they wanted.
on his speech for the next day. 1.51 nerve-racking /`nªv¿r±kæ…/ (adj) = making sb feel
Der.: concentration (n), concentrated (adj) very tense and worried / denerwujący, niezwykle
1.42 distraction /dæs`tr±k«ºn/ (n) = sth that turns sb’s stresujący, wyprowadzający z równowagi
attention away from what they want to e.g. The applicant spent a nerve-racking ten minutes
concentrate on / coś odrywającego uwagę until the official reappeared with the necessary papers.
od istotnych kwestii 1.52 underestimate /¿∑ndºr`estæmeæt/ (v) = not to realise
e.g. I can’t work at home; there are too many how large or great sth is / nie doceniać,
distractions. bagatelizować
1.43 detrimental /¿detræ`mentºl/ (adj) = having a harmful e.g. The earthquake that razed the city showed that
or damaging effect on sth / szkodliwy, ujemny one should never underestimate the power of nature.
(np. wpływ) Der.: underestimation (n)
e.g. It is now known that too much fat in one’s diet 1.53 misjudge /¿mæs`π∑π/ (v) = to form an incorrect idea
is detrimental to one’s health. or opinion about sb or sth / błędnie ocenić
1.44 self-belief /¿selfbæ`l∞f/ (n) = confidence in Ône’s own e.g. I misjudged Terry; I thought he would be angry
abilities or judgement / wiara w siebie, we własne siły with me for crashing his car, but instead he was
i umiejętności only concerned about my safety.
e.g. The diplomat had the self-belief that he could Der.: misjudgement (n)
mediate between the opposing factions and bring 1.54 barrier /`b±riºr/ (n) = an obstacle that prevents
peace to the region. sb from doing sth / bariera, przeszkoda
1.45 focus on sth /`føkºs/ (v) = to concentrate on sth / e.g. Lack of confidence is a serious psychological
skupiać się, koncentrować na czymś barrier.
e.g. The officer focused his attention on a small area 1.55 self-assurance /¿selfº`«μºrºns/ (n)
of the aerial photograph to find a flat zone where an = self-confidence / pewność siebie
aircraft could land. e.g. Ralph’s self-assurance often led people to think
1.46 imagery /`æmæπri/ (n) = descriptions (usu. in poems that he was too proud.
or songs) and the pictures they create in one’s 1.56 Ôvercome /¿øvº`k∑m/ (v) = to successfully deal
mind / obrazowanie, metaforyka with a problem / poradzić sobie (np. z problemem),
e.g. The imagery of the poem brought back his przezwyciężyć coś
childhood memories. e.g. Eventually, with the help of a counsellor, the
1.47 visualisation /¿væ»uºlaæ`zeæ«n/ (n) = formation couple overcame their problems and were reunited.
of a mental picture of sth / wizualizacja

7
UNIT 1

1.57 lose sight of sth = no longer to pay attention e.g. The two sailors expressed their feelings
to sth / stracić coś z oczu, przestać zwracać na coś of gratitude to the rescuers who had risked
uwagę their lives to save them.
e.g. There was a great deal of argument and some 1.66 board /b¥d/ (n) = management, a group of people
members felt that they had lost sight of the original who control a company or organisation / rada,
objectives of the movement. zarząd
1.58 surpass /sº`p≤s/ (v) = to do sth or be better at sth e.g. A meeting of the board of directors was called
than sb else / prześcigać, przerastać, przewyższać, być because the chairman had suddenly died.
lepszym niż 1.67 vice-president /¿vaæs`prezædºnt/ (n) = the person
e.g. Your cooking is always excellent but today who has the second position of importance
you have surpassed yourself. in an organisation / wiceprezes
1.59 effectively /æ`fektævli/ (adv) = in a way that produces e.g. The vice-president toured the new factory and
the intended result / skutecznie, efektywnie, congratulated the workers on doing such a fine job.
wydajnie 1.68 Ôbjective /ºb`πektæv/ (n) = a goal, an aim, sth that
e.g. The new working practices, along with more sb is trying to achieve / cel
efficient machinery, have effectively doubled the e.g. As part of a survey to determine their strengths
production of new cars. and weaknesses, the students were asked to make
a list of their objectives.
Language focus (pp. 10-11) 1.69 resolution /¿rezº`l∂«ºn/ (n) = a decision to try very
hard to do sth / postanowienie, stanowcza decyzja
1.60 house warming /`h¬s w¥mi…/ (n) = a party you e.g. When the bill arrived, she made a resolution never
give for your friends when you have just moved to use her credit card again.
to a new house / pierwsze przyjęcie w nowym domu 1.70 national anthem /`n±«ºnºl `±nıºm/ (n)
lub mieszkaniu (tzw. parapetówa) = a nation’s official song which is played or sung
e.g. I had to miss Mandy’s house warming; on public occasions / hymn narodowy
I had no money to buy her a proper present. e.g. The winning team stood proudly to attention
Der.: house-warming (adj) as their national anthem was played.
1.61 retirement /ræ`t¡ºmºnt/ (n) = the time when 1.71 strive for sth /straæv/ (v) = to make great effort
a worker leaves his job and stops working to do or get sth / dążyć do czegoś, walczyć, starać
completely / emerytura; przejście na emeryturę się o coś
e.g. The man had to postpone his retirement e.g. The head teacher stressed that the school
because there was nobody to replace him. had always strived for excellence.
1.62 anniversary /¿±næ`vªsºri/ (n) = a date which is 1.72 salute /sº`l∂t/ (v) = to show or state admiration for
remembered or celebrated because a special sb in a formal way / uhonorować, uczcić; salutować
event happened on that date in a previous e.g. The soldier stood to attention and saluted as the
year / rocznica general drove past.
e.g. The whole family was invited to a party Der.: salutation (n), salute (n)
to celebrate Ethel and James’s 25thwedding 1.73 victory /`væktºri/ (n) = a success in a struggle, war
anniversary. or competition / zwycięstwo
1.63 forthcoming /f¥ı`k∑mæ…/ (adj) = happening soon / e.g. The allies fought their way to victory after
nadchodzący, rychły six long years.
e.g. The forthcoming days and weeks will determine Der.: victorious /væk`t¥riºs/ (adj)
the future of the company. Opp.: defeat
1.64 sincere /sæn`sæºr/ (adj) = really meaning what one 1.74 breakthrough /`brΩkır∂/ (n) = an important
says / szczery development or achievement / przełom
e.g. The charity sent out sincere thanks to the public e.g. Watson and Crick made an important
for all the help it had received for the victims of the breakthrough in genetics
famine. 1.75 enrol /æn`røl/ (v) = to officially join an institution
Der.: sincerely (adv), sincerity (n) or a course and pay a fee for it / zapisać się
1.65 gratitude /`gr±tætj∂d/ (n) = having warm feelings (np. na kurs)
towards sb, wishing to thank sb / wdzięczność
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UNIT 1

e.g. Every one was amazed when the old woman 1.85 well-rounded education = an education that is fully
enrolled for a computer course at the local college. developed in all aspects / pełne, wszechstronne
Der.: enrolment (n) wykształcenie
1.76 acquire /º`kwaæºr/ (v) = to obtain sth or learn e.g. In order to give her a well-rounded education,
sth through daily life / nabyć; przyswoić her parents sent her to the best school in Switzerland.
e.g. He decided to go back to college and acquire 1.86 competitive spirit /kºm`petætæv `spæræt/ (n) =
the skills and qualifications he needed. eagerness to be more successful than other
Der.: acquisition /¿±kwæ`z櫺n/ (n) people / duch współzawodnictwa
1.77 profitable /`pr≥fætºbºl/ (adj) = able to make money / e.g. Individual and team sports were encouraged so
dochodowy, rentowny that the students could develop a competitive spirit.
e.g. The two brothers ran a very profitable 1.87 delegate /`delægeæt/ (v) = to give part of your work,
business selling second-hand computer parts. responsibilities or power to sb else / delegować,
Der.: profitability (n) przydzielać obowiązki
Opp.: unprofitable e.g. A good manager must be able to delegate,
1.78 ethics /`eıæks/ (n pl) = moral beliefs and rules to find the best person for the job and then let
about right and wrong / etyka them get on with it.
e.g. The scientist’s ethics led him to abandon Der.: delegation (n)
the experiment which he felt was morally 1.88 compromise /`k≥mprºmaæz/ (v) = to reach an
wrong to continue. agreement after both parties have given up sth
1.79 influential /¿ænflu`en«ºl/ (adj) = having a lot of power that they originally wanted / osiągnąć kompromis,
to affect what happens / wpływowy pójść na kompromis
e.g. The prisoner’s family contacted several influential e.g. The two parties compromised and settled on
figures in the government who saw to it that he was a figure below what the union demanded, but slightly
soon released. more than the management had originally offered.
1.80 acquaintance /º`kwΩntºns/ (n) = sb you have met Der.: compromise (n)
and know slightly but not well / znajomy 1.89 resilience /ræ`zæliºns/ (n) = the ability to be strong
e.g. The solicitor said that he was unable to take on and not easily affected / wytrwałość, prężność,
the case, but he had an acquaintance that might elastyczność, żywotność
be able to help. e.g. Some bacteria have an amazing resilience to
1.81 prosperity /pr≥`speræti/ (n) = doing well financially / extreme temperatures; they are able to thrive in both
dobrobyt, pomyślność the hottest and coldest regions on earth.
e.g. Thanks to generous sponsors, previously 1.90 persistence /pº`sæstºns/ (n) = continuing to do sth
impoverished families now enjoyed a period even though it is difficult or other people are
of prosperity. against it / wytrwałość, uporczywość
1.82 social background /sø«ºl `b±kgr¬nd/ (n) = sb’s e.g. The persistence of the suffrage movement paid off
status or rank in society / pochodzenie społeczne, and women were eventually given full rights to vote
przynależność do grupy społecznej in 1928.
e.g. The social background of your family usually 1.91 charisma /kº`ræzmº/ (n) = ability to attract, influence
determines your own career path. and inspire people by one’s personal qualities /
1.83 financial /faæ`n±n«ºl/ (adj) = relating to or involving charyzma
money / finansowy e.g. The princess had such charisma that she was
e.g. For tax reasons, the financial year in Britain loved by the people everywhere.
always starts on the 5th of April. Der.: charismatic /kºræz`m±tik/ (adj)
Der.: financially (adv) 1.92 ruthlessness /`r∂ılºsnºs/ (n) = being very harsh
1.84 backing /`b±kæ…/ (n) = support or money received or cruel / bezwzględność, okrucieństwo
from sb / pomoc, wsparcie (finansowe) e.g. Idi Amin was never tried for his ruthlessness
e.g. The invention was a good idea but the bank during his time as dictator of Uganda.
refused to give Henry any backing, so he had 1.93 seize /s∞z/ (v) = to take hold of sth, take advantage
to give up. of sth / chwycić, łapać; skorzystać (np. z okazji)
e.g. You must seize the opportunity and apply
for a job now that there are many vacancies.
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1.94 drop out of /`dr≥p `¬t ºv/ (phr v) = to leave e.g. Advances in technology have made information
without finishing sth that was started / (za)rzucić, processing much faster than before.
zrezygnować z czegoś przed zakończeniem 1.105 precise /præ`saæs/ (adj) = exact and accurate /
e.g. Michael’s father was angry when his son said that precyzyjny, dokładny
he wanted to drop out of university. e.g. I can tell you the precise time of the earthquake
1.95 Buddhism /`bμdizºm/ (n) = buddyzm because I remember looking at the clock a second
1.96 broad /br¥d/ (adj) = wide / szeroki before it struck.
e.g. This jacket is too small to be Tom’s; he has very Der.: precision /præ`s滺n/ (n)
broad shoulders, you know. 1.106 grip /græp/ (v) = to take hold of sth, to draw one’s
Der.: broadly (adv), broaden (v) attention / chwycić, porwać, wywrzeć wrażenie
Opp.: narrow e.g. The complicated plot of the novel gripped me
1.97 unkempt /∑n`kempt/ (adj) = messy, untidy, and I couldn’t stop reading until I finished the book.
not neat / niechlujny, zaniedbany Der.: grip (n)
e.g. The gardens, once a source of pride, were now 1.107 opponent /º`pønºnt/ (n) = a person playing
neglected and unkempt. or fighting against another / przeciwnik
1.98 choreographed /`k≥riºgr≤ft/ (adj) = arranged but e.g. With a final burst of energy, he sprinted clear
intended to appear natural / zaaranżowany of his opponent and over the finish line.
e.g. Most of the moves seen on TV wrestling are 1.108 free-lance /`fr∞l≤ns/ (adj) = not employed
thought to be choreographed for the viewers’ permanently by an organisation but paid for
entertainment. each piece of work / pracujący jako wolny strzelec,
1.99 resign /ræ`zaæn/ (v) = to formally announce that one pracujący na własny rachunek
is leaving a post or position / zrezygnować, podać e.g. A free-lance journalist, who was in the province
się do dymisji when it happened, first filed the news of the disaster.
e.g. The minister was forced to resign Der.: freelance (adv), freelancer (n)
when his misdeeds came to light. 1.109 tough /t∑f/ (adj) = strong and determined, able to
Der.: resignation /rezæg`nΩ«ºn/ (n) tolerate difficult situations / twardy, nieustępliwy
1.100 computer-animated /kºm`pj∂tºr `±næmeætæd/ (adj) = e.g. The surgeon remarked that his patient was tough
having special effects created on a computer / and that he should make a full recovery with no after-
animowany komputerowo effects.
e.g. The film showed scenes of real life as well Der.: toughness (n)
as computer-animated images.
Fixed Phrases (with on)
1.101 be saddled with sth = to be put in a position
where one has to deal with a problem / 1.110 on the off-chance = just in case / na wszelki wypadek,
być obarczonym, obciążonym jakimś problemem na wypadek gdyby
e.g. He explained that it wasn’t normally his job; e.g. The prospective buyer called without
he’d been saddled with it when his assistant resigned. an appointment on the off-chance that
1.102 be on the verge of sth = to be close to a situation he would catch them in.
that is likely to happen / być na skraju, na granicy 1.111 on second thoughts = after careful thinking /
e.g. Many wild animals are teetering on the verge of po namyśle
extinction due to pollution and loss of habitat. e.g. On second thoughts, he decided that he didn’t
1.103 urge /ªπ/ (v) = to try hard to persuade sb to do sth want a new computer after all.
/ namawiać, nakłaniać, przekonywać 1.112 Ôn a whim = impulsively / spontanicznie,
e.g. At the public enquiry, the council members were bez wyraźnego powodu
urged to reconsider their plans to demolish the old e.g. Acting on a whim, the singer invited his whole
building. family as well as his friends to go on holiday with him.
Der.: urge (n) 1.113 on a budget = with a limited amount of money
1.104 processing /`prøsesæ…/ (n) = a series of actions to spend / oszczędnie (ze względu na ograniczone
carried out in a computer in order to deal with dochody)
information / przetwarzanie (np. danych e.g. The old man had a very small pension and had
w komputerze) to live on a budget.

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1.114 on principle = because of a particular belief / 1.126 carry over /`k±ri `øvºr/ = to allow sth to continue
z zasady to exist in a new situation / zachować, przenieść
e.g. I refuse to buy products that have been tested e.g. Some of the religious practices were carried over
on animals on principle. from pagan times and produced a curious mixture
1.115 on one’s own = by oneself, without anyone’s help / of old and new religions.
samodzielnie, samemu 1.127 carry through /`k±ri `ır∂/ = to succeed in putting
e.g. Nobody taught him, the boy learned to swim an idea into practice / przeprowadzić, doprowadzić
on his own. do realizacji
1.116 on target = making progress, likely to achieve e.g. He had a plan of action and was determined
the result that is wanted / zgodnie z planem to carry it through.
e.g. The building is scheduled to be ready by May, 1.128 wear away /`w≈r º`wΩ/ = to become thin and
and so far the work is on target. eventually disappear because of long use /
1.117 on duty = working / pracujący, na służbie zetrzeć się, zużyć
e.g. The morning-shift nurses come on duty e.g. The inscription on the coin had worn away
at eight o’clock every day. and was practically invisible.
1.118 on purpose = intentionally / celowo, specjalnie 1.129 wear down /`w≈ `d¬n/ = to weaken sb or their
e.g. The youth explained that it was an accident; position by being more persistent than they
he hadn’t broken the window on purpose. are / zmęczyć kogoś, osłabić czyjąś pozycję, wymóc
1.119 on condition that = only if / pod warunkiem, że coś na kimś
e.g. The taxi driver agreed to take the man and his pet e.g. The interviewer was well known for his ability
on condition that the dog stayed on the floor. to wear down his subjects until he got them to say
what he wanted them to.
1.120 impulsively /æm`p∑lsævli/ (adv) = without thinking /
1.130 wear off /`w≈r `≥f/ = to disappear slowly until
impulsywnie, spontanicznie, odruchowo, nieopatrznie
no effect is felt / stopniowo zanikać
e.g. He impulsively spent all his salary in just one day.
e.g. She was told that the eye drops would cause
1.121 vacancy /`vΩkºnsi/ (n) = a job or position which has
blurred vision, but the effect would soon wear off.
not been filled / wakat, wolna posada
1.131 wear on /`w≈r `≥n/ = (of time) to seem to pass
e.g. There was a rumour that there was a vacancy
very slowly / wlec się, dłużyć się, mijać bardzo powoli
at the factory; within the hour twenty candidates
e.g. As the day wore on, the girl’s parents became
arrived, asking for the job.
increasingly worried about their daughter’s
Phrasal Verbs whereabouts.
1.122 be carried away /bi `k±ræd º`wΩ/ = to behave in 1.132 wear out /`w≈r `¬t/ = to use sth a lot so that
a silly, hasty or overenthusiastic way / dać się it becomes damaged and cannot be used
ponieść (np. emocjom) any longer / znosić coś, zniszczyć wskutek częstego
e.g. He was carried away with the thought of all używania
that money and began ordering expensive goods. e.g. Stop dragging your feet along the ground
1.123 carry off /`k±ri `≥f/ = to succeed in doing sth in those new trainers; you will wear them out.
difficult / osiągnąć coś trudnego, dać radę czegoś 1.133 wear through /`w≈ `ır∂/ = to develop a hole
dokonać where the material has become weak and
e.g. It won’t be easy but this year the team might thin / (np. o materiale) przetrzeć się wskutek zużycia
just carry it off. e.g. Some people wear leather patches on their
1.124 carry on /`k±ri `≥n/ = to continue / kontynuować jackets to prevent the elbows from wearing through.
e.g. The teacher was called away for a few minutes
and told the children to carry on with whatever they 1.134 resistance /ræ`zæstºns/ (n) = unwillingness to accept
were doing. a new idea or a change / opór; sprzeciw
1.125 carry out /`k±ri `¬t/ = to do sth or put sth into e.g. The idea of a single European currency met with
practice / przeprowadzić, wprowadzić w życie resistance from older generations who were afraid
e.g. The specialist explained that the procedure of change.
he wanted to carry out had been very successful 1.135 upcoming /`∑pk∑mæ…/ (adj) = happening in the near
in Europe. future / nadchodzący; mający się pojawić

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e.g. The writer explained that her upcoming new book 1.145 steal the show = to get a lot of attention or praise
was a sequel to the first and the second of a trilogy. because one performs better than anyone else /
1.136 trophy /`trøfi/ (n) = a prize given to the winner zwrócić na siebie uwagę na niekorzyść innej osoby
of a competition or race / trofeum, główna nagroda e.g. Some actors and actresses refuse to work
e.g. If the same team wins the trophy three times with children in case the latter steal the show.
in a row, they get to keep it. 1.146 work one’s way up to the top = to move
1.137 bob-sledding /`b≥bsledæ…/ (n) = a race in a vehicle to the top slowly / wedrzeć się na szczyt
for two or more people, sliding downhill on e.g. It’s hard to work your way up to the top
snow and ice / jazda na bobsleju if you keep changing jobs.
e.g. Bob-sledding is not a sport you would associate 1.147 work one’s fingers to the bone = to work
with hot countries like Hawaii. extremely hard / urobić się po pachy, wypruwać
Idioms sobie żyły, bardzo się napracować
e.g. I worked my fingers to the bone to make
1.138 have the world at one’s feet = to be offered
the business a success.
all the opportunities in one’s life / mieć u stóp
cały świat 1.148 labour /`lΩbºr/ (v) = to work hard using the hands /
e.g. Now that she received the award, she had the pracować fizycznie, trudzić się
world at her feet; she felt there was nothing she e.g. The archaeologist laboured for weeks on end
couldn’t do. sifting through the remains.
1.139 be in seventh heaven = to be extremely happy / Der.: labour (n)
być w siódmym niebie 1.149 bankrupt /`b±…kr∑pt/ (adj) = not having enough
e.g. When the couple moved into their new house, money to pay one’s debts / zbankrutowany,
they were in seventh heaven. niewypłacalny
1.140 be a feather in one’s cap = to be an achievement e.g. Thieving employees almost drove the company
that one is proud of / być czyimś największym bankrupt before the thefts were discovered.
osiągnięciem Der.: bankruptcy (n), bankrupt (v) (n)
e.g. It would be a feather in anyone’s cap to have 1.150 bearer /`b≈rºr/ (n) = sb who brings a message /
the privilege of representing their country. posłaniec, osoba przynosząca wieści
1.141 have one’s head in the clouds = to be out of e.g. He didn’t want to be the bearer of bad news,
touch with reality, to have impractical ideas / but he felt that his brother should know the truth.
chodzić z głową w chmurach 1.151 fire /`f¡ºr/ (v) = to dismiss sb from a job, sack /
e.g. The president must have his head in the clouds zwolnić, wyrzucić z pracy
if he thinks that military intervention will bring about e.g. The employee’s bad timekeeping and poor work
peace. meant that his boss had no choice but to fire him.
1.142 keep on top of things = to be organised in one’s
work, making sure everything is under control /
Listening & Speaking (pp. 14-15)
mieć wszystko pod kontrolą, panować nad wszystkim
e.g. A good boss keeps on top of things by verifying 1.152 sibling /`sæblæ…/ (n) = brother or sister / brat lub siostra,
his employees’ work every day. ktoś z rodzeństwa
1.143 keep up with the Joneses = to try to have or do e.g. John did not have the musical ability of his
the same things as other people, even if one siblings and eventually pursued a career in chemistry.
does not have enough money or is not really 1.153 pensioner /`pen«ºnºr/ (n) = sb who receives
interested / naśladować innych ludzi, nawet jeśli nie a regular sum of money from the state because
ma się na to ochoty lub środków they have retired / emeryt
e.g. Too many people try to keep up with the Joneses e.g. The old man asked if there was a special discount
and end up in debt. available for pensioners.
1.144 rub sb up the wrong way = to offend or annoy 1.154 Internet search engine /`intºnet `sª∏ `enπin/ (n)
sb / nieumyślnie zirytować kogoś = a tool used to look for information on the
e.g. Bob has been very cool towards me, perhaps Internet / wyszukiwarka internetowa
I rubbed him up the wrong way. e.g. Google is one of the most popular Internet
search engines.
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1.155 alert /º`lªt/ (adj) = paying full attention to things 1.164 budget /`b∑πæt/ (n) = a financial plan showing
and able to deal with anything that might the expenses and income / budżet
happen / czujny e.g. He drew up a monthly budget to see exactly what
e.g. They took turns at staying awake and being he was spending his money on and where he could
alert to keep watch while the others slept. economise.
Der.: alertness (n) 1.165 perk up /`pªk `∑p/ (phr v) = to become cheerful and
1.156 browse /br¬z/ (v) = to search for information, lively after feeling tired, bored or depressed /
to look through / przeglądać, szukać (np. informacji) ożywić się
e.g. As she browsed through the magazines e.g. The men perked up when they were told they
in the waiting room, she noticed that one of them were going to be sent home on the first transport
was at least thirty years old. available.
Der.: browser (n) 1.166 collective /kº`lektæv/ (adj) = shared by every member
1.157 vast /v≤st/ (adj) = huge, extremely large / rozległy, of a group / wspólny, zbiorowy, gremialny, kolektywny
ogromny e.g. The crew had a collective feeling of relief as the
e.g. The Empty Quarter is a vast desert in Saudi lifeboat came into sight.
Arabia, populated by just a few nomadic tribes. Der.: collectively (adv)
Der.: vastness (n), vastly (adv) 1.167 scepticism /`skeptæsæzºm/ (n) = great doubt about
whether sth is true or useful / sceptycyzm
e.g. Most people regard ghost stories with
Reading (pp. 16-17)
considerable scepticism.
1.158 infer /æn`fªr/ (v) = to deduce, decide that sth is true / 1.168 anti-depressant /¿±ntidæ`presºnt/ (n) = a drug for
wywnioskować, wydedukować people who are suffering from depression /
e.g. The secretary inferred from the manager’s glare lek antydepresyjny
that he was not at all satisfied with her performance. e.g. Some anti-depressants have to be taken
Der.: inference /`ænfºrºns/ (n) for several weeks before they have any effect.
1.159 outbreak /`¬tbrΩk/ (n) = a sudden start of sth 1.169 incivility /¿ænsæ`vælæti/ (n) = rudeness / niegrzeczność,
unpleasant / wybuch (np. wojny, epidemii), nagłe nieuprzejmość
wystąpienie e.g. The incivility of the hotel manager took the guests
e.g. There has been an outbreak of the flu virus by surprise when they complained about the service.
and hundreds of people have been taken ill. 1.170 apathy /`±pºıi/ (n) = lack of interest or enthusiasm
1.160 joviality /¿πøvi`±læti/ (n) = being happy, cheerful about doing anything / apatia
and friendly / jowialność, wesołość e.g. After his wife died, he went through a period
e.g. He was a sad figure and had none of the joviality of apathy; nothing seemed to be of any importance
of his elder brother, who always seemed to be happy. any more.
1.161 beam /b∞m/ (v) = to have a big smile on the face Der.: apathetic /±pº`ıetik/ (adj)
because one is happy, pleased or proud about 1.171 gloom /gl∂m/ (n) = feeling of sadness and lack
sth / rozpromienić się of hope / przygnębienie, ponurość, posępność
e.g. He beamed with delight as he opened e.g. With a sense of gloom, the couple realised that
his birthday presents. they would have to sell their home to pay for their
1.162 grin /græn/ (v) = to smile broadly / uśmiechać się son’s defence.
szeroko Der.: gloomy (adj), gloomily (adv)
e.g. Laughing and grinning with pleasure, 1.172 stark /st≤k/ (adj) = harsh, unpleasant / (skrajnie)
the brothers greeted each other. nieprzyjemny
Der.: grin (n) e.g. With neither job nor savings, he had to face
1.163 smirk /smªk/ (v) = to smile in an unpleasant way, the stark reality.
often because one believes one has gained an 1.173 wretched /`re∏æd/ (adj) = pitiful, miserable /
advantage over sb or knows sth that the others nieszczęśliwy, nieszczęsny, biedny
don’t know / uśmiechać się z wyższością e.g. Many of Charles Dickens’ works reflect his own
e.g. The boy smirked as he boasted to his friends what wretched early life.
he had just seen through his neighbour’s window. Der.: wretchedness (n)
Der.: smirk (n)
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1.174 lot /l≥t/ (n) = a group of people or a set of things / 1.185 capture /`k±p∏ºr/ (v) = to express sth successfully /
grupa ludzi lub zestaw rzeczy ująć, uchwycić, wyrazić (np. na obrazie lub w słowach)
e.g. The first lot of guests has arrived at the hotel. e.g. The photographer captured the happiness
1.175 blast /bl≤st/ (v) = to explode; here: to move of the couple as they exchanged vows.
powerfully on / wybuchać; tu: przekroczyć jakąś 1.186 wake up to sth /`wΩk `∑p tº/ (phr v) = to realize
granicę, pokonać opór that sth is important / uświadomić sobie coś,
e.g. The police blasted their way into the house. zdać sobie sprawę z czegoś
1.176 life expectancy /`l¡f æk`spektºnsæ/ (n) = the number e.g. Drug addicts have to wake up to the dangers
of years that a person is likely to live / średnia of AIDS.
długość życia 1.187 capitalism /`k±pætºlæzºm/ (n) = kapitalizm
e.g. Life expectancy for women has much improved 1.188 likewise /`l¡kw¡z/ (adv) = similarly / podobnie,
in the last twenty years. tak samo
1.177 mortality rate /m¥`t±læti `rΩt/ (n) = death rate, e.g. The man explained how hard he had worked to
the number of people who die / śmiertelność become qualified and suggested that his son should
e.g. The mortality rate among malaria victims is very do likewise.
high in some countries. 1.189 residence /`rezædºns/ (n) = home, house / miejsce
1.178 imply /æm`pl¡/ (v) = to suggest, hint, say sth in an zamieszkania, mieszkanie
indirect way / sugerować, dawać do zrozumienia e.g. “Is this the Browns’ residence?” the caller asked.
e.g. The police officer said that asking a few questions 1.190 shrink /«ræ…k/ (v) = to become smaller in size /
did not imply that a person was guilty of any offence. skurczyć się
Der.: implication (n), implicit (adj) e.g. Some natural fibres such as wool or cotton will
1.179 stingy /`stænπi/ (adj) = unwilling to spend money, shrink if washed in water that is too hot.
mean / skąpy 1.191 hut /h∑t/ (n) = a small house made of wood, mud,
e.g. The whole family were known to be stingy grass or stones / chatka, lepianka
and refused to heat or light their house. e.g. The tribe of nomads were living in grass huts,
Opp.: generous deep in the forest.
1.180 alleviate /º`l∞viΩt/ (v) = to make an unpleasant 1.192 affluent /`±fluºnt/ (adj) = having a lot of money,
condition or feeling less intense or severe / prosperous, wealthy / zamożny, bogaty
złagodzić e.g. The dictator enjoyed an affluent lifestyle while
e.g. Antihistamine tablets will help to alleviate all around him the people were starving.
the symptoms of hay fever, but some sufferers Der.: affluence (n)
become drowsy because of them. Opp.: poor
Der.: alleviation (n) 1.193 beam /b∞m/ (v) = to send somewhere by means
1.181 privilege /`prævælæπ/ (n) = a special right or of electronic equipment / nadać, przesłać
advantage enjoyed by a person or group / za pośrednictwem sprzętu elektronicznego
przywilej e.g. Satellite technology means that information
e.g. Political prisoners are allowed certain privileges can now be beamed to anywhere in the world.
such as the use of a telephone. 1.194 understandably /¿∑ndº`st±ndºbli/ (adv) =
Der.: privileged (adj) in a natural, comprehensible way / zrozumiale,
1.182 early to bed, early to rise, makes people healthy, rzecz jasna, oczywiście
wealthy and wise (proverb) = Kto rano wstaje, temu e.g. The woman was understandably very upset
Pan Bóg daje when she realised somebody had stolen her purse.
1.183 ingrate /`ængrΩt/ (n) = sb who is ungrateful / 1.195 jump start /`π∑mp `st≤t/ (n) = a sudden change
niewdzięcznik or start that is expected to ensure efficient
e.g. The woman felt that her son was an ingrate functioning / przeskok, nagły start, zryw
because he didn’t appreciate anything she did for him. e.g. The government attempted to give the industry
1.184 goody /`gμdæ/ (n) = anything that is attractive and a jump start.
that people want to have / smakołyk, prezent, 1.196 diamond-studded /`d¡ºmºnd `st∑dæd/ (adj)
dodatek, gadżet = decorated with little diamonds / wysadzany
e.g. This company gives away a lot of free goodies like brylantami
T-shirts or key-rings.
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e.g. Jack bought his wife a beautiful diamond- 1.206 interpersonal relations = relations between
studded watch for her birthday. people / stosunki interpersonalne, międzyludzkie
1.197 cool /k∂l/ (adj) = used about a sum of money e.g. John was told that his interpersonal relations
to stress how large it is / (o dużej sumie) okrągły would have to improve if he wanted to be promoted.
(np. tysiąc) 1.207 encircling /æn`sªklæ…/ (adj) = surrounding or
e.g. They say the company made a cool million in the enclosing; here: including / otaczający, okalający;
first year of trading. tu: zrzeszający, obejmujący (np. różne grupy)
1.198 count /k¬nt/ (n) = a point that is considered / e.g. Our party is known for its policy of encircling
kwestia, punkt, aspekt membership: you don’t have to be introduced
e.g. You are wrong on almost every count; I think you by any of the active members.
have to reconsider your argumentation. 1.208 inclusive /æn`kl∂sæv/ (adj) = here: including all kinds
1.199 unavoidable /¿∑nº`v√dºbºl/ (adj) = (of sth) that of people / zrzeszający, dostępny dla różnych ludzi
cannot be prevented / nieunikniony e.g. This club is far more inclusive than it used to be.
e.g. I’m afraid that the accident was unavoidable; Opp.: exclusive
he simply drove too fast. 1.209 solid /`s≥læd/ (adj) = carefully developed and strong /
Der.: unavoidably (adv) solidny
1.200 unacceptable /¿∑nºk`septºbºl/ (adj) = having e.g. Banks are usually solid buildings, so that their
a quality that people strongly disapprove strength reassures customers.
of or object to / niedopuszczalny, nie do przyjęcia 1.210 lawn /l¥n/ (n) = an area of grass that is kept short /
e.g. The children were told that running along trawnik
the corridors was unacceptable behaviour. e.g. The lawn behind the house needed to be mowed
Der.: unacceptably (adv) at least twice a week.
1.201 prosaic /prø`zΩæk/ (adj) = dull, uninteresting / 1.211 call in sick = to phone one’s supervisor, informing
prozaiczny, przyziemny that one cannot come to work because of
e.g. Peter thought that the author’s works were an illness / zadzwonić do pracy i powiadomić
prosaic, but he had to read them for his course work. o (nagłej) chorobie
Opp.: interesting e.g. Steve felt unwell that morning so he phoned his
1.202 contributor /kºn`træbjμtºr/ (n) = here: one of the boss and called in sick.
causes of an event or situation / tu: jedna
z przyczyn, czynnik sprawczy
English in Use (pp. 18-21)
e.g. His spending habits were a contributor to his
difficult financial situation. 1.212 compliment sb on sth /`k≥mplæment/ (v) = to make
1.203 dejected /dæ`πektæd/ (adj) = miserable, unhappy / a polite remark to show that one approves of
przygnębiony, przybity sb’s appearance or work / powiedzieć komuś
e.g. Some of the students looked dejected as they left komplement
the examination room because they thought they had e.g. He complimented me on my outfit and told me
failed. I looked as if I had stepped off the pages of a fashion
1.204 glum /gl∑m/ (adj) = sad and quiet because of magazine!
disappointment or unhappiness / ponury, posępny, Der.: complimentary (adj), compliment (n)
osowiały 1.213 compensate sb for sth /`k≥mpºnsΩt/ (v) = to pay
e.g. Daniel had every reason to be happy, but he still sb for sth they have lost / zrekompensować,
felt glum and couldn’t say why he felt that way. wynagrodzić
Der.: glumly (adv) e.g. The post office eventually agreed to compensate
1.205 famine /`f±mæn/ (n) = a situation in which large Harry for the loss of his parcel.
numbers of people have little or no food and Der.: compensation (n), compensatory (adj)
many of them die; here: shortage / głód, 1.214 motivator /`møtævΩtºr/ (n) = sb or sth that makes
niedostatek, brak one behave in a particular way / osoba lub czynnik
e.g. There seems to be a famine of good jobs in this motywujący do określonego działania
town; I think I’ll have to move away to find work. e.g. Of the two boys, Tim was considered to be the
prime motivator in most of the pranks they got up to.

15
UNIT 1

1.215 accomplish /º`k∑mplæ«/ (v) = to succeed in doing e.g. The extravagant use of fossil fuels is causing
sth / osiągnąć environmental damage.
e.g. Thomas was told that if he continued to practise Der.: extravagantly (adv), extravagance (n)
hard, he would eventually accomplish his goal 1.226 dearly /`dƒli/ (adv) = very much / bardzo, ogromnie
to become the champion. e.g. Jonathan was told that he dearly needed
Der.: accomplishment (n) an operation before he could play football again.
1.216 distract /dæs`tr±kt/ (v) = to take sb’s attention 1.227 outrageously /¬t`rΩπºsli/ (adv) = in an
away from sth / odwrócić uwagę, rozproszyć unacceptable or very shocking way /
e.g. One of the girls distracted the shop assistant skandalicznie, okropnie
while the other stole cosmetics from the counter. e.g. Paul behaved outrageously at the party and
Der.: distraction (n) was ashamed and embarrassed the next day when
1.217 and vice versa = the reverse of what one has said he remembered what he had done.
is true / i na odwrót, i vice versa 1.228 explicitly /æk`splæsætli/ (adv) = in an open and clear
e.g. Alf agreed that his friend had helped him way without attempting to hide anything /
on many occasions, “and vice versa,“ he added. jasno i wyraźnie
1.218 a far cry from (idm) = very different from / bardzo e.g. The broadcaster explicitly described
różny od, zupełnie inny niż the conditions of the camp and the poverty
e.g. The scientist told the reporter that although there of the refugees.
were several outbreaks of the disease, it was a far cry 1.229 attain /º`tΩn/ (v) = to gain, achieve sth after
from an epidemic. a lot of effort / zdobyć, osiągnąć
1.219 downright /`d¬nr¡t/ (adv) = completely, e.g. If she wanted a better job, Alison knew she would
absolutely / zupełnie, kompletnie have to attain some additional skills.
e.g. The conditions they had to live in were downright Der.: attainment (n)
disgusting, with rats and filth everywhere. 1.230 pacify /`p±sæf¡/ (v) = to succeed in calming
Der.: downright (adj) sb down / uspokoić
1.220 stomach-churning /`st∑mºk¿∏ªnæ…/ (adj) = making e.g. The boy was all in tears and the mother
sb physically sick / przyprawiający o mdłości could not pacify him.
e.g. He’s so afraid of the dentist that every visit 1.231 absorb /ºb`s¥b/ (v) = to interest sb a great deal and
is a stomach-churning experience for him. take up all their attention and energy / pochłonąć
1.221 octogenarian /¿≥ktoμπæ`n≈riºn/ (n) = sb who e.g. Janice was so absorbed in her book, she didn’t
is between eighty and eighty-nine years old / even look up when Paul entered the room.
osiemdziesięciolatek 1.232 loom /l∂m/ (v) = to appear in a frightening way /
e.g. The woman claimed to be an octogenarian, wyłonić się złowrogo
but birth records proved she was more than ninety e.g. A shadowy figure loomed out of the mist and
years old. came towards them.
1.222 milestone /`m¡lstøn/ (n) = an important event in 1.233 sharpen /`«≤pºn/ (v) = here: to improve a skill /
the history or development of sth / kamień milowy zaostrzyć; tu: doskonalić, poprawić
e.g. Jason had never mixed with other children before, e.g. Ted knew that the only way to sharpen his
so his first day at school was a milestone in his life. computer skills was to go to evening classes.
1.223 the world is sb’s oyster (idm) = sb can go 1.234 to keep one’s fingers crossed (for sb) (idm)
anywhere or do anything / świat stoi przed kimś = to wish sb good luck, to hope for good luck /
otworem trzymać kciuki (za kogoś)
e.g. Now that she was qualified, the world was her e.g. I’m keeping my fingers crossed that this new
oyster; she felt there was nothing she couldn’t do. program for my computer will do the trick at last.
1.224 well-heeled /¿wel`h∞ld/ (adj) = wealthy / bogaty, 1.235 premises /`premæsæz/ (n pl) = the building and land
dobrze ustawiony owned by a business or an institution / teren,
e.g. Although Mike’s family were well-heeled, they siedziba, lokal (należący do jakiejś instytucji)
refused to help him when he got into trouble. e.g. The intruder was escorted out of the premises
1.225 extravagant /æks`tr±vºgºnt/ (adj) = spending by two police officers.
too much money or using more of sth than
is reasonable / rozrzutny
16
UNIT 1

1.236 induction /æn`d∑k«ºn/ (n) = a procedure for 1.2745 damp patch /`d±mp `p±∏/ (n) = a slightly wet
introducing sb to a new job / oficjalne zapoznanie place on the wall or ceiling, different in colour /
kogoś z jego stanowiskiem pracy zaciek
e.g. After his initial induction, Bill was put to work e.g. The roof was damaged and after the rain damp
on the assembly line in the factory. patches appeared on the ceiling.
1.237 admin /`±dmæn/ (n) = (informal) administrative 1.246 consistent /kºn`sæstºnt/ (adj) = including elements
matters, the process of organising an that do not conflict with each other / jednolity,
institution / sprawy administracyjne, organizacyjne spójny, logiczny
e.g. One secretary cannot keep up with the admin e.g. Select your points carefully and make your
in this company! presentation consistent.
1.238 be the new one on the block = to be a newcomer Der.: consistency (n)
in a place or a job / być gdzieś nowym 1.247 incentive /æn`sentæv/ (n) = sth that encourages
e.g. Steve complained that he was being singled out sb to do things / zachęta, bodziec
because he was the new one on the block. e.g. As an added incentive, the men were offered
a bonus if the work was finished on time.
1.248 reiteration /r∞¿ætº`rΩ«ºn/ (n) = repetition / powtórzenie
Writing (pp. 22-26)
e.g. The president’s words were just a reiteration
1.239 take issue with = to disagree with and start of what he had said in previous speeches.
arguing about sth / mieć inne zdanie i podjąć 1.249 capacity /kº`p±sætæ/ (exp) = the official position
dyskusję or function / stanowisko, kompetencje
e.g. The chairperson took issue with the suggestion e.g. In his capacity as company accountant, it was
that he had acted improperly. his job to conduct an annual audit.
1.240 voice one’s concern about = to express a worry 1.250 qualify /`kw≥læf¡/ (v) = to have all the necessary
about sth / wyrazić swoje zaniepokojenie, zatroskanie skills to do a particular job / mieć, zdobyć
e.g. Scientists have been voicing their concerns about kwalifikacje, uprawnienia
the damage being done to the environment. e.g. Before he became a writer, Arthur Conan Doyle
1.241 underfunded /¿∑ndº`f∑ndæd/ (adj) = not having qualified as a doctor in Edinburgh.
enough money to spend and therefore unable Der.: qualified (adj), qualification (n)
to function properly / niedofinansowany 1.251 in anticipation = beforehand, in advance / z góry
e.g. The housing director complained that the project e.g. Thank you in anticipation for considering
was underfunded and needed an immediate injection my application.
of cash to continue. 1.252 live off /`læv `≥f/ (phr v) = to get money from sth
1.242 congested /kºn`πestæd/ (adj) = extremely crowded or sb and use it in order to live / żyć za określoną
and blocked with traffic or people / zatłoczony, kwotę pieniędzy
zapchany e.g. The writer was forced to live off his savings while
e.g. The council refused to issue licences to any more he wrote his first book.
stallholders because the market was already 1.253 contribute /kºn`træbj∂t/ (v) = to offer money or
congested and there was no room for them. resources to help achieve a particular purpose /
1.243 insufficient /¿ænsº`f櫺nt/ (adj) = inadequate, not przyczyniać się, mieć swój wkład
enough in amount or degree for a particular e.g. The staff members were asked if they had
purpose / niewystarczający anything else to contribute to the discussion.
e.g. Rupert was unable to draw any money from Der.: contribution (n), contributor (n)
the ATM because there were insufficient funds 1.254 taxpayer /`t±kspΩºr/ (n) = sb who pays part
in his account. of their income to the government / podatnik
Der.: insufficiency (n), insufficiently (adv) e.g. In the election campaign, the taxpayers were
1.244 widespread /`w¡dspred/ (adj) = extensive, promised a much better deal in the next budget.
existing over a large area or to a great extent / 1.255 overworked /¿øvº`wªkt/ (adj) = very tired or ill
rozległy, na szeroką skalę, szeroko zakrojony because of too much work / przepracowany,
e.g. The river burst its banks at several points zapracowany
and caused widespread flooding. e.g. The mother complained that she felt overworked
because of the demands of her three young children.
17
UNIT 1

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 We are going to need a lot of equipment in order to 6 Amanda usually trusts her .......... when she makes
.......... this experiment. a decision; she believes in following her feelings.
A carry off C carry out A team spirit C competitive spirit
B carry on D carry over B gut instinct D quick thinking

2 Working in the fashion industry is very .........., as people 7 I didn’t break your stereo ..........; it was an accident.
are often prepared to pay a lot of money to look good. A on purpose C on duty
A proactive C potential B on principle D on target
B profitable D prosaic
8 His sister’s success acted as a(n) .......... to him and made
3 I never liked Bill; I realise now that I should have trusted him work hard in order to keep up with her.
my .......... . A javelin C obstacle
A intellect C incivility B hurdle D spur
B inspiration D intuition
9 He says that he doesn’t feel very well, but I expect he will
4 He has taken some painkillers but when the effects .......... if I suggest going out for ice cream.
.........., his leg will hurt quite badly. A mark off C live out
A wear away C wear off B ride on D perk up
B wear down D wear out
10 His behaviour last night was ..........; I don’t think I will
5 The company gave me this free TV to .......... for all the ever be able to forgive him.
trouble I have had. A unavoidable C insurmountable
A compensate C compliment B unacceptable D understandable
B contribute D compromise

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

When John decided to take early 0) retirement, his boss threw him a party to RETIRE
celebrate the start of his life as a 1) ........................... . All of his colleagues were PENSION
there, and many made 2) ........................... speeches about how COMPLIMENT
3) ........................... John had been, and how much he had helped them. The boss INFLUENCE
praised John for running his department 4) ........................... and for being an EFFECTIVE
5) ........................... to the other staff. He said that John’s greatest INSPIRE
6) ........................... in his career was that he had set a great example to his ACCOMPLISH
colleagues. He then gave John a gift. All the staff had made a 7) ........................... CONTRIBUTE
and bought him a gold watch. John thanked everyone most 8) ........................... SINCERE
and told them all that he felt extremely 9) ........................... to have worked with PRIVILEGE
such wonderful people. He was feeling 10) ........................... emotional by this point UNDERSTAND
and he felt that he would truly miss being a part of the company.

18
UNIT 1

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ stingy ñ fire ñ budget ñ labour ñ boost ñ anniversary ñ gratitude ñ resign ñ trophy ñ sibling

1 Little Susie can’t wait for the baby to be born; she is so 6 After she helped him move house, he sent her a large
excited about having a new ........................ . bouquet of flowers to express his ........................ .
2 It is illegal to ........................ an employee without a good 7 The team captain proudly held the silver ........................ over
reason. his head as the fans cheered.
3 We are organising a party for our parents’ golden wedding 8 I haven’t got much money at the moment, so I’m living on
........................ . a tight ........................ .
4 Mark is so ........................; he never offers to buy anyone a 9 When my grandfather was a young boy, he used to
drink. ........................ in the fields instead of going to school.
5 I have decided to ........................ from my job as I have got 10 This new advertising campaign should ........................ the
a position with a larger company. company’s sales figures.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.


1 I can’t concentrate when the TV is on; it’s too much interpret/imply/infer that she was more successful than
of a diplomacy/discipline/distraction. we could ever be.
2 After some persuasion/permutation/persistence, she 5 She is not the most consistent/congested/collective
agreed to host the end-of-term party. of employees; sometimes she works very hard, but at
3 There is a vacancy/victory/visualisation at this company; other times she can be quite lazy.
would you like to apply for the position? 6 I wish he wouldn’t beam/grin/smirk at me like that;
4 By telling us about her new job, I think she was trying to it makes me feel as though he knows something I don’t.

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B

1 have the world a to the bone


2 be in b up to the top
3 rub c seventh heaven
4 keep on d feather in one’s cap
5 steal e top of things
6 work one’s way f the show
7 work one’s fingers g in the clouds
8 keep up h sb up the wrong way
9 have one’s head i at one’s feet
10 be a j with the Joneses

1 That girl ...............................................................................; 6 It’s ridiculous to spend money you haven’t got on doing up
she walks around as if she is in a dream. the house just to ................................................................ .
2 Frank started off as an errand boy in the company, but he 7 I don’t know why he gets on my nerves; he just seems to
slowly ................................................................................. . ............................................................................................ .
3 All the actors were good, but Chad Schmidt ...................... 8 If he manages to close the deal on his own, it will ..............
................................ with his excellent portrayal of Hamlet. ............................................................................................ .
4 Poor Maria! She ................................................................... 9 She came from a poor background, but now she is rich and
trying to look after her four children and work full time. famous and ........................................................................ .
5 He’s got a new job and a luxurious flat; it’s no wonder he 10 I’m working overtime this week because I’ve got a lot of
............................................................................................ . work to do and I need to ................................................... .

19
UNIT 2

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jedno zbędne słowo. Znajdź je i zapisz w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej
linijce nie ma zbędnego słowa, zaznacz ją znakiem (V).

If you are considering working from home, there are a few of things you 0 of
need to think of. You may dream of having no bosses looking over your 00 ✓
shoulder, no struggling to do work through heavy traffic and no putting on 1 ........................
an uncomfortable suit on every morning, but this is only half the story. 2 ........................
"I knew that working from home was right for me because I never missed 3 ........................
the office gossip," says David Hollings, who he has been working from 4 ........................
home for four years. If so you are the kind of person who gets lonely 5 ........................
working on your own, you are not going to be happy and productive 6 ........................
working from home. The good homeworkers are independent, self- 7 ........................
motivated and self-disciplined. They are most happiest when they’re able 8 ........................
to make up their own decisions and work without supervision. A simple 9 ........................
test is to ask yourself, "Would I trust myself to work from the home?" Even 10 ........................
if you feel comfortable with the idea of being alone all day and being 11 ........................
your own boss, there is also the matter of availability still. When you 12 ........................
work in an office, it is easy to put a limit on your working hours. Once you 13 ........................
leave from the office, the rest of the day is your own. Homeworkers often 14 ........................
find out that they work longer hours, because they are always "in the 15 ........................
office", and that they accept when business calls at any time for the same 16 ........................
reason. It is important to decide which hours are for work and which for a play. 17 ........................

2 Escape Artists
2.4 pony-trekking /`pøni¿trekæ…/ (n) = riding across
Lead-in (p. 23)
country on ponies for pleasure / jeżdżenie
2.1 backpacking /`b±kp±kæ…/ (n) = a type of holiday na kucykach
in which one travels with a backpack (a bag e.g. Janet is attracted by the idea of pony-trekking
with straps for carrying things on one’s back, in the Lake District, where ponies carry tourists along
a rucksack) / podróżowanie z plecakiem many dangerous paths.
e.g. Many students take a gap year before university
and go backpacking around Europe. Reading (pp. 28-29)
2.2 hiking /`h¡kæ…/ (n) = going for a long walk in the
country for pleasure / wędrowanie pieszo 2.5 overrated /¿øvº`rΩtæd/ (adj) = valued more than
e.g. I like hiking with friends in the mountains, one deserves / przeceniany, przereklamowany
and we normally cover very long distances. e.g. His political influence is overrated; he is not
2.3 package holiday /`p±kæπ `h≥lædeæ/ (n) = a holiday as important as people think.
arranged by a travel company which books one’s Opp.: underrated
travel and accommodation / wakacje 2.6 yarn /j≤n/ (n) = a story with invented details which
zorganizowane (przez biuro turystyczne) make it more interesting / anegdota, historia pełna
e.g. Many travel agents have extremely good deals zmyślonych szczegółów
on package holidays to the Caribbean, e.g. He has a talent for spinning a good yarn;
with everything included in the price. in fact, nobody can tell a story as he can.

20
UNIT 2

2.7 unparalleled /∑n`p±rºleld/ (adj) = (of sth) that can’t 2.17 hallucinatory /hº`l∂sænºtri/ (adj) = resembling
be compared to anything else of its kind / hallucinations, unreal / rodem z halucynacji, baśni
niezrównany lub snu, nierealny
e.g. It was an unparalleled opportunity to get e.g. Hallucinatory drugs make you see things
to know New Zealand so well. that aren’t there.
2.8 intellectual /¿æntæ`lek∏μºl/ (n) = sb who spends a lot 2.18 stash /st±«/ (v) = to store sth valuable in a safe
of time studying and thinking about complex or a secret place / chować coś cennego
ideas / intelektualista e.g. He didn’t want anyone else to see it and stashed
e.g. Einstein will always be remembered as one of the it in his secret hiding place.
greatest intellectuals of the twentieth century. 2.19 intelligentsia /æn¿telæ`πentsiº/ (n) = the most
Der.: intellectual (adj), intellectually (adv) educated people in a country or community /
2.9 dismiss /¿dæs`mæs/ (v) = to decide that sth is not inteligencja (jako grupa społeczna)
important enough to consider / odrzucić, e.g. George Bernard Shaw was a member
zlekceważyć of the literary intelligentsia in the 1920s.
e.g. The Prime Minister dismissed the allegations 2.20 deride sb/sth /dæ`r¡d/ (v) = to say that sb or sth is
as unfounded and not even important enough stupid or has no value, to ridicule / drwić, szydzić
to discuss. z kogoś lub czegoś
Der.: dismissive (adj), dismissal (n) e.g. His fellow politicians derided the minister’s
2.10 boyish /`b√æ«/ (adj) = of a boy, childish / chłopięcy proposed tax reforms, letting him know just how
e.g. People always remarked on his boyish inadequate his ideas were.
appearance because he looked very young for his age. 2.21 at large = as a whole, in general / ogólnie rzecz biorąc,
2.11 arguably /`≤gjuºbli/ (adv) = in a way that can be w większości
supported by evidence / zapewne, można e.g. Support for the government amongst
dowieść, że the population at large is low.
e.g. Arguably, the discovery of penicillin was 2.22 gratifying /`gr±tæf¡æ…/ (adj) = giving pleasure
one of the greatest medical breakthroughs or satisfaction / satysfakcjonujący, zadowalający
of the twentieth century. e.g. After months of hard work, it was gratifying
2.12 dismay /¿dæs`mΩ/ (n) = a strong feeling of fear, worry to see the finished product.
or sadness / osłupienie, przerażenie, konsternacja 2.23 devour /dæ`v¬ºr/ (v) = to read a book or magazine
e.g. When Joan discovered that her grandson had quickly and with great enthusiasm / pochłaniać,
been skipping classes, her dismay was immense; pożerać (np. książkę)
she was extremely disappointed with him. e.g. He was an avid reader and could devour a book
Der.: dismay (v) in one sitting.
2.13 merely /`mƒli/ (adv) = just, simply / po prostu, jedynie, 2.24 scope /skøp/ (n) = a range of themes, characters,
zaledwie events, etc / zakres
e.g. It was merely a request, not a demand. e.g. We did not cover several issues in our article:
2.14 ingrained /¿æn`grΩnd/ (adj) = rooted, difficult to they are outside its scope.
change or remove / wrodzony, zakorzeniony, 2.25 stern /stªn/ (adj) = serious, strong, severe / srogi,
wrośnięty surowy
e.g. His beliefs were deeply ingrained and it was e.g. The children received a stern warning not to go
unlikely they could be changed. near the edge of the cliff.
2.15 dog-eared /`d≥g¿ƒd/ (adj) = (of a book) used so 2.26 contemptible /kºn`temptæbºl/ (adj) = undeserving
much that the corners of the pages are turned respect, despicable / godny pogardy, podły
down or torn / (o książce) z pozaginanymi rogami e.g. Hiding the doll was a contemptible trick to play
e.g. Δhe page of the book had become dog-eared on your sister.
through continuous use. 2.27 enduring /æn`djΔræ…/ (adj) = long-lasting / trwały,
2.16 avidly /`±vædli/ (adv) = enthusiastically / wytrzymały
entuzjastycznie, z zapałem e.g. The pyramids are the enduring legacy of the
e.g. He was an enthusiastic pupil who avidly Egyptian pharaohs.
participated in class discussions.

21
UNIT 2

2.28 ravenous for sth /`r±vºnºs/ (adj) = starving, hungry e.g. There were many inconsistencies in his report,
(for sth) / głodny, spragniony (dosłownie i w przenośni) with numerous parts contradicting others.
e.g. People are ravenous for a more comprehensible 2.40 immense /æ`mens/ (adj) = enormous / ogromny
tax system. e.g. This project is of immense importance
2.29 crux /kr∑ks/ (n) = the most important or difficult and must be finished on time.
part of a problem / sedno sprawy lub problemu 2.41 stem from sth /stem/ (v) = to be caused by sth /
e.g. Let’s go first to the crux of the matter and the wywodzić się, wyrastać (z czegoś)
details can be discussed later on. e.g. The current debate over fishing rights within EU
2.30 repel /ræ`pel/ (v) = to repulse / odpychać, odstręczać, waters stems from decisions made by European
budzić wstręt governments over thirty years ago.
e.g. The violent behaviour of the football hooligans 2.42 tread lightly = to be careful and cautious about sth
repelled all the spectators. one does or says / ostrożnie postępować, uważać
Der.: repelling (adj) na to, co się robi lub mówi
Opp.: attract e.g. Whatever you do, tread lightly and exercise
2.31 notion /`nø«ºn/ (n) = an idea, concept / pojęcie, myśl discretion because he’s very touchy about that topic.
e.g. Perhaps the notion that one man can change 2.43 sweep /sw∞p/ (n) = the range of an idea, piece of
the world is not such a far-fetched idea. writing etc that covers a large number of
2.32 realm /relm/ (n) = an area of activity, interest different events, qualities or opinions / szeroki
or thought / dziedzina zakres, rozciągłość
e.g. You should stick to the realm of politics; that is e.g. The purpose of the convention is to examine the
your area of expertise after all. whole sweep of effective teaching techniques.
2.33 nursery rhyme /`nªsºri r¡m/ (n) = a poem or song 2.44 genuine /`πenjμæn/ (adj) = real / prawdziwy,
for young children / wierszyk dla dzieci, rymowanka autentyczny
e.g. For her fifth birthday, Annie got a book of nursery e.g. Is this a genuine painting by Picasso?
rhymes. 2.45 inherit /æn`heræt/ (v) = to receive money, property
2.34 fanciful /`f±nsæfºl/ (adj) = based on imagination, or qualities from sb / odziedziczyć
unrealistic / zmyślony, wymyślony e.g. She has inherited her mother’s excellent figure.
e.g. What I like about this book is the fanciful story
it tells. Language Focus (pp. 30-33)
2.35 concept /`k≥nsept/ (n) = an idea, notion / pojęcie,
koncepcja 2.46 tutor /`tj∂tºr/ (n) = a teacher at a British university
e.g. The first person to give the concept of a “just war” or college / nauczyciel na uniwersytecie lub w szkole
a thorough examination was St Thomas Aquinas. wyższej w Wielkiej Brytanii
2.36 be grounded in/on sth = to be based on sth / e.g. The tutor instructed his students to hand in their
opierać się na czymś university term papers to him by the end of the month.
e.g. My trust in people is grounded on the assumption 2.47 lodge /l≥π/ (n) = a house or hut in the country or
that they are basically good. in the mountains where people stay on holiday,
2.37 expertise /¿ekspª`t∞z/ (n) = a special skill especially when they go hunting or fishing /
or knowledge acquired by training, study domek letniskowy, chata
or practice / doświadczenie zawodowe, biegłość, e.g. The hunting lodge is actually a very comfortable
znawstwo place to spend the weekend, with all the amenities
e.g. Your expertise is required because you’ve you would expect to find in any house.
been specially trained to do the job. 2.48 well-stocked /¿wel`st≥kt/ (adj) = full of sth / dobrze
2.38 quandary /`kw≥ndºri/ (n) = inability to make wyposażony, zaopatrzony
a decision in a difficult situation, a dilemma / e.g. Hospitals are well-stocked with provisions
dylemat, kłopotliwe położenie in case of an emergency.
e.g. Many governments in Europe are in a quandary 2.49 isolation /¿¡sº`lΩ«ºn/ (n) = being far from others
about what to do with the influx of refugees. or feeling alone and without friends or help /
2.39 inconsistency /¿ænkºn`sæstºnsi/ (n) = contradiction / izolacja, odosobnienie
sprzeczność, niezgodność, niekonsekwencja e.g. For some people, isolation means just peace
and quiet.
22
UNIT 2

2.50 barrenness /`b±rºnnºs/ (n) = lack of fertility or e.g. The terrain over which they were traversing
productivity / jałowość, bezpłodność, nieurodzajność was barren and rocky.
e.g. The barrenness of the area and the absence 2.61 dean /d∞n/ (n) = an important official at a university
of trees made for a desolate landscape. or college / dziekan
2.51 solitude /`s≥lætj∂d/ (n) = being alone, esp. when e.g. The dean of a university faculty is responsible
it’s peaceful and pleasant / samotność for the entire goings on within that faculty.
e.g. The solitude and tranquillity of the area was 2.62 curator /kjμ`rΩtºr/ (n) = sb who is in charge
the reason that he settled there; places devoid of the objects or works of art in a museum
of other people had always appealed to him. or art gallery / kustosz
2.52 fragrant /`frΩgrºnt/ (adj) = having a pleasant e.g. The curator of the museum was overseeing
sweet smell / wonny, pachnący the organisation of the next public exhibition.
e.g. The air was fragrant with blooming flowers. 2.63 prefect /`pr∞fekt/ (n) = the head of the local
Der.: fragrance (n) government administration / prefekt, urzędnik
2.53 rousing /`r¬zæ…/ (adj) = causing strong emotions miejscowej administracji
and excitement / porywający, wzbudzający silne e.g. The prefect for the region issued a statement
emocje i entuzjazm to say that he was retiring and a new official would
e.g. The candidate gave a rousing speech to his soon be appointed.
supporters causing their emotions to run high. 2.64 pier /pƒr/ (n) = a platform sticking out into the sea,
2.54 rendition /ren`d櫺n/ (n) = the performance of a play, for people to get onto or off boats / pomost,
poem or piece of music / wykonanie, interpretacja przystań, molo
e.g. The musician gave a good rendition of a well- e.g. He and his wife took a stroll along the pier
known classical piece. to admire the yachts anchored in the harbour.
2.55 cliff-hanger /`klæfh±…ºr/ (n) = a film that is very 2.65 over the moon (idm) = extremely happy, overjoyed /
exciting or frightening because the audience is w siódmym niebie, niezwykle szczęśliwy
kept for a long time in suspense / film trzymający e.g. She was over the moon at having passed
w napięciu her driving test.
e.g. The film was a real cliff-hanger and the audience 2.66 on top of the world (idm) = extremely happy or
were left waiting to the very end for the outcome. proud / uszczęśliwiony, bardzo szczęśliwy lub dumny
2.56 blockbuster /`bl≥kb∑stºr/ (n) = a film that is very e.g. She felt on top of the world when she was
successful, usually because it is very exciting / admitted to the university of her choice.
film niezwykle ekscytujący i dlatego popularny 2.67 umpire /`∑mp¡ºr/ (n) = a person whose job is to
e.g. Arnold Schwarzenegger’s latest film is another make sure that a sports match (e.g. of baseball,
blockbuster, so riveting and exciting that it will keep tennis or cricket) is played fairly and that rules
you fixated throughout. are not broken / sędzia sportowy (np. w tenisie,
2.57 box office hit /`b≥ks ≥fæs `hæt/ (n) = a film that baseballu, krykiecie)
has made great profits / przebój kasowy e.g. The umpire ruled that the ball had gone
e.g. In the US and Canada, Harry Potter and the out of court and her decision was final.
Sorcerer’s Stone proved a massive box office hit, 2.68 darkroom /`d≤kr∂m/ (n) = a room used for
raking in $93.5m in its opening weekend alone. developing photos / ciemnia
2.58 pilgrimage /`pælgræmæπ/ (n) = a journey to a holy e.g. Light cannot be present in the developing process,
place for a religious reason / pielgrzymka so a darkroom is used for developing photographs.
e.g. Croagh Patrick is a holy mountain and place 2.69 lens /lenz/ (n) pl lenses /`lenzæz/ = a curved piece of
of pilgrimage in Ireland. glass or plastic that makes things look larger or
2.59 trek /trek/ (n) = a journey across difficult country, smaller when you look through it / soczewka,
usually on foot / długa wędrówka terenowa obiektyw
e.g. The journey called for a 5-hour trek over hostile e.g. Don’t forget to cover the lens when you are not
terrain, which would be difficult and arduous. using the camera.
Der.: trek (v) 2.70 tripod /`tr¡pºd/ (n) = a three-legged support
2.60 terrain /tº`rΩn/ (n) = an area or type of land for a camera / trójnóg, statyw
with regard to its physical features / teren e.g. It is recommended to use a tripod
when you take landscape pictures.
23
UNIT 2

2.71 saddle /`s±dºl/ (n) = a leather seat on the back 2.80 whisk /wæsk/ (n) = a kitchen tool used for beating
of an animal / siodło eggs or cream / trzepaczka (do piany)
e.g. The jockey bought a new saddle for riding e.g. The chef beat the cream with a whisk
his horse. in order to thicken it.
2.72 stirrup /`stærºp/ (n) = a metal loop attached to either 2.81 grater /`grΩtºr/ (n) = a kitchen tool which has
side of a horse’s saddle for placing one’s feet a rough surface for cutting food into very
when riding / strzemię small pieces / tarka
e.g. The jockey had to adjust the stirrup for his foot e.g. She used a grater to finely chop the cheese
so that he could balance himself in the saddle. so she could sprinkle it over the pasta.
2.73 bit /bæt/ (n) = a piece of metal that is held in 2.82 colander /`k≥lºndºr/ (n) = a container in the shape
a horse’s mouth and is used to control of a bowl with holes in it for washing
the horse when one is riding / wędzidło or draining food in / durszlak
e.g. The bit, placed in the mouth, allowed the jockey e.g. She placed the vegetables in the colander
to maintain control over the horse. and rinsed them thoroughly under the tap.
2.74 bridle /`br¡dºl/ (n) = a set of straps that is put 2.83 on balance = having taken everything into
around a horse’s head and mouth so that consideration / rozważywszy za i przeciw, po namyśle
the animal can be controlled / uzda e.g. I’ve considered both sides of the argument
e.g. The bridle allowed the jockey to direct the horse and on balance I prefer the latter.
in the desired direction. 2.84 sb’s cup of tea (idm) = what sb likes or is
2.75 carousel /¿k±rº`sel/ (n) = a large circular machine interested in / konik, zajęcie sprawiające przyjemność
with seats, often in the shape of animals or cars, e.g. I have to say that football is not my cup of tea;
where people sit and go round and round for I prefer rugby.
fun / karuzela 2.85 embroidery /æm`br√dºræ/ (n) = decorating fabric with
e.g. The carousel at the funfair was especially popular threads of various colours / haft, wyszywanie
with young children. e.g. Sewing and embroidery were girls’ usual pastimes
2.76 roller coaster /`rølº ¿køstºr/ (n) = a small railway in the old days.
at a funfair that goes up and down steep slopes 2.86 audible /`¥dæbºl/ (adj) = loud enough to be heard /
fast, which people ride for pleasure or słyszalny
excitement / kolejka górska w wesołym miasteczku e.g. She was talking so quietly that her voice was
e.g. The roller coaster had two loop-the-loops barely audible.
and an unexpected vertical drop. 2.87 raucous /`r¥kºs/ (adj) = (of a sound) loud, harsh
2.77 big wheel /`bæg `w∞l/ (n) = a very large upright and rather unpleasant / ochrypły, chropawy
wheel at a funfair with carriages around the e.g. The raucous sound of a thousand screaming
edge of it which people can ride in / diabelski football fans made the police feel apprehensive.
młyn 2.88 mild /m¡ld/ (adj) = (of weather) pleasant because
e.g. When you get to the top of the big wheel, you it is neither very cold nor very hot / łagodny
have a spectacular view of the surrounding area. (np. o klimacie)
2.78 water slide /`w¥tº sl¡d/ (n) = a structure that has e.g. It was a rather mild winter; it didn’t even
a steep slope with running water in it which snow once.
leads to a pool / zjeżdżalnia wodna 2.89 agreeable /º`gr∞ºbºl/ (adj) = nice, pleasant / miły,
e.g. Although the water slide was meant for children, sympatyczny, przyjemny
even the parents had a lot of fun on it. e.g. I found it a pleasant and agreeable meal; the food
2.79 chat show /`∏±t «ø/ (n) = a television show in was perfect for my delicate stomach.
which people talk in a friendly, informal way 2.90 disconcerting /¿dæskºn`sªtæ…/ (adj) = making sb feel
about different topics, a talk show / program anxious, confused or embarrassed, disturbing /
telewizyjny, w którym uczestnicy rozmawiają wprawiający w zakłopotanie, niepokojący
w przyjazny, niezobowiązujący sposób na wybrany e.g. I tend to feel anxious when I’m alone in the dark;
temat, rodzaj talk show I don’t understand why but I find it disconcerting.
e.g. Jerry Springer remains a very popular chat show, 2.91 distressing /dæ`stresæ…/ (adj) = causing sorrow or
perhaps because the guests do as much fighting as suffering / bolesny, niepokojący, wywołujący żal
they do talking. lub cierpienie
24
UNIT 2

e.g. It’s distressing to see so many people in the world 2.103 wetsuit /`wetsj∂t/ (n) = a tightly-fitting rubber
suffering. clothing worn by people swimming underwater
2.92 harrowing /`h±røæ…/ (adj) = extremely upsetting or sailing / strój piankowy, kombinezon do nurkowania
or disturbing / wstrząsający, okropny e.g. To snorkel, you need a wetsuit and a mask.
e.g. War zones are harrowing places and many 2.104 exhilarating /æg`zælºrΩtæ…/ (adj) = making one feel
journalists are haunted by the disturbing images very happy and excited / radosny, porywający
they witness. e.g. The speedboat trip was exhilarating; in fact
2.93 undemanding /¿∑ndæ`m≤ndæ…/ (adj) = not requiring it was the most exciting thing I did on holiday.
hard work or much thinking / niewymagający 2.105 commercialised /kº`mª«ºl¡zd/ (adj) = used or
(np. wysiłku) changed in such a way as to make money
e.g. His job was so undemanding that he decided or profits / skomercjalizowany, komercyjny
to quit and seek some new challenges. e.g. If you’re looking to experience unspoilt nature,
2.94 daunting /`d¥ntæ…/ (adj) = making one feel slightly you could undertake a holiday to Greenland
afraid or worried about dealing with sth, before it too becomes commercialised.
discouraging / zniechęcający, wzbudzający obawę 2.106 soothing /`s∂∫æ…/ (adj) = making the pain or
e.g. The prospect of teaching a class of twenty children discomfort less severe / łagodzący, kojący
is a daunting one for a novice teacher. e.g. I find a long hot bath after a hard day to be
2.95 gruelling /`gr∂ºlæ…/ (adj) = exhausting / wyczerpujący, extremely soothing for the body and mind.
wymagający wysiłku 2.107 pristine /`præst∞n/ (adj) = extremely clean and
e.g. It was a gruelling climb to the top of the peaceful / pierwotny, dziewiczy
mountain and their muscles ached after expending e.g. Greece has 13,676 km of pristine coastline with
so much energy. some of the cleanest beaches in Europe.
2.96 roar /r¥r/ (n) = a loud continuous noise / ryk; hałas 2.108 temperate /`tempºræt/ (adj) = (of a climate or place)
e.g. I could not hear anything above the roar neither too hot nor too cold, mild / umiarkowany
of the traffic. (np. klimat)
2.97 drained /`dreænd/ (adj) = very tired / wyczerpany e.g. It’s a temperate region, neither too hot nor cold.
e.g. When the party was over and all the guests left, 2.109 gnarled /n≤ld/ (adj) = (of a tree) twisted and
she suddenly felt drained. strangely shaped because it is old / (o drzewie)
2.98 shanty town /`«±nti t¬n/ (n) = slums, a collection wykrzywiony, zdeformowany, sękaty ze starości
of rough huts which poor people live in, usually e.g. It was an extremely old tree with thick gnarled
near a large city / domy biedoty na przedmieściach branches.
miast, slumsy 2.110 sparkling /`sp≤klæ…/ (adj) = clear and bright,
e.g. The shanty towns in parts of South Africa are glittering / migotliwy, roziskrzony, perlisty
shocking, much worse than the slums in Europe. e.g. The sparkling lake at sunrise is a marvellous sight.
2.99 be up to sth/doing sth = to be physically 2.111 winding /`w¡ndæ…/ (adj) = having a lot of bends or
or mentally capable of sth / być do czegoś twists / (np. o drodze) wijący się
zdolnym fizycznie lub psychicznie e.g. Halfway down the winding stream is a beautiful
e.g. I think I‘m not up to going out tonight; cascading waterfall.
I’d rather have an early night. 2.112 literal /`lætºrºl/ (adj) = referring to the basic meaning
2.100 strenuous /`strenjuºs/ (adj) = involving a lot of sth / dosłowny
of energy and effort / mozolny, żmudny e.g. The literal meaning of “hippopotamus” in Greek
e.g. The fitness training at the local gym is very is “river horse“.
strenuous and will leave you utterly exhausted. 2.113 hamper /`h±mpºr/ (v) = to make it difficult
2.101 uncharted /¿∑n`∏≤tæd/ (adj) = unexplored / niezbadany for sb/sth to move freely or do sth / utrudniać,
e.g. Parts of the ocean floor remain uncharted and krępować, hamować
many new discoveries can be expected there. e.g. The weather hampered their progress; they may
2.102 snorkelling /`sn¥kºlæ…/ (n) = swimming underwater have moved slowly but eventually they got there.
with a tube one can breathe air through / 2.114 off-limits /`≥f¿læmæts/ (adj) = out of bounds /
nurkowanie z rurką niedostępny
e.g. My favourite summer pastime is snorkelling e.g. Military bases are off-limits to civilians,
in the Mediterranean. who are not allowed near them.
25
UNIT 2

2.115 moss /m≥s/ (n) = a very small soft green plant that 2.125 paint the town red = to go out and enjoy oneself /
grows on damp soil, on wood or stone / mech wyjść na miasto i zaszaleć
e.g. The forest was a mass of tall trees with trunks that e.g. It was John’s birthday and as he and his friends
appeared green because of the moss that covered were in a celebratory mood, they decided to go out
the brown bark. and paint the town red.
2.116 suntan /`s∑nt±n/ (n) = the brown colour of skin 2.126 read between the lines = to understand what sb
which has been exposed to the sun / opalenizna really means or what is really happening, even
e.g. It’s only the end of August and my suntan’s though nothing is said openly / czytać między
already fading. wierszami
Idioms e.g. I want you to read between the lines and try
to discover what he was implying.
2.117 bring the house down = to make the audience
laugh, clap or cheer loudly for a long time
because they liked the performance / oczarować Fixed Phrases (with at)
i rozbawić publiczność występem, dostać gorące owacje
2.127 be at a loss = not to know what to do in
e.g. The comedian brought the house down;
a particular situation / być w kropce, nie wiedzieć,
everybody loved his show and cheered wildly.
co robić w danej sytuacji
2.118 read sb like a book = to understand easily what sb
e.g. He was so rude that she didn’t know what to say;
is planning or thinking / czytać w kimś jak w książce,
she was completely at a loss for words.
przejrzeć kogoś
2.128 at odds with sb = disagreeing and quarrelling with
e.g. The detectives could read him like a book
sb / będący w niezgodzie z kimś, mający odmienne
because his nervous body and eye movements
zdanie
indicated he was lying.
e.g. The two brothers were at odds with each other
2.119 face the music = to put oneself in a position where
over what to buy their parents for their anniversary.
one will be criticised or punished for sth they
2.129 at a standstill = completely stopped / w bezruchu,
have done / ponieść konsekwencje, zmierzyć się
unieruchomiony
z (nieprzyjemną) prawdą
e.g. Traffic was at a standstill due to the wreckage
e.g. It was his fault and he felt it necessary
of a van blocking the road up ahead.
to own up and face the music.
2.130 at a glance = immediately, without having to think
2.120 let one’s hair down = to relax completely
or look carefully / na pierwszy rzut oka
and enjoy oneself / wyluzować się i dobrze się bawić
e.g. I could tell at a glance that she was a loving and
e.g. After a hard day’s work, she delighted in letting
caring person.
her hair down.
2.131 at a loose end = not having anything in particular
2.121 off the beaten track = (of a place) not visited or
to do / bez konkretnego zajęcia
inhabited by many people / z dala od utartych
e.g. He had finished all his work early and was
szlaków
at a loose end; he had nothing to do.
e.g. He found himself a lovely little discreet holiday
home off the beaten track. 2.132 tuck away /`t∑k º`wΩ/ (phr v) = to store sth
2.122 on a shoestring budget = having very little money in a safe place / schować coś w bezpieczne miejsce
to spend / mając niewiele pieniędzy do dyspozycji e.g. The insurance documents are tucked away
e.g. He found it hard living on a shoestring budget, in the filing cabinet.
but he expected a pay rise next month. 2.133 zipped compartment = part of a suitcase which
2.123 on the house = offered by the bar or restaurant fastens with a zip, usually for keeping papers /
free of charge / na koszt firmy zasuwana kieszeń w walizie lub torbie podróżnej
e.g. As he was a regular customer, the owner often e.g. He put his passport in the zipped compartment
gave him a drink on the house. of his suitcase.
2.124 on the edge of one’s seat = very interested in 2.134 on the loose (idm) = free because one has escaped
what is happening or what is going to happen / from prison or a place / na wolności (np. po ucieczce
zainteresowany tym, co się dzieje lub zaraz wydarzy z więzienia)
e.g. He was such a gifted and fascinating orator that| e.g. The police issued a public warning that a robber
he kept the audience on the edge of their seats. was on the loose after escaping from prison.
26
UNIT 2

Phrasal Verbs Listening & Speaking (pp. 34-35)

2.135 put up /`pμt `∑p/ = to construct, assemble / 2.145 be inclined to do sth /bi æn`kl¡nd/ (v) = to tend to /
postawić, złożyć, zbudować być skłonnym, mieć tendencję do czegoś
e.g. It was easy to put up the shelves because they e.g. They were inclined to disagree with one another
came with instructions on how to assemble them. over trifles.
2.136 put off /`pμt `≥f/ = to postpone / przełożyć 2.146 once in a blue moon (idm) = very rarely /
e.g. He had to put off his dental appointment bardzo rzadko, raz na ruski rok, od wielkiego dzwonu
until the next day because of a business meeting. e.g. Due to the nature of my work, I get a holiday once
2.137 put sb through sth /`pμt `ır∂/ = to cause sb to in a blue moon, roughly once a year if I’m lucky.
experience sth unpleasant / narazić kogoś
(na nieprzyjemne doświadczenia)
Reading (pp. 36-37)
e.g. Her marriage was a disaster and her husband
put her through hell. 2.147 grizzled /`græzºld/ (adj) = with grey or partly grey
2.138 put sb down /`pμt `d¬n/ = to criticise sb in front hair / (o włosach) przyprószony siwizną
of other people or make them appear foolish, e.g. He was an old man with grizzled hair.
to humiliate / upokorzyć kogoś, publicznie 2.148 desolate /`desºlºt/ (adj) = (of a place) empty
skrytykować of people and lacking in comfort /
e.g. He was upset at having been put down wyludniony, opustoszały, odludny
in front of the class. e.g. Their camping site was a desolate place,
2.139 put up with /`pμt `∑p wæ∫/ = to accept sth or sb without any of the comforts they expected.
that one finds unpleasant, to tolerate / znosić, Der.: desolation (n)
tolerować 2.149 windswept /`wændswept/ (adj) = (of a place) having
e.g. James was often obnoxious but John put up with no shelter, not protected against strong winds /
him; after all, close friends normally tolerate each nieosłonięty, targany wiatrami
other’s faults. e.g. It was a windswept barren place that offered
2.140 put aside /`pμt º`s¡d/ = to keep sth to be used no shelter whatsoever.
at a later time, to save / odłożyć (np. pieniądze) 2.150 scrub /skr∑b/ (n) = an area covered with low trees
na później and bushes / zarośla, zagajnik
e.g. Denise was putting aside money every month e.g. The scrub, with its low trees and bushes,
because she was saving up for a new car. was a perfect place to shoot pheasants.
2.141 put sth back /`pμt `b±k/ = to return sth to its 2.151 chortle /`∏¥tºl/ (v) = to laugh in a way that shows
place / odłożyć coś na miejsce one is very pleased / rechotać
e.g. The books were arranged in chronological order, e.g. Graham began chortling manically to himself,
so he put the one he had read back in its correct place. an indication that he was extremely pleased with
2.142 set sb back /`set `b±k/ = to cost / kosztować something.
e.g. The new dress set her back a fortune; 2.152 benign /bæ`n¡n/ (adj) = (of conditions, climate, etc)
she couldn’t believe how much it cost her. pleasant and making it easy for sth to happen /
2.143 set in /`set `æn/ = (of sth unpleasant) to begin and łagodny, życzliwy, sprzyjający
seem likely to continue or develop / (o czymś e.g. The climate was benign, very pleasant and perfect
nieprzyjemnym) zapanować, nastać for walking.
e.g. Days were getting shorter and nights longer, 2.153 walking trail /`w¥kæ… ¿trΩl/ (n) = a path across open
a sure sign that winter was setting in. country or rough forests planned or marked out
2.144 set off /`set `≥f/ = to start a journey / wyruszyć for walking or hiking / oznaczony szlak
w podróż e.g. There is a great walking trail that takes us
e.g. In Jules Verne’s novel Around the World through the forest and emerges at the coast.
in Eighty Days, Phileas Fogg sets off on his journey 2.154 moorland /`mμºl±nd/ (n) = a high open area of
on 2 October 1872. land with poor soil, covered mainly with grass
and wild plants / wrzosowisko, torfowisko
e.g. Moorland is often foggy and difficult to traverse
at the best of times.
27
UNIT 2

2.155 gaze at sb/sth /gΩz/ (v) = to look steadily at sb or e.g. The trees were swaying so violently in the storm
sth for a long time / wpatrywać się, przyglądać się that it appeared as if they would snap in two.
e.g. She gazed at him in surprise. 2.168 trip over sth /træp/ (v) = to knock one’s foot against
Der.: gaze (n) sth and fall or nearly fall / potknąć się (o coś)
2.156 startling /`st≤tlæ…/ (adj) = very surprising, unusual / e.g. He was trying to read and walk at the same time
zaskakujący and tripped over the porch of his house.
e.g. She made a startling discovery that her boyfriend 2.169 wombat /`w≥mb±t/ (n) = a type of furry animal
was an ex-prisoner. found in Australia which has very short legs and
2.157 stoop /st∂p/ (v) = to bend one’s body forwards eats plants / wombat, niedźwiedź workowaty (ssak
and downwards / pochylić się z rodziny torbaczy)
e.g. He paused and stooped to pick up his car keys e.g. The wombat, which is a nocturnal marsupial
that he had dropped. native to Australia and Tasmania, is the largest
2.158 rivulet /`rævjμlæt/ (n) = a small stream / rzeczułka, burrowing mammal.
strumień 2.170 lumber off /`l∑mbºr `≥f/ (phr v) = to move away
e.g. The gentle flow of water in the rivulet added slowly and clumsily / oddalić się niezdarnie i powoli
to the picturesque scene. e.g. He lumbered off, clumsily knocking into
2.159 gaggle /`g±gºl/ (n) = a group of people who everything as he went.
are noisy or talkative / hałaśliwa gromada 2.171 plateau /`pl±tø/ (n) = a large area of high and
e.g. The gaggle of shrieking and whooping school fairly flat land / płaskowyż, plateau
children were irritating the bus driver. e.g. At the end of the valley was a high plateau,
2.160 on a perpetual loop = (of music) played over lush and green from the recent rains.
and over again / (o utworze muzycznym) grany, 2.172 tarn /t≤n/ (n) = a small lake in the mountains /
puszczany w kółko małe górskie jeziorko
e.g. The music in the shop played on a perpetual loop, e.g. While strolling along the mountain path,
repeating the same songs again and again. we suddenly came to a tarn surrounded by shrubs.
2.161 park ranger /`p≤k ¿rΩnπºr/ (n) = a person whose 2.173 take one’s skinny dip (idm) = (informal) to swim
job is to look after a large park / strażnik parku naked / kąpać się na golasa
e.g. The park ranger was doing his rounds when e.g. It’s wonderful to take your skinny dip in the warm
he stumbled upon some poachers. sea at sunset.
2.162 mountain ridge /`m¬ntæn ¿ræπ/ (n) = a long narrow 2.174 emerge /æ`mªπ/ (v) = to come out from a position
piece of raised land along the top of where one could not be seen / wyłonić się, pojawić
a mountain / grzbiet, grań e.g. The soldiers emerged from nowhere, their
e.g. The mountain ridge, when we had finally climbed camouflage allowing them to blend in with the
it, offered the best view for miles around. surrounding area.
2.163 void /v√d/ (n) = a large empty space / pustka, próżnia 2.175 flank /fl±…k/ (n) = (of a mountain) the side / stok,
e.g. He stared into the void, overwhelmed by the zbocze
feeling of emptiness. e.g. The steep barren flank of the mountain is virtually
2.164 protrude /prº`tr∂d/ (v) = to stick out / wystawać impossible to climb.
e.g. There was a sharp shard of glass protruding 2.176 cockily /`k≥kæli/ (adv) = confidently in an annoying
from the frame of the broken window. way / zadziornie, zarozumiale, zaczepnie
2.165 decaying /dæ`kΩæ…/ (adj) = rotting / rozkładający się, e.g. He cockily strutted across the room, ready
gnijący to confront everybody present.
e.g. The rotting fruit in the fridge gave off the noxious 2.177 blunt /bl∑nt/ (adj) = having a rounded or flat end
smell typical of decaying matter. rather than a sharp one / tępy
2.166 cluster /`kl∑stºr/ (n) = a group of plants growing e.g. He sharpened his pencil because it was blunt,
close together / kępka (np. roślin, krzewów) and he needed a sharp point to write legibly.
e.g. Clusters of various flowers were in bloom, Opp.: pointed, sharp
filling the air with many pleasant smells. 2.178 outcrop /`¬tkr≥p/ (n) = a large mass of rock
2.167 sway /swΩ/ (v) = to swing slowly from one side sticking out of the ground / skała wyrastająca
to the other / kołysać się z ziemi

28
UNIT 2

e.g. He didn’t realise that it was an outcrop in the 2.189 dome /døm/ (n) = an object in the shape
distance, but as he came closer he noticed the large of a round roof / kopuła
rocks sticking out of the ground. e.g. The round roof structure, known as a dome,
2.179 confide sth to sb /kºn`f¡d/ (v) = to tell a secret has been frequently used in religious architecture.
to sb / zwierzyć się komuś 2.190 blistering /`blæstºræ…/ (adj) = (of heat) very great,
e.g. He confided a dark secret to his friend, certain extreme / palący
that he wouldn’t betray his trust by telling anyone e.g. The blistering heat was so unbearable
else. that she thought she would faint.
Der.: confidential (adj), confidentiality (n) 2.191 out-take /`¬ttΩk/ (n) = a piece of a film that is not
2.180 bound /b¬nd/ (v) = to move quickly with large in the final version because it contains a mistake
steps or jumps, to leap / skakać, robić wielkie kroki / sceny wycięte z filmu ze względu na zawarte w nich
e.g. He bounded down the stairs and out the door błędy, tzw. odrzut(y)
in a desperate attempt to catch his bus. e.g. Out-takes from films are often included on DVDs.
Der.: bound (n) 2.192 engrave /æn`grΩv/ (v) = to inscribe or cut a design
2.181 dingo /`dæ…gø/ (n) = an Australian wild dog / on a hard surface / wyryć, wygrawerować
pies dingo e.g. He had a message engraved on the back of the
e.g. The dingo, a wild dog native to Australia, watch he gave his sister for her birthday.
is detested by farmers because of the threat 2.193 tempted /`temptæd/ (adj) = wanting to do sth,
it poses to flocks of sheep. feeling a desire for sth / czujący pokusę
2.182 cobber /`k≥bºr/ (n) = (Australian English) friend, e.g. He was tempted to eat the freshly baked cake
mate / kumpel, przyjaciel even though his mother had warned him not to.
e.g. "How’re you doing today, cobber?" the man 2.194 rim /ræm/ (n) = an edge / brzeg, krawędź
asked his friend. e.g. He peered over the rim of his glasses
2.183 no worries = (Australian English) it’s fine, to see who had called his name.
no problem / Wszystko w porządku! 2.195 resolve /ræ`z≥lv/ (v) = to make a firm decision
e.g. "No worries, mate," he reassured his friend, to do sth / postanowić
indicating that everything was fine. e.g. He resolved to complete the task and once he had
2.184 banter /`b±ntºr/ (n) = teasing or joking talk that is decided to do something, there was no stopping him.
amusing and friendly / przekomarzanie się, droczenie Der.: resolution /¿rezº`l∂«ºn/ (n)
e.g. The friends exchanged banter with one another 2.196 vista /`væstº/ (n) = a beautiful view from a high
around the table, laughing themselves to death. place / panorama, roztaczający się skądś piękny widok
Der.: banter (v) e.g. While hiking through the mountains, I frequently
2.185 fern /fªn/ (n) = a plant that has long stems with stopped to admire the vista of snow-capped
feathery leaves and no flowers / paproć mountain peaks.
e.g. They had to cut their way through the thick forest, 2.197 glisten /`glæsºn/ (v) = to shine because of being wet
trees, bushes and ferns. or oily, to gleam / błyszczeć, połyskiwać, lśnić
2.186 stragglers /`str±glºz/ (n pl) = the people in a group e.g. The field glistened with the early morning dew.
who are moving more slowly or making less 2.198 sandblasted /`s±ndbl≤stæd/ (adj) = cleaned by a jet
progress than the others / maruderzy of sand thrown from a special machine /
e.g. The stragglers finished the marathon more than piaskowany
two hours behind the winners. e.g. The brickwork was sandblasted in order that
2.187 wilderness /`wældºnºs/ (n) = a desert or other area the building was returned to its original state.
of natural land which is not used by people /
dzicz, głusza, odludzie
English in Use (pp. 38-41)
e.g. The wilderness of the Sahara desert is
uninhabited, with the exception of some 2.199 recuperate /ræ`kj∂pºrΩt/ (v) = to recover one’s
nomadic tribes. health and strength / wyzdrowieć, zregenerować,
2.188 swathe /swΩ∫/ (v) = to wrap completely / owinąć, odzyskać siły
zawinąć kompletnie, opatulić e.g. He was given an extra two weeks off work
e.g. The baby boy was swathed in a blanket to keep to recuperate from the illness.
him warm. Der.: recuperative (adj), recuperation (n)
29
UNIT 2

2.200 insomnia /æn`s≥mniº/ (n) = the state in which 2.212 incessant /æn`sesºnt/ (adj) = constant, continuous /
sb finds it difficult to sleep / bezsenność nieustający
e.g. She was suffering from insomnia and hadn’t e.g. The incessant noise from the workmen was
had a proper night’s sleep for over two weeks. driving him crazy.
Der.: insomniac (n) 2.213 turbulence /`tªbjμlºns/ (n) = a state of confusion
2.201 debilitating /dæ`bælætΩtæ…/ (adj) = causing the body and disorganised change / niepokój, wzburzenie
to become gradually weaker / wycieńczający e.g. The country was in a state of political turbulence,
e.g. What had started as a debilitating illness was with no one quite sure what was going on.
now terminal. 2.214 relieve /ræ`l∞v/ (v) = to make sth unpleasant less
2.202 malady /`m±lºdi/ (n) = illness / choroba, dolegliwość intense or cause it to disappear completely /
e.g. He was struck down by an unknown malady ulżyć, uśmierzyć
and despite their efforts, the doctors could not e.g. The new medication relieved him to some degree,
diagnose him. but he still felt a lot of pain.
2.203 dire /`d¡ºr/ (adj) = serious, terrible, awful / straszny, Der.: relieved (adj), relief (n)
okropny 2.215 retrieve /ræ`tr∞v/ (v) = to get sth back, to recover
e.g. The politician’s outspoken comments may have sth / odzyskać
dire consequences for the relations between the two e.g. He was ordered to retrieve the misplaced files
countries. immediately.
2.204 wade through sth /wΩd/ (v) = to walk with Der.: retrieval (n)
an effort through sth (e.g. water or mud) / 2.216 siege /s∞π/ (n) = a military or police operation
brnąć, torować sobie drogę in which soldiers or police surround a place
e.g. The rescuers had to wade through a thick swamp in order to force the people there to come out
to get to the crashed plane. or give up control of the place / oblężenie
2.205 reflexes /`r∞fleksæz/ (n pl) = the ability to react e.g. The police laid siege to the building occupied
quickly with one’s body when sth unexpected by the terrorists.
happens / dosł. odruchy; szybki refleks 2.217 fringe /frænπ/ (n) = the outer edge of an area
e.g. Goalkeepers must have good reflexes in order to or activity / margines
react quickly to any shots at the goal. e.g. It was a rather obscure political group on the
2.206 dim /dæm/ (v) = to cause to weaken / osłabić fringe of the political establishment, quite far
e.g. Her memories of events have dimmed with age; removed from the mainstream.
it appears that forgetfulness is synonymous with 2.218 recreational /¿rekri`Ω«ºnºl/ (adj) = relating to free
growing old. time activities or entertainment / rekreacyjny
2.207 plead with sb /pl∞d/ (v) = to ask sb in an intense, e.g. Recreational activities are a great way to relax
emotional way to do sth, to beg / prosić, błagać in your spare time.
e.g. He pleaded with his mother to allow him to stay 2.219 groundbreaking /`gr¬nd¿brΩkæ…/ (adj) = using new
off school. methods, pioneering, unprecedented /
2.208 menacing /`menæsæ…/ (adj) = threatening / złowrogi bezprecedensowy, przełomowy, nowatorski
e.g. He spoke to her in a menacing manner, e.g. Even his first novel was marked
and the threatening tone in his voice frightened her. by groundbreaking style.
2.209 ensnare /æn`sn≈r/ (v) = to catch or get control of sb 2.220 ruling /`r∂li…/ (n) = an official decision, especially
or sth / uwięzić, zniewolić, schwytać made by a judge / orzeczenie (np. sądu)
e.g. The rabbit was ensnared in a trap and couldn’t e.g. The court will make its ruling next month.
get away. 2.221 implement /`æmplæment/ (v) = to put into practice,
2.210 traverse /trº`vªs/ (v) = to cross an area of land to carry out / wdrożyć, wprowadzić w życie
or water / trawersować, przemierzać e.g. Many people are upset that the new tax policies
e.g. The slopes of the mountain were traversed will be implemented.
by skiers. Der.: implementation (n)
2.211 yearning /`jªnæ…/ (n) = a very strong desire, longing / 2.222 directive /d¡`rektæv/ (n) = an official instruction
tęsknota, pragnienie given by sb in authority / dyrektywa
e.g. After a dismal first visit, we had no yearning to see e.g. A new UN directive will ensure that CO2 emissions
them again. will be more strictly regulated.
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UNIT 2

2.223 venue /`venj∂/ (n) = the place where an event 2.233 shallow /`«±lø/ (adj) = (of a character) superficial,
or activity will happen / sala, hala (widowiskowa), not developed / płytki, powierzchowny
miejsce, w którym coś się odbywa e.g. He is a shallow person who only thinks
e.g. The venue for the rock festival will be announced of money and cars.
next week, with a variety of places competing for the 2.234 gripping /`græpæ…/ (adj) = holding one’s attention,
rights. compelling / porywający, wciągający
2.224 proximity /pr≥`ksæmæti/ (n) = closeness, nearness / e.g. It was a gripping movie; I couldn’t take my eyes
bliskość, sąsiedztwo off the screen.
e.g. The new headquarters will be built in close 2.235 riveting /`rævætæ…/ (adj) = extremely interesting and
proximity to the parliamentary buildings. exciting, holding one’s attention completely /
przykuwający uwagę
Writing (pp. 42-46) e.g. The book was so riveting that I didn’t put it down
once.
2.225 compelling /kºm`pelæ…/ (adj) = (of a film or book) 2.236 stunning /`st∑næ…/ (adj) = fabulous, extremely
holding one’s attention, very interesting / impressive / wspaniały, cudowny, olśniewający
zniewalający, wciągający e.g. She is one of the most stunning women I have
e.g. It was a compelling novel, one of the most ever seen; indeed her beauty hypnothised me.
interesting thrillers I’ve read in a long time. 2.237 staggering /`st±gºræ…/ (adj) = very surprising,
2.226 chilling /`∏ælæ…/ (adj) = frightening / przerażający, amazing, astonishing / oszałamiający, zaskakujący
mrożący krew w żyłach e.g. It was a staggering revelation that her husband
e.g. It was a chilling horror film that kept me jumping was a gangster.
out of my seat. 2.238 astounding /º`st¬ndæ…/ (adj) = amazing,
2.227 spine-tingling /`sp¡ntæ…glæ…/ (adj) = frightening astonishing / niesamowity, zdumiewający
in an exciting way / powodujący, że dreszcz e.g. His insincerity is astounding; I am amazed
przechodzi po plecach that he gets away with it.
e.g. It was a spine-tingling film but I couldn’t stop 2.239 amateurish /`±mºtºræ«/ (adj) = not skilfully made
watching, it was too fascinating. or done / amatorski, nieprofesjonalny
2.228 underrated /¿∑ndº`rΩtæd/ (adj) = whose value has e.g. The photographs were disappointingly
not been recognised / niedoceniany amateurish and completely lacking in skill.
e.g. He is one of the most underrated actors of his Der.: amateurism (n)
generation; people just don’t appreciate his skills. 2.240 wooden /`wμdºn/ (adj) = (of acting) not lively or
Opp.: overrated natural / drewniany, sztywny, nienaturalny
2.229 hilarious /hæ`l≈riºs/ (adj) = extremely funny / e.g. The acting in the play was wooden
niezwykle zabawny, prześmieszny and not at all natural.
e.g. He is simply hilarious; he is excellent at telling 2.241 appalling /º`p¥læ…/ (adj) = extremely bad, dreadful /
jokes. odpychający, okropny
2.230 stirring /`stªræ…/ (adj) = causing excitement and e.g. The pupil got a letter home to his parents
enthusiasm, rousing / poruszający, wzruszający outlining his appalling behaviour in the classroom.
e.g. The orchestra gave a stirring performance 2.242 contrived /kºn`tr¡vd/ (adj) = unlikely, unconvincing
of a well-known classical piece that was / nieprawdopodobny, nieprzekonujący, naciągany
enthusiastically received by the audience. e.g. He was late and his excuse sounded contrived;
2.231 thought-provoking /`ı¥t prº`vøkæ…/ (adj) I didn’t believe a word of it.
= containing interesting ideas that make people 2.243 outstanding /¿¬t`st±ndæ…/ (adj) = remarkable,
think seriously / dający do myślenia exceptionally good / wybitny, niezwykły
e.g. It was a thought-provoking documentary e.g. Winning a gold medal in the Olympic Games
that explored a whole new aspect of the mystery. is an outstanding achievement.
2.232 action-packed /`±k«ºn `p±kt/ (adj) = full of action / 2.244 over-the-top /¿øvº∫º`t≥p/ (adj) = exaggerated and
wypełniony akcją, z wartką fabułą therefore unacceptable / przesadzony i dlatego
e.g. This time of year normally sees a great number nie do przyjęcia
of action-packed blockbusters. e.g. His ideas about ruling the world are completely
over-the-top.
31
UNIT 2

2.245 profound /prº`f¬nd/ (adj) = intense, powerful, e.g. Don’t believe all the media hype – this film
deeply thought of / głęboki, dogłębny is not worth seeing.
e.g. The student carried out profound research 2.256 unreservedly /¿∑nræ`zªvædli/ (adj) = definitely,
for her dissertation. without doubt / zdecydowanie, bez wątpliwości
2.246 clichéd /`kl∞«Ωd/ (adj) = said or used so many times e.g. I apologise unreservedly for my behaviour.
that it is boring / pełen frazesów, wytarty, 2.257 crusty /`kr∑sti/ (adj) = impatient and easily irritable,
stereotypowy grumpy / zrzędliwy, niecierpliwy, drażliwy
e.g. That is so clichéd; I’ve heard that argument e.g. The crusty old man next door has absolutely
a thousand times before. no patience.
2.247 portray /p¥`trΩ/ (v) = to depict, represent / 2.258 in remission = (of a disease) at a stage in which
portretować, przedstawiać it is controlled or less severe / (o chorobie) w fazie
e.g. The film portrayed the president remisji, ustąpienia objawów
in a fair and objective manner. e.g. He was delighted when the doctors told him
Der.: portrayal (n) that the cancer was in remission.
2.248 evolve /æ`v≥lv/ (v) = to develop gradually / ewoluować, 2.259 blissfully happy = extremely happy / w pełni szczęścia,
rozwijać się uszczęśliwiony
e.g. Δhe idea for the film evolved from a conversation e.g. They had been married for forty years and were
the producer had with his son. still blissfully happy, like a couple of newlyweds.
2.249 insight into sth /`æns¡t/ (n) = an accurate and deep 2.260 succumb to sth /sº`k∑m/ (v) = to give up resisting
understanding of sth / wgląd, intuicja, wnikliwy (an attack, illness, temptation etc) / ulec czemuś,
ogląd poddać się
e.g. The new satellite will give scientists an insight into e.g. After a three-year struggle against cancer,
how the universe was formed. he succumbed to the disease and died.
2.250 diverse /d¡`vªs/ (adj) = different from each other, 2.261 accomplished /º`k∑mplæ«t/ (adj) = very successful /
varied / różny, zróżnicowany, urozmaicony znakomity, utalentowany
e.g. His interests are extremely diverse; I don’t think e.g. He was an accomplished musician who had
I’ve met someone with such varied tastes. performed many great works throughout the world.
Der.: diversity (n) 2.262 glimpse /glæmps/ (n) = a brief experience of or idea
2.251 script /skræpt/ (n) = a written text of a play or film / about sth / przelotne spojrzenie
scenariusz e.g. The science fair provided a glimpse
e.g. Several lines of the script had to be rewritten of the technology of the future.
when one of the actors fell ill. 2.263 courteously /`kªtiºsli/ (adv) = politely / uprzejmie,
2.252 intensify /æn`tensæf¡/ (v) = to make sth greater po rycersku, szarmancko
in strength, amount or degree / intensyfikować, e.g. He was a polite young man and courteously
nasilać, zwiększać asked if he could join her at the table.
e.g. The war is bound to intensify as both sides are 2.264 unfailingly /∑n`fΩlæ…li/ (adv) = at all times /
strengthening their positions. niezawodnie
Der.: intensification (n) e.g. He unfailingly turned up for work on time; he was
2.253 live up to expectations = to be as good as one never late.
was expected to be / spełniać oczekiwania 2.265 critically acclaimed = praised enthusiastically
e.g. He was under a lot of pressure to live up by critics / przyjęty z entuzjazmem, chwalony
to his parents’ expectations. przez krytyków
2.254 persevere with sth /pªsæ`væºr/ (v) = to continue e.g. The artist’s recent work has been critically
trying to do sth in spite of difficulties / wytrwać, acclaimed throughout the art world.
nie ustawać w czymś 2.266 escapism /æs`kΩpæzºm/ (n) = the habit of thinking
e.g. She persevered with her piano lessons and finally about pleasant things instead of the
found out she actually liked them. uninteresting or unpleasant aspects of everyday
2.255 hype /h¡p/ (n) = (informal) advertisements and life / eskapizm, skłonność do ucieczki w marzenia
discussions on the mass media telling the public e.g. In many ways, watching films is a form of
about sth and stressing its value and importance escapism, where people can get away from the
/ szum medialny, krzykliwa reklama, kampania monotony of everyday life.
32
UNIT 2

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 Many Roman Catholics make their .......... to the town 6 I found his acting to be completely .......... .
of Lourdes in SW France for spiritual enlightenment. A contrived C absurd
A trek C pilgrimage B fanciful D action-packed
B journey D voyage
7 I’m absolutely exhausted, that was such a(n) ......... workout.
2 He was left bed-ridden by a .......... illness. A daunting C absorbing
A disconcerting C chilling B strenuous D harrowing
B distressing D debilitating
8 He decided to .......... the meeting until a later date.
3 This has to be one of the most .......... novels I’ve ever A put up C put down
read. B put aside D put off
A compelling C amateurish
9 The .......... reputation of the professional footballer is
B menacing D unfailing
currently undergoing a transformation.
4 She is still a .......... woman at the age of sixty. A fragmented C overrated
A staggering C stirring B hilarious D intellectual
B stunning D astounding
10 David was deemed by his peers to be .......... and
5 Today we enjoyed a particularly .......... climate. untrustworthy.
A windswept C benign A enduring C appalling
B blistering D pristine B shallow D amateurish

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

Although The Lord of the Rings trilogy is currently proving to be one of the most successful products of the
film industry with the first two instalments proven box office hits, 0) arguably the real star of films is the ARGUE
location. The filmmakers obviously believed that New Zealand, where the 1) ........................... of the DIVERSE
landscape is quite simply 2) ..........................., was the perfect place to bring Tolkien’s epic masterpiece ASTOUND
to life. This sentiment is 3) ........................... shared by Hollywood, the evidence being in the number of AVID
productions emanating from there. Mount Cook doubled as K2, the second largest mountain in the
world, for Vertical Limit, and Tom Cruise’s latest film, The Last Samurai, sees Mount Taranaki representing
Mount Fuji. New Zealand’s 4) ........................... landscape is ideal for anyone with a love of the great PARALLEL
outdoors and 5) ........................... exhilarating adventure holidays. You could spend seven hours trekking PROFOUND
between volcanoes at the Tongariro Crossing, marvelling at the 6) ........................... of the mountain BARREN
ranges with their snow-capped mountain peaks in winter, or you may be 7) ........................... by a 31- TEMPT
mile hiking trip through the Abel Tasman National Park. This may appear a rather daunting prospect at
first, however, it is a journey that will take you along coastal forests and some of the most scenic beaches
the country has to offer. In addition, New Zealand offers fjords, lakes, rivers, rain forests and glaciers; quite
simply 8) ........................... when you consider that it is all located in an area the size of California. STAGGER

33
UNIT 2

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ incessant ñ humourless ñ slippery ñ postpone ñ boyish ñ savage ñ pristine ñ ravenous ñ gruelling ñ absurd

1 The possible reintroduction of wolves into northern parts of 6 The flight from London to Tokyo was a ............................
Europe has worried farmers who believe that ....................... and arduous journey.
packs of wolves will pose a threat to livestock. 7 In winter, ice can leave the roads dangerously
2 It is ............................ to make soldiers redundant when ............................, so grit is scattered on main
the army is short of personnel. thoroughfares.
3 A rare first edition in ............................ condition was 8 The ............................ din from the flat above was
sold at auction for thousands of pounds. preventing him from getting to sleep.
4 She had a very pretty face and a tall, ............................ 9 People were horrified by the ............................ attack on
figure. an innocent bystander.
5 Not only is he devoid of any personality, he is also 10 He decided to ............................ the meeting until
completely ............................ . a more suitable time.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.

1 The travel agent made all the arrangements for our all- 4 The chef cracked the eggs into a bowl and beat them
inclusive backpacking/hiking/package holiday to the with a grater/whisk/colander.
Seychelles. 5 There was something about him she found disturbing,
2 The instructor/tutor/dean of the faculty is responsible and being in his presence was rather disconcerting/
for hiring new members of staff. distressing/harrowing.
3 It was a(n) isolated/solitary/desolate place with none of 6 The film was supposed to be based on a true story but the
the comforts, such as toilets, that we take for granted. plot seemed completely wooden/appalling/contrived.

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje , a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.
A B

1 read somebody a a blue moon


2 face b the moon
3 off c like a book
4 on a d the beaten track
5 on top e of the world
6 on the edge f the lines
7 once in g shoestring budget
8 over h town red
9 paint the i the music
10 read between j of one’s seat

1 An invaluable skill for political correspondents is ................ 6 Part and parcel of student life is living ..............................
........................................... when interpreting politicians’ ........................................................................................... .
statements. 7 We’d been working hard for a month and so decided
2 The detective prided himself on his ability to ................... to go out and ................................................................... .
............................................................................................ . 8 He was .......................................... at the birth of his son.
3 Part of the fun of independent travel is exploring those 9 Although I shouldn’t smoke, I may have a cigarette ...........
places ................................................................................. . ............................................................................................ .
4 It was one of the most gripping movies I’ve ever seen; it 10 She was feeling ...................................................................
had me ............................................... from start to finish. ......................... after finding out that she was pregnant.
5 He was consumed by guilt and so decided to come clean
and ..................................................................................... .

34
SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 1

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jeden błąd ortograficzny lub interpunkcyjny. Znajdź i popraw błąd, zapisując poprawkę
w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej linijce nie ma błędu, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

The Victoria Cross is Britain’s most prestigious award for 0 ✓


outstanding courege in the face of the enemy. Named after 00 courage
Queen Victoria the V.C. has seniority over any other decoration 000 Victoria, the
that the British government can bestowe. After the V.C. was 1 ........................
introduced by Royal Warrant on 29 January, 1856 to recognise 2 ........................
the heroic deeds of those who were fighting in the crimean War, 3 ........................
a medal was, for the first time, available too all soldiers, 4 ........................
irespective of rank, in order to more fairly reflect the gallantry of 5 ........................
soldiers in the front line. Previously, the most asteemed award 6 ........................
for military prowess, the Order of the Bath, was only awarded to 7 ........................
senior officers. Queen Victoria played a significant roll in the 8 ........................
design process changing for example, the motto from “For the 9 ........................
Brave“ to “For Valour“, in case anyone mistakenly beleived that 10 ........................
the only brave men in battle were those who won the Cross the 11 ........................
first sixty-two resipients were awarded the V.C. on 26 June, 1857 12 ........................
by queen Victoria herself. There is a legend that the Queen, 13 ........................
whilst decorating the heroes, stabbed one through the chest. The 14 ........................
man in question, showing the stoisism that won him the Cross, 15 ........................
did not flinch as the Queen fasened the pin through his flesh! 16 ........................

Self-Assessment Module 1
SA1.5 freak /fr∞k/ (adj) = (of an event or the weather)
Vocabulary & Grammar (p. 47)
unusual and unexpected / nagły, niecodzienny
SA1.1 ellipsis /æ`læpsæs/ (n) = leaving out words instead e.g. All the flights were cancelled due to freak weather
of repeating them / elipsa, pomijanie wyrazów conditions.
e.g. To avoid repeating the same verbs, the student SA1.6 smoulder /`smøldºr/ (v) = to burn slowly / tlić się
used ellipsis in order to make his text flow smoothly. e.g. Five days after the fire some buildings were still
SA1.2 sticky /`stæki/ (adj) = made of or covered with smouldering.
a substance that stays fixed to any surface SA1.7 array /º`rΩ/ (n) = a group of things or people /
it touches / lepki asortyment, wybór, szereg
e.g. His fingers were all sticky from the honey e.g. John has collected an array of strangely shaped
he put on his pancakes. bottles.
SA1.3 slippery /`slæpºri/ (adj) = wet, smooth or oily
so that it is difficult to walk on / śliski Use of English (pp. 47-48)
e.g. When it rains, slippery surfaces pose a particular
threat to the elderly who could easily slip and injure SA1.8 squad /skw≥d/ (n) = a small group of soldiers /
themselves. drużyna, oddział
SA1.4 slithery /`slæ∫ºri/ (adj) = moving easily and quickly e.g. The eight-man squad of soldiers advanced under
across a surface while twisting or curving / śliski, the guidance of their sergeant.
wężowy (np. ruch) SA1.9 assurance /º`«μºrºns/ (n) = a promise / zapewnienie
e.g. He was scared by the slithery motion of the snake e.g. He was given every assurance that he would be
as it twisted and curled towards him. treated fairly.
35
SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 1

SA1.19 snap out of sth/it (phr v) = to stop feeling


Reading (pp. 48-49)
unhappy / wziąć się w garść, rozchmurzyć się
SA1.10 transition /tr±n`z櫺n/ (n) = a change from one e.g. "Everything will be fine. Now come on,
form or type to another / przemiana, przejście snap out of it!"
e.g. The transition from a dictatorship to a fully
developed democracy is going to be a difficult one. Writing (p. 50)
Der.: transitional (adj)
SA1.11 cop /k≥p/ (n) = (informal) a policeman SA1.20 await /º`weæt/ (v) = to wait for / oczekiwać czegoś
or policewoman / glina, policjant(ka) e.g. He was unable to enjoy his holiday as he was
e.g. "We need to make a run for it before the cops awaiting his exam results.
come!" said the robber. SA1.21 proprietor /prº`praæºtºr/ (n) = an owner / właściciel
SA1.12 uselessness /`j∂slºsnºs/ (n) = not being useful, e.g. The proprietor of the restaurant decided
not doing what is needed / bezużyteczność to renovate the place.
e.g. He was unable to help and the feeling SA1.22 extend an invitation = to invite / zaprosić
of uselessness was depressing him. e.g. I felt obliged to extend an invitation to them
Opp.: usefulness because they are members of my family.
SA1.13 intent on sth /æn`tent/ (adj) = determined / SA1.23 constantly /`k≥nstºntli/ (adv) = continuously /
zdeterminowany, zdecydowany coś zrobić ciągle, stale
e.g. She was intent on finishing the task herself e.g. He was constantly going on about how popular
as she was a very determined person. he was with girls.
SA1.14 nutrition /nj∂`tr櫺n/ (n) = nourishment, food / SA1.24 Sicily /`sæsºlæ/ (n) = Sycylia
odżywianie, żywienie Der.: Sicilian /sæ`sælæºn/ (adj)
e.g. Children who do not receive adequate nutrition SA1.25 strains Ôf music = the sound of music / dźwięki
can develop health problems. muzyki
Der.: nutritious (adj) e.g. He heard the distant strains of music
SA1.15 vocation /vø`kΩ«ºn/ (n) = occupation, profession / as he was entering the concert hall.
zawód, zajęcie SA1.26 serenade /¿seræ`neæd/ (v) = to play a piece of music
e.g. He is determined to pursue his vocation or sing for sb / grać lub śpiewać dla kogoś
as an actor. e.g. The couple were serenaded at the restaurant
Der.: vocational (adj) table by a violinist.
SA1.16 discontented /¿dæskºn`tentæd/ (adj) = dissatisfied / SA1.27 aroma /º`rømº/ (n) = a strong pleasant smell,
niezadowolony usually from food or drink / aromat
e.g. More and more people are becoming e.g. The sweet aroma of cooking emanating
discontented with the rising costs of everyday goods. from the kitchen filled the house.
Der.: discontentment (n) Der.: aromatic /±rº`m±tik/ (adj)
SA1.28 spice /spaæs/ (n) = a substance added to food
to give it a special flavour / przyprawa
Listening (p. 49)
e.g. Herbs and spices are essential ingredients
SA1.17 sky-diving /`sk¡d¡væ…/ (n) = a sport in which you of many dishes.
jump from a plane and fall for as long as Der.: spicy (adj)
possible before opening your parachute / SA1.29 anticipation /±n¿tæsæ`pe櫺n/ (n) = a feeling of
skoki, akrobacje ze spadochronem excitement about sth that is going to happen
e.g. He went sky-diving on his sixtieth birthday in the near future / oczekiwanie, przewidywanie
to show his wife how tough he was. e.g. There was an atmosphere of anticipation as
Der.: sky-diver (n) people eagerly awaited the arrival of the film star.
SA1.18 tandem jump /`t±ndºm `π∑mp/ (n) = a jump SA1.30 scented /`sentæd/ (adj) = perfumed, fragrant /
which involves two people simultaneously / pachnący, perfumowany
skok spadochronowy z instruktorem e.g. The company is launching a new range of scented
e.g. It was his first time parachuting, so he was doing soaps.
a tandem jump with his instructor. SA1.31 clientele /¿kl∞≥n`tel/ (n) = customers / klientela, klienci
e.g. This restaurant caters for a very exclusive clientele.
36
People Power 3
Lead-in (p. 53) 3.10 sweetener /`sw∞tºnºr/ (n) = sth one can give
or do to make sth else more pleasant / osłoda
3.1 treat /tr∞t/ (v) = to behave towards or deal with sb / e.g. The firm offered her a company car as
traktować a sweetener to compensate for her hard work.
e.g. The manager treated the majority of his
employees with a great deal of respect.
Reading (pp. 54-55)
Der.: treatment (n)
3.2 moral values /`m≥rºl `v±lj∂z/ (n pl) = beliefs 3.11 factor /`f±ktºr/ (n) = sth that affects an event
of what good and bad behaviour is / or process / czynnik
wartości moralne e.g. A sensible diet is one of the main factors
e.g. Jane’s moral values were questioned by her in maintaining a healthy lifestyle.
superiors after she had lied to them several times. 3.12 pose a question = to ask a question /
3.3 rested /`restæd/ (adj) = feeling energetic because postawić pytanie, podnieść kwestię
one has just had a rest / wypoczęty e.g. She was determined to pose a question
e.g. Martin felt completely rested after his holiday on working conditions at the next staff meeting.
and was ready to go back to work. 3.13 nannying /`n±niæ…/ (n) = working as a nanny, taking
3.4 submissive /sºb`mæsæv/ (adj) = obeying sb without care of young children / opieka nad dziećmi
arguing / uległy, posłuszny, potulny e.g. When I find a job, Grandma will stay at home
e.g. The angry protesters became submissive and do the nannying.
once the police arrived. 3.14 cherished /`∏eræ«t/ (adj) = loved very much and kept
Der.: submissiveness (n), submission (n) deep in one’s heart / umiłowany, kochany, drogi
3.5 impulsive /æm`p∑lsæv/ (adj) = doing things without e.g. The photographs of her grandchildren were her
thinking about them carefully / impulsywny, most cherished possession.
spontaniczny 3.15 unconditional /¿∑nkºn`d櫺nºl/ (adj) = giving to
e.g. Her husband, a very quiet man, was tired others without asking for anything to be done
of her impulsive nature. in exchange / bezwarunkowy
Der.: impulsiveness (n) e.g. He was praised for his unconditional
3.6 quarrelsome /`kw≥rºlsºm/ (adj) = often getting devotion to the cause.
involved in arguments / kłótliwy 3.16 extended family /æks`tendæd `f±mli/ (n) = a family
e.g. Bill’s quarrelsome behaviour often lands him which includes aunts, uncles and grandparents
in a lot of trouble. who live all together / rodzina, w której ciotki,
3.7 conciliatory /kºn`sæliºtri/ (adj) = willing to end wujkowie i dziadkowie mieszkają razem lub w pobliżu,
a disagreement with sb / ugodowy, pojednawczy, dalsza rodzina
polubowny e.g. To accommodate their extended family, they
e.g. He was advised to use a more conciliatory decided to buy a larger house.
tone the next time he appeared in court. Opp.: nuclear family
Der.: conciliation (n), conciliator (n) 3.17 squabble /`skw≥bºl/ (n) = an argument of little
3.8 compliant /kºm`pl¡ºnt/ (adj) = willing to do what importance / sprzeczka
one is asked to do, obedient / usłużny, uległy e.g. The sisters often have minor squabbles
e.g. They were praised for being a hardworking about sharing the family car.
and compliant workforce. 3.18 ensure /æn`«Δr/ (v) = to make sure that sth
Der.: compliance (n) happens / zapewnić (sobie), zagwarantować
3.9 obstinate /`≥bstænºt/ (adj) = determined to do e.g. We booked a table at the restaurant in advance
what one wants, stubborn / uparty to ensure a seat by the window.
e.g. She was an obstinate child who insisted 3.19 sense of belonging = a feeling that one is part
on getting what she wanted. of a group / poczucie przynależności
Der.: obstinacy (n) e.g. When he finally became a citizen of the country,
he felt a true sense of belonging.
37
UNIT 3

3.20 benefit from sth /`benæfæt/ (v) = to receive sth that 3.31 urge /ªπ/ (n) = a strong wish to do or have sth /
will help to improve one’s life / skorzystać wielka chęć, potrzeba, pociąg
(z czegoś lub na czymś) e.g. She had an urge to go into business on her own
e.g. Hundreds of earthquake victims benefited from and decided to apply for a bank loan.
the generous support of the public. 3.32 perplexing /pº`pleksæ…/ (adj) = difficult to deal with
3.21 attitude /`±tætj∂d/ (n) = the way that one thinks or understand / kłopotliwy, wprawiający
or feels about sth / podejście, postawa, stosunek w zakłopotanie
do czegoś e.g. Now that her husband was dead, she was
e.g. His positive attitude towards his work forced to make some perplexing decisions
led to a promotion. regarding her future.
3.22 blame sb for sth /blΩm/ (v) = to say that sb is 3.33 conscientious /¿k≥n«i`en«ºs/ (adj) = very careful
responsible for sth that happened / winić to do things properly / sumienny
e.g. The headmaster was blamed for the students’ e.g. Mary’s conscientious approach to work resulted
appalling behaviour. in her writing a best-seller.
3.23 coo /k∂/ (v) = to speak in a very soft and quiet 3.34 fulfil /fμl`fæl/ (v) = to do what was expected / spełnić,
voice / gruchać, mówić czułym i cichym głosem zaspokoić
e.g. She cooed softly to the newborn baby lying e.g. He managed to fulfil his promise to take the
in its cot. children to the zoo despite his many commitments.
3.24 longingly /`l≥…æ…li/ (adv) = with a feeling of desire / Der.: fulfilment (n)
z tęsknotą, z utęsknieniem 3.35 instinctive /æn`stæ…ktæv/ (adj) = done without
e.g. Even though she couldn’t afford one, she looked thinking / instynktowny
longingly at the car in the showroom window. e.g. He had an instinctive feeling that something
3.25 pram /pr±m/ (n) = a small vehicle which a baby terrible would happen.
can be put in and moved around / głęboki 3.36 hyper-aware /`h¡pºrº`w≈r/ (adj) = extremely
wózek dziecięcy knowledgeable about sth / mający ogromną wiedzę
e.g. The proud parents pushed the baby na jakiś temat
around the park in its shiny new pram. e.g. He is one of those hyper-aware people whom
3.26 nest /nest/ (n) = home / dosł. gniazdo; tu: gniazdko, everyone goes to for advice.
mieszkanie 3.37 life-transforming /`l¡ftr±ns`f¥mæ…/ (adj) = able
e.g. She took great pride in decorating to change sb’s life completely / zmieniający
her own little nest. całe życie
3.27 vacuum /`v±kjΔm/ (n) = a place or position that e.g. Changing careers was a life-transforming
needs to be filled by sb or with sth / próżnia, experience, which he would not regret.
pustka 3.38 stable /`stΩbºl/ (adj) = not likely to change / stały,
e.g. The resignation of three members of staff left trwały, stabilny
a vacuum in the office. e.g. Most people are hoping that oil prices will
3.28 innumerable /æ`nj∂mºrºbºl/ (adj) = too many to be remain stable during the coming months.
counted / niezliczony Der.: stability /stº`bælætæ/ (n)
e.g. Innumerable accidents have happened on this 3.39 to put it mildly = to say sth in such a way that
stretch of road. it sounds less direct or critical / delikatnie rzecz
3.29 globe-trotting /`gløb¿tr≥tæ…/ (adj) = travelling ujmując
around the world / globtroterstwo, podróżowanie e.g. To put it mildly, I was quite upset when you took
dookoła świata money from my wallet without asking.
e.g. The globe-trotting athletes signed autographs 3.40 workaholism /¿wªkº`h≥læzºm/ (n) = working
for their fans. too much and finding it difficult to stop /
Der.: globe-trotter (n) pracoholizm
3.30 primitive /`præmætæv/ (adj) = very simple or old- e.g. Workaholism was responsible for his massive
fashioned / pierwotny, prymitywny heart attack at the age of 42.
e.g. Despite the primitive living conditions, Der.: workaholic (n)
we enjoyed our holiday in the country.
Der.: primitiveness (n)
38
UNIT 3

3.41 perfectionist /pº`fek«ºnæst/ (n) = sb who refuses 3.52 bereavement /bæ`r∞vmºnt/ (n) = the sorrow one feels
to do or accept anything that isn’t as good when sb close to them dies / osierocenie, żałoba
as it could possibly be / perfekcjonista e.g. When Millie’s husband died, she felt a great sense
e.g. As a dressmaker she is a perfectionist and insists of bereavement.
on all of her garments being flawless. 3.53 bond /b≥nd/ (n) = a strong connection and feeling
Der.: perfectionism (n) of love and friendship shared between people /
3.42 recall /ræ`k¥l/ (v) = to remember sth and tell others więź
about it / przypominać sobie coś, pamiętać coś e.g. There was a very special bond between
e.g. Tom recalled how different things were the siblings, even though they lived miles apart.
when he was a young man. 3.54 re-establish contact = to start communicating
3.43 welfare /`welf≈r/ (n) = sb’s health, comfort or having contact with sb again / ponownie
and happiness / byt, dobrobyt, pomyślność nawiązać kontakt, odnowić stosunki
e.g. The welfare of the homeless will be the main e.g. It was only recently that she re-established
topic of discussion at next week’s meeting. contact with her former husband.
3.44 boost /b∂st/ (n) = an increase or improvement / 3.55 puzzling /`p∑zlæ…/ (adj) = confusing / zastanawiający,
poprawa, wzrost intrygujący, wprawiający w zakłopotanie
e.g. There was a tremendous boost in sales e.g. After noticing the boy’s puzzling behaviour,
after the advertising campaign. the headmaster felt it necessary to contact his parents.
3.45 mutually /`mj∂∏uºli/ (adv) = felt or done equally Der.: puzzlement (n)
by two or more people / wzajemnie, obopólnie, 3.56 hostile /`h≥st¡l/ (adj) = unfriendly and aggressive
obustronnie to others / wrogi
e.g. They decided to arrange the interview e.g. The defendant displayed a hostile attitude
at a mutually convenient time. during the court proceedings.
3.46 diminish /dæ`mænæ«/ (v) = to reduce in size, importance Der.: hostility /h≥`stælætæ/ (n)
or intensity / zmniejszać się, maleć
e.g. Hospitals are facing huge problems due to Language Focus (pp. 56-59)
diminishing numbers of qualified staff.
3.47 mere /mƒr/ (adj) = simple, ordinary, least / zwykły; 3.57 dreamy /`dr∞mi/ (adj) = looking as if one is not
sam paying attention to things around them but
e.g. The mere suggestion that she may have to work thinking of sth pleasant / rozmarzony
for a living shocked her beyond belief. e.g. During the lesson she was staring out
Der.: merely (adv) of the window with a dreamy look on her face.
3.48 party /`p≤ti/ (n) = one of the people involved 3.58 beaming /`b∞mæ…/ (adj) = (of a smile) happy, proud,
in a particular situation (discussion, agreement, big / promienny (o uśmiechu)
disagreement) / strona, osoba zainteresowana e.g. She had a beaming smile on her face when
e.g. There was little doubt that he was the guilty her son received the award.
party and was heavily fined for his actions. 3.59 mode /mød/ (n) = a particular style / styl, sposób
3.49 bitterness /`bætºnºs/ (n) = feeling of disappointment e.g. Coco Channel was renowned for her elegant
and anger / gorycz, rozżalenie, uraza mode of dress.
e.g. Her bitterness towards her neighbour has 3.60 physique /fæ`z∞k/ (n) = the shape and size of one’s
intensified over the years. body / budowa ciała, muskulatura
3.50 resentment /ræ`zentmºnt/ (n) = feeling of bitterness e.g. His powerful physique was indicative
and anger / obraza, uraza, pretensja, złość of his good health.
e.g. The factory workers expressed resentment 3.61 incurable /æn`kjΔrºbºl/ (adj) = having a particular
at being told they were unproductive. quality or attitude which will not change /
3.51 estrangement /æ`strΩnπmºnt/ (n) = being distant nieuleczalny
and not communicating with others / oziębienie e.g. Being an incurable optimist, Jane views life
stosunków, odsunięcie się od siebie through rose-coloured glasses.
e.g. Due to years of estrangement from her family, Der.: incurably (adv)
she felt sad and lonely.

39
UNIT 3

3.62 doting /`døtæ…/ (adj) = showing a lot of love 3.72 relative by marriage = sb related to you
for sb else / czuły, opiekuńczy by marriage / powinowaty
e.g. The child’s doting grandparents showered him e.g. When Cindy’s best friend married her brother,
with love. they became relatives by marriage.
3.63 confirmed /kºn`fªmd/ (adj) = having a certain habit 3.73 brother-in-law /`br∑∫ºræn¿l¥/ (n) = the brother
or belief that is unlikely to change / zatwardziały, of a woman’s husband or a man’s wife,
niepoprawny, nałogowy or the man married to one’s sister / szwagier
e.g. James, a confirmed vegetarian, wouldn’t dream e.g. Colin’s sisters were all married, which meant
of eating meat. he had four brothers-in-law.
3.64 bachelor /`b±∏ºlºr/ (n) = a man who has never 3.74 great uncle /¿grΩt `∑…kl/ (n) = grandfather’s
married / kawaler or grandmother’s brother / brat dziadka lub babci,
e.g. The rapper intends to remain a bachelor, stryjeczny lub cioteczny dziadek
much to the disappointment of his female admirers. e.g. My grandfather and his brother Cyril, that is my
3.65 absent-minded /¿±bsºnt`m¡ndæd/ (adj) = forgetful, great uncle, were very fond of each other.
not paying enough attention / roztargniony 3.75 niece /n∞s/ (n) = the daughter of your brother or
e.g. Her absent-minded behaviour often gets her sister or your husband’s/wife’s brother or sister /
into trouble. siostrzenica, bratanica
Der.: absent-mindedness (n) e.g. My husband’s sister has six children, three girls
3.66 happy-go-lucky /¿h±pigø`l∑ki/ (adj) = enjoying life and three boys, so we have three nieces and three
and not worrying about the future, carefree / nephews.
beztroski, niefrasobliwy 3.76 stepmother /`stepm∑∫ºr/ (n) = a woman who has
e.g. Janet is a happy-go-lucky person who embraces married sb’s father after the death or divorce
life with open arms. of their mother / macocha
3.67 extrovert /`ekstrºvªt/ (adj) = very active, lively and e.g. When Kim’s father remarried, it took her a while
friendly towards others / ekstrawertyczny to get used to having a stepmother.
e.g. His extrovert personality made him popular 3.77 half brother /`h≤f br∑∫ºr/ (n) = a boy or man who
with his peers. has either the same mother or same father as sb
Der.: extroverted (adj) else / brat przyrodni
Opp.: introvert e.g. Simon and his half brother Peter have the same
3.68 reckless /`reklºs/ (adj) = acting carelessly, mother but a different father.
not thinking about the consequences / 3.78 professional prospects /prº`fe«ºnºl `pr≥spekts/
brawurowy, ryzykancki, lekkomyślny (n pl) = chances of success in one’s career /
e.g. The motorist showed no remorse when he was perspektywy zawodowe
fined for reckless driving. e.g. The young doctor felt that working abroad
Der.: recklessness (n) would improve his professional prospects.
3.69 spendthrift /`spendıræft/ (n) = one who spends 3.79 financial security /f¡`n±n«ºl sæ`kjΔræti/ (n) = a sense
too much money / rozrzutnik of welfare, no worries about money problems /
e.g. The spendthrift didn’t take long to waste zabezpieczenie finansowe
the fortune left to him by his father. e.g. The new company offered him more financial
3.70 nuclear family /`nj∂kliº `f±mli/ (n) = a family that security, so he was able to afford more luxuries.
consists of only the father, mother and children / 3.80 maturity /mº`tjΔræti/ (n) = being fully developed,
najbliższa rodzina, składająca się jedynie z matki, ojca both in one’s personality and emotions /
i dzieci dojrzałość
e.g. While nuclear families are the norm in the US, e.g. Her vast experience and maturity made
families in Greece often include elderly members. her the perfect candidate for the post.
Opp.: extended family Opp.: immaturity
3.71 blood relative /`bl∑d `relºtæv/ (n) = sb related 3.81 empathy /`empºıi/ (n) = the ability to share sb
to you by birth / krewny, członek rodziny else’s feelings as if they were your own / empatia
e.g. Jim’s only blood relative is a cousin e.g. Being partially blind herself, she had great
living in Germany. empathy with others who suffered from this affliction.
Der.: empathetic /¿empº`ıetæk/ (adj)
40
UNIT 3

3.82 devotion /dæ`vø«n/ (n) = great love, affection e.g. People who are prone to colds should increase
and commitment / oddanie, poświęcenie their intake of vitamin C.
e.g. When George retired, he was awarded a gold Der.: proneness (n)
watch for his devotion and loyalty to the firm. 3.94 embark on/upon sth /æm`b≤k/ (v) = to start doing
3.83 spouse /sp¬s/ (n) = the person one is married to / sth new or difficult / rozpocząć, przedsięwziąć
małżonek, małżonka e.g. Before embarking on his chosen career, the young
e.g. On receiving the award, the actor thanked man decided to travel the world first.
his spouse for being so supportive throughout 3.95 vulnerable /`v∑lnºrºbºl/ (adj) = weak and without
their married life. protection, easily hurt / wrażliwy, bezbronny
3.84 dismal /`dæzmºl/ (adj) = sad and depressing / fatalny e.g. Loan companies are known to prey on vulnerable
e.g. Because of the dismal weather forecast, people who are easily taken in.
the couple decided to postpone their sailing trip. Der.: vulnerability (n)
3.85 protracted /prº`tr±ktæd/ (adj) = lasting longer than 3.96 marriage counsellor /`m±ræπ `k¬nsºlºr/ (n) = sb
usual, lengthy / przedłużający się who gives advice to married couples that are
e.g. After protracted negotiations with their lawyer, having problems / psycholog prowadzący terapię
the insurance company finally paid up. małżeńską
3.86 misery /`mæzºri/ (n) = great unhappiness / e.g. Having faced several problems for years,
nieszczęście, niedola, nędza the couple agreed to seek the help of
e.g. All of his fame and wealth brought a marriage counsellor.
him nothing but misery and stress. 3.97 hardship /`h≤d«æp/ (n) = a situation in which sb’s life
Der.: miserable (adj), miserably (adv) is difficult or unpleasant (usually due to money
3.87 drift apart /`dræft º`p≤t/ (phr v) = (of two people) problems) / bieda, trudności
to slowly pull away from each other e.g. His unexpected redundancy resulted in a life
emotionally / oddalić się od siebie (emocjonalnie) of hardship and worry.
e.g. The couple gradually drifted apart 3.98 instability /¿ænstº`bælæti/ (n) = being unstable /
once they became rich and famous. niestabilność
3.88 tie the knot (idm) = to get married / pobrać się e.g. The country was in a state of political instability
e.g. Paul and Mandy finally decided before the new government took over.
to tie the knot after a five-year engagement. 3.99 self-appointed /¿selfº`p√ntæd/ (adj) = giving oneself
3.89 frown upon /`fr¬n º`p≥n/ (phr v) = to disapprove the position of leader or ruler without asking
of sth / nie pochwalać anyone or being chosen / samozwańczy
e.g. Smoking is frowned upon as being e.g. The self-appointed dictator obtained his position
detrimental to one’s health. by force.
3.90 cohabit /kø`h±bæt/ (v) = to live together without 3.100 self-denying /¿selfdæ`n¡æ…/ (adj) = refusing to do
being married / mieszkać razem, nie będąc or have things because one can’t afford them
małżeństwem or believes it is morally good not to do or have
e.g. These days many people prefer to cohabit them / odmawiający sobie przyjemności, skłonny
with their partner rather than marry. do wyrzeczeń
Der.: cohabitation (n) e.g. As a self-denying senior citizen, he flatly refused
3.91 marital /`m±rætºl/ (adj) = relating to marriage / any social help.
małżeński 3.101 self-obsessed /¿selfºb`sest/ (adj) = spending too
e.g. The couple agreed to get a divorce after years much time thinking about oneself and one’s
of marital problems. problems / mający obsesję na własnym punkcie
3.92 deprived /dæ`pr¡vd/ (adj) = not having the essential e.g. She is so self-obsessed that she has no time
things in life / pozbawiony podstawowych dóbr to consider anyone else’s problems.
i środków 3.102 self-righteous /¿self`r¡∏ºs/ (adj) = convinced
e.g. Despite having a deprived childhood, he went on one is right and others are wrong / przekonany
to become a successful businessman. o własnej nieomylności, zadufany
Der.: deprivation /¿depræ`vΩ«n/ (n) e.g. Our boss is a self-righteous person who refuses
3.93 prone to sth /prøn/ (adj) = frequently affected to believe he’s ever wrong.
by sth bad / podatny (na coś złego) Der.: self-righteousness (n)
41
UNIT 3

3.103 self-disciplined /¿self`dæsæplænd/ (adj) = able to 3.114 superficial /¿s∂pº`f櫺l/ (adj) = not thinking deeply
control oneself without being told so / or having little understanding of anything
wewnętrznie zdyscyplinowany serious or important / powierzchowny, płytki
e.g. Being so self-disciplined made it easier for him e.g. Roger is a superficial young man without much
to adapt to university life. formal education.
3.104 self-destructive /¿selfdæ`str∑ktæv/ (adj) = behaving Der.: superficiality (n)
in a harmful way towards oneself / 3.115 close-knit /`kløsnæt/ (adj) = closely linked and doing
autodestrukcyjny things together / mocno związany, zżyty
e.g. His self-destructive behaviour eventually led him e.g. It was such a close-knit community that
to an early grave. strangers felt unwelcome.
3.105 self-indulgent /¿selfæn`d∑lπºnt/ (adj) = allowing 3.116 heartfelt /`h≤tfelt/ (adj) = deep or sincere / płynący
oneself to have or do sth enjoyable / folgujący, prosto z serca, szczery, głęboki
pobłażający sobie e.g. She conveyed her heartfelt sympathy by writing
e.g. She treated herself to a box of chocolates, which a letter of condolence to the victim’s parents.
seemed rather self-indulgent at the time. 3.117 stick together /`stæk tº`ge∫ºr/ (phr v) = to stay with
Der.: self-indulgence (n) each other and support each other / trzymać się
3.106 self-confessed /¿selfkºn`fest/ (adj) = admitting razem
openly what one is / otwarcie przyznający się e.g. They were determined to stick together
do prawdy o sobie and support one another no matter what.
e.g. The self-confessed killer was sentenced to a life
Idioms
in prison.
3.107 pamper /`p±mpºr/ (v) = to make sb feel 3.118 be/have/need a shoulder to cry on = to be/have/
comfortable by doing things for them / need a person to show sympathy (to) /
rozpieszczać, dogadzać pozwolić komuś wypłakać się na swoim ramieniu
e.g. Mary couldn’t cope when she left home because lub móc wypłakać się na czyimś ramieniu
her mother had pampered her all her life. e.g. Everyone goes to the school nurse when they
3.108 endure /æn`djΔr/ (v) = to continue to exist / need a shoulder to cry on because she is very
przetrwać, trwać, ostać się, wytrzymać understanding.
e.g. Many ancient customs endure even nowadays. 3.119 be on cloud nine = to be very happy /
Der.: endurance (n) być w siódmym niebie
3.109 ease /∞z/ (v) = to reduce in degree, speed e.g. When Daisy got the job she had applied for,
or intensity / złagodzić, ulżyć she was on cloud nine for days on end.
e.g. The doctor prescribed a strong sedative 3.120 look on the bright side = to try to be cheerful
to ease the pain and help her sleep. about a bad situation by thinking of advantages
3.110 propose /prº`pøz/ (v) = to suggest sth for others that could come from it / widzieć, dostrzec jasne
to think about / zaproponować strony czegoś
e.g. When her mother proposed that she go in e.g. After the initial disappointment, she decided
for a nursing career, she agreed to consider it. to look on the bright side and hope that things
Der.: proposal (n), proposition (n) would improve.
3.111 progressive /prø`gresæv/ (adj) = modern / 3.121 have a whale of a time = to enjoy oneself very
postępowy, progresywny, nowoczesny much / doskonale się bawić, bawić się na całego
e.g. The children were enrolled in a progressive e.g. The teenagers had a whale of a time at their
school rather than a traditional one. friend’s fancy dress party.
3.112 swing /swæ…/ (n) = a big and sudden change / 3.122 sweep sb off their feet = to make sb fall in love
nagła duża zmiana, skok with one very quickly because one is attractive
e.g. We blamed our supervisor’s mood swings or exciting / zwalić kogoś z nóg, rozkochać w sobie
on the fact that he’d recently given up smoking. od pierwszego wejrzenia
3.113 attribute /`±træbj∂t/ (n) = a quality or feature e.g. His romantic gestures were so intense
sb has / cecha, atrybut that he simply swept her off her feet.
e.g. One of her finest attributes is her devotion
to the homeless.
42
UNIT 3

3.123 be a wet blanket = to refuse to join others in an 3.134 glow of satisfaction = a strong feeling of pride
enjoyable activity and stop them from enjoying and pleasure / silne poczucie zadowolenia i dumy
themselves / być marudnym i psuć innym nastrój e.g. She felt a glow of satisfaction when her son
lub zabawę was presented with a medal for bravery.
e.g. Michael was being such a wet blanket that 3.135 glimmer of hope = a small sign of hope / promyk,
everyone decided to go home. iskierka nadziei
3.124 be full of beans = to be very lively and have a lot e.g. They felt a glimmer of hope as they spotted the
of energy and enthusiasm / mieć mnóstwo energii, rescue plane in the distance.
tryskać energią
e.g. After a good night’s sleep she was full of beans 3.136 revive /ræ`v¡v/ (v) = to help sb become conscious
and set about spring-cleaning the house. again / ocucić, pomóc komuś odzyskać przytomność
3.125 be down in the dumps = to feel very depressed e.g. Try as he might, he was unable to revive
and miserable / być w dołku the injured driver.
e.g. She was down in the dumps for weeks Der.: revival (n), revived (adj)
after being made redundant.
Phrasal verbs
3.126 cry one’s heart out = to cry very much and very
hard / wypłakiwać oczy 3.137 bring about /`bræ… º`b¬t/ = to cause sth
e.g. I cried my heart out when I heard about my to happen / spowodować, wywołać
cousin’s life-threatening illness. e.g. Trade unionists helped bring about a peaceful
3.127 hit rock bottom = to be in such a bad state that settlement in the wage dispute.
it can’t get any worse / sięgnąć dna 3.138 stand in for sb /`st±nd `æn fºr/ = to take sb else’s
e.g. The economy of the country has hit rock bottom, place or do their job because they are ill
which resulted in high levels of unemployment. or away, to replace / zastąpić (kogoś)
e.g. Because Jane was ill, she asked someone
Fixed phrases with of else to stand in for her at the meeting.
3.128 have a heart of gold = to be kind and nice / 3.139 stand for /`st±nd fºr/ = to mean or represent
mieć złote serce a word / oznaczać
e.g. She had a heart of gold and hated seeing e.g. The letters CAE stand for Certificate in Advanced
anyone in distress. English.
3.129 slip of the tongue = saying sth by mistake / 3.140 bring in /`bræ… `æn/ = to introduce a law or system /
przejęzyczenie lub nieumyślne zdradzenie sekretu wprowadzić (np. przepis)
e.g. He apologised for telling them my secret and e.g. Our political leader has promised to bring in
admitted that it was a slip of the tongue. a law banning smoking in public places.
3.130 grain of truth = a very small amount of truth / 3.141 stand by /`st±nd `baæ/ = to give sb support and
ziarenko prawdy help when they are in trouble / wspierać kogoś,
e.g. The lawyer claimed that there was only stać przy boku, być przy kimś
a grain of truth in what the witness had said. e.g. The firefighters were standing by in the event
3.131 touch of remorse = a very small amount of sadness of an accident.
or regret / odrobina żalu 3.142 stand out /`st±nd `¬t/ = to be very noticeable /
e.g. There was a touch of remorse in his apology odstawać od reszty, wyróżniać się
but not enough to gain any sympathy. e.g. Her height and good looks make her stand out
3.132 change of heart = a change of sb’s attitude in a crowd.
towards sth / zmiana nastawienia 3.143 bring round /`bræ… `r¬nd/ = to make sb conscious
e.g. The company directors had a change of heart again / ocucić kogoś
about moving the business to an industrial estate. e.g. Fortunately, the doctor managed to bring round
3.133 trace of concern = a small amount of worry / the unconscious climber.
odrobina troski
e.g. There was only a slight trace of concern in her 3.144 bankruptcy /`b±nkr∑ptsi/ (n) = not having money
voice as she explained how the accident happened. to pay off one’s debts / bankructwo
e.g. When his business failed, he was forced
to announce his bankruptcy.
43
UNIT 3

3.145 legislature /`leπæslΩ∏ºr/ (n) = here: legal


Listening & Speaking (pp. 60-61)
regulations, laws / tu: prawo, przepisy
e.g. New legislature concerning employers’ rights and 3.155 exploit /æks`pl√t/ (v) = to take advantage of sth
responsibilities will be implemented next year. for one’s own personal gain / eksploatować,
Der.: legislation (n), legislative (adj), legislator (n) wykorzystać, wyzyskiwać; tu: żerować na czymś
3.146 descent /dæ`sent/ (n) = sb’s nationality or social e.g. The criminal was accused of exploiting small
status / pochodzenie shopkeepers for personal gain.
e.g. Most of the refugees were of African descent. Der.: exploitation (n)
3.147 family welfare payments = financial help provided 3.156 misfortune /mæs`f¥∏ºn/ (n) = sth unpleasant
by the government to poor families / zasiłki or unlucky that happens to sb / nieszczęście,
rodzinne tragedia, niepowodzenie, pech
e.g. When both parents lost their jobs, they had e.g. Before becoming successful, he had had a fair
to apply for family welfare payments. share of misfortune in his life.
3.148 naive /n¡`∞v/ (adj) = lacking experience and so 3.157 distort /dæ`st¥t/ (v) = to report or represent sth in an
expecting things to be easy or people to be untrue way / zniekształcić, przeinaczyć, wypaczyć
honest / naiwny e.g. The reporter slightly distorted the facts in order
e.g. How could you be so naive to believe her? to save the family any further embarrassment.
Der.: naivety (n) Der.: distortion (n), distorted (adj)
3.149 youthful /`j∂ıfºl/ (adj) = typical of young people, 3.158 re-evaluate /¿r∞æ`v±ljuΩt/ (v) = to think about sth
young or seeming young / młodzieńczy, młody or sb again in order to make a judgement about
e.g. In a recent interview, the actress revealed them / poddać ponownej ocenie, ponownie przemyśleć
the secrets of her youthful appearance. e.g. The situation needs to be re-evaluated
Der.: youthfulness (n) before any decision can be made.
3.150 apprehensive /¿±præ`hensæv/ (adj) = afraid that sth 3.159 coverage /`k∑vºræπ/ (n) = the reporting of news /
bad might happen / zaniepokojony relacja, sposób przedstawiania
e.g. Bad weather conditions made the family e.g. The scandal attracted live media coverage
somewhat apprehensive about flying. in most European countries.
Der.: apprehension (n) 3.160 in depth = thoroughly / dogłębnie
3.151 hesitant /`hezætºnt/ (adj) = not doing sth quickly or e.g. Each subject was discussed in depth
immediately because one is uncertain, before the students sat the exam.
embarrassed or worried / wahający się, niepewny, 3.161 biased towards/against sb /`b¡ºst/ (adj) =
niezdecydowany preferring sb to sb else / nastawiony
e.g. She was rather hesitant in answering questions przychylnie/uprzedzony
about her past. e.g. The sports teacher was biased towards girls
Der.: hesitation (n) that wanted to be on the school’s football team.
3.152 timid /`tæmæd/ (adj) = lacking courage or confidence / 3.162 blood pressure /`bl∑d `pre«ºr/ (n) = the force
strachliwy, nieśmiały, bojaźliwy with which sb’s blood flows around the body /
e.g. The timid boy did not want to read the poem ciśnienie krwi
out loud. e.g. Because of her high blood pressure, the woman
Der.: timidity (n) was advised to take it easy for a while.
Opp.: courageous 3.163 emotional ties /æ`mø«ºnºl `taæz/ (n pl)
3.153 submit /sºb`mæt/ (v) = to formally send a report, = connections between people which are
request or proposal to sb / oddać, złożyć concerned with feelings and emotions /
(np. raport albo podanie) więzy emocjonalne
e.g. Before being granted an interview, e.g. Moving away from home was difficult for her as
he was asked to submit his C.V. she had such strong emotional ties with her family.
3.154 extension /æks`ten«ºn/ (n) = an extra period of time 3.164 speculate on/about sth /`spekjμlΩt/ (v) = to guess
for which sth lasts or is valid / przedłużenie, about sb’s or sth’s nature, identity or about
przesunięcie terminu what might happen / spekulować
e.g. He was granted a two-year extension on his e.g. Although the play was a hit in Britain, critics could
passport in order to complete his studies. only speculate on its success in America.
44
UNIT 3

3.165 discourse /`dæsk¥s/ (n) = spoken or written 3.175 upbeat /`∑pb∞t/ (adj) = cheerful and hopeful /
communication between people, usually radosny i pełen nadziei
a serious discussion on a certain subject / dyskurs e.g. Jake’s upbeat attitude towards life helps him deal
e.g. The President submitted a lengthy discourse better with difficult situations.
on the subject of terrorism. 3.176 barely /`b≈læ/ (adv) = hardly / ledwo, zaledwie
3.166 interactive /¿æntºr`±ktæv/ (adj) = communicating e.g. I can barely hear you; could you please speak up?
with each other / interaktywny 3.177 acknowledge /ºk`n≥læπ/ (v) = to admit that sth is
e.g. Parents of today have less interactive true or exists / przyznać, dopuścić, przyjąć
communication with their children than (do wiadomości)
they had in the past. e.g. The government has finally acknowledged
Der.: interaction (n) the unemployment crisis.
Der.: acknowledgement (n)
3.178 rule /r∂l/ (v) = to control, influence / rządzić
Reading (pp. 62-63)
e.g. The country was ruled by a dictator
3.167 aid /Ωd/ (v) = to help, assist / pomagać, wspierać for more than half a century.
e.g. The private detective aided the police with their Der.: ruler (n)
recent investigation. 3.179 tap into sth /`t±p `æntº/ (v) = to make use of sth
Der.: aid (n) by getting from it what one needs or wants /
3.168 comprehension /¿k≥mpræ`hen«ºn/ (n) = the ability to podłączyć się, wykorzystać (informacje)
understand sth and have full knowledge of it / e.g. Robin secretly tapped into the confidential files,
zrozumienie, pojmowanie which was a federal offence.
e.g. The student was upset because the science project 3.180 supremely /s∂`pr∞mli/ (adv) = extremely / niezwykle,
was utterly beyond her comprehension. bardzo
Der.: comprehensible (adj), comprehensive (adj) e.g. She loves her new teaching job and does it
3.169 beneficial /¿benæ`f櫺l/ (adj) = helping or improving supremely well.
people’s lives / korzystny, przynoszący korzyści 3.181 sensation /sen`sΩ«ºn/ (n) = feeling, general
e.g. The new medical treatment proved beneficial impression / odczucie, poczucie, wrażenie
and she was up and about within a few days. e.g. When I brought her a diamond ring, I had
3.170 assumption /º`s∑mp«ºn/ (n) = accepting sth as true a strange sensation she had actually been
without having any real proof / założenie, expecting such a present!
przypuszczenie 3.182 overflow with sth /¿øvº`flø/ (v) = to be too full
e.g. The customer was wrong in his assumption of sth to contain it; here: to experience a certain
that the faulty appliance was still under guarantee. feeling strongly and show it in one’s behaviour /
3.171 impact on sth/sb /`æmp±kt/ (n) = effect on sth/sb / być przepełnionym czymś (np. uczuciem)
wpływ; tu: wrażenie e.g. Her heart overflowed with love as she watched
e.g. His speech had a powerful impact her children play.
on the audience. 3.183 anchor /`±…kºr/ (n) = here: sth that will keep sb
3.172 trait /trΩt/ (n) = a certain quality, characteristic stable and secure / dosł. kotwica; tu: ostoja, podpora
or tendency sb or sth has / cecha e.g. Her family proved to be an emotional anchor
e.g. Jealousy is a human trait which can often lead during her distressing divorce.
to unnecessary unhappiness. 3.184 punch the air = to put one or both fists above
3.173 randomly /`r±ndºmli/ (adv) = not following the shoulders forcefully as a sign of victory /
a definite plan or pattern / na oślep, na chybił trafił, wyrzucić w górę obie ręce w geście triumfu
przypadkowo e.g. On hearing that he had passed the exams,
e.g. The teenager’s clothes were scattered randomly he punched the air triumphantly.
around the room. 3.185 thigh /ı¡/ (n) = the top part of your leg between
3.174 merit /`meræt/ (n) = a good or worthwhile quality the hip and the knee / udo
sb or sth has / zaleta, zasługa e.g. The rugby player sustained a serious injury in the
e.g. The board considered the merits of four thigh and was carried off the pitch.
candidates for the position.
Der.: meritorious (adj)
45
UNIT 3

3.186 pinch /pæn∏/ (n) = squeezing a piece of skin between 3.197 nightshift /`n¡∏æft/ (n) = a period of time usually
the thumb and first finger / uszczypnięcie between 10 pm and 6 am during which people
e.g. When she saw the baby, she couldn’t resist giving regularly work / nocna zmiana
it a gentle pinch on its cheek. e.g. He agreed to work nightshift so as to be free
3.187 get the hang of sth (idm) = to begin to understand during the day.
or realise how to do sth / załapać coś, zacząć 3.198 register /`reπæstºr/ (n) = the level and style of the
rozumieć, o co chodzi language appropriate to the circumstances
e.g. It took me months to get the hang of using in which it is used / rejestr (języka)
a computer. e.g. Her speech was highly criticised for its informal
3.188 trigger off /`trægºr `≥f/ (phr v) = to cause sth register.
to happen or exist / wywołać, spowodować 3.199 nausea /`n¥ziº/ (n) = the feeling that one wants
e.g. Dairy products have been known to trigger off to vomit / nudności
an allergic reaction in some children. e.g. Jane was overcome with a feeling of nausea
3.189 rehearse /ræ`hªs/ (v) = to practise sth to prepare as the boat tossed violently back and forth.
oneself / ćwiczyć coś, prowadzić próby Der.: nauseous (adj), nauseate (v)
e.g. The students were only given three weeks 3.200 tuition /tjμ`櫺n/ (n) = teaching / nauka, lekcje
to rehearse their parts in the school play. e.g. As a student, Martin gave private tuition
Der.: rehearsal (n) in mathematics.
3.190 emulate /`emjμlΩt/ (v) = to imitate sb whom one 3.201 excursion /æks`kª«ºn/ (n) = a short journey made for
admires very much / naśladować pleasure, enjoyment or educational purposes /
e.g. Beth admires her art teacher immensely wycieczka, wypad
and often emulates her work. e.g. The schoolchildren looked forward to their
Der.: emulation (n) forthcoming excursion to France.
3.191 persona /pº`sønº/ (n) = the aspect of one’s 3.202 pre-teen /pr∞`t∞n/ (n) = a child 11–12 years of age /
character or nature that is known to others / jedenasto-, dwunastolatek
te strony charakteru, jakie pokazujemy innym e.g. Pre-teens are usually keen on team sports.
e.g. Jason’s public persona was that of a loner, 3.203 adolescent /¿±dº`lesºnt/ (n) = a teenager /
but he was very sociable among friends. nastolatek, młody człowiek w okresie dorastania
3.192 outcome /`¬tk∑m/ (n) = a result / wynik e.g. As an adolescent, Danny spent years in learning
e.g. The anxious patient was worried about his father’s business.
the outcome of her therapy. Der.: adolescence (n)
3.193 re-enact /¿r∞æn`±kt/ (v) = to repeat an action as it 3.204 rapport /r±`p¥r/ (n) = a relationship between two
originally happened / odegrać sytuację dokładnie tak, people or groups in which they are able to
jak się wydarzyła understand each other’s ideas and feelings well /
e.g. The witness was asked to re-enact the events dobre stosunki, porozumienie
leading up to the accident. e.g. An important part of a teacher’s success
Der.: re-enactment (n) is the rapport with students.
3.194 dictate to sb /dæk`tΩt/ (v) = to tell sb what 3.205 remuneration /ræ¿mj∂nº`rΩ«ºn/ (n) = the amount
they should do / dyktować, narzucać of money sb is paid for their work /
sposób postępowania wynagrodzenie, honorarium
e.g. Sue’s parents dictated to her how she should live. e.g. The company offered its staff a generous
remuneration for their hard work.
English in Use (pp. 64-67) Der.: remunerative (adj)
3.206 be up sb’s street (idm) = (of a job or an activity)
3.195 bully /`bμlæ/ (v) = to frighten or hurt a weaker to interest sb very much / bardzo komuś
person / zastraszyć, terroryzować odpowiadać
e.g. Older boys bullied little Johny at school. e.g. Richard loves danger and excitement,
3.196 shriek /«r∞k/ (n) = a short loud cry caused by fear, which is why extreme sports are up his street.
pain or laughter / wrzask 3.207 a fair bit = a large amount / dużo, wiele
e.g. She let out a shriek of pain as the hot iron e.g. My brother knows a fair bit about computer
burnt her arm. animation, which helped him get a better job.
46
UNIT 3

3.208 vouch for sb /v¬∏/ (v) = to guarantee sb’s good e.g. In the dead of night, soldiers successfully
behaviour / ręczyć za kogoś infiltrated the enemy camp.
e.g. Tom agreed to vouch for Sara’s credibility Der.: infiltration (n), infiltrator (n)
and get her a job in the local bank. 3.220 tribute /`træbj∂t/ (n) = sth one says or does to show
3.209 put in a (good) word for sb (idm) = to praise sb their admiration and respect for sb / hołd
to sb else in order to help them get a job etc / e.g. The mayor paid tribute to the rescuer for his
wstawić się za kimś heroic action.
e.g. Bob found a new job and even convinced 3.221 the masses /∫º `m±sæz/ (n pl) = the ordinary people
his ex-boss to put in a good word for him. in society / masy, szerokie rzesze
3.210 timekeeping /`t¡mk∞pæ…/ (n) = the ability to arrive e.g. The political leader addressed the masses
in time / punktualność on the need for reform.
e.g. His boss had no other choice but to sack him for 3.222 parody /`p±rºdi/ (n) = a humorous piece of writing
bad timekeeping. which imitates the style of a well-known person
3.211 reprimand /`repræm≤nd/ (v) = to speak angrily in an exaggerated way / parodia
or seriously to sb for doing sth wrong / e.g. Eat it is a parody of Michael Jackson’s Beat it,
udzielić nagany, reprymendy written by “Weird Al” Yankovic.
e.g. Brian was constantly reprimanded for his untidy 3.223 warfare /`w¥f≈r/ (n) = a violent struggle or
appearance at work. conflict / walki, działania wojenne
3.212 function /`f∑…k«ºn/ (n) = a large gathering of people e.g. Unemployment is to blame for much of today’s
for pleasure or a special event / impreza gang warfare.
e.g. She ran into an old school friend at a recent office 3.224 prejudice /`preπμdæs/ (n) = a dislike of a certain
function. group of people or things over another /
3.213 bare /b≈r/ (v) = to make known, to reveal / obnażyć, uprzedzenie
odsłonić e.g. He shows a great deal of irrational prejudice
e.g. She bared her feelings only to her closest friend. towards people who enjoy watching TV.
3.214 through thick and thin (idm) = in good and bad Der.: prejudiced (adj)
times / na dobre i na złe 3.225 male chauvinism /`mΩl `«øvænæzºm/ (n) = the belief
e.g. A true friend will stand by you through thick held by some men that men are superior
and thin. to women / męski szowinizm
3.215 envy /`envi/ (n) = the feeling of jealousy / zazdrość e.g. He was accused of male chauvinism after blankly
e.g. Robbie inspired the envy of his peers after they refusing to employ women to do the job.
found out his book had been published. Der.: male chauvinist (n)
Der.: envious (adj) 3.226 peer /pƒr/ (n) = sb who is the same age as you /
3.216 hidden agenda = the secret intention behind sth sb rówieśnik
says or does / ukryte zamiary e.g. Robert is a very popular teenager and is greatly
e.g. I’m afraid there is a hidden agenda respected by his peers.
behind their proposal. 3.227 overemphasise /¿øvºr`emfºs¡z/ (v) = to give sth
3.217 legacy /`legºsi/ (n) = property or money sb leaves more importance than it deserves / przypisywać
behind when they die / spadek czemuś zbyt duże znaczenie, przeceniać
e.g. Thanks to his grandfather’s generous legacy, e.g. The politician overemphasised
Tim became a wealthy man. the unemployment figures in an effort
3.218 inexhaustible /¿ænæg`z¥stºbºl/ (adj) = having so to win more public support.
much of sth that it can’t all be used up / 3.228 self-worth /¿self`wªı/ (n) = belief in one’s good
niewyczerpany qualities and achievements / poczucie własnej
e.g. He has an inexhaustible supply of energy wartości
for a man of his age. e.g. After successfully raising í500 for charity, the
3.219 infiltrate /`ænfæltrΩt/ (v) = to enter a place or youngsters were filled with a feeling of self-worth.
organisation secretly in order to influence it / 3.229 prowess /`pr¼s/ (n) = great ability or skill /
infiltrować sprawność (np. intelektualna)
e.g. He likes to show off his sporting prowess.

47
UNIT 3

3.230 dominate /`d≥mænΩt/ (v) = to be the most powerful 3.240 disallow /¿dæsº`l¬/ (v) = not to allow or accept
or most important in a situation / dominować officially / odrzucić, zakazać oficjalnie,
e.g. Most people find Patrick a bore because he insists nie zaakceptować
on dominating the conversation. e.g. Unfortunately, the bank manager disallowed
Der.: domination (n), dominance (n) my application for a loan.
3.231 brainy /`brΩni/ (adj) = clever and good at learning / 3.241 go wild = to become uncontrolled and very
zdolny, rozgarnięty, łebski excited / rozszaleć się, oszaleć (np. z radości)
e.g. Lynne’s friends were jealous of her because e.g. The excited fans went wild when their favourite
she was both brainy and beautiful. rock star came on stage.
3.232 bearing on sth /`b≈ræ…/ (n) = relevance / związek 3.242 whistle /`wæsºl/ (n) = a small tube you blow to make
z czymś a loud sound as a signal / gwizdek
e.g. Most of the information he gave the police e.g. Our team scored a goal just before
had little bearing on the investigation. the final whistle.
3.233 overthrow /¿øvº`ırø/ (v) = to remove by force 3.243 despondent /dæ`sp≥ndºnt/ (adj) = very unhappy /
(usually a government or leader) / obalić przygnębiony, przybity
(np. rząd lub przywódcę) e.g. Carla felt despondent after her unsuccessful
e.g. There were several unsuccessful attempts job interview.
to overthrow the unpopular president. 3.244 boo /b∂/ (v) = to shout “boo“ or make other loud
3.234 override /¿øvº`r¡d/ (v) = to be more important comments to show one doesn’t like sb
than other things / mieć pierwszeństwo, (e.g. a performer, athlete, speaker) / wygwizdać
być ważniejszym od czegoś e.g. The performance he gave was so unprofessional
e.g. The importance of being healthy overrides that the audience booed him off the stage.
everything else. 3.245 fist /fæst/ (n) = a closed hand with fingers bent
in towards the palm, as if to hit sb / pięść
e.g. He punched the policeman with his fist before
Writing (pp. 68-72)
being arrested.
3.235 newsletter /`nj∂zletºr/ (n) = a printed report on 3.246 jostle /`π≥sºl/ (v) = to bump or push against sb
the activities of a club or organisation / biuletyn in an annoying way / potrącać, popychać, tarmosić,
e.g. All the club members regularly receive szturchać
our newsletter. e.g. We spent most of the morning being jostled
3.236 rhetorical question /ræ`t≥rækºl `kwest«ºn/ (n) around by enthusiastic Christmas shoppers.
= a question asked in order to make 3.247 picturesque /¿pæk∏º`resk/ (adj) = attractive and
a statement rather than get an answer / interesting / malowniczy
pytanie retoryczne e.g. The retired couple bought a small bungalow
e.g. My mother is forever asking me the rhetorical in the picturesque village of Paxton.
question, "Do you realise how much this costs?" 3.248 dash /d±«/ (v) = to run or go somewhere quickly /
3.237 prospect /`pr≥spekt/ (n) = sth Ône expects or knows pędzić, pomknąć
is going to happen / perspektywa, możliwość, widoki e.g. He dashed into the shop to buy a newspaper
e.g. The citizens felt that the prospect for peace and then realised he had no money.
was likely in the near future. 3.249 stroll /strøl/ (v) = to walk in a slow, relaxed way /
3.238 solitary /`s≥lætri/ (adj) = alone, with no other things spacerować, przechadzać się
or people near it / samotny e.g. When the rain finally stopped, we decided
e.g. As he stood on the balcony, he noticed a solitary to stroll in the country for a while.
figure walking along the beach. Der.: stroller (n)
Der.: solitude (n) 3.250 entitle /æn`t¡tl/ (v) = to give a title to sth
3.239 kick-off /`kæk≥f/ (n) = the start of a football game / (e.g. a book, film or painting) / zatytułować
początek meczu e.g. The book she enjoyed reading best of all was
e.g. Right after the kick-off, Beckham was shown the entitled The Colour Purple.
red card. 3.251 publicity /p∑b`læsæti/ (n) = information or actions
intended to attract the public’s attention to sb
or sth / rozgłos
48
UNIT 3

e.g. Once the murder trial began, it generated 3.262 angle /`±…gºl/ (n) = the way sth is presented
enormous publicity. or thought about / punkt widzenia
3.252 icon /`¡k≥n/ (n) = sb or sth that is important e.g. He thought about the video clip from all different
as a symbol of a particular thing / symbol angles before making up his mind.
e.g. Madonna is now regarded as an icon 3.263 have one’s say = to give one’s opinion /
in the music industry. wypowiedzieć się
3.253 on/off the pitch = on/off the football field / e.g. The students were determined to have their say
na boisku/poza boiskiem in the running of the school.
e.g. This lost game can be rightly called 3.264 light-hearted /¿l¡t`h≤tæd/ (adj) = amusing,
a disaster on the pitch. entertaining, not serious / niefrasobliwy, lekki,
3.254 come in for criticism/praise = to be criticised wesoły
or praised for sth / zyskać negatywną e.g. The amateur dramatic group performed
lub pozytywną ocenę a light-hearted comedy which everyone enjoyed.
e.g. The police came in for much criticism 3.265 homesickness /`hømsæknºs/ (n) = feeling unhappy
after the unsuccessful intervention. because one is away from home and misses
3.255 indisputably /¿ændæ`spj∂tºbli/ (adv) = undeniably / their family and friends / tęsknota za domem
niezaprzeczalnie, bezsprzecznie lub krajem
e.g. Everyone agreed that Helen had an indisputably e.g. The majority of university students suffer from
keen eye for detail. homesickness during their first year away from home.
3.256 free kick /¿fr∞ `kæk/ (n) = an opportunity to kick the 3.266 take the initiative = to be the first person to act
ball without any opposition, given to one team in a situation and take control of it / przejąć
after the other has broken a rule / rzut wolny inicjatywę
e.g. The referee awarded the player a free kick after e.g. After the accident, George took the initiative
his opponent fouled him. and called emergency services.
3.257 knock out /`n≥k `¬t/ (phr v) = to disqualify a team 3.267 socialise /`sø«ºl¡z/ (v) = to meet other people
as a form of punishment / zdyskwalifikować socially, e.g. at parties or gatherings / prowadzić
drużynę za przewinienie życie towarzyskie
e.g. The team was disappointed when they were e.g. Working weekends meant that Harry had little
knocked out of the tournament in the final round. time to socialise.
3.258 hint /hænt/ (v) = to make a suggestion in an indirect 3.268 unsettling /¿∑n`setlæ…/ (adj) = making one feel
way / zasugerować, podpowiedzieć, podszepnąć worried or uncertain / niepokojący
e.g. The manager hinted that several members e.g. Starting a new school can have an unsettling
of staff were to be made redundant. effect on some students.
3.259 peep /p∞p/ (v) = to have a quick look at sth or sb, 3.269 round-the-clock /¿r¬nd∫º`kl≥k/ (adj) = done all day
usually secretly and quietly / zerknąć, podejrzeć, and all night without stopping / trwający
podpatrzyć dwadzieścia cztery godziny na dobę
e.g. The children peeped at their Christmas presents e.g. The police gave the witness round-the-clock
after their parents were asleep. protection.
3.260 courteous /`kªtiºs/ (adj) = polite and respectful 3.270 help-line /`help l¡n/ (n) = special telephone service
to others / uprzejmy that people can call to get advice /
e.g. The policeman was so courteous when porady na telefon, telefon zaufania
I explained that I was lost. e.g. After the disaster, a special help-line was set up
3.261 contribution /¿k≥ntræ`bj∂«n/ (n) = sth you write for to help those people with problems.
a magazine, newspaper or book to be published 3.271 scare /`sk≈r/ (n) = a situation in which sb is anxious
in it / tekst napisany do gazety lub książki or frightened / alarm, przestrach, panika
e.g. The editor of the magazine is looking for some e.g. The illness was nothing serious, but it gave him
interesting contributions for next month’s issue. a terrible health scare.
Der.: contributor /kºn`træbjμtºr/ (n)

49
UNIT 3

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 He was warned against making any .......... decisions 6 She looked .......... at the resorts in the travel brochure
which could jeopardise the business deal. and wished she could afford to travel.
A impulsive C intuitive A lavishly C randomly
B instinctive D implicit B longingly D lovingly
7 Even though the old log cabin was .........., we still enjoyed
2 The host expected her to arrive at the party in a more
staying there.
formal .......... of dress.
A primary C primitive
A fashion C mode
B original D obsolete
B look D trend
8 He was unable to .......... his ambition to travel due
3 Passengers were told to fasten their seatbelts to ..........
to a lingering illness.
their safety.
A obey C confirm
A protect C defend
B observe D fulfil
B guard D ensure
4 His negative .......... towards getting a job makes his 9 She has had a .......... relationship with her boyfriend
family extremely angry. for the past four years.
A position C belief A rested C fixed
B attitude D idea B stable D sturdy

10 When he came round after the accident, he couldn’t


5 Tom was .......... for breaking the photocopier even
.......... anything that had happened.
though he was not at fault.
A recall C reminisce
A accused C blamed
B remind D retell
B charged D convicted

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

Children’s Emotional Needs

Security, 0) devotion and acceptance should be at the heart of all family life. Children DEVOTE
need 1) ….......……… love and they must understand that their parents’ love does CONDITION
not depend on their accomplishments alone. It is important for them to realise that
we can’t expect everybody to be a(n) 2) ….......……… . Ideally, a child who PERFECT
experiences emotional 3) ….......……… in life is able to think clearly and positively, is STABLE
more self-confident and is capable of better communicative 4) ….......……… with its INTERACT
peers. Youngsters need the opportunity to explore and develop new skills and
independence, which in turn leads to a greater sense of self-discipline and maturity.
At the same time, they must learn that moral values are of great importance to their
general welfare. Children usually have a(n) 5) ….......……… understanding about INSTINCT
what is right and wrong, yet they all too often display signs of 6) ….......……… RESENT
towards friends and siblings. This behaviour should be discouraged as it can prove to
be rather 7) ….......……… for everyone. With this in mind, it is likely they will develop SETTLE
into 8) ….......……… adults with a sound sense of perspective. CONSCIENCE

50
UNIT 3

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ socialise ñ descent ñ innumerable ñ publicity ñ prejudice ñ peep ñ party ñ extrovert ñ angle ñ dismal

1 The job prospects in his country are so ....................... that 6 He has invented ....................... excuses for failing to be
he’s decided to go abroad. on time for work.
2 Some residents were accused of having a deep-rooted 7 Jill’s ....................... behaviour is looked down on by some
racial ....................... against their neighbours. of her more conservative friends.
3 Sam’s parents are of Asian ....................... and they still 8 Most days Peter is preoccupied with his work, although
maintain many of their old traditions. he makes an effort to ....................... at weekends.
4 One of the members of the political ....................... has 9 Chris took a quick ....................... at his watch as he
been reprimanded for tampering with official documents. waited for his bride to arrive.
5 The recent scandal stirred up a great deal of 10 The proposal was considered from every .......................
....................... in the foreign press. before it was given approval.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.

1 The lovesick/doting/fond parents refused to believe their 5 Thousands of mourners turned out to pay esteem/tribute/
son was a criminal. honour to the war heroes.
2 After the accident, she was given medication to relax/ 6 The elderly gentleman likes to hike/trek/stroll in the park
calm/ease her suffering. after lunch.
3 He had only a superficial/artificial/beneficial knowledge 7 Our latest product is expected to dominate/overrule/
of the subject and was no help to them. command the cosmetics’ market.
4 The government must confess/acknowledge/declare
the problem before they can expect any public support.

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B

1 look on a rock bottom


2 be a b of beans
3 be down c whale of a time
4 be full d wet blanket
5 have a e the bright side
6 hit f in the dumps

1 Even though she felt miserable, she tried to .................. 4 She ................................................................................
......................... in the hope that things would improve. in Paris. There were so many things to see and do that
2 Suzie .............................................................................. she’s booked to go again next year.
today, she must have had some good news. 5 After failing his driving test for the second time, Roger
3 The young couple think that it is a good time to buy ...................................................................... for weeks.
property as house prices have ........................................ 6 We thought it better not to invite Peter to the
in most areas. engagement party because he .......................................
and spoils everyone’s fun.

51
UNIT 4

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jedno zbędne słowo. Znajdź je i zapisz w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej
linijce nie ma zbędnego słowa, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

The Importance of Family Meetings

Many experts believe in that family meetings are an ideal opportunity for 0 in
parents and children to communicate and allow everyone a say in the 00 ✓
running of the household. According to the parent educator, Sheila 1 ........................
Boyce, these meetings should be handled just as like a business meeting 2 ........................
except, instead of being handled around the boardroom table, they’re 3 ........................
being held around the kitchen table at a convenient time for the whole 4 ........................
family. Boyce adds these meetings should be as short and never unhappy 5 ........................
experiences. Everyone can express things that are bothering them all but 6 ........................
without showing any more signs of hostility. These meetings are not only 7 ........................
confined to older children, as kids of all ages benefit from them. Children 8 ........................
learn how to speak up in meetings and understand that their opinion 9 ........................
means something else. They learn the democratic process and how to 10 ........................
take up responsibility for the decisions being made. If young people are 11 ........................
part of the decision-making process, then they are more likely to follow 12 ........................
them through. Overall, family meetings can strengthen bonds between 13 ........................
children and parents, provide for an opportunity to set rules and 14 ........................
consequences as well as define family goals. So far find a time and date 15 ........................
and sit down for one of the much most important meetings of your life, 16 ........................
the family meeting!

4 Growing Concerns

one in three houses reporting burglary in the last year.


Lead-in (p. 7)
Der.: housebreaker (n)
4.1 neighbourhood crime watch = a group of people 4.4 shelter /`«eltºr/ (n) = a building that provides a place
in a neighbourhood who watch over the area to stay for the homeless / schronisko, noclegownia
and report any crimes or criminal activities e.g. In winter, city shelters are full of homeless people
to the police / straż sąsiedzka who do not want to stay out.
e.g. Our neighbourhood crime watch has done 4.5 truancy /`tr∂ºnsi/ (n) = the practice of children
a great deal to eliminate crime in the area. staying away from school without permission /
4.2 drought /dr¬t/ (n) = a long period of time in which wagary
no rain falls / susza e.g. Truancy is a growing problem in deprived inner
e.g. The government imposed restrictions on the use city areas of London such as Hackney and Brixton.
of water during the summer drought. Der.: truant (n)
4.3 housebreaking /`h¬sbrΩkæ…/ (n) = the crime 4.6 lay off /`leæ `≥f/ (phr v) = not to employ any longer,
of entering sb’s house by force / włamanie usually when there is not enough work to do /
do domu lub mieszkania zwolnić z pracy
e.g. The crime of housebreaking has reached e.g. The factory laid off 50% of its workers
epidemic proportions in certain inner city areas with during the recession.

52
UNIT 4

4.7 invasion of privacy = sb or sth interfering e.g. Could you keep an eye on my suitcase for five
in one’s life without one’s permission / minutes, please?
naruszenie prywatności 4.16 anonymity /¿±n≥`næmæti/ (n) = keeping one’s identity
e.g. I caught her in my bedroom reading my diary and secret from others / anonimowość
considered it a gross invasion of my privacy. e.g. Some writers use a pseudonym to seek
4.8 harsh /h≤«/ (adj) = cruel, showing no sympathy / anonymity.
surowy, ostry, bezlitosny Der.: anonymous (adj)
e.g. Because of reduced profits, the firm has had 4.17 hooligan /`h∂lægºn/ (n) = a young person who
to make the rather harsh decision to lay off many behaves in a noisy and violent way in a public
loyal employees. place / chuligan
Der.: harshness (n) e.g. Hooligans smashed shop windows in the city
4.9 retrain /¿r∞`trΩn/ (v) = to teach sb or be taught new centre after last night’s game.
skills in order to get a new job / 4.18 number plate /`n∑mbº ¿plΩt/ (n) = a sign on the
przekwalifikować (się) front and back of a vehicle that shows its
e.g. After being laid off from his job, Justin had number / tablica rejestracyjna
to retrain to find employment. e.g. One of the cars involved in the crash had
4.10 pressing /`presæ…/ (adj) = (of a problem) that needs diplomatic number plates.
to be dealt with immediately / (o problemie) 4.19 database /`dΩtºbΩs/ (n) = a collection of
naglący, palący information that is stored in a computer
e.g. There is a pressing need to build new houses and can be easily used / baza danych
in areas with a housing shortage. e.g. We don’t appear to have any information
4.11 local authorities /`løkºl ¥`ı≥rætiz/ (n pl) = the concerning your health records on our database.
organisation officially responsible for all the 4.20 surveillance /sº`vΩlºns/ (n) = the careful watching
public services and facilities in a particular area / of sb by the police or army / dozór, inwigilacja
władze lokalne e.g. Police surveillance is being carried out on a house
e.g. The local authorities have granted extra funding in Ragmore Street where an armed gang are thought
for hospitals in the area. to be hiding.
4.12 equality /æ`kw≥læti/ (n) = the same rights and 4.21 face recognition /`fΩs rekºg`n櫺n/ (n) = identifying
responsibilities for all the members of a society, sb by facial features / rozpoznawanie rysów twarzy
group or family / równość e.g. Our computer system uses face recognition
e.g. We are committed to providing equality technology to prevent unauthorised persons from
of opportunities for everyone, which is why we gaining access to our records.
welcome applications from the ethnic minorities. 4.22 software /`s≥ftw≈r/ (n) = computer programs /
Opp.: inequality oprogramowanie
4.13 measure /`meȼr/ (n) = sth that shows that e.g. I use some of the software on my computer such
a situation is serious or has developed as Word, PowerPoint and Excel.
to a great extent / miara, wskaźnik, oznaka 4.23 trafficmaster /`tr±fæk¿m≤stºr/ (n) = an advanced
e.g. Δhe increase in unemployment rates traveller information system which uses sensors
is a measure of the worldwide recession. and cameras to record changes in speed,
number plates, etc / zaawansowany system zbierania
informacji o ruchu drogowym, używający czujników
Reading (pp. 74-75)
i kamer do rejestrowania zmian prędkości, numerów
4.14 monitor /`m≥nætºr/ (v) = to check sb or sth regularly rejestracyjnych itp.
for progress or development / nadzorować, e.g. Trafficmaster has installed speed cameras
monitorować to monitor traffic speeds on main roads.
e.g. We carefully monitor the progress of all newly 4.24 densely populated /`densli `p≥pjulΩtæd/ (adj) = with
trained recruits, so that they become useful a lot of people in a small area / gęsto zaludniony
employees. e.g. With an area of three quarters of a square mile
4.15 keep an eye on sth/sb (idm) = to watch sth or sb and a population of 32,000 inhabitants, Monaco is
carefully to make sure that they are safe and a densely populated country.
not in trouble / mieć kogoś lub coś na oku
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4.25 trace /trΩs/ (v) = to find sb or sth after looking e.g. There will be a probable disruption to traffic due
for them / wyśledzić, wytropić to the World Cup qualifying game between England
e.g. The police are still having difficulty in tracing and Portugal.
the suspect. Der.: probability (n), probably (adv)
4.26 pre-determined /¿pr∞dæ`tªmænd/ (adj) = decided 4.36 valid /`v±læd/ (adj) = accepted by people
by events or people rather than by chance / in authority / ważny, przekonywający, uzasadniony
wcześniej ustalony e.g. Do you have any valid reasons for turning down
e.g. We have set a pre-determined figure on the this position of great responsibility?
number of people from ethnic minorities to be Opp.: invalid /æn`v±læd/ (adj)
accepted for the jobs available. 4.37 boom /b∂m/ (v) = to increase / rosnąć, zwiększać się
4.27 virtual /`vª∏μºl/ (adj) = so nearly true that it can be e.g. Sales of ice cream and soft drinks have boomed
considered as true / wirtualny during the current heat wave.
e.g. Virtual reality shows have had phenomenal 4.38 scan /sk±n/ (v) = to look at pictures or information
popularity throughout the world. carefully because one is looking for sth or sb /
4.28 twitch /twæ∏/ (v) = (of curtains) to move slightly uważnie przeglądać (np. materiały w poszukiwaniu
apart so that one can see what is behind / informacji)
(o kotarze, zasłonie) rozchylać się e.g. I have scanned the contents of this report
e.g. The bell rang, the curtains twitched and I must say I am happy with the results.
and the play began. Der.: scanner (n)
4.29 track /tr±k/ (v) = to follow sb’s or sth’s movements 4.39 camera feed /`k±mºrº ¿f∞d/ (n) = the playback
(e.g. by means of a special device like a radar) / of images or pictures from a camera / materiał
śledzić, tropić zarejestrowany przez kamerę
e.g. Aborigines are able to track people and animals e.g. Scanning camera feed for evidence
over large distances. is a time-consuming task.
Der.: tracker (n) 4.40 declare /dæ`kl≈r/ (v) = to say officially and formally
4.30 regulation /¿regjμ`lΩ«ºn/ (n) = a rule made by that sth is true / zadeklarować, ogłosić
a government in order to control the way sth is e.g. The Royal Bank of Scotland has declared
done or the way people behave / rozporządzenie, its profits for the financial year.
przepis Der.: declaration (n)
e.g. The government has just introduced a new set 4.41 mount /m¬nt/ (v) = to place sth firmly on sth else /
of regulations that will monitor chat room users. zainstalować, zamontować
4.31 investigatory /æn`vestægºtri/ (adj) = investigating e.g. The cameras are mounted on tripods and
sth / śledczy wheeled into position hours before the start
e.g. The investigatory committee was set up to look of the show.
into all aspects of the bank’s financial dealings. 4.42 license /`l¡sºns/ (v) = to give sb official permission
4.32 act /±kt/ (n) = a law passed by the parliament / to do sth / przyznać licencję, zezwolić
ustawa e.g. Only certain shops have been licensed to sell
e.g. The act of Parliament prohibiting the sale or use fireworks in an attempt to reduce the number of
of firearms was passed in 1996. accidents from their misuse.
4.33 invisibly /æn`væzæbli/ (adv) = without being seen / Der.: licence (n), licensee (n)
niedostrzegalnie, niewidocznie 4.43 retain /ræ`tΩn/ (v) = to continue to have sth /
e.g. The thief’s hand moved almost invisibly into zachować
the victim’s pocket and quickly stole the wallet. e.g. I have retained an interest in model aeroplanes
4.34 borough /`b∑rº/ (n) = a town or district within since childhood.
a larger town, which has its own council / 4.44 plc /¿p∞ el `s∞/ (abbr) = (used after the name of
miasto lub dzielnica posiadająca samorząd lokalny a company) public limited company / publiczna
e.g. The London Borough of Kensington and Chelsea spółka akcyjna z ograniczoną odpowiedzialnością
is one of the wealthiest in the country. e.g. I decided to open an account with
4.35 probable /`pr≥bºbºl/ (adj) = likely to be true / Lloyd’s Bank plc.
prawdopodobny

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4.45 trunk road /`tr∑…k rød/ (n) = a major road that has 4.55 cell congestion /`sel kºn`πes∏ºn/ (n) = too many
been built for travelling long distances / calls in a particular area / zbyt wiele rozmów
droga krajowa w jednym rejonie sieci, przeciążenie sieci w danym
e.g. The accident took place on the A2 London rejonie
to Dover trunk road. e.g. In case of cell congestion our mobiles connect
4.46 digit /`dæπæt/ (n) = any of the ten numbers from 0 to any available base station and you can make
to 9 / cyfra a call anyway.
e.g. Mobile telephone numbers consist of ten digits. 4.56 further/farther/far afield /º`f∞ld/ (idm) = in a distant
Der.: digital (adj) place, not near / dalej, daleko
4.47 transmit /tr±nz`mæt/ (v) = to send messages or data e.g. If you want to explore the island further afield ,
from one place to another using wires, radio you have to hire a good guide.
waves or satellites / transmitować 4.57 keep (close) tabs on sb (idm) = always to know
e.g. The BBC has transmitted its radio programmes where sb is and what they are doing in order
outside Britain since 1932. to control them / trzymać rękę na pulsie, kontrolować
Der.: transmitter (n) e.g. I think we should keep tabs on the quality of John
4.48 remainder /ræ`mΩndºr/ (n) = sth that still stays after Hanson’s work.
the other things have gone / pozostałość, reszta 4.58 fraud /fr¥d/ (n) = the crime of gaining money or
e.g. After James and Frances left, the remainder benefits by tricking or lying to others / oszustwo
of the guests sat chatting until dawn. e.g. Police and credit card companies are constantly
4.49 partial /`p≤«ºl/ (adj) = not complete or whole / looking for ways to eliminate credit card fraud.
częściowy Der.: fraudster (n), fraudulent (adj)
e.g. Though badly affected by arthritis, the old lady 4.59 bill /bæl/ (n) = a formal statement of a new law that
still had partial use of her hands. is discussed and then voted for by the
Opp.: whole parliament / projekt ustawy
4.50 gauge /gΩπ/ (v) = to measure, calculate / oceniać, e.g. A private member’s bill is a piece of proposed
mierzyć, kalkulować legislation brought before the Houses of Parliament.
e.g. The government would like to gauge public 4.60 grant /gr≤nt/ (v) = to allow sb to have sth / udzielić,
feeling over the proposed ban on fox-hunting. przyznać
4.51 cross-reference /¿kr≥s `refºrºns/ (v) = to check e.g. I was not granted access to the company’s files
relevant information that has already been as I didn’t have the security clearance.
compared or is already known / sprawdzić, 4.61 the House of Lords /∫º `h¬s ºv `l¥dz/ (n) = this
porównać z już sprawdzonymi informacjami part of Parliament in Britain whose members are
e.g. We’ll have to cross-reference this information not elected / Izba Lordów
with that held by our Public Relations department. e.g. British Parliament consists of the House
4.52 log on /`l≥g `≥n/ (phr v) = to start using a computer of Commons and the House of Lords.
system / uzyskać dostęp do komputera, zalogować się 4.62 foundation /f¬n`dΩ«ºn/ (n) = an organisation
e.g. Can you send the technician up here as I am which provides money for research or charity /
having difficulty logging on to my computer? fundacja
4.53 call strength indicator /`k¥l stre…ı `ændækΩtºr/ (n) e.g. The Prince’s Trust is a charitable foundation
= a mobile phone indicator showing if it is that provides money to relieve poverty in third-world
possible to make or receive a call / countries.
(w telefonie komórkowym) wskaźnik mocy sygnału 4.63 trawl /tr¥l/ (n) = searching through a large number
e.g. We were so far up in the mountains that the call of similar things / przeszukanie (dużej ilości
strength indicator on my mobile went off. podobnych materiałów)
4.54 topography /tº`p≥grºfi/ (n) = the physical features e.g. We carried out a number of trawls through
of an area (hills, valleys and rivers) / topografia the data given to us in order to find the necessary
e.g. The topography of this part of the world has information.
changed significantly in only a hundred years with 4.64 invasive /æn`vΩsæv/ (adj) = spreading very quickly /
the former port of Headmouth becoming a town ekspansywny, szybko się rozprzestrzeniający
5 miles inland. e.g. I find the rapid spread of surveillance techniques
Der.: topographical (adj), topographer (n) frighteningly invasive to our privacy.
55
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4.65 capacity /kº`p±sæti/ (n) = ability to do sth / zdolność 4.74 manslaughter /`m±nsl¥tºr/ (n) = the killing of
e.g. I find that my capacity for staying up until late a person by sb who didn’t want to kill them /
has diminished with age. zabójstwo
4.66 deputy /`depjμti/ (n) = the second most important e.g. He was convicted of the lesser charge
person in an organisation / wicedyrektor, wiceprezes of manslaughter for killing his wife.
itp., zastępca 4.75 vandalism /`v±ndºlæzºm/ (n) = damaging public
e.g. The deputy Prime Minister acts as Prime Minister property on purpose / wandalizm
in the latter’s absence. e.g. Former pupils of St George’s comprehensive school
4.67 scuffle /`sk∑fºl/ (v) = to fight for a short time have been convicted of vandalism and sentenced to
in a disorganised way / bić się, tarmosić community service.
e.g. Rival supporters scuffled outside the ground 4.76 litter /`lætºr/ (v) = to throw things untidily around
and on nearby streets after the football match. a place / śmiecić, zaśmiecać
4.68 moot /m∂t/ (v) = to suggest sth for discussion / e.g. People have littered the park with all sorts
poddać pod dyskusję of things, from broken bottles to hamburger wrappers
e.g. The idea has been mooted to turn the theatre into and plastic bags.
a bingo hall, although I strongly believe that it would Der.: litter (n)
deprive the area of cultural focus. 4.77 unintentionally /¿∑næn`ten«ºnºli/ (adv) = by accident /
4.69 forbid /fº`bæd/ (v) = to say that sth must not nieumyślnie
be done / zabronić, zakazać e.g. I’m afraid I unintentionally pressed the wrong
e.g. When I was at boarding school, we were button on my phone and got through to the wrong
forbidden from going outside after certain hours. department.
Der.: forbidden (adj), forbiddingly (adv) 4.78 slander /`sl≤ndºr/ (v) = to say untrue things about
4.70 flourish /`fl∑ræ«/ (v) = to be successful, active and sb in order to damage their reputation /
developing quickly and strongly / kwitnąć, zniesławiać, obmawiać, szkalować
doskonale prosperować e.g. He has slandered the good name of this great
e.g. At first, I found it difficult to flourish in my new family for too long and it’s time we took him to court.
surroundings until I found some friends and settled Der.: slanderous (adj), slanderer (n)
down. 4.79 loiter /`l√tºr/ (v) = to stay in a place without
4.71 intrusive /æn`tr∂sæv/ (adj) = disturbing Ône’s mood any purpose / wałęsać się, szwendać
or life / natrętny, narzucający się e.g. Some of the youths were loitering
e.g. At our peaceful demonstration, we found the on the pavement in a rather threatening way.
police presence rather unwanted and intrusive. Der.: loiterer (n)
Der.: intrusion (n), intrusiveness (n) 4.80 with intent = having the intention of doing sth /
umyślnie, celowo
e.g. He was fined for loitering with intent on a public
Language Focus (pp. 76-79)
highway.
4.72 embezzlement /æm`bezºlmºnt/ (n) = the crime 4.81 mug /m∑g/ (v) = to attack sb in order to steal their
of taking and using money illegally from money / napaść kogoś w celach rabunkowych
the organisation or company one works for / e.g. I have just been mugged in broad daylight –
sprzeniewierzenie, defraudacja, malwersacja they’ve taken my handbag which had everything in it!
e.g. Many senior executives were involved in the Der.: mugger (n), mugging (n)
embezzlement of the company’s capital. 4.82 libel /`l¡bºl/ (v) = to write or print sth in a book
4.73 jaywalking /`πΩw¥kæ…/ (n) = the act of walking or newspaper which damages sb’s reputation /
across the street in a careless and dangerous zniesławić na piśmie
way or not at the proper place / nieuważne e.g. I sued the newspaper for libelling my reputation
przechodzenie przez ulicę and received í50,000 in damages and an apology
e.g. Jaywalking can be particularly dangerous from the editor.
in cities like Paris where cars are driven at high speeds. Der.: libellous (adj)
Der.: jaywalker (n) 4.83 trespass on sth /`trespºs/ (v) = to go on sb’s land
without permission / wedrzeć się, wkroczyć na czyjś
teren bez pozwolenia
56
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e.g. We caught some poachers trespassing on our 4.93 revocation /¿revø`kΩ«ºn/ (n) = a cancellation of
estate; they were about to steal our game birds. a law or an agreement / anulowanie, unieważnienie
Der.: trespasser (n) e.g. There has been a revocation in the law
4.84 legal aid /¿l∞gºl `Ωd/ (n) = money given by the state concerning gambling; from now on gambling
to people who can’t afford to pay for a lawyer / will only be allowed at licensed casinos.
pomoc prawna 4.94 probation /prº`bΩ«ºn/ (n) = a period of time during
e.g. You may be able to seek legal aid with your court which a criminal has to obey the law and be
case if you are unable to afford a lawyer. supervised rather than be in prison / probacja,
4.85 witness /`wætnºs/ (n) = sb who appears in court zawieszenie wykonania wyroku
to say what they know about a crime / świadek e.g. He was on probation for a year and had to report
e.g. Some of the witnesses of the crime came forward to the police station every weekend.
to make statements to the police. Der.: probationer (n), probationary (adj)
4.86 prosecutor /`pr≥sækj∂tºr/ (n) = a lawyer who charges 4.95 parole /pº`røl/ (n) = the release of a criminal before
sb with a crime or tries to prove they are guilty / the official end of their prison sentence after
prokurator, oskarżyciel they have promised to behave well / zwolnienie
e.g. The public prosecutor cross-examined warunkowe
the defendant and principal witnesses. e.g. He will go on parole in a few weeks’ time for good
4.87 constable /`k∑nstºbºl/ (n) = a low-ranking police behaviour in prison.
officer / policjant, dzielnicowy 4.96 capital punishment /`k±pætºl `p∑næ«mºnt/ (n)
e.g. Most police constables are polite and helpful = punishment which involves the legal killing
to the general public. of a criminal who has committed a serious
4.88 probation officer /prº`bΩ«ºn `≥fæsºr/ (n) = sb whose crime such as murder / kara śmierci
job is to supervise and help people who have e.g. Capital punishment still exists in many parts
committed crimes but are not in prison / kurator of the world although it was abolished around forty
sądowy osoby oddanej pod dozór years ago throughout much of Europe.
e.g. You have to report to your probation officer at 4.97 community service /kº`mj∂nºtæ `sªvæs/ (n)
the police station twice a week at the times indicated. = working in the local community without
4.89 solicitor /sº`læsætºr/ (n) = a lawyer who gives legal being paid / prace społeczne
advice, prepares legal documents and cases e.g. Community service is a proper punishment
and represents clients in a lower court of law / for vandalism.
w Wielkiej Brytanii, adwokat występujący jedynie 4.98 minor /`m¡nºr/ (n) = sb who is still legally a child
w sądach niższej instancji (until they reach the age of 18) / nieletni,
e.g. I have just received a letter from my solicitors niepełnoletni
concerning my upcoming court case. e.g. It is illegal for minors to buy cigarettes.
4.90 barrister /`b±ræstºr/ (n) = a lawyer who represents 4.99 prior /`pr¡ºr/ (adj) = previous / uprzedni, wcześniejszy
clients in a higher court of law / w Wielkiej e.g. I was unable to attend the meeting as I had
Brytanii, adwokat uprawniony do występowania a prior appointment to see the dentist.
przed sądem wyższej instancji 4.100 impose /æm`pøz/ (v) = to use Ône’s authority to
e.g. You should get a good barrister to represent force people to accept sth / narzucać, nakładać
you in a case of this importance. e.g. You should impose your authority on the pupils
4.91 Justice of the Peace /`π∑stæs ºv ∫º `p∞s/ (n) = sb and then they might respect you.
who is not a lawyer but can act as a judge 4.101 sentence sb to sth /`sentºns/ (v) = to state in
in a local criminal law court / sędzia pokoju a court of law what sb’s punishment will be /
e.g. After a career in the Civil Service, he became skazać
a Justice of the Peace and presided over minor e.g. The court hereby sentences the defendant to life
cases in court. imprisonment.
4.92 juror /`πΔrºr/ (n) = a member of the jury / (sędzia) 4.102 inmate /`ænmeæt/ (n) = a prisoner / więzień
przysięgły e.g. The prison inmates are allowed half an hour’s
e.g. One of the jurors gives their verdict to the judge exercise in the courtyard every day.
on behalf of the jury.
Der.: jury (n)
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4.103 restrict /ræ`strækt/ (v) = to put a limit / ograniczyć e.g. The phasing out of this product will take place
e.g. The government has restricted the number in the autumn and we shall introduce a new
of asylum seekers to be allowed into the country product in the spring.
to 5,000 per year. Opp.: phasing in
Der.: restriction (n), restrictive (adj) 4.114 humanitarian /hj∂¿m±næ`teºriºn/ (adj) = helping
4.104 right /raæt/ (n) = the legal and moral freedom one those who are suffering / humanitarny
has to do or have sth / prawo (do czegoś) e.g. The United Nations World Food Programme (WFP)
e.g. The Thatcher government of the 1980s is the world’s largest humanitarian organisation.
substantially curbed union rights. Der.: humanitarianism (n)
4.105 imprison /æm`præzºn/ (v) = to lock sb up in prison 4.115 overseas /¿øvº`s∞z/ (adv) = in foreign countries /
for a crime / uwięzić, zamknąć w więzieniu w obcych krajach
e.g. The infamous Kray twins were imprisoned e.g. Sir Kenneth Henderson joined the Diplomatic
for life in 1969. Service straight from Cambridge and has worked
Der.: imprisonment (n) overseas for much of his career.
Opp.: release 4.116 aftermath /`≤ftºm≤ı/ (n) = the situation that
4.106 for life = for the rest of one’s life / dożywotnio results from an important or harmful event /
e.g. The Yorkshire Ripper, a notorious murderer, następstwa
was imprisoned for life in 1981. e.g. The country received humanitarian aid to help
4.107 originate /º`ræπæneæt/ (v) = to begin to happen cope with the aftermath of the earthquake.
or exist / wywodzić się, brać początek 4.117 scarcity /`sk≈sæti/ (n) = not enough of sth
e.g. A lot of English slang originated from troops for those who need it / brak, niedobór, niedostatek
picking up words from the locals in the days when e.g. There is a scarcity of fresh drinking water
India was a British colony. throughout many parts of the developing world.
4.108 out of sight = where sth cannot be seen / Opp.: abundance
poza zasięgiem wzroku 4.118 rarity /`r≈ræti/ (n) = sth that is very uncommon /
e.g. The ship sailed out of sight in the early rzadkość
light of dawn. e.g. Wild orchids have become a rarity since
Opp: in sight the introduction of commercial scale farming.
4.109 mission statement /`m櫺n `stΩtmºnt/ (n) 4.119 break out of /`breæk `¬t ºv/ (phr v) = to escape /
= an official statement of the aims uciec, wyrwać się
of an organisation / hasło przewodnie e.g. It is believed that seven inmates have broken out
e.g. The mission statement of our party is “Peace and of a psychiatric hospital in Berkshire.
Welfare.“ 4.120 make/take a stand on/against = to make a strong
4.110 committed to sth /kº`mætæd/ (adj) = saying that one effort to defend oneself or one’s opinion about
will definitely do sth / zobowiązany, oddany jakiejś sth / zdecydowanie wystąpić za czymś lub przeciwko
sprawie czemuś
e.g. The government is committed to providing better e.g. It is important that we make a stand against
health care and education. certain practices in our company.
Der.: commitment (n) 4.121 make amends = to show that one is sorry about
4.111 leading /`l∞dæ…/ (adj) = the most important doing sth to sb by doing sth to please them /
or successful in a particular area / czołowy zadośćuczynić, wynagrodzić, naprawić szkody
e.g. Michael Burleigh is a leading Cambridge historian e.g. I would like to make amends for my rude
and academic. behaviour the other day, so I suggest you come
4.112 conservation /¿k≥nsº`vΩ«ºn/ (n) = protection, round to my house for dinner.
preservation from being lost or destroyed / 4.122 do one’s bit = (informal) to do one’s share
ochrona of a task / wykonać swoją część pracy, zrobić swoje
e.g. Mike’s a Greenpeace activist, dedicated to the e.g. We should all try and do our bit to recycle
conservation of wildlife. as much as possible.
4.113 phasing out /`feæzæ… `¬t/ (n) = gradual extinction / 4.123 pass a law = to formally agree to a new law or to
stopniowe eliminowanie, wycofywanie approve it / zatwierdzić przepis, wprowadzić prawo

58
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e.g. A law has been passed to prohibit the carrying 4.133 bridge the generation gap = to reduce or get rid
of knives or any potential weapon in public. of the differences between generations/
4.124 do/serve time = to spend time in prison / przezwyciężyć konflikt pokoleń
odsiadywać wyrok e.g. I found it difficult to bridge the generation gap
e.g. Frankie Frazier, a notorious London criminal, between my father and me; there were so many
served time in prison for murder and armed robbery. things we disagreed upon.
4.125 serve sb with (a legal document) = to give or send 4.134 the law of the jungle = a situation which has no
sb an official document / doręczyć komuś laws or rules to govern the way people behave /
dokument, np. wezwanie do sądu prawo dżungli
e.g. He was served with a court order that prevented e.g. It’s the law of the jungle in that firm, mate; you’ll
him from going within 200 metres of his ex-wife’s have to use some pretty dirty tricks to get to the top.
house. 4.135 rob Peter to pay Paul = to take or borrow money
4.126 plead /pl∞d/ (v) = to officially state whether sb is from somewhere else to pay a debt that one
guilty or innocent of a crime / przyznać lub nie can’t pay on their own / wziąć pieniądze od jednej
przyznawać się do winy w sądzie osoby, aby móc spłacić pożyczkę wziętą od innej
e.g. My client pleads not guilty to all the charges e.g. You’ll still be in debt if you rob Peter to pay Paul,
given. so I suggest you cut down on your spending.
4.127 reach a verdict = to achieve a particular decision 4.136 make a killing = to make a large profit very quickly
at the end of a trial / uzgodnić wyrok and easily / zarobić szybko ogromną ilość pieniędzy,
e.g. Has the jury reached a verdict yet? zbić kasę
Idioms e.g. I made a killing on my British Telecom shares;
I bought them at 50 pence a share and they
4.128 foot the bill (for sth) = to pay for sth / zapłacić,
went up to 80 pence within a month!
pokryć rachunek
4.137 charity begins at home = people should deal with
e.g. At the end of the meal, John was very kind and
the needs of those close to them before they
footed the whole bill – it must have been expensive,
think about helping others / najpierw należy
there being twelve of us!
pomyśleć o najbliższych, a dopiero potem pomagać
4.129 Ôn the fringes of society = separated or apart
innym
from society / na marginesie społeczeństwa
e.g. I’ve always believed that charity begins at home.
e.g. Homeless people are often forced to become
After all, I’ve got my family to think about and I can’t
beggars and live on the fringes of society.
be worrying about the rest of the world as well.
4.130 take the law into one’s own hands = to punish
sb or put a situation right instead of waiting 4.138 boast about sth /bøst/ (v) = to talk about what
for the police to take action / samemu wymierzyć one has done very proudly and in a way that
sprawiedliwość annoys, irritates or offends others / chwalić się
e.g. When his wife was murdered, he took the law czymś
into his own hands: he sought out and shot the e.g. He is always boasting about his father having
culprit. a Rolls Royce and a country house – it’s quite irritating
4.131 kill two birds with one stone = to achieve two at times.
things you want rather than just one / Der.: boastful (adj)
upiec dwie pieczenie na jednym ogniu 4.139 devastate /`devºsteæt/ (v) = to damage sth or sb
e.g. When you go to visit aunty Gwen, do pop in very badly or destroy it totally / zniszczyć,
to see granny on the way. By doing so, you will be spustoszyć
killing two birds with one stone. e.g. The city was devastated in the earthquake.
4.132 throw oneself on the mercy of the court = to put Der.: devastation (n)
oneself in a situation where the court will have 4.140 inner city /`ænº ¿sæti/ (n) = the areas in or near the
the complete control to decide whether city centre where there are social and economic
to punish or forgive one / zdać się na łaskę sądu problems / centralnie położone dzielnice miast
e.g. By telling the truth and pleading guilty, you can zamieszkane przez biedotę
throw yourself on the mercy of the court and you e.g. Many inner city areas have undergone renewal
may get a lighter sentence. programmes in an attempt to boost their prosperity.
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4.141 prevail /præ`veæl/ (v) = to be normal or most 4.151 military law /`mælætri ¿l¥/ (n) = the rules which
common / przeważać, dominować organise and control the army / prawo wojenne
e.g. Common sense prevailed and she agreed to sell e.g. Military law is very strict in cases where soldiers
the house and buy a cottage instead – after all, have gone absent without leave.
the house was far too big for her alone. 4.152 native /`neætæv/ (adj) = having to do with a particular
Der.: prevailing (adj), prevalent /`prevºlºnt/ (adj) country / (o prawie) rodzimy, danego kraju
4.142 vagrant /`veægrºnt/ (n) = a homeless and jobless e.g. The native laws of Singapore are very strict
person who begs or steals in order to live / about dropping litter in public places.
włóczęga 4.153 swear /sweºr/ (v) = to promise in a serious way
e.g. Many vagrants live in cardboard city under that one will do sth / przysiąc
Waterloo Bridge in central London. e.g. I swear I shall tell the truth, the whole truth
Der.: vagrancy (n) and nothing but the truth, so help me God.
4.143 debt /det/ (n) = a sum of money that one owes / Fixed phrases with against
dług
e.g. I am doing some overtime this month to pay off 4.154 do sth against one’s better judgement = to do
my debts. sth although one knows it’s not right /
Der.: debtor (n) zrobić coś wbrew sobie, wbrew rozsądkowi
4.144 delinquent /dæ`læ…kwºnt/ (n) = a young person who e.g. I lent him a large sum of money against my
repeatedly commits minor crimes / młodociany better judgement; I knew he wouldn’t be able
przestępca to pay me back.
e.g. Some of the local juvenile delinquents have 4.155 do sth against sb’s wishes = to do sth although
repeatedly vandalised the phone box. They should others don’t want you to / zrobić coś wbrew
be forced to pay for it to be mended! czyjejś woli
Der.: delinquency (n) e.g. My grandson has gone against my wishes
4.145 light /laæt/ (adj) = (Ôf punishment) less severe and refuses to attend the family reunion.
or serious / (o karze lub wyroku) łagodny 4.156 do sth against one’s principles = to do sth that is
e.g. Having pleaded guilty of all the offences, against one’s own beliefs / zrobić coś wbrew
the defendant got off with a relatively light własnym zasadom
sentence of one-year community service. e.g. Voting for the Conservative party goes against
4.146 rage /reæd»/ (n) = strong anger which is difficult my principles, as I have been a lifelong socialist.
to control / wściekłość, szał 4.157 race against the clock = to work very hard and fast
e.g. Frank was speechless with rage when his wife in order to do sth before a certain time /
damaged his new car. prowadzić wyścig z czasem
4.147 assault /º`s¥lt/ (v) = to attack / napaść e.g. We had to race against the clock to get there
e.g. Δhe player verbally assaulted the referee and was on time.
later given a three-match ban and a heavy fine. 4.158 go against the establishment = not to support
4.148 legal advisor /`l∞gºl ºd`v¡zºr/ (n) = an expert who those who are responsible for running a country,
advises others in matters that relate to the law / society or organisation / być w opozycji wobec
doradca prawny establishmentu
e.g. We are going to call in our legal advisors e.g. During his time as an opposition MP, Churchill
to help deal with this tricky case. often went against the establishment.
4.149 court case /`k¥t ¿keæs/ (n) = a trial in court / sprawa 4.159 go against the law = not to follow or obey
sądowa the law / łamać prawo, działać niezgodnie z prawem
e.g. My court case is going to be held next month: e.g. You may be going against the law by driving over
I’ll probably get a fine for speeding and driving the speed limit.
without due care and attention. 4.160 win against all odds = to succeed in sth that
4.150 court Ôrder /`k¥t ¿¥dºr/ (n) = a legal instruction seems impossible to achieve / zwyciężyć na przekór
stating that sth must be done / nakaz sądowy okolicznościom
e.g. He has received a court order instructing him e.g. Barnet Town won against all odds by beating
to pay child maintenance costs of a hundred Sheffield United, a team 48 places higher in the
pounds a week. football league.
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4.161 be enraged = be extremely angry / wściekać się e.g. Care-givers are often undervalued and underpaid
e.g. Animal Rights activists are enraged that in society.
the government has not yet banned fox-hunting. 4.172 voice /v√s/ (v) = to say what one thinks or feels /
4.162 renowned /ræ`n¬nd/ (adj) = well-known, famous / wyrazić (np. opinię)
sławny, słynny, znany e.g. It’s time for each of us to voice our opinions
e.g. Rachmaninov was a renowned Russian pianist on the matter.
and composer. 4.173 violation /¿v¡º`lΩ«ºn/ (n) = the breaking
4.163 philanthropist /fæ`l±nırºpæst/ (n) = sb who freely of a promise or agreement / naruszenie, złamanie,
gives money and help to people who need it / pogwałcenie
filantrop e.g. You may be in violation of your contract
e.g. George Soros, the millionaire philanthropist, has if you reveal company secrets.
donated much needed financial aid to Eastern Europe. Der.: violator (n)
4.164 state-run /`stΩt¿r∑n/ (adj) = operated or provided for 4.174 mph /¿em p∞ `ei∏/ (abbr) = miles per hour /
by the government of a country / państwowy mil na godzinę
e.g. The state-run coal mining and steel industries e.g. You have to keep to a 60 mph speed limit.
were privatised in the 1980s. 4.175 sensitise sb to sth /`sensºt¡z/ (v) = to make sb
Opp.: privately-run more aware of sth / uczulić, uwrażliwić
4.165 donation /dø`nΩ«ºn/ (n) = sth that sb gives e.g. Young people should be sensitised to the dangers
to an organisation or a charity / darowizna, datek of smoking.
e.g. Would you like to make a donation to Children 4.176 debate /dæ`bΩt/ (n) = a discussion on a subject on
in Need, madam? which people have different views / debata
4.166 play truant = to stay away from school without e.g. We had an interesting debate on crime in class
permission / wagarować recently.
e.g. When I was at school, I never played truant Der.: debater (n), debatable (adj)
although some of my classmates sometimes spent 4.177 offence /º`fens/ (n) = an act that breaks a certain
the day at the amusement arcade. law and requires a certain punishment /
4.167 poverty /`p≥vºti/ (n) = the state of being extremely przestępstwo, wykroczenie
poor / bieda, ubóstwo e.g. He was convicted of several firearms offences
e.g. There is a great deal of poverty in third-world and jailed for ten years.
countries. Der.: offender (n)
Opp.: wealth 4.178 healthcare /`helı¿k≈r/ (n) = the service of providing
4.168 culprit /`k∑lpræt/ (n) = sb who has done sth wrong medical care / opieka zdrowotna
or commited a crime / winowajca, sprawca e.g. The cost of healthcare is mounting every year.
e.g. If the culprit who sprayed paint on my office door 4.179 civil liberties /`sævºl `læbºtiz/ (n pl) = the rights of
doesn’t own up, I shall punish the whole school. a person to say, think and do what they want
4.169 juvenile /`π∂vºn¡l/ (adj) = referring to a child or as long as they respect other people’s rights /
young person not old enough to be considered prawa i wolności obywatelskie
an adult / młodociany e.g. Some countries have poor civil liberties
e.g. Statistics show that juvenile crime is on the and human rights records.
increase. 4.180 shoplifting /`«≥plæftæ…/ (n) = stealing from a shop
Opp.: adult by hiding things in a bag or clothes / kradzież
4.170 third-age /¿ıªd`Ωπ/ (adj) = of the old age / związany artykułów ze sklepu
ze starością e.g. Many department stores hire store detectives
e.g. According to recent figures, the number of third- to prevent shoplifting on their premises.
age employees has substantially increased. Der.: shoplifter (n)
4.181 juvenile delinquency /`π∂vºn¡l dæ`læ…kwºnsi/ (n)
= criminal behaviour by young people who are
Listening & Speaking (pp. 80-81)
not adults / przestępczość nieletnich
4.171 care-giver /`k≈¿gævºr/ (n) = sb who gives love and e.g. Juvenile delinquency is on the increase
support to others and looks after them / opiekun, in deprived inner city areas.
osoba dająca ciepło i wsparcie innym
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4.182 commiserate with sb /kº`mæzºrΩt/ (v) = to show 4.192 linger /`læ…gºr/ (v) = to stay somewhere for a long
pity or sympathy to others when sth unpleasant time / ociągać się, zostać dłużej
has happened to them / współczuć, litować się e.g. She lingered for a while longer on the platform
e.g. We congratulate the lucky winners, but let’s not of the station as she waved goodbye to her sister.
forget the unlucky losers with whom we 4.193 gleaming /`gl∞mæ…/ (adj) = shining / błyszczący, lśniący
commiserate. e.g. The yellow Rolls Royce sat gleaming by the curb.
Der.: commiseration (n) 4.194 five-a-side /`f¡vº`s¡d/ (n) = mostly indoor football
played by teams of five / halowa odmiana piłki
Reading (pp. 82-83)
nożnej z drużynami po pięciu zawodników
4.183 magistrate /`m±πæstrΩt/ (n) = a judge in the lower e.g. We have a game of five-a-side football every
courts of law who deals with minor crimes / Saturday evening.
sędzia pokoju 4.195 usher /`∑«ºr/ (v) = to lead sb where they should go /
e.g. The magistrates handed out a stiff sentence wprowadzić, zaprowadzić (na miejsce)
of two years in prison to the offender. e.g. As soon as we entered the cinema, we were
4.184 magistrates court /`m±πæstrΩts `k¥t/ (n) = a place ushered to our seats.
where minor crimes are dealt with / sąd pokoju Der.: usher (n), usherette (n)
e.g. Minor cases such as driving offences are dealt with 4.196 dock /d≥k/ (n) = the place in a courtroom where
at magistrates courts. the person who has committed a crime stands
4.185 minor /`m¡nºr/ (adj) = less important or serious / or sits / ława oskarżonych
nieznaczny, drobny e.g. The defendant sat in the dock waiting
e.g. He was convicted of a series of minor offences, for the verdict to be given.
such as shoplifting, and given community service. 4.197 in mitigation = so as to make a crime easier
4.186 domestic violence /dº`mestæk `v¡ºlºns/ (n) to understand and excuse / na swoją obronę,
= violence between family members / na swoje usprawiedliwienie
przemoc domowa e.g. In mitigation of his crimes, he said that he had
e.g. Many abused children are victims of domestic always been a fine upstanding member of society.
violence. 4.198 shrug /«r∑g/ (v) = to raise one’s shoulders to show
4.187 Judgement Day /`π∑πmºnt ¿dΩ/ (n) = the day Ône is not interested and doesn’t care
at the end of the world when God will judge about sth / wzruszyć ramionami
everyone who has ever lived / dzień Sądu e.g. I asked him if he knew about the result of the
Ostatecznego game and he simply shrugged his shoulders
e.g. On Judgement Day, we shall all be judged uninterestedly.
for our time on the earth. 4.199 mumble /`m∑mbºl/ (v) = to speak quietly and
4.188 public gallery /`p∑blæk `g±lºri/ (n) = the place unclearly with the result that the words
in a courtroom where anybody can sit and are difficult to understand / mamrotać
watch the trial / (w sądzie) galeria dla publiczności e.g. Teenagers never speak clearly – they always
e.g. We sat in the public gallery to observe mumble their words.
the court proceedings. 4.200 shuffle /`«∑fºl/ (v) = to walk without lifting one’s feet
4.189 petty theft /¿peti `ıeft/ (n) = the act of stealing properly off the ground / szurać nogami, człapać
things that are not considered to be very e.g. The old tramp shuffled along the pavement,
valuable (e.g. car radios) / drobna kradzież looking for a bench to sleep on for the night.
e.g. He has been involved in petty theft all his life 4.201 sigh /s¡/ (v) = to let out a deep breath as a way
and was recently arrested for shoplifting. of expressing disappointment or tiredness /
4.190 squat /skw≥t/ (adj) = short and thick / przysadzisty westchnąć
e.g. A rather squat man sat beside a tall woman e.g. He sighed with relief as the jury pronounced him
on the seat in front of me and the difference was quite not guilty.
comical. 4.202 confer /kºn`fªr/ (v) = to discuss sth with sb in order
4.191 mean business (idm) = to be serious about sth / to make a decision / konferować, naradzać się
nie żartować, mówić serio e.g. After having conferred on the case for a week,
e.g. Turn off the TV and do your homework the jury finally reached a verdict of not guilty.
right now – and I mean business! Der.: conference (n)
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4.203 without due care = carelessly / nieostrożnie, 4.214 statute /`st±∏∂t/ (n) = a law made by the
nieuważnie, niedbale government and formally written down /
e.g. He was charged with driving without due care ustawa, statut
and attention and received a fine of í150. e.g. The independence of the BBC is guaranteed
4.204 faulty /`f¥lti/ (adj) = not working properly / wadliwy, by statute.
zepsuty Der.: statutory (adj)
e.g. The brakes on this car are faulty; I’ll have to have 4.215 defendant /dæ`fendºnt/ (n) = sb accused of breaking
them fixed at the garage. the law and tried in court / pozwany, podsądny,
4.205 bald tyre /`b¥ld `t¡ºr/ (n) = a tyre with a worn-out oskarżony
surface which is not safe to use / łysa opona e.g. The defendant was found guilty of burglary
e.g. Bald tyres are very dangerous on wet roads. and sentenced to five years in prison.
4.206 tax disc /`t±ks ¿dæsk/ (n) = a small round piece 4.216 about sb’s person = on sb / przy kimś, w czyimś
of paper on cars and motorcycles which proves ubraniu
that the owner has paid road tax / naklejka e.g. We searched the suspect and found some stolen
potwierdzająca, że właściciel pojazdu zapłacił podatek items about his person.
drogowy 4.217 brandish /`br±ndæ«/ (v) = to hold sth like a weapon
e.g. You have to display your tax disc in the front in a threatening way / wywijać, wymachiwać
windscreen of your car. (bronią)
4.207 MoT certificate /¿em ø `t∞ sº`tæfækºt/ (n) e.g. The robber brandished his gun and told
= a certificate required by the Ministry the cashier to hand over the money.
of Transport (MoT) that says a vehicle is in good 4.218 bladed article /`blΩdæd `≤tækl/ (n) = sth with a sharp
condition / świadectwo przeglądu technicznego edge (like a knife) / ostry przedmiot
e.g. I have a brand new car and an appropriate e.g. He took out something that looked like a bladed
MoT certificate. article from his pocket and told the shopkeeper
4.208 multistorey /m∑ltæ`st¥ræ/ (n) = a building with several to hand over all the money in the till.
floors where cars can be parked / parking 4.219 conveyor belt /kºn`vΩº belt/ (n) = here: a series
wielopoziomowy of events showing the negative side of human
e.g. Multistoreys seem a good solution in city centres, nature / dosł. pas transmisyjny, taśma; tu: pasmo
where there is little free space left. zdarzeń ukazujących negatywną stronę natury ludzkiej
4.209 oddly /`≥dli/ (adv) = surprisingly / dziwnie, zadziwiająco e.g. The endless conveyor belt of petty thieves and
e.g. I found the way my teacher spoke oddly amusing. muggers took up the day’s court proceedings.
4.210 stall /st¥l/ (v) = (of a vehicle or an engine) 4.220 addictive /º`dæktæv/ (adj) = making Ône want more
to suddenly stop / (o pojeździe lub silniku) of sth / uzależniający
zatrzymać się, zgasnąć e.g. These reality programmes are really quite
e.g. I hate it when my car stalls at the traffic lights. addictive; I can’t stop watching them.
4.211 dual carriageway /`dj∂ºl `k±ræπwΩ/ (n) = a road 4.221 fate /fΩt/ (n) = destiny / przeznaczenie, los
with two lanes of traffic in each direction and e.g. If you decide to go abroad for a year,
a strip of land in the middle / droga dwupasmowa, your fate is in your own hands.
droga szybkiego ruchu 4.222 ultimate /`∑ltimºt/ (adj) = most extreme /
e.g. The accident on the London bound A4 dual tu: jedyny w swoim rodzaju
carriageway is likely to cause delays for several hours. e.g. The travel agency called our trip “The Ultimate
4.212 pull sb up /`pμl `∑p/ (phr v) = to tell sb they have Adventure” but only on the spot did we discover what
done sth wrong / udzielić upomnienia it really meant.
e.g. The police pulled me up for driving at night with 4.223 unedited /∑n`edætæd/ (adj) = not prepared in any way
the lights off. to be shown / nie zmontowany, nie zredagowany
4.213 jump the lights = to go through red lights / e.g. This is the unedited version of his novel – we hope
przejechać na czerwonym świetle to publish it next month.
e.g. The police caught me jumping the lights 4.224 soap /søp/ (n) = (informal) soap opera / opera
and I was stopped and given a caution. mydlana, serial telewizyjny
e.g. The number of soaps on TV is overwhelming.

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4.225 stock type /`st≥k t¡p/ (n) = a common type of 4.237 restore /ræ`st¥r/ (v) = to cause sth or sb to be
person / typowy przykład in a particular situation again / przywrócić
e.g. John is a stock type lorry driver – fat and do pierwotnego stanu, odnowić
unshaven. e.g. We have had the painting restored in time
4.226 brawler /`br¥lºr/ (n) = a tough person who likes for the exhibition.
getting into fights / awanturnik Der.: restoration (n), restorative (adj)
e.g. He has got himself a reputation of a brawler; 4.238 guilty plea /`gæltæ ¿pl∞/ (n) = a statement made by sb
he’s always involved in fights. who admits he committed a crime / przyznanie się
4.227 roadhog /`rødh≥g/ (n) = sb who drives too fast do winy
and is dangerous to others / pirat drogowy e.g. He offered a guilty plea and received a light
e.g. You roadhog! Can’t you see where you’re going? sentence.
You completely cut me off! 4.239 case-hardened /¿kΩs `h≤dºnd/ (adj) = having so
4.228 yippee /`jæp∞/ (excl) = an expression used when much experience that one is not easily affected
one is very pleased / Hurra! by things that may affect others / nieczuły,
e.g. Yippee! We’ve scored a goal! uodporniony
4.229 in absentia = in sb’s absence, when sb is not e.g. Many magistrates become case-hardened with
present / pod nieobecność, podczas nieobecności years of hearing tales of abuse and domestic violence.
e.g. He didn’t turn up for the trial and so he was 4.240 modest /`m≥dæst/ (adj) = fairly small in amount /
sentenced to two years in prison in absentia. skromny, niewielki
4.230 articulate /≤`tækjμlºt/ (adj) = able to express one’s e.g. I would say we’re not rich, but I do receive
thoughts and ideas easily and well / potrafiący a modest income that allows us to go on
jasno wyrażać myśli, dobrze się wysławiający holiday a couple of times a year.
e.g. Jane is a highly articulate young woman; Der.: modesty (n)
she ought to become a politician. 4.241 baffling /`b±flæ…/ (adj) = confusing, not easily
Opp.: inarticulate explained / zastanawiający, zaskakujący,
4.231 roundabout /`r¬ndº¿b¬t/ (n) = a place where the nie do rozwiązania
roads meet in a circle / rondo e.g. One of the most baffling court cases of the 19th
e.g. Take the first exit at the roundabout century involved a man who claimed he was the Earl
and you’ll get to Wyndham easily. of Tichbourne; it was discovered that he was in fact
4.232 dock /d≥k/ (v) = to take away, remove / odebrać, a local butcher.
obciąć Der.: bafflement (n)
e.g. My employers threatened to dock my pay 4.242 a fly on the wall (idm) = sb who wants to see or
if I took more time off work. hear what happens in a situation that does not
4.233 mandatory /`m±ndºtri/ (adj) = fixed by law for all involve them / osoba będąca świadkiem sytuacji,
cases / obowiązkowy, nakazany ustawą która jej nie dotyczy
e.g. There is a mandatory fine of í200 for speeding. e.g. I would love to be a fly on the wall and observe
4.234 discharge /`dæst«≤π/ (n) = allowing sb to leave what goes on inside 10 Downing Street.
a place / zwolnienie, wypuszczenie 4.243 misspell /¿mæs`spel/ (v) = to spell sth wrongly /
e.g. He received his discharge papers from the army błędnie coś napisać, zrobić błąd ortograficzny
at the end of the Second World War. e.g. The Guardian newspaper is notorious
4.235 cheer /∏ƒr/ (v) = to shout loudly to show approval for misspelling words; there are spelling mistakes
or to encourage sb / wiwatować, dopingować every week.
e.g. We all cheered the happy couple as they were 4.244 remand /ræ`m≤nd/ (v) = to keep sb in custody until
driven off on their honeymoon. the trial / zatrzymać (w areszcie śledczym)
Der.: cheerful (adj) e.g. The accused was remanded in custody
4.236 acquit /º`kwæt/ (v) = to formally say in court that sb to await trial in six months’ time.
is innocent of committing a crime / uniewinnić 4.245 flush-faced /`fl∑« ¿fΩst/ (adj) = with a red face /
e.g. The accused was acquitted of all the charges zarumieniony, z wypiekami na twarzy
brought against him and immediately set free. e.g. You’re looking a bit flush-faced after all that
Der.: acquittal (n) running around you’ve been doing. Come and sit
down and have a nice cool drink.
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4.246 chap /∏±p/ (n) = a man or boy / facet, gość 4.257 associate /º`søsiΩt/ (v) = to connect sth with sth
e.g. I met a chap on the train the other day who said else in the mind / powiązać, skojarzyć
he was related to the Duke of Northumberland. e.g. I associate the colour red with love and passion
4.247 stern-looking /`stªn¿lμkæ…/ (adj) = looking serious as well as blood and violence; all are related I suppose.
and strict / srogo wyglądający, nieprzystępny Der.: association (n), associative (adj)
e.g. Even though she was a rather stern-looking
woman, she had a heart of gold. English in Use (pp. 84-87)
4.248 robe /røb/ (n) = a loose piece of clothing which
covers the whole body / szata 4.258 stab /st±b/ (v) = to push a knife or sharp object
e.g. Roman emperors always wore purple robes lined into sth or sb / dźgnąć, pchnąć lub ugodzić nożem,
with gold leaf. zasztyletować
4.249 wig /wæg/ (n) = a covering of false hair worn on the e.g. He was stabbed with a knife but managed
head / peruka to recover fully from his injuries in hospital.
e.g. Even though I am going bald, I’d rather not wear Der.: stabbing (n)
a wig; it would look ridiculous. 4.259 console /`k≥nsøl/ (n) = a surface with a number
4.250 layman /`lΩmºn/ (n) = sb who is not trained, of switches or knobs which is used to operate
qualified or experienced in a particular subject a machine / konsola
or activity / laik e.g. There are hundreds of indicators and switches
e.g. The solicitor outlined the case in layman’s terms on the consoles of modern aeroplanes.
so his client could fully understand him. 4.260 sphygmomanometer /¿sfægmømº`n≥mætºr/ (n)
4.251 mitigatory /`mætægºtri/ (adj) = giving an explanation = a device that measures the blood pressure /
that will make a punishment less severe / aparat do mierzenia ciśnienia krwi
łagodzący e.g. I had never heard of a sphygmomanometer
e.g. Mitigatory tales of being abandoned as children before I had my blood pressure taken.
are often heard in court. 4.261 cliff /klæf/ (n) = a high area with a very steep side,
4.252 eulogy /`j∂lºπi/ (n) = a speech that praises sb very especially near the sea / urwisko, klif
much / pochwała, panegiryk e.g. On a clear day, the white cliffs of Dover are visible
e.g. Some of the eulogies that have been heard about from France.
the late novelist Graham Greene have been quite 4.262 slash /sl±«/ (v) = to reduce by a large amount /
touching indeed. drastycznie zmniejszyć lub obniżyć, obciąć
4.253 pillar of the community = sb who plays an e.g. Prices have been slashed in our biggest price
important role and is an active part of the reduction ever!
community / filar społeczności 4.263 deli /`deli/ (n) = a shop or part of a shop which sells
e.g. Sir Nigel Devenish, the London neurologist, food such as cheese and cold meat / sklep lub
is rightly called a pillar of the community. stoisko z nabiałem i wędlinami
4.254 nick /næk/ (v) = to steal / ukraść, zwinąć e.g. For lunch we usually get a sandwich from the deli
e.g. When I was young, I used to nick sweets in the High Street.
from the cake shop but I never got caught. 4.264 order /`¥dºr/ (n) = a request for food or drink
4.255 traffic cone /`tr±fæk ¿køn/ (n) = a plastic object in a bar or restaurant / zamówienie
with a pointed top placed on a road to prevent e.g. May I take your order, please?
drivers from driving or parking there / słupek 4.265 elk /elk/ (n) = a type of large deer with big flat
ostrzegawczy, pachołek antlers / łoś
e.g. Some of the students stole an orange traffic cone e.g. The mission of the Rocky Mountain Elk
and put it on top of the statue in the courtyard. Foundation is to ensure the survival of the elk
4.256 hardened criminal /`h≤dºnd `kræmænºl/ (n) = one and the conservation of its habitat.
who has done many crimes and is no longer 4.266 apprehend /¿±præ`hend/ (v) = to arrest / zaaresztować
sensitive to others around them / zatwardziały e.g. Police in East Sussex have apprehended a suspect
przestępca, kryminalista wanted in connection with the murder of 15-year-old
e.g. Hardened criminals are kept in maximum- Jason Riley.
security prisons such as Parkhurst on the Isle of Wight. Der.: apprehension (n)
Opp.: release
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4.267 matinee /`m±tæneæ/ (n) = the afternoon showing e.g. I took out a personal pension in my twenties
of a play or film / poranek (przedstawienie), seans and I can look forward to a lump sum and a regular
popołudniowy income when I retire in a few years’ time.
e.g. We used to go and see matinee performances 4.277 state pension /`stΩt `pen«ºn/ (n) = the sum of
at 3 o’clock in the afternoon. money one gets from the state government
4.268 address /º`dres/ (v) = (of a problem) to try to when one retires / emerytura państwowa
understand or deal with it / zająć się (problemem) e.g. As well as her state pension of í120 per week, she
e.g. The government is attempting to address receives a small income from her former employers.
the problem of the rising number of unwanted 4.278 in the interim = in the meantime / w tym czasie
teenage pregnancies. e.g. The bank agreed to provide funding for the project
4.269 inadequacy /æn`±dækwºsi/ (n) = not being good and to supply the company with a loan of í 20,000
enough / niedoskonałość, poczucie niższości in the interim.
e.g. She was left with a feeling of profound 4.279 subsidise /`s∑bsæd¡z/ (v) = to provide money or pay
inadequacy when she was turned down a part of sth / dotować, subwencjonować
for a third job in a row. e.g. During the 1970s, the government was forced
4.270 blithely /`bl¡∫li/ (adv) = without serious thought / to subsidise the ailing state industries.
beztrosko, nonszalancko Der.: subsidy (n)
e.g. I was blithely informed by the management that 4.280 shortfall /`«¥tf¥l/ (n) = having less of sth than one
I was surplus to their requirements and given needs / niedostatek
a month’s notice. e.g. We expect a shortfall in profits in the coming
4.271 dismiss /¿dæs`mæs/ (v) = to sack, fire / wyrzucić, zwolnić financial year.
e.g. He was dismissed from his job after having 4.281 burden /`bªdºn/ (n) = a problem or responsibility
worked there for twenty years. that causes sb a lot of worry, hard work
Der.: dismissal (n) or difficulty / brzemię, zmartwienie
4.272 ripe old age = being very old / podeszły wiek e.g. Besides my responsibility to my family,
e.g. At the ripe old age of 85, my father finally I have other burdens to bear.
decided to retire from the family firm. Der.: burdensome (adj)
4.273 gradual /`gr±djuºl/ (adj) = changing in small stages 4.282 activist /`±ktævæst/ (n) = sb who works to bring
over a long period of time / stopniowy about social or political changes / aktywista,
e.g. Many parts of the country will see a gradual działacz
improvement in the weather over the coming e.g. Animal rights activists have been working
weekend. for years to bring about a ban on fox hunting.
Der.: gradually (adv) 4.283 be up in arms = to be very angry about sth
4.274 breaking point /`brΩkæ… ¿p√nt/ (n) = the point and protest strongly against it / zaciekle
where one has so many problems and difficulties przeciwko czemuś protestować
that they can’t cope any more because they may e.g. The unions are up in arms about the job cuts.
collapse / punkt krytyczny, granica wytrzymałości 4.284 brew /br∂/ (v) = to make coffee or tea by pouring
e.g. He reached breaking point after his wife left him hot water over tea leaves or coffee / parzyć kawę,
and he lost his job at the same time. herbatę
4.275 meals on wheels = a service that delivers hot meals e.g. To make the perfect cup of tea, pour hot, but not
to those who are either too old or too sick boiling, water over the tea leaves and leave to brew
to cook for themselves / posiłki dostarczane osobom for ten minutes.
zbyt starym lub chorym, aby mogły same gotować 4.285 advocate /`±dvºkºt/ (n) = sb who works for the
e.g. The elderly lady that lives upstairs gets meals on interests of a particular group or company /
wheels delivered to her flat every lunchtime and adwokat, rzecznik, orędownik, zwolennik
evening. e.g. He has always been an advocate of freedom of
4.276 personal pension /`pªsºnºl `pen«ºn/ (n) = the sum speech and equal rights in his country.
of money one gets from a private insurance Der.: advocacy (n)
company when they retire / emerytura wypłacana 4.286 screen /skr∞n/ (v) = to investigate, examine /
przez prywatną firmę ubezpieczeniową przesiać, zbadać

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e.g. The Foreign Office screens all its applicants; e.g. At the end of the Second World War, Germany’s
for instance, criminal records are checked. territory was significantly reduced.
Der.: screening (n) Der.: territorial (adj)
4.287 clerical /`klerækºl/ (adj) = concerned with office 4.298 creed /kr∞d/ (n) = religion / religia, przekonania
work / biurowy, urzędniczy e.g. The Olympic Games unite athletes of all races,
e.g. Clerical work is often dull and tedious, nationalities and creeds.
so I am not going to apply for that job. 4.299 eliminate /æ`læmænΩt/ (v) = to remove sth completely /
4.288 defender /dæ`fendºr/ (n) = sb who argues or acts wyeliminować
in support of another thing or person / obrońca e.g. We aim to eliminate all kinds of discrimination
e.g. Mary Whitehouse was a famous enemy of the from society.
permissive society and a defender of family values Der.: elimination (n)
until her recent death.
4.289 in essence = concerning the most important or Writing (pp. 88-92)
central aspect of an idea, situation or event /
w istocie 4.300 compile /kºm`p¡l/ (v) = to produce by collecting
e.g. Voltaire’s philosophy was in essence a plea pieces of information / kompilować, opracować
for enlightened reason. e.g. The publishers have compiled a selection
4.290 infuse /æn`fj∂z/ (v) = to fill sb or sth with a quality / of the author’s short stories.
natchnąć, napełnić Der.: compiler (n), compilation (n)
e.g. The writer Graham Greene infused his novels 4.301 principal /`prænsæpºl/ (n) = the person who is in
with much subtle irony. charge of a college or school / dyrektor szkoły,
Der.: infusion (n) kolegium
4.291 befriend sb /bæ`frend/ (v) = to make friends with sb e.g. Peter Greenbaum is the principal of St Mark’s
/ zaprzyjaźnić się (z kimś) College.
e.g. He had the peculiar habit of befriending people 4.302 unanimously /j∂`n±næmºsli/ (adv) = as agreed on
on trains. by everybody present / jednogłośnie
4.292 aside /º`s¡d/ (adv) = leaving out of the discussion / e.g. We have unanimously agreed to bring about
poza, oprócz the changes put forward by members of this union.
e.g. Aside from her full-time job, she also has a family 4.303 controversial /¿k≥ntrº`vª«ºl/ (adj) = being
to look after. the subject of intense public discussion,
4.293 supervise /`s∂pºv¡z/ (v) = to make sure that argument or disapproval / kontrowersyjny
an activity is done correctly / nadzorować e.g. The chairman of the football club made
e.g. On our recent school day trip, we had the task the controversial decision to sack the team’s
of supervising fifty teenage children; we made sure popular manager.
they were all safe and didn’t get into any trouble. 4.304 chair /t«≈r/ (v) = to be in charge of a meeting or
Der.: supervisor (n), supervision (n) debate / przewodniczyć (spotkaniu)
4.294 amnesty /`±mnæsti/ (n) = an official pardon given e.g. We have asked Lady Redfern to kindly chair
by the government / amnestia today’s meeting.
e.g. The government has granted an amnesty Der.: chairperson (n)
and released all political prisoners. 4.305 policing /pº`l∞sæ…/ (n) = making sure that law and
4.295 enshrine /æn`«r¡n/ (v) = to protect by law / chronić, order are preserved / utrzymywanie porządku
uświęcić prawem e.g. The local authority has recommended stricter
e.g. The principles of the French constitution are policing in the Downside area.
enshrined in the words: liberty, equality and fraternity. 4.306 lenient /`l∞niºnt/ (adj) = not strict or severe /
4.296 integrity /æn`tegræti/ (n) = firmness in moral łagodny, pobłażliwy, wyrozumiały
principles / prawość, uczciwość e.g. Our parents were fairly lenient towards us
e.g. His moral integrity brought him the respect when we were children and let us play outside
of all who met him. until quite late.
4.297 territory /`terºtri/ (n) = land controlled by Der.: leniency (n)
a particular country or ruler / terytorium

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4.307 twofold /`t∂føld/ (adj) = having two equally e.g. The Halifax building society has anticipated
important parts / podwójny, dwukrotny, mający steady growth in the housing market.
dwie równie ważne strony Der.: anticipation (n), anticipatory (adj)
e.g. If you want to have more money, your actions 4.313 imminent /`æmænºnt/ (adj) = almost certain
should be twofold: cut down on your expenses to happen very soon / nieuchronny
and increase your incomes. e.g. The crowd is waiting for the imminent
4.308 sustain /sº`stΩn/ (v) = to continue or maintain appearance of the Prince and Princess on the balcony.
sth for a period of time / podtrzymać, utrzymać Der.: imminence (n)
e.g. This firm has sustained growth of 5% per annum 4.314 vital /`v¡tºl/ (adj) = necessary, very important /
for the last five years. konieczny, zasadniczy, podstawowy
Der.: sustainable (adj), sustainability (n) e.g. It is vital that you do well in your A levels
4.309 wholeheartedly /¿høl`h≤tædli/ (adv) = completely if you want to get into a good university.
and enthusiastically / całym sercem, całkowicie 4.315 avert /º`vªt/ (v) = to prevent sth from happening /
e.g. I am wholeheartedly in favour of the idea of zapobiec, uchylać, odsuwać
promoting Derek to the position of vice-chairman. e.g. The Cuban missile crisis of 1962 was averted
4.310 deter /dæ`tªr/ (v) = to discourage sb from sth / and the world was saved from nuclear war.
odstraszać, odstręczać 4.316 input /`ænpμt/ (n) = information or resources /
e.g. I was deterred from going to work in that country wkład (informacji, środków lub pracy)
because my wife and children would be unable e.g. Some of your input into the project
to come with me. has been extremely useful indeed.
4.311 forecast /`f¥k≤st/ (v) = to say what one thinks will Opp.: output
happen in the future / prognozować, przepowiadać, 4.317 stray /strΩ/ (adj) = (Ôf an animal) that has wandered
przewidywać away from its home / bezpański, zbłąkany,
e.g. We cannot forecast to you the action of Russia; bezdomny
it is a riddle wrapped in a mystery inside an enigma. e.g. Many of the stray dogs are loveable and harmless
Der.: forecast (n), forecaster (n) creatures so you shouldn’t be frightened of them.
4.312 anticipate /±n`tæsæpΩt/ (v) = to realise sth may
happen in advance and prepare for it /
antycypować, spodziewać się, oczekiwać

68
UNIT 4

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 The London .......... of Hammersmith & Fulham is 6 His father is a consultant neurologist and an .......... pillar
bordered to the south by a pretty expanse of the River of the community.
Thames. A upstanding C upright
A location C country B outstanding D outspoken
B department D borough
7 We have ......... agreed to the suggestions put forward
2 It is illegal for .......... under the age of 18 to marry by the board of directors.
without their parents’ consent. A completely C clearly
A juveniles C minors B absolutely D unanimously
B youths D youngsters
8 We were .......... from going to parts of the country
3 She .......... on the pavement for a while as she waved where lawlessness and banditry had been reported.
goodbye to her friend. A deterred C avoided
A loitered C stayed B deferred D averted
B lingered D lazed
9 Meteorologists were unable to .......... the violent storms
4 Jack was .......... with driving over the limit and given that left the South East in tatters.
a fine of í500. A forecast C foretell
A accused C charged B predict D foresee
B convicted D sentenced
10 This firm has a policy of taking our ............ out to lunch
5 Can you speak clearly please? I can’t hear you when on a regular basis for the business they provide us.
you .......... like that. A customers C employees
A murmur C munch B clients D passengers
B mime D mumble

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.
At the X County Court today, a second man was convicted of 0) dangerous driving after a crash DANGER
which killed a female cyclist, 23-year-old police constable, Sarah Jacobs. Witnesses told the court
they saw the men racing their cars 1) ...................................... before the crash on 28th August SHORT
last year. The 2) .................................................. pleaded guilty of the charges and can expect DEFEND
up to ten years’ 3) .................................................... . The counsel for the PRISON
4) .................................................... had insisted on tough sentencing from the PROSECUTE
5) ................................................ , saying that this type of “macho boy racing” was responsible SET
for more and more 6) ......................................... on our roads each year. While he condemned DIE
the actions of the accused, the judge extended his 7) ............................................ to the SYMPATHISE
families of all those involved and described it as a tragic accident in which many lives had been
ruined by a few moments of 8) ........................................ madness. YOUTH

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UNIT 4

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ boasting ñ pension ñ mugged ñ usher ñ mood ñ parole ñ scrapheap ñ obliged ñ humanitarian ñ infrastructure

1 With the opening of the new Metro network, the city’s 7 He is far from modest – in fact, you always hear him
....................................... has been markedly improved. ......................................................................................
2 My grandmother was visibly shaken after being ............ about how clever he is and what a big house he’s got.
............................................. by youths near her house. 8 I used to work as an .....................................................
3 Inmates are let out on .................................................. at the cinema – I must have seen that film a hundred
for good behaviour. times.
4 It is a very good idea to take out a private .................... 9 We were .......................................................................
.......... so as not to face financial difficulties later in life. to sack him after he repeatedly arrived late for work.
5 Many shipworkers were left on the ............................... 10 I didn’t get up to anything in particular at the weekend;
........................... after being dismissed from their jobs. I just wasn’t in the ...................................................... .
6 After the recent crop failure, the country received ............
........................ aid to avoid a repeat of last year’s famine.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.


1 He was arrested/abducted/imprisoned by the police for 4 The publishers have created/conferred/compiled
taking part in a bank robbery. a selection of the author’s work.
2 The witnesses/jurors/magistrates were cross-examined 5 We eliminate/intimidate/anticipate a slowdown in the
by the counsel for the defence. sales of mobile phones now that the market has been
3 We have asked Mr Graham Gardner to table/chair/head saturated.
the meeting. 6 I have always been a(n) monitor/advocate/fighter of
political and religious freedom.

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumny A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B

1 get a one’s opinions


2 enjoy b truant
3 grant c downhearted
4 voice d country pursuits
5 play e a killing
6 make f extra funding

1 It is sometimes not diplomatic 4 The youngsters decided to .....................................,


to ........................... on sensitive matters where but one of their teachers caught them at an
someone’s feelings may be hurt. amusement arcade and they were severely punished.
2 People living in rural areas may no longer be able 5 You may ................................... if all your efforts
to ................................... such as fox-hunting if come to nothing in the end.
a ban comes into effect. 6 Having bought the house for only í40,000 in 1984,
3 The local authority has .............................. for they ................................... when they sold it for
schools in deprived parts of the Borough. í95,000 in 1989.

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SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 2

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jeden błąd ortograficzny lub interpunkcyjny. Znajdź i popraw błąd, zapisując poprawkę
w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej linijce nie ma błędu, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

CCTV

Crime has reached epidemic proportions in our inner cities, to the point, where even 0 point where
adult males are afraid to venture out after dark on their own. Mugings and 00 Muggings
stabbings are commonplace in areas such as Dalston and Hackney, which have 000 ✓
become virtual no-go areas. So, what are the police and local authoritys doing to 1 ........................
crack down on inner city crime. CCTV cameras have been installed at likely crime 2 ........................
spots, such as shoping centres and high streets, and camera evidence is being 3 ........................
increasingly used in court to convict criminals. A resent case involving the abduction 4 ........................
of an eight-year-old child by two older children, is one example of surveilance being 5 ........................
used successfully. As a result, elderly people feel less vulnerable at shopping centres 6 ........................
than going to their local corner shop. Increasingly, though even the smallest shops 7 ........................
are instaling CCTV and are taking other measures to deter potential thieves and 8 ........................
shoplifters. Valuable goods are situated behind a bullet-proof screen and many 9 ........................
shops have an imergency button connecting them to their local police station. At 10 ........................
night, at many retail outlets it is possible to buy goods only using a metal tray. For 11 ........................
instance, at petrol stations, the money is placed in a metal compartment, then 12 ........................
drawn back by the cashier and the change or perchases are then returned to the 13 ........................
customer in their section of the compartment. This development has sadened many 14 ........................
people, but it is a necessary one considering that inner city crime seams to be here 15 ........................
to stay. 16 ........................

Self-Assessment Module 2
SA2.4 burst /bªst/ (v) = to start suddenly and become
Vocabulary & Grammar (p. 93)
active / wybuchnąć
SA2.1 sour /s¼r/ (adj) = having a sharp unpleasant taste e.g. As the children got up, the house burst
like a lemon / kwaśny into noisy life.
e.g. To make the sauce, thoroughly blend the sour SA2.5 condemn /kºn`dem/ (v) = to say that sth is bad
cream, yoghurt, lemon juice and sugar in a mixing and unacceptable / potępiać
bowl. e.g. The police inspector condemned the violent
SA2.2 penknife /`penn¡f/ (n) = a small knife with a blade behaviour of the crowd during last night’s
that folds back into the handle / scyzoryk, celebrations.
nóż składany Der.: condemnation (n)
e.g. For my birthday I was given a penknife SA2.6 be obliged to do sth = to be forced to do sth by
with an assortment of blades and neat gadgets. law, sense of duty, etc / być zobowiązanym
SA2.3 come in handy = to be useful in a particular do czegoś, musieć (coś zrobić)
situation / przydać się e.g. As the storm became more severe, we were
e.g. This compass will definitely come in handy obliged to take shelter in an abandoned cottage.
on our hiking holiday.
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SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 2

SA2.16 zeal /z∞l/ (n) = enthusiasm / entuzjazm, zapał, ferwor


Use of English (p. 93)
e.g. Diana approached her charity work
SA2.7 exclusion /æks`kl∂»ºn/ (n) = preventing sb from with a religious zeal.
entering a place or taking part in an activity / Der.: zealous /`zelºs/ (adj)
wykluczenie, wyłączenie SA2.17 empower /æm`p¬ºr/ (v) = to give sb the means
e.g. This school carries out a policy of exclusion to achieve sth / zainspirować, dać siłę do działania
in cases when a child has been violent towards e.g. Chris Stevens has been working for years
another child. to empower other disabled people to achieve
Opp.: inclusion their ambitions.
SA2.8 treble /`trebºl/ (v) = to become three times greater / Der.: empowerment (n)
potroić (się) SA2.18 grim /græm/ (adj) = unpleasant, depressing
e.g. The number of cases of multiple sclerosis has and difficult to accept / ponury
trebled in a generation, new statistics show. e.g. The police now face the grim task of identifying
SA2.9 sleep/live rough (idm) = to sleep or live outdoors the bodies.
when one has no home and no money / SA2.19 infantry /`ænfºntri/ (n) = foot soldiers / piechota
spać lub mieszkać pod gołym niebem e.g. One of my ancestors was an officer
e.g. I found myself with no money in an unknown of the 52nd Oxfordshire Light Infantry
Arab city and had to live rough for a week. Regiment that fought at Waterloo.
SA2.10 launch /l¥n∏/ (v) = to start / wypuścić, wystartować, SA2.20 inactivity /¿æn±k`tævæti/ (n) = not doing anything /
rozpocząć bezczynność, bierność
e.g. Marks & Spencer have launched a new range e.g. I work out at the gym in the evenings as my job
of men’s toiletry products. involves a good deal of inactivity, sitting in front
SA2.11 reintegrate /r∞`æntºgrΩt/ (v) = to make sb part of a computer.
of a group again / ponownie zintegrować lub włączyć SA2.21 pursue /pº`sj∂/ (v) = to follow / dążyć do czegoś,
e.g. Former inmates who are released into society kontynuować, wykonać, zajmować się czymś
have to be slowly reintegrated into their local e.g. Chris wisely decided to pursue a lucrative
communities. career as a stockbroker in the City.
Der.: reintegration (n) Der.: pursuit (n), pursuer (n)
SA2.22 Leicester /`lestº/
SA2.23 enhancer /æn`h≤nsºr/ (n) = sb/sth that makes sth
Reading (pp. 94-95)
else better / dosł. polepszacz; tu: osoba pozytywnie
SA2.12 intimidated /æn`tæmædΩtæd/ (adj) = frightened and wpływająca na ludzi lub sytuacje
lacking confidence / zastraszony, zahukany, e.g. Our manager is definitely a performance
onieśmielony enhancer: everybody works more efficiently
e.g. Shirley felt rather intimidated working when he is around.
in a mostly male environment. SA2.24 dairy /`d≈ri/ (adj) = having to do with foods that
Der.: intimidation (n) are made from milk / nabiałowy, mleczarski
SA2.13 abduction /±b`d∑k«ºn/ (n) = kidnapping / e.g. Vegans avoid eating meat, eggs and dairy
uprowadzenie, porwanie products, such as milk and butter.
e.g. A man has been arrested and charged with Der.: dairy (n)
the forceful abduction of millionaire Harry Grossman’s SA2.25 mine /m¡n/ (n) = a bomb hidden in the ground /
son, Gary. mina
Der.: abduct (v) e.g. Sappers are those soldiers that have the task
SA2.14 the Khmer Rouge /∫º km≈ `r∂»/ (n) = Czerwoni of clearing mines from battlefields.
Khmerzy SA2.26 Cambodia /k±m`bødæº/ = Kambodża
SA2.15 evangelical /¿∞v±n`πelækºl/ (adj) = enthusiastic / Der.: Cambodian (adj)
entuzjastyczny SA2.27 clearance /`klƒrºns/ (n) = removal of things that are
e.g. Raymond’s admiration for the company’s new not wanted from an area / oczyszczenie (terenu),
product is positively evangelical. usunięcie
e.g. Rubbish clearance takes place on a daily basis
in central London.
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SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 2

SA2.28 on the scrapheap (idm) = no longer considered SA2.38 cater for sth /`kΩtº fºr/ (v) = to take into account /
useful / dosł. na złomowisku, na śmietniku; brać pod uwagę
na marginesie społeczeństwa e.g. Many restaurants cater for the needs
e.g. Many former miners were left on the scrapheap of vegetarians and vegans.
after being made redundant during the 1980s. Der.: caterer (n)
SA2.29 able-bodied /¿Ωbºl`b≥did/ (adj) = physically strong
and healthy / sprawny fizycznie, silny i zdrowy
Writing (p. 96)
e.g. All able-bodied men should do army service.
Opp.: disabled SA2.39 extra-curricular /¿ekstrºkº`rækjμlºr/ (adj) = not part
SA2.30 integrated /`æntægrΩtæd/ (adj) = functioning of a student’s school subjects or work /
as a whole / zintegrowany wykraczający poza program szkolny
e.g. Our town needs an integrated transport e.g. Some Ôf the extra-curricular activities
system of buses, trams and trains. at this school are drama and music.
SA2.31 downhearted /¿d¬n`h≤tæd/ (adj) = feeling sad SA2.40 pursuit /pº`sj∂t/ (n) = free time activity / zajęcie
or discouraged / smutny i zniechęcony w wolnym czasie
e.g. There’s no need to get downhearted – I’m sure e.g. Nigel enjoys country pursuits such as bird
you’ll have better luck next time you apply for a job. watching.
Der.: downheartedness (n) SA2.41 come into line with sth/sb (idm) = to behave
SA2.32 blow up /`blø `∑p/ (phr v) = to destroy in the same way as sth/sb else / dostosować się,
in an explosion / wysadzić być zgodnym z czymś
e.g. The Germans were unable to blow up e.g. Your attitude to work does not come into line
the bridge at Remagen before the allies captured it. with ours – you can’t be late every day and then leave
SA2.33 Mozambique /¿møzºm`b∞k/ = Mozambik for home so early!
Der.: Mozambican/Mozambiquan (adj) SA2.42 combat /`k≥mb±t/ (v) = to try to stop
sth from happening / zwalczać, tępić
Listening (p. 95) e.g. The government proposed new measures
to combat inflation.
SA2.34 remote /ræ`møt/ (adj) = far away from places where Der.: combat (n), combatant (n), combative (adj)
people live and therefore difficult to get to / SA2.43 tide /t¡d/ (n) = a large amount of sth unpleasant /
odległy, daleki, odosobniony przypływ; fala
e.g. People living in remote areas, such as the Scottish e.g. The dictator’s internal policy resulted
highlands, do not always have proper access to health in a tide of social unrest.
and education facilities. SA2.44 cost-effective /¿k≥stæ`fektæv/ (adj) = economical,
Der.: remoteness (n), remotely (adv) saving a lot of money / oszczędny, ekonomiczny
SA2.35 unhurt /¿∑n`hªt/ (adj) = not hurt / nie zraniony e.g. Installing double-glazing is a cost-effective way
e.g. I was relieved to be mainly unhurt in the accident, of cutting down on your heating bills.
apart from a few cuts and bruises. SA2.45 compulsory /kºm`p∑lsºri/ (adj) = (of sth) that must
SA2.36 be reunited = to meet sb again after being be done / obowiązkowy
separated for a long time / spotkać się po latach e.g. Wearing a school uniform was compulsory
i odnowić więź at most schools a few years ago.
e.g. After living in Australia for forty years, Doris Smith Opp.: optional
has finally been reunited with her sister Edith. SA2.46 envisage /æn`væzæπ/ (v) = to imagine, think /
Der.: reunion (n) wyobrażać sobie, przewidywać
e.g. I simply cannot envisage Daniel without his
Speaking (p. 95) beard; he would look totally different!
SA2.47 DIY /¿d∞ ¡ `w¡/ (n) = do it yourself / „zrób to sam”,
SA2.37 mood /m∂d/ (n) = the way one is feeling majsterkowanie
at a particular time / nastrój e.g. John’s really into DIY; he built the kitchen
e.g. Are you in the mood to come to the cinema extension all by himself.
later on?

73
5 Our Changing World
5.10 conjure up /`k∑nπºr `∑p/ (phr v) = to bring
Lead-in (p. 99)
to mind / wywołać, wyczarować
5.1 hold a conversation = to talk to sb, converse e.g. For many people, the word “truant” conjures up
with sb / rozmawiać z kimś images of uncontrollable children.
e.g. It is impossible to hold a conversation 5.11 chatty /`∏±ti/ (adj) = inclined to talk in a friendly
with all this noise going on. way, talkative / rozmowny
5.2 manned /m±nd/ (adj) = with people on board / e.g. Susie is a very chatty girl; she hardly ever stops
z załogą na pokładzie, załogowy talking!
e.g. NASA hope to send a manned spacecraft to Mars 5.12 batty /`b±ti/ (adj) = slightly crazy / lekko postrzelony
in the next ten years. e.g. The batty old lady who lives next door often goes
5.3 vaccine /`v±ks∞n/ (n) = a substance that is injected out in her nightgown.
to protect sb from a disease / szczepionka 5.13 code-breaking /`kød¿brΩkæ…/ (n) = the act
e.g. This vaccine will protect your children against of decoding / złamanie kodu lub szyfru
tuberculosis. e.g. During World War II, Britain's code-breaking
5.4 hurricane-proof /`h∑rækºn¿pr∂f/ (adj) = protected scientists tried to find out enemy secrets by working
from hurricanes (= extremely violent winds out the codes they used.
or storms) / zabezpieczony przed huraganami 5.14 mimic /`mæmæk/ (v) = to imitate, reproduce /
lub odporny na nie naśladować
e.g. Buildings in the Pacific have to be hurricane- e.g. Parrots can often mimic speech.
proof. Der.: mimicry (n)
5.5 prudence /`pr∂dºns/ (n) = care, planning to avoid 5.15 fool /f∂l/ (v) = to trick, deceive / oszukać, nabrać
a mistake / rozwaga e.g. He didn’t fool me with his story; I could tell
e.g. He showed remarkable prudence in his he was lying.
investment strategy. 5.16 deadline /`dedl¡n/ (n) = a time or date by which sth
Opp.: recklessness must be finished / ostateczny termin
5.6 inconvenience /¿ænkºn`v∞niºns/ (n) = problem, e.g. The deadline for this project is next Monday,
difficulty / niedogodność, niewygoda, problem so we have plenty of time.
e.g. The reduced bus service has caused great 5.17 remotely /ræ`møtli/ (adv) = in the least / dalece,
inconvenience to many commuters. w ogóle, wcale
e.g. Anne is not remotely interested in learning
a musical instrument.
Reading (pp. 100-101)
5.18 earn one’s keep = to earn one’s living / zarobić
5.7 artificial intelligence /¿≤tæ`f櫺l æn`telæπºns/ (n) na życie
= a type of computing technology which e.g. You should help around the house more to earn
is concerned with making machines work your keep.
in an intelligent way / sztuczna inteligencja 5.19 misplaced /¿mæs`plΩst/ (adj) = directed towards
e.g. Scientists are still trying to perfect artificial the wrong thing or person / źle ulokowany,
intelligence. źle wymierzony, błędnie skierowany
5.8 outline /`¬tl¡n/ (v) = to give the main ideas of sth / e.g. I think your anger is misplaced. It was Fred
przedstawić w zarysie who broke the radio, not me.
e.g. The manager outlined the company’s new 5.20 feud /fj∂d/ (n) = a dispute, an argument / spór, kłótnia
business plan in the meeting. e.g. There has been a feud between those two families
Der.: outline (n) for years.
5.9 evocative /æ`v≥kºtæv/ (adj) = producing pleasant 5.21 grant-grabbing /`gr≤nt¿gr±bæ…/ (adj) = profitable /
memories, emotions and responses / wywołujący zyskowny, korzystny, opłacalny
przyjemne wspomnienia, emocje i reakcje e.g. The creative team have come up with a grant-
e.g. The swaying palm trees were evocative grabbing idea for a new product which is sure
of a Hawaiian island. to be given funding.

74
UNIT 5

5.22 camp /k±mp/ (n) = a group of people that support 5.35 mainstream /`mΩnstr∞m/ (n) = a set of beliefs
a particular cause, idea or movement / obóz, accepted by most people / główny nurt
stronnictwo e.g. As a radical, he remains outside the mainstream
e.g. The proposal for the new road didn’t go down of politics.
well in the environmentalist camp. 5.36 pull off /`pμl `≥f/ (phr v) = to achieve / osiągnąć,
5.23 pragmatist /`pr±gmºtæst/ (n) = a realist / pragmatyk, załatwić
realista e.g. He managed to pull off the business deal
e.g. I’m a pragmatist, so I’m not interested in such all on his own.
an impractical solution. 5.37 striking /`str¡kæ…/ (adj) = remarkable / uderzający
5.24 means /m∞nz/ (n) = a way / środek, sposób e.g. She bears a striking resemblance to a famous
e.g. We must get this contract by any means possible. Hollywood actress.
5.25 scour /sk¬ºr/ (v) = to search thoroughly / 5.38 odd prime /`≥d `praæm/ (n) = a whole number that
przeszukać, przetrząsnąć is greater than 1 and can be divided exactly
e.g. I’ve scoured the house for my necklace, only by itself and the number 1 / liczba pierwsza
but I can’t find it anywhere. e.g. Eight is the sum of two odd primes, namely five
5.26 heap /h∞p/ (n) = a pile, stack / stos, hałda and three.
e.g. Don’t just leave all your clothes in a heap; 5.39 come to pass = to happen / zdarzyć się, zaistnieć
fold them and put them away. e.g. Many people believe that all of Nostradamus’
5.27 immoral /æ`m≥rºl/ (adj) = ethically wrong / niemoralny predictions will come to pass.
e.g. I think that lying to get a job is immoral. 5.40 exponent /æks`pønºnt/ (n) = a representative /
Der.: immorality (n) przedstawiciel, reprezentant
5.28 wedded to sth /`wedæd/ (adj) = supporting strongly / e.g. In my opinion, the greatest exponent
mocno zaangażowany lub popierający, przywiązany of jazz music was Duke Ellington.
do jakiejś idei 5.41 hand over /`h±nd `øvºr/ (phr v) = to give /
e.g. Environmentalists are wedded to saving przekazać
endangered species. e.g. I wouldn’t dare hand over this project
5.29 bring sth to life = to make sth come true / ożywić to someone less experienced.
e.g. He is such a good narrator that he brought 5.42 enable /æn`Ωbl/ (v) = to make sth possible to sb /
the story to life. umożliwić, dać możliwość
5.30 cheeky-chappy /¿∏∞ki`∏±pi/ (adj) = funny / zabawny e.g. Computer technology has enabled scientists
e.g. He made us all laugh with his cheeky-chappy to make great progress in research.
behaviour. 5.43 dispute /dæ`spj∂t/ (n) = an argument / dysputa, spór,
5.31 get sb out of the door (idm) = to promote, kłótnia
introduce to a new situation / wypromować, e.g. There was some dispute over who should
pokazać światu be the new manager of the firm.
e.g. πt was René Angelil who got Celine Dion out Der.: dispute (v)
of the door and made her an international star.
5.32 neural network /`njΔrºl `netwªk/ (n) = a type of
Language Focus (pp. 102-105)
artificial intelligence that attempts to imitate
the way a human brain works / sieć neuronowa 5.44 endoscopic surgery /¿endº`sk≥pæk `sªπºri/ (n)
e.g. Neural networks play a very important role = a kind of surgery which requires only limited
in artificial intelligence. cutting of the skin / operacja endoskopowa
5.33 vet /vet/ (v) = to examine, scrutinise / zbadać, e.g. Many operations these days can be done
przeanalizować by endoscopic surgery.
e.g. All applicants for the position are vetted carefully 5.45 telemedicine /¿telæ`medsºn/ (n) = the use of
by a board of interviewers. advanced telecommunication technologies
5.34 ticketing system /`tækætæ… `sæstºm/ (n) = the way for medical diagnosis and patient care /
of selling tickets / system sprzedaży biletów telemedycyna
e.g. My local cinema has got a new computerised e.g. Patients in remote areas can use telemedicine
ticketing system. to consult their doctors.

75
UNIT 5

5.46 total up /`tøtºl `∑p/ (phr v) = to sum up / 5.57 wallpaper /`w¥lpΩpºr/ (n) = a graphic image that
podsumować, podliczyć serves as a background for a web page or for
e.g. We waited while the hotel receptionist a computer screen / tapeta
totalled up our bill. e.g. I have a picture of my family as the wallpaper
5.47 assembly line /º`sembli `l¡n/ (n) = a line of on my computer.
machines and workers in a factory on which 5.58 wizard /`wæzºd/ (n) = an interactive help utility that
a product moves along while it is being built guides the user through a potentially complex
or produced / taśma produkcyjna task / kreator, asystent
e.g. Working on an assembly line, putting together e.g. Whenever I introduce new software to my
parts of a product, is quite a menial job. computer, an installation wizard starts up
5.48 space capsule /`spΩs ¿k±psj∂l/ (n) = a spacecraft / automatically.
kapsuła kosmiczna 5.59 have access to sth = to be permitted to see
e.g. It must be very exciting to travel in a space or do sth / mieć dostęp do czegoś
capsule and visit other planets in our solar system. e.g. Everyone in my office has access to the Internet,
5.49 obsolete /`≥bsºl∞t/ (adj) = outdated, old-fashioned / so they can do research online.
przestarzały, niemodny 5.60 download files = to copy data into a computer's
e.g. Record players have become obsolete now that memory from the Internet or a larger computer /
almost everyone listens to music on CD. ściągać pliki na dysk
Opp.: modern e.g. He downloaded files from the Internet in order
5.50 crash /kr±«/ (v) = (of computers) to break down / to do his research.
(o komputerze) mieć awarię dysku, „paść” 5.61 traffic congestion /`tr±fæk kºn`πest«ºn/ (n)
e.g. I lost a whole morning’s work when my computer = a traffic jam / korek (na drodze)
crashed. e.g. The traffic congestion in the town centre
5.51 terminal /`tªmænºl/ (n) = a visual display unit / was so bad that I was half an hour late for work.
stanowisko komputerowe 5.62 urban sprawl /`ªbºn `spr¥l/ (n) = a large area
e.g. Many office workers spend the whole day in front of land with buildings which have been added
of a computer terminal. at different times in an uncontrolled way /
5.52 hack /h±k/ (v) = to break into a computer system / rozległa i niechlujna zabudowa miejska
włamać się do systemu komputerowego e.g. From an aerial view you can clearly see the full
e.g. Tony managed to hack into the school records extent of the urban sprawl, which now covers what
and change his grades. used to be pristine countryside.
5.53 load /lød/ (v) = to put data into a computer 5.63 space junk /`spΩs `π∑…k/ (n) = any man-made
system so that it is ready to use / ładować, debris that has been made during the years
wczytać, wgrać (na dysk) of space exploration / zanieczyszczenie przestrzeni
e.g. I am trying to load this game onto my computer kosmicznej
so that I can play it. e.g. A large amount of space junk has been left
5.54 navigator /`n±vægΩtºr/ (n) = a software application behind by the many space missions of the last fifty
that displays web pages / przeglądarka internetowa years.
e.g. Netscape navigator is a popular tool used for 5.64 plant /pl≤nt/ (n) = a factory and the machinery in it
searching the Internet. used to produce or process sth / zakład, fabryka
5.55 update /¿∑p`dΩt/ (v) = to make sth more modern / e.g. This power plant produces one-third
unowocześnić of the country’s electricity.
e.g. I am downloading brand new programs in order 5.65 final frontier /`faænºl `fr∑ntæºr/ (n) = space / przestrzeń
to update my computer. kosmiczna, kosmos
5.56 web /web/ (n) = the system of connected e.g. It must be great to work as an astronaut
documents on the Internet which can be and be able to visit the final frontier.
searched for information about a particular 5.66 debris /`dΩbri/ (n) = pieces of unwanted material
subject / sieć WWW spread around / gruzy, rumowisko, odpadki
e.g. You can spend hours following links e.g. There was a lot of debris washed up
from site to site on the web. by the tide after the shipwreck.

76
UNIT 5

5.67 unsightly /∑n`s¡tli/ (adj) = unattractive, ugly / business and was recently offered the leading role
brzydki, nieestetyczny, szkaradny in a Hollywood movie.
e.g. The industrial area of the city is quite unsightly, 5.79 outdo /¿¬t`d∂/ (v) = to exceed, surpass / prześcignąć,
with its grey buildings and smoky air. przewyższyć
5.68 lethal /`l∞ıºl/ (adj) = deadly, fatal / zabójczy, e.g. Mary has really outdone herself; this meal is even
śmiercionośny better than ever.
e.g. These chemicals are lethal. Please lock them 5.80 outsmart /¿¬t`sm≤t/ (v) = to outwit, gain
safely away. an advantage over sb / przechytrzyć
5.69 ailment /`Ωlmºnt/ (n) = an illness, disease / e.g. He thought he could outsmart the police,
przypadłość, dolegliwość, choroba but they caught him in the end.
e.g. Carl is a very sickly child; he is always suffering 5.81 outrun /¿¬t`r∑n/ (v) = to go beyond, exceed /
from some ailment or other. wyprzedzić
5.70 wreak havoc = to cause chaos or destruction / e.g. He is so fast, he can even outrun a moving car!
szerzyć chaos, siać spustoszenie 5.82 outgrow /¿¬t`grø/ (v) = to grow too large for sth /
e.g. The bad weather wreaked havoc wyrosnąć (z ubrania)
with the shipping schedules. e.g. Julie has already outgrown the clothes I bought
5.71 epidemic /¿epæ`demæk/ (n) = a plague, an outbreak / her last winter. I will have to buy her new ones.
epidemia, plaga 5.83 outsell /¿¬t`sel/ (v) = (of a product) to be sold
e.g. This year has seen the worst flu epidemic in greater numbers than another / sprzedać się
in history. w większej ilości niż inne produkty
e.g. Our company’s products easily outsell those
Nouns and verbs beginning with out
of our competitors; we sell three times as much
5.72 outlet /`¬tlet/ (n) = a shop, store / sklep, punkt as any other company.
sprzedaży
e.g. Sarah likes to buy clothes from her favourite 5.84 strain /strΩn/ (n) = a particular type / szczep, rodzaj,
fashion outlet. typ
5.73 outlook /`¬tlμk/ (n) = a likely future situation / e.g. He is suffering from an unusual strain of flu,
widoki, perspektywy according to the doctor.
e.g. She admitted that motherhood had changed 5.85 digital /`dæπætºl/ (adj) = transmitting information
her career outlook and made her less ambitious. in the form of thousands of very small signals /
5.74 outing /`¬tæ…/ (n) = an excursion, trip / wycieczka, cyfrowy
wypad e.g. New digital technology has improved audio-
e.g. The children are going on a school outing visual entertainment.
to the National History Museum today. 5.86 gadgetry /`g±πætri/ (n) = a group of small
5.75 outset /`¬tset/ (n) = a beginning / początek or unusual and useful objects / gadżety
e.g. I had doubts about this project at the outset, e.g. Before we had all this modern gadgetry like
but now I have complete faith in it. vacuum cleaners and dishwashers, household
5.76 outrage /`¬trΩπ/ (n) = anger, fury / wściekłość, chores used to take much longer.
gniew 5.87 prominent /`pr≥mænºnt/ (adj) = well-known,
e.g. The decision to cut salaries was met with important / prominentny, znany, ważny
outrage from the workers. e.g. Mr Stevens is a prominent member of local
5.77 outlay /`¬tlΩ/ (n) = an expenditure / wydatek, government and is very popular among people
nakład, inwestycja in the area.
e.g. Apart from the initial outlay of buying Der.: prominence (n)
the machine, having a microwave has saved 5.88 prototype /`prøtºt¡p/ (n) = a sample, a trial
me a lot of money. product / prototyp
5.78 outdistance /¿¬t`dæstºns/ (v) = to outrun, leave e.g. The inventor finally completed the prototype
behind / prześcignąć, zostawić w tyle of his new machine and took it to the patent office
e.g. Although we attended the same drama college, to register it.
David has outdistanced me in the world of show

77
UNIT 5

5.89 conventional weapons /kºn`ven«ºnºl `wepºnz/ 5.100 outdated /¿¬t`dΩtæd/ (adj) = old-fashioned /
(n pl) = weapons that are not nuclear, chemical przestarzały, anachroniczny
or biological (forbidden by international e.g. Pleated shirts are rather outdated; I think you
conventions) / broń konwencjonalna should wear something more fashionable.
e.g. Battles were a lot fairer when soldiers still used Opp.: modern
conventional weapons. 5.101 do sb good = to do sth beneficial for sb / dobrze
5.90 scratching /`skr±∏æ…/ (n) = a mark made by cutting komuś zrobić
or damaging a surface / zadrapanie e.g. A walk on the beach will do you good; you need
e.g. This new paint is resistant to scratching, some fresh air.
so it is perfect for cars.
Idioms
5.91 immerse oneself in sth = to become absorbed in
sth / zanurzyć się, zatopić się, zagłębić się 5.102 break the mould = to change the way sth has
e.g. Tara likes nothing more than to immerse herself traditionally been done / przełamać stereotypy,
in a good book after a hard day at work. zmienić tradycyjny sposób postępowania
5.92 ground-breaking /`gr¬nd¿brΩkæ…/ (adj) = new e.g. This government has managed to break
and different from other things of its type, the mould of British politics and ensure that
innovative / przełomowy, innowacyjny things will never be the same again.
e.g. Scientists are carrying out ground-breaking 5.103 blind sb with science = to talk in a complex
research into a cure for cancer. or technical way / zbić kogoś z tropu nadmiarem
5.93 vibrate /v¡`brΩt/ (v) = to shake, tremble / wibrować specjalistycznej terminologii
e.g. We felt the ground begin to vibrate under our feet e.g. I asked him to tell me about his discovery,
when the earthquake hit. but he blinded me with science and I didn’t
Der.: vibration (n) understand a word he said.
5.94 word processing package = a computer program 5.104 move with the times = to change Ône’s way
used for writing texts / edytor tekstów of living or working to make it modern /
e.g. Microsoft Word is the most popular word iść z duchem czasu
processing package. e.g. You can’t delay buying a computer forever;
5.95 reflect /ræ`flekt/ (v) = to show the nature of sth / you have to move with the times.
odzwierciedlać, wyrażać 5.105 be sb’s guinea pig = to be an object of sb’s test
e.g. Joseph Conrad’s novels reflect his fascination or experiment / być królikiem doświadczalnym
with the sea. e.g. You can be my guinea pig tonight; I’m trying out
Der.: reflection (n) a new recipe and I want to know what you think.
5.96 convey /kºn`vΩ/ (v) = to express, show / wyrażać, 5.106 turn the clock back = to return to an earlier
przekazywać, komunikować period / cofnąć czas
e.g. I sent her a bouquet of flowers to convey e.g. If I could turn the clock back, I would never
my deepest apologies. have said those things to Claire this morning.
5.97 confine /kºn`f¡n/ (v) = to keep in an enclosed place, 5.107 come down to earth = to start dealing with
often by force / ograniczyć, zamknąć the unpleasant or boring things that happen
e.g. Animals in zoos are often confined to cages every day after a period of excitement
which are too small for them. and enjoyment / zejść na ziemię
Der.: confinement (n) e.g. After his excitement at winning the talent show,
5.98 reserve /ræ`zªv/ (v) = to set aside for one’s use / it was difficult for him to come down to earth
rezerwować and concentrate on his job again.
e.g. I would like to reserve a table for four for eight 5.108 reinvent the wheel = to waste time trying
o’clock this evening, please. to develop products or systems that Ône thinks
Der.: reservation /¿rezº`ve櫺n/ (n) are original when in fact they have already been
5.99 vastly /`v≤stli/ (adv) = greatly / znacznie, bardzo, done before / tracić czas na coś, co już zostało
ogromnie zrobione, odkrywać Amerykę
e.g. The two boys told vastly different stories e.g. Why don’t you stop trying to reinvent the wheel
about who had started the fight. and think of a new product that people really need?

78
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5.109 it doesn’t take a rocket scientist = it doesn’t e.g. Here is my new address; if any post arrives for me,
require a lot of intelligence / to nie wymaga could you please send it on?
wybitnej inteligencji, to żadna filozofia 5.119 send out /`send `¬t/ = to make sb go from one
e.g. It doesn’t take a rocket scientist to work out that place to another with a message or parcel /
the dinner has burnt; the kitchen is full of black wysłać kogoś z wiadomością lub przesyłką
smoke! e.g. I’m afraid all of our couriers have been sent out
5.110 stand the test of time = to endure the difficulties on deliveries. You will have to wait until someone is
of a long period of time successfully / available.
wytrzymać próbę czasu 5.120 take on /`tΩk `≥n/ = to accept a particular job or
e.g. His business ideas have managed to stand responsibility and begin to do what is needed /
the test of time and are still effective after nearly przyjąć, podjąć się (np. obowiązków)
twenty years. e.g. Frank took on the role of manager
when Harold suddenly resigned.
Fixed Phrases (with in) 5.121 take back /`tΩk `b±k/ = to admit that sth one said
5.111 in the long run = over a long period of time in the is wrong / wycofać się z czegoś, co się powiedziało
future / na dłuższą metę e.g. I take back what I said about you being a bad
e.g. I know you’re angry with me now, but you’ll thank cook; this chicken is delicious!
me in the long run; this is for your own good! 5.122 take up /`tΩk `∑p/ = to start doing a particular
5.112 in light of = as a consequence of (new information, hobby or activity / zająć się czymś, zacząć coś robić
proof, etc) / w świetle (np. nowych informacji) e.g. I’ve decided to take up jogging in order to get fit.
e.g. In light of recent developments, we have decided 5.123 take in /`tΩk `æn/ = to understand / zrozumieć,
to postpone our decision until we have time to think przyjąć do wiadomości
things over. e.g. The terrible news was hard for us to take in,
5.113 in black and white = in writing / czarno na białym but we will come to terms with it eventually.
e.g. There’s no questioning his decision to resign;
it’s right there in black and white. 5.124 online /¿≥n`laæn/ = connected to the Internet /
w trybie on-line, w Internecie
5.114 behind closed doors = in private / za zamkniętymi e.g. I do quite a lot of shopping online because
drzwiami it is easier than going to the shops.
e.g. They seem very happy together, but 5.125 commuting /kº`mj∂tæ…/ (n) = travelling regularly
we can’t know what goes on behind closed doors. between work and home / dojeżdżanie do pracy
5.115 bothersome /`b≥∫ºsºm/ (adj) = troublesome, e.g. Commuting to work can be tiring, but that’s
inconvenient / kłopotliwy, przykry the price you pay for living outside the city.
e.g. The children have been very bothersome today; 5.126 diagnosis /¿d¡º`gnøsæs/ (n) = the discovery of what
they haven’t given me a moment’s peace. is wrong with sb’s health / diagnoza
e.g. I don’t know what’s wrong with me yet; I am still
Phrasal verbs
waiting for the doctor to tell me his diagnosis.
5.116 send back /`send `b±k/ = to return sth to the 5.127 witness /`wætnºs/ (v) = to see, observe an incident /
company one bought it from because it is być naocznym świadkiem
unsuitable or damaged / odesłać z reklamacją, e.g. If anyone witnessed the crime, they should
zwrócić contact the police immediately.
e.g. The CD player we bought yesterday doesn’t work; Der.: witness (n)
we will have to send it back.
5.117 send for /`send fºr/ = to send sb a message asking Listening & Speaking (pp. 106-107)
them to come to see you / posłać (po kogoś)
e.g. Jane is very ill; I think we should send for the 5.128 locate /lø`kΩt/ (v) = to find, trace / zlokalizować
doctor. e.g. Despite an extensive search, the police have been
5.118 send on /`send `≥n/ = to send sb's letters to their unable to locate the missing jewels.
new address / przesłać korespondencję Der.: location (n)
na nowy adres

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5.129 set up /`set `∑p/ (phr v) = to put sth in a stated 5.141 moonstruck /`m∂nstr∑k/ (adj) = affected (as if)
place or position / ustawić by the moon and therefore slightly crazy or full
e.g. Do you need some help in setting up your new of admiration for sb or sth / być zafascynowanym
computer or can you do it yourself? czymś lub kimś, szalonym na jakimś punkcie
5.130 flight simulator /`fl¡t sæmjμ`lΩtºr/ (n) = a machine e.g. We can’t afford to travel round the world for six
on which people can practise operating an months in a year. If you think so, you must be
aircraft without having to fly / symulator lotów moonstruck.
e.g. Trainee pilots have to spend hours in a flight 5.142 carve out sth /`k≤v `aμt/ (phr v) = to work hard
simulator practising flying in different conditions. in order to have a successful career, a good
5.131 hang on /`h±… `≥n/ (phr v) = to wait for a while / reputation, etc / zapracować, zasłużyć na coś
zaczekać chwilę e.g. He managed to carve out a career at the Stock
e.g. Hang on! Don’t leave without showing me Exchange.
how to use this machine! 5.143 fade /fΩd/ (v) = to disappear gradually / zanikać,
5.132 run sth by sb (phr v) = to repeat / powtórzyć coś zacierać się, odchodzić w zapomnienie
komuś e.g. Unfortunately, my childhood memories
e.g. Could you just run the proposal by me one more are quickly fading.
time so that I can note down the main points? 5.144 intriguing /æn`tr∞gæ…/ (adj) = fascinating, exciting /
5.133 tuning up /`tj∂næ… `∑p/ (n) = adjustment / strojenie, intrygujący
regulacja e.g. I found the book you lent me most intriguing.
e.g. My car needs tuning up; I think I’ll take it in In fact, it was so interesting that I read it twice!
to the garage in the morning. 5.145 collective imagination /kº`lektæv æ¿m±πæ`ne櫺n/ (n)
= imagination shared by every member
Reading (pp. 108-109) of a group / wyobraźnia zbiorowa
e.g. The Apollo space missions captured the collective
5.134 giant /㭧nt/ (adj) = huge, enormous / gigantyczny imagination of the whole world.
e.g. Panasonic is a giant electronics company which 5.146 grainy /`grΩnæ/ (adj) = (of photographs) having many
supplies countries all over the world. small dots and marks and therefore unclear /
Opp.: tiny ziarnisty, niewyraźny
5.135 leap /l∞p/ (n) = a jump into the air / skok e.g. They showed me their family album, with lots
e.g. The frog jumped back into the pond with one of old photographs grainy and yellowish.
great leap. 5.147 indistinct /¿ændæ`stæ…kt/ (adj) = unclear, blurred /
Der.: leap (v) niewyraźny, zamazany
5.136 mentally ill = mentally defective / chory psychicznie e.g. The photo was indistinct, but I could almost
e.g. Extreme emotional trauma can cause a person make out Mark in the foreground.
to become mentally ill. 5.148 in limbo = in a state of uncertain waiting /
5.137 capture sb’s imagination = to make sb interested w zawieszeniu
in sth / przemówić do wyobraźni e.g. I had my interview last week and now
e.g. This storybook really captured Jenny’s I am in limbo to see if I’ve got the job or not!
imagination; she hardly ever stops reading it! 5.149 comrade /`k≥mrΩd/ (n) = a companion /
5.138 set foot on/in = to go to a place for the first time / towarzysz, kompan
postawić stopę (po raz pierwszy) e.g. Sam was relieved that so many of his comrades
e.g. Neil Armstrong was the first person ever survived the war.
to set foot on the moon. 5.150 miss out Ôn /`mæs `¬t ºn/ (phr v) = to fail to use
5.139 on board = on a vehicle / na pokładzie an opportunity to enjoy or benefit from sth /
e.g. All planes have emergency life jackets stracić (okazję)
and life rafts on board. e.g. I missed out on Sally’s party because I had to
5.140 be credited with sth = to be responsible work late.
for sth good / mieć przypisane zasługi 5.151 unfolding /¿∑n`føldæ…/ (adj) = developing / rozwijający
e.g. Alexander Fleming is credited with the discovery się, rozgrywający się
of penicillin. e.g. I love watching the news every day and seeing
events unfolding around the world.
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5.152 succession /sºk`se«ºn/ (n) = sequence / następstwo, e.g. I think that being suspended from school
kolejność, seria has brought home to him the seriousness
e.g. The footballer scored three goals in succession of his behaviour.
and the crowd went wild! 5.165 malfunction /¿m±l`f∑…k«ºn/ (v) = to work
Der.: successive (adj) improperly / nieprawidłowo działać
5.153 sun-drenched /`s∑ndren∏t/ (adj) = full of sunlight, e.g. My computer is malfunctioning; will you call
sunny / skąpany w słońcu the technician for me?
e.g. I would love to be lying on a sun-drenched 5.166 dock /d≥k/ (v) = (of a space vehicle) to be attached
beach instead of standing here in the rain. to another one / połączyć się na orbicie
5.154 lunar /`l∂nºr/ (adj) = related to the moon / księżycowy e.g. The shuttle will docked with the international
e.g. There is going to be a lunar eclipse next month; space station.
we can watch the moon disappear! 5.167 unthinkable /¿∑n`ıæ…kºbºl/ (adj) = so bad that one
5.155 unyielding /¿∑n`j∞ldæ…/ (adj) = unwilling to change, cannot think about it, unimaginable /
rigid / niewzruszony, nieprzejednany, nieubłagany nie do pomyślenia
e.g. The manager has been quite unyielding about e.g. Losing my job would be absolutely unthinkable;
the subject of flexible hours and refuses to agree I simply can’t risk it.
to the proposal made by the staff. 5.168 fiercely /`fƒsli/ (adv) = intensely / zażarcie, zawzięcie,
5.156 mesmerised /`mezmºr¡zd/ (adj) = entranced, zagorzale
hypnotised / oczarowany, zahipnotyzowany e.g. I never dare to criticise him openly: he is fiercely
e.g. She was mesmerised by the dancers and could proud.
not tear her eyes from the stage. 5.169 retreat /ræ`tr∞t/ (v) = to move away, withdraw /
5.157 unprecedented /∑n`presædentæd/ (adj) = unusual, wycofać się
not having happened before / bezprecedensowy e.g. When the bullies started walking towards Billy,
e.g. Retrieving the MIR station from space will be he retreated quickly.
an unprecedented mission. Der.: retreat (n)
5.158 link-up /`læ…k∑p/ (n) = a connection / połączenie 5.170 overture /`øvº∏Δr/ (n) = an introduction / uwertura,
e.g. We have a satellite link-up with their company wstęp
and can hold conferences with them without e.g. He keeps making unwelcome overtures
leaving the office. of friendship, even though I’ve made it clear
5.159 plant /pl≤nt/ (v) = to place sth firmly in a particular that I am not interested.
place / ustawić, umieścić 5.171 span /sp±n/ (v) = to last for the whole period
e.g. The climbers planted a flag on Mt Everest. of time / trwać
5.160 tranquility /¿tr±…`kwælætæ/ (n) = peace and quiet / e.g. Our family history spans four centuries.
spokój Der.: span (n)
e.g. The tranquility of the country appealed to us so 5.172 Gemini /`πemæn¡/ (n pl) = nazwa amerykańskiego
much that we bought a small cottage in Turnbridge. programu kosmicznego i statków kosmicznych
5.161 cut off /`k∑t `≥f/ (phr v) = to disrupt 5.173 launch /l¥n∏/ (v) = to send up into the air / wystrzelić
communication / odciąć, przerwać (w kosmos)
e.g. There’s something wrong with the phone lines; e.g. Hundreds of people gathered to watch
I got cut off in the middle of my conversation. the spacecraft being launched.
5.162 transfixed /tr±ns`fækst/ (adj) = stunned, paralysed Der.: launch (n)
with amazement / znieruchomiały, sparaliżowany 5.174 pioneer /¿p¡º`nƒr/ (n) = sb who leads the way
e.g. We were transfixed with terror as we watched for others into a new area of knowledge
the late night horror film. or invention / pionier
5.163 momentous /mø`mentºs/ (adj) = significant, very e.g. Charles Babbage was an early pioneer
important / doniosły, ważny of computer science; he invented the first
e.g. The past century has been among the most successful automatic calculator.
momentous in world history with inventions such as 5.175 shabbily /`«±bæli/ (adv) = here: cruelly, unfairly /
the computer and events such as the moon landing. tu: niecnie, niegodziwie, nikczemnie
5.164 bring home to sb = to make sb understand sth e.g. I think they treated you very shabbily
clearly / pomóc zrozumieć, uświadomić by claiming your work was their own.
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5.176 simultaneously /¿sæmºl`tΩniºsli/ (adv) = at the same 5.187 glide /gl¡d/ (v) = to float, move effortlessly / ślizgać
time / równocześnie się, sunąć, płynąć
e.g. She works very hard; sometimes she works e.g. We watched the beautiful hostess glide
on two projects simultaneously. through the room welcoming her guests.
5.177 exemplar /æg`zempl≤r/ (n) = a typical or good 5.188 vastness /`v≤stnºs/ (n) = immensity, hugeness /
example of sth / wzór, model, ideał, typowy ogrom
lub dobry przykład e.g. Flying over the desert, you will understand
e.g. The greatest exemplar of British playwrights its vastness.
is William Shakespeare. 5.189 drift /dræft/ (v) = to move slowly / dryfować, odpływać
5.178 meet-and-greet = social / towarzyski e.g. Now that working from home is becoming
e.g. The politician was exhausted after attending more popular, people are beginning to drift away
so many meet-and-greet events in an attempt from the cities.
to get to know his voters. 5.190 make out /`mΩk `¬t/ (phr v) = to see sth
5.179 itinerary /¡`tænºrºri/ (n) = a travel plan / trasa podróży with difficulty / rozpoznać, dostrzec
lub wycieczki, marszruta e.g. The fog was so thick that we could barely
e.g. If you look at your itinerary, you will see that we make out where we had parked the car.
are visiting the Royal Palace on Wednesday morning. 5.191 fragile /`fr±π¡l/ (adj) = delicate / kruchy, delikatny
5.180 take one’s destiny in hand = to take matters into e.g. These china cups are very fragile, so I only use
one’s hands / wziąć swój los we własne ręce them on special occasions.
e.g. I decided to take my destiny in hand and go back Der.: fragility (n)
to university in order to get a better job.
5.181 glare /gl≈r/ (n) = a bright unpleasant light /
English in Use (pp. 110-113)
oślepiające światło (np. jupiterów)
e.g. The glare of the headlights blinded the cat 5.192 on-the-spot = instantaneous / natychmiastowy
crossing the road. e.g. He made an on-the-spot decision to travel
5.182 manic depression /`m±næk dæ`pre«ºn/ (n) = a mental the world and he left straight away.
illness causing someone to change from being 5.193 cloud over /`kl¬d `øvºr/ (phr v) = to become
extremely happy and excited to being extremely covered with clouds / zachmurzyć się
sad / depresja maniakalna e.g. It was sunny this morning but it is starting
e.g. He suffers from manic depression; one minute he to cloud over now; I think it may rain later.
is laughing hysterically and the next he is in tears. 5.194 nervous breakdown /`nªvºs `brΩkd¬n/ (n)
5.183 think tank /`ıæ…k ¿t±…k/ (n) = a group of specialists = a period of mental illness which results
brought together to develop ideas in anxiety, difficulty in sleeping or thinking
on a particular subject and to make suggestions clearly and a feeling of great sadness /
for action / grupa ekspertów załamanie nerwowe
e.g. We have chosen only the most intelligent e.g. The pressure he was under at work led
and creative scientists to join our think tank in order to a nervous breakdown, but he is almost back
to come up with the best solution. to his old self.
5.184 hitch /hæ∏/ (n) = a difficulty, a delay / trudność, 5.195 intercom /`æntºk≥m/ (n) = a telephone or radio
przeszkoda, komplikacja, szkopuł communication system in an office, plane, etc /
e.g. We completed the task without a hitch; everything interkom, domofon, głośnik
went perfectly. e.g. The captain announced over the intercom
5.185 intensely /æn`tensli/ (adv) = powerfully, strongly / that we were about to land.
intensywnie 5.196 be bound to do sth = to be forced to do sth
e.g. I wish she would stop staring at me so intensely; by law, duty, etc / mieć obowiązek coś zrobić
it makes me nervous. e.g. You are bound by the contract to work
5.186 rail /rΩl/ (n) = a horizontal bar fixed in position / for us forty hours per week.
poręcz 5.197 genetically modified /πæ`netækli `m≥dæfaæd/ (adj)
e.g. No wonder people keep falling down these stairs; = having genes changed scientifically /
we need to get a rail for them to hold onto. modyfikowany genetycznie

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e.g. I am wary of genetically modified foods e.g. The general ordered his army to make another
because we don’t know how safe they are. onslaught on the enemy camp.
5.198 crop /kr≥p/ (n) = a planting and harvest of grain, 5.210 pester /`pestºr/ (adj) = behaving in an annoying
vegetables or fruit / plon manner towards sb by asking about sth
e.g. A farmer should sow his crop in spring, then reap repeatedly / napastliwy, molestujący, prześladujący
it in autumn. e.g. Some parents find their children’s pester power
5.199 resistant to sth /ræ`zæstºnt/ (adj) = not harmed so difficult to deal with that they always give in
by sth / odporny, wytrzymały to their demands.
e.g. Using sun block makes your skin resistant to Der.: pester (v)
the sun’s harmful rays. 5.211 bluff /bl∑f/ (n) = make-believe, pretence / blef
Der.: resistance (n) e.g. His threat to resign was a bluff; there is no way
5.200 pest /pest/ (n) = a small animal or an insect that he would really leave his job.
causes damage to food or crops / szkodnik 5.212 disqualified /dæs`kw≥læf¡d/ (adj) = unable to take
e.g. The flea is a small pest which lives on animals part in a competition because Ône has done sth
and feeds on their blood. wrong / zdyskwalifikowany
5.201 pesticide /`pestæs¡d/ (n) = insect killer / pestycyd e.g. The athlete was disqualified from the competition
e.g. You should wash fruit and vegetables carefully when he tested positive for drugs.
to make sure there is no pesticide left on them. 5.213 anabolic drugs /¿±nº`b≥læk `dr∑gz/ (n pl) = steroids
5.202 first and foremost = more than anything else / used illegally by athletes competing in sports /
przede wszystkim anaboliki
e.g. First and foremost, we need to increase sales; e.g. The use of anabolic drugs can improve athletic
that should be the company’s priority. performance.
5.203 fenced-off /¿fenst`≥f/ (adj) = surrounded by a fence / 5.214 manual /`m±njΔl/ (n) = a handbook or guidebook
ogrodzony on how to do sth / podręcznik, instrukcja
e.g. We grow our own vegetables in a fenced-off part e.g. Why don’t you read the instructions in the manual
of the garden. instead of trying to guess how the computer works?
5.204 unavoidably /¿∑nº`v√dºbli/ (adv) = inescapably, 5.215 terminate /`tªmænΩt/ (v) = to end, stop /
inevitably / niechybnie, nieuchronnie zakończyć (się)
e.g. I’m afraid that Mr Smith has been unavoidably e.g. I think we should terminate this discussion as it is
delayed, so he won’t be able to attend this meeting. clear that we are not going to reach a solution.
5.205 pollinate /`p≥lænΩt/ (v) = to transfer the fine Der.: termination (n)
fertilising powder to a plant so that it can 5.216 inundate /`æn∑ndΩt/ (v) = to cover with water, flood,
reproduce / zapylać overflow / zalać
e.g. Bees are essential as they pollinate flowers e.g. The village was inundated when the river burst
by taking pollen from one plant to another. its banks.
5.206 untold /¿∑n`tøld/ (adj) = so great in amount or level Der.: inundation (n)
that it cannot be expressed in words / niezliczony, 5.217 rescue operation /`reskj∂ ¿≥pº`rΩ«ºn/ (n) = the act
niebywały, nieopisany of trying to save people in danger / akcja
e.g. He has untold wealth; it is impossible to be sure ratunkowa
how rich he really is. e.g. The army has launched a rescue operation
5.207 overload /¿øvº`lød/ (v) = to place too much work, to save those trapped in the avalanche.
weight, etc on sb or sth / przeciążyć, przeładować 5.218 dinghy /`dæ…gi/ (n) = a small rowboat / szalupa, łódka,
e.g. It’s not fair to overload Cathy with all the work; czółno
share it out among the rest of the staff. e.g. The children are not allowed to go too far out
5.208 withstand /wæ∫`st±nd/ (v) = to last in spite of sth, to sea in their dinghy as it is such a lightweight boat.
endure / wytrzymać, znieść, stawić opór 5.219 low-lying /`løl¡æ…/ (adj) = (of land) being at or near
e.g. This building has been built to withstand the level of the sea / nisko położony
earthquakes of up to 7.5 on the Richter scale. e.g. Low-lying areas are at an increased risk
5.209 onslaught /`≥nsl¥t/ (n) = a violent attack / zaciekły of flooding during bad weather.
szturm, atak, napaść

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5.220 submerge /sºb`mªπ/ (v) = to put beneath 5.232 reside /ræ`z¡d/ (v) = to live / mieszkać
the surface of water / zatopić, zanurzyć e.g. I no longer reside at that address; I moved out
e.g. When the river burst its banks, the entire village four months ago.
was submerged. Der.: residence (n), resident (n)
5.221 disrupt /dæs`r∑pt/ (v) = to interrupt, cause a break / 5.233 molecular /mº`lekjμlºr/ (adj) = of the simplest unit
przerwać, zakłócać of a chemical substance, usually a group of two
e.g. He manages to disrupt the whole class or more atoms / molekularny, cząsteczkowy
with his bad behaviour. e.g. Scientists can easily find out the molecular
Der.: disruption (n) structure of any substance.
5.222 dislodge /¿dæs`l≥π/ (v) = to force sth from its present 5.234 multi-cell /¿m∑lti`sel/ (adj) = consisting of many small
place / usunąć, wyciągnąć, wyrwać basic units / wielokomórkowy
e.g. I need to go to the dentist; I dislodged a filling e.g. Unlike the amoeba, which is a one-cell organism,
when I was eating a toffee. humans, animals and plants are multi-cell ones.
5.223 claim /klΩm/ (n) = a demand for sth that one feels 5.235 colony /`k≥lºni/ (n) = a group of (people, organisms,
one has a right to / żądanie, roszczenie etc) / kolonia, rój
e.g. The insurance company only paid her 60% of the e.g. Many insects, such as ants, live in a large group
claim because the amount she asked for was too high. called a colony.
5.224 ravage /`r±væπ/ (v) = to destroy / pustoszyć, rujnować 5.236 thrive /ır¡v/ (v) = to grow strong and healthy /
e.g. This area of the country has been ravaged by bad dobrze się rozwijać, kwitnąć, prosperować
weather for two months. e.g. The plants thrive in weather like this; they need
5.225 hinder /`hændºr/ (v) = to slow down the progress plenty of rain with lots of sunny spells.
of sth, impede / spowolnić, hamować 5.237 cosmos /`k≥zm≥s/ (n) = the universe / kosmos,
e.g. Having Anne on the team will hinder our progress; wszechświat
she slows everybody down. e.g. It is hard to believe that human beings are
5.226 rage /rΩπ/ (v) = to happen in a strong or violent the only intelligent life forms in the cosmos.
way / szaleć, rozszaleć się, srożyć 5.238 biosphere /`b¡ºsfƒr/ (n) = the part of the earth’s
e.g. We stayed inside by the fire as the storm raged environment where life exists / biosfera
on throughout the night. e.g. The earth’s biosphere ranges from about 10 km
Der.: rage (n) into the atmosphere to the deepest ocean floor.
5.227 safe and sound = completely safe, without injury 5.239 outpost /`¬tpøst/ (n) = any distant settlement /
or damage / cały i zdrowy placówka
e.g. Thankfully, no one was hurt in the accident; e.g. It must be quite lonely living in a remote
we are all safe and sound. mountain outpost.
5.228 bask /b≤sk/ (v) = to sit and enjoy the heat or sun / 5.240 exceed /æk`s∞d/ (v) = to be more than what is
wygrzewać się, wylegiwać na słońcu expected / przekroczyć, wykroczyć poza, przewyższyć
e.g. She loves nothing more than to lie by the pool e.g. Her work far exceeded my expectations; I was very
and bask in the sun all day. pleasantly surprised.
5.229 state-of-the-art /¿steætºv∫i`≤t/ (adj) = modern Der.: excess (n), excessive (adj)
and using the most recent ideas and methods /
najnowszy, najnowocześniejszy Writing (pp. 114-118)
e.g. Paul has just spent a fortune on a brand new,
state-of-the-art sound system. 5.241 sophisticated /sº`fæstækΩtæd/ (adj) = advanced,
5.230 pipe /p¡p/ (v) = to send sounds or signals from one complex / wyszukany, wymyślny, wyrafinowany
place to another / nadawać, przesyłać e.g. Modern telephones are much more sophisticated
e.g. Music is piped in all the outlets at the shopping than earlier models.
centre. Opp.: primitive
5.231 plasma wall screen /`pl±zmº w¥l `skr∞n/ (n) 5.242 midget /`mæπæt/ (adj) = tiny / drobny, miniaturowy,
= a kind of television screen / ekran plazmowy mikroskopijny
e.g. A plasma wall screen takes up very little space, e.g. She has bought a new midget mobile phone,
but is also very expensive. which is as small as a matchbox.

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5.243 technophile /`teknøf¡l/ (n) = sb who is interested 5.252 prestigious /pre`stæπºs/ (adj) = prominent,
in new developments in technology and admires esteemed / prestiżowy
them / entuzjasta postępu technicznego e.g. This is one of the most prestigious universities
e.g. The idea of having a fully computerised home in the country and has an excellent reputation.
must be attractive to a technophile. 5.253 lucrative /`l∂krºtæv/ (adj) = profitable / lukratywny,
Opp.: technophobe dochodowy
5.244 soak up /`søk `∑p/ (phr v) = to take in, absorb / e.g. I have just closed a very lucrative business deal,
wchłonąć, nasiąknąć so dinner is my treat!
e.g. We need some paper towels to soak up
the spilt water. Pronunciation tips
5.245 logician /lº`π櫺n/ (n) = sb who studies or is skilled 5.254 John von Neumann /`π≥n fºn `n√mºn/
in logic / logik 5.255 Nicolaus Copernicus /¿nækº`lΩºs kø`pªnækºs/
e.g. Mark studied logic at university and now 5.256 Louis Pasteur /`l∂æ p±`stªr/
he is a respected logician. 5.257 Blaise Pascal /`blΩz p±`sk±l/
5.246 distinguished /dæs`tæ…gwæ«t/ (adj) = famous for 5.258 Leonardo da Vinci /¿l∞ø`n≤dø dº `væn∏æ/
excellent achievement / wybitny 5.259 Samuel Morse /`s±mjμºl `m¥s/
e.g. He is a distinguished journalist who has won 5.260 Robert Fulton /`r≥bºt `fμltºn/
many awards for his excellent work.
5.247 quantum physics /`kw≥ntºm `fæzæks/ (n) = the 5.261 culminate /`k∑lmænΩt/ (v) = to reach the highest
science of physics which studies the smallest point of an activity / osiągnąć punkt kulminacyjny
unit or amount of energy / fizyka kwantowa e.g. Her successful acting career culminated in her
e.g. Quantum physics tries to explain the behaviour being accepted by the Royal Shakespeare Company.
of very small particles, such as electrons, protons Der.: culmination (n)
and neutrons. 5.262 painstaking /`pΩnstΩkæ…/ (adj) = thorough,
5.248 defence policy /dæ`fens `p≥læsi/ (n) = measures taken meticulous / pracowity, staranny
to protect a country / polityka obronna e.g. After carrying out a painstaking search through
e.g. The government has a very strong defence policy your files, I have found the missing documents.
and believes that the protection of the country should 5.263 refurbishment /r∞`fªbæ«mºnt/ (n) = redecoration,
be a top priority. renovation / odnowienie, remont
5.249 humility /hj∂`mælæti/ (n) = modesty / pokora e.g. The restaurant is closed for refurbishment,
e.g. Although he is now very rich and successful, but it will look great when the work is finished.
he still has a deep sense of humility. 5.264 hydroelectric /¿h¡drøæ`lektræk/ (adj) = related
Opp.: arrogance to creating electricity from water power /
5.250 principle /`prænsæpºl/ (n) = a standard such as a guide hydroelektryczny
to behaviour, a rule / zasada e.g. Hydroelectric power is produced by flowing water.
e.g. Refusing to take something which belongs 5.265 mainframe computer /`mΩnfrΩm kºm`pj∂tºr/ (n)
to someone else is a very good principle. = a large powerful computer used by many
5.251 upbringing /`∑pbræ…æ…/ (n) = a good or bad users, a centre of network / komputer typu
education given by parents and teachers mainframe
to a young person growing up / wychowanie e.g. Mainframe computers are becoming obsolete;
e.g. She had a very good upbringing and learnt they are replaced by more modern ones.
how to behave properly in any situation.

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VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 I was not convinced by the doctor’s .......... and asked 6 He managed to .......... into the company records and find
for a second opinion. out what each employee was paid.
A ailment C strain A hack C crash
B epidemic D diagnosis B load D update

2 She has got a very .......... job these days, so she can 7 We have decided to offer him a promotion .......... his
afford life’s luxuries. excellent performance this year.
A prestigious C distinguished A in light of C in the long run
B lucrative D accomplished B in limbo D in black and white

3 The people who live in my old house kindly agreed 8 He gazed at her .......... and asked her to marry him.
to .......... any mail that arrives for me. A shabbily C intensely
A send back C send on B simultaneously D unavoidably
B send for D send out on
9 My computer screen keeps going blank; I think there
4 There’s no point in buying the baby expensive clothes must be a .......... in the system.
as he will soon .......... them. A wallpaper C virus
A outsmart C outrun B wizard D navigator
B outgrow D outdo
10 There has been an .......... of the flu virus in this area.
5 The lecturer gave us far too much information to ..........; A outrage C outlay
I wish I had taken a tape recorder with me. B Ôutbreak D outset
A take on C take up
B take back D take in

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

Our favourite Italian restaurant is in an ideal 0) location, right at the end of our LOCATE
street. This is perfect as it removes any 1) ….......……… from eating out; we INCONVENIENT
don’t need to take public transport or try to find a taxi. However, the restaurant
was recently closed for 2) ….............………, which caused some REFURBISH
3) ….......……… to our weekend routine – we are used to eating there most DISRUPT
Saturday nights! As soon as it reopened, I made a 4) ….......……… for the RESERVE
following Saturday. The improvements that had been made were 5) ….......… . STRIKE
The management had clearly employed very 6) ….......……… interior decorators. ACCOMPLISH
Whoever had designed the new décor was a true 7) ….......……… . They had VISION
created an atmosphere which was 8) ….......……… of a rustic Italian kitchen, EVOKE
with large, plain wooden tables and bunches of herbs hanging from the ceiling.
The effect was amazing.

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UNIT 5

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ outline ñ deadline ñ mimic ñ debris ñ convey ñ obsolete ñ intriguing ñ hitch ñ fragile ñ reside

1 This china doll is very ....................... ; I don’t think you 6 Please allow me to ....................... my deepest sympathy
should let the children play with it. to you and your family.
2 Volunteers worked to clear up the ....................... after the 7 My sister has a great voice and she is able to
hurricane. ....................... all her favourite singers.
3 Can you tell me how many people currently 8 Even if I work all night, I won’t be able to meet the
....................... at this address? ....................... .
4 The manager called me into his office to ....................... 9 My first day at work went off without a .......................,
my responsibilities in my new position. which was quite a relief!
5 This film is quite ....................... ; I think I’ll stay up and 10 The fax machine will probably become .......................
watch the end. in the next few years.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.


1 We put all the shopping on the assembly line/conveyor 4 He decided to do the unprecedented/unthinkable/
belt/ticketing system and the sales assistant scanned the untold and quit his well-paid job.
barcodes as each item went past. 5 Her suspicions were quite manned/wedded/misplaced
2 My cousin spent a few minutes in a space junk/space as it was actually Sarah who took the file.
capsule/flight simulator and now he wants to be a pilot. 6 We will ask the waiter to hand over/total up/hang on
3 I think that what he did was very valid/heroic/drastic and the bill and we will each pay half.
he should be given an award.

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B

1 hold a the mould


2 earn b with science
3 break c with the times
4 come d a conversation
5 stand e down to earth
6 turn f the test of time
7 reinvent g one’s keep
8 once h back the clock
9 blind sb i the wheel
10 move j in a blue moon

1 If I could ................................., I would never have 6 Frank refuses to .................................; he still writes
spoken rudely to my boss. all his letters by hand.
2 Ian’s house is a mess; he only cleans it ..................... . 7 It’s time you started doing more to help around here;
3 I think that this magazine is really original and has you are old enough to ................................. now.
managed to ................................. of British journalism. 8 After winning the talent contest, it took Sharon
4 Could you please stop interrupting us? We are trying a while to ................................. and realise that she
to ................................. here. wasn’t a star yet!
5 When I asked him about his invention, he tried to 9 Their relationship has really .................................;
................................., but even I could see that the they have been together for ten years, now.
machine wasn’t going to work. 10 Sarah is always trying to .................................
instead of coming up with an original idea.
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F W większości linijek w tekście jest jedno zbędne słowo. Znajdź je i zapisz w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej
linijce nie ma zbędnego słowa, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

According to experienced teachers, children of these days are much less 0 of


respectful and much less polite than children of a generation ago. The 00 ✓
trouble is, unless children learn no respect for others, starting with 1 ........................
adults, they can never learn respect for themselves. They begin to 2 ........................
developing respect for others by developing it for their parents first. 3 ........................
Children should have learn to show good manners towards their parents. 4 ........................
This means that they should not be allowed to call out their parents (or, 5 ........................
indeed, any adult) by their first names, to interrupt the adult 6 ........................
conversations unless it is absolutely necessary, or to throw tantrums 7 ........................
when they don't get their own way. When adults also speak, children 8 ........................
should pay attention, and when adults issue instructions, children should 9 ........................
follow them. It's as simple as that is. When your kids display proper 10 ........................
manners at home or in public, give to them immediate positive feedback. 11 ........................
Also, bear it in mind that children will make mistakes. Be patient and 12 ........................
they will make progress. And remember, manners work both ways; if you 13 ........................
want your children to be so polite to you, then you must behave in 14 .......................
a mannerly way towards them, too. 15 .......................

6 A Job Well Done


e.g. The television programme was interrupted
Lead-in (p. 119)
by a newsflash to announce the death
6.1 recognition /¿rekºg`n櫺n/ (n) = an acceptance of the Prime Minister.
that sth is true, important or legal / uznanie 6.5 awkward /`¥kwºd/ (adj) = strange, difficult
e.g. The efforts of Jimmy Carter to promote peace to deal with / (o sytuacji) krępujący, kłopotliwy
throughout the world won recognition when e.g. There was an awkward silence that both
he was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2002. of them found difficult to deal with.
6.6 overtime /`øvºt¡m/ (n) = extra time needed
or expected in a job / nadgodziny
Reading (pp. 120-121)
e.g. He was going on holiday so he worked overtime
6.2 nasty /`n≤sti/ (adj) = bad or very unpleasant / for about ten hours a week to earn some extra cash.
wstrętny, okropny, wredny 6.7 adjust /º`π∑st/ (v) = to become more familiar with
e.g. He had a nasty experience at the dentist when a new situation / dostosować się, przyzwyczaić,
he was young, and the memories of this put przystosować
him off dental surgeries for life. e.g. When he changed from the night shift to working
Der.: nastiness (n), nastily (adv) days, it took his body clock a while to adjust
6.3 mike /m¡k/ (n) = a microphone / mikrofon to a different sleeping pattern.
e.g. The singer adjusted the stand so the mike Der.: adjustment (n)
was level with his mouth. 6.8 shift /«æft/ (n) = a period during which a particular
6.4 newsflash /`nj∂zfl±«/ (n) = a brief news report group of people work / zmiana
on radio or television, giving the most recent e.g. He worked shifts at the factory, doing twelve-hour
information about an important or unexpected nights for a fortnight, then twelve-hour days for
event / wiadomość z ostatniej chwili the rest of the month.
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UNIT 6

6.9 ATC /¿Ω t∞ `s∞/ (abbr) = air traffic control / 6.20 bolt /bølt/ (v) = to move very fast / pomknąć,
kontrola ruchu lotniczego czmychnąć
e.g. After five stressful years on the ATC tower, e.g. A car frightened the horse which then bolted
Alan had to change his job. through the village.
6.10 air traffic controller /¿≈ tr±fæk kºn`trølºr/ (n) = sb 6.21 clock off /`kl≥k `≥f/ (phr v) = to leave work,
who manages aircraft from the ground as they especially by recording the time Ône leaves
take off, fly and land / kontroler ruchu lotniczego on a special machine / wyjść z pracy
e.g. Air traffic controllers have gone on strike and all (odbijając kartę w specjalnym zegarze)
flights have been cancelled. e.g. "It’s six o’clock; time to clock off and go home,"
6.11 dusk /d∑sk/ (n) = the time of day when its not quite he said.
dark yet / zmierzch, zmrok Opp.: clock on, clock in
e.g. Those animals that are active at night wake up 6.22 stomach /`st∑mºk/ (v) = to be able to accept
at dusk. an unpleasant idea or watch sth unpleasant /
6.12 dawn /d¥n/ (n) = the time of day when the sun ścierpieć, znieść
rises / świt, poranek e.g. She was unable to stomach horror films because
e.g. In summer, farmers work in the fields from dawn they revolted her.
to dusk . 6.23 restructure /¿r∞`str∑k∏ºr/ (v) = to reorganise /
6.13 take off /`tΩk `≥f/ (phr v) = to leave the ground zreorganizować, nadać czemuś nową strukturę
and begin to fly / (o samolocie) startować e.g. The government is undertaking an ambitious
e.g. Our flight was delayed due to technical problems, project to restructure the education system.
but we eventually took off at 5.45. 6.24 kick off /`kæk `≥f/ (phr v) = to start / rozpocząć, zacząć
6.14 wind shear /`wænd «ƒr/ (n) = a sudden change e.g. The match between Manchester United
in the direction or velocity of the wind / and Real Madrid kicks off at 7.45.
nagła zmiana kierunku lub siły wiatru 6.25 high-performance /¿h¡pº`f¥mºns/ (adj) = able
e.g. Wind shear can make aeroplane rides bumpy. to perform well / o wysokich parametrach
6.15 blunder /`bl∑ndºr/ (n) = a big mistake, usually technicznych
caused by lack of care or thought / gafa, pomyłka, e.g. Many people enjoy driving high-performance
niezręczność cars at very fast speeds.
e.g. He made a serious blunder in his calculations, 6.26 U-turn /`j∂tªn/ (n) = a turn made by a vehicle in
which will not easily be forgiven. order to go back in the direction from which
6.16 front /fr∑nt/ (v) = to present a TV programme it has come / zawrócenie (pojazdu)
or show / prowadzić program w telewizji e.g. The action of turning into oncoming traffic means
e.g. Monica Richards fronted the Evening News that it can be dangerous for cars to perform U-turns
and soon became very popular. on busy main roads.
6.17 on/off the air (idm) = broadcast or not broadcast 6.27 blow sb away /`blø º`weæ/ (phr v) = to surprise sb
on TV or radio / na antenie lub poza anteną, in a pleasant way / zadziwić kogoś, powalić
nadawany lub nie na kolana, przyjemnie zaskoczyć
e.g. “Nobody watches your programme any longer, e.g. From the description we expected Simon
so we are taking it off the air now.” to be a young bully, so it completely blew us away
6.18 a blessing in disguise (idm) = sth which has a good when a charming elderly gentleman turned up.
effect although at first it seemed that it would 6.28 engage in conversation = to take part
be bad or not lucky / szczęście w nieszczęściu in a conversation / wdać się w rozmowę
e.g. The fact that he was fired proved to be a blessing e.g. He kept himself to himself and found it hard
in disguise because he found a better-paid job. to engage in conversation with strangers.
6.19 frantic /`fr±ntæk/ (adj) = frenzied, in a state of 6.29 fare /f≈r/ (n) = a passenger in a taxi / pasażer
excitement or confusion / zwariowany, szalony taksówki
e.g. Little Mary had been missing for an hour e.g. It’s easiest for taxi drivers to pick their fares
and her mother was becoming frantic. at railway stations or airports.
Der.: frantically (adv) 6.30 unpleasantness /∑n`plezºntnºs/ (n) = rudeness /
Opp.: calm niegrzeczność, nieuprzejmość, nieprzyjemność

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e.g. The manager had a reputation of arrogance e.g. Petrol tankers normally display a sign at the rear
because of the constant unpleasantness warning that hazardous materials are on board.
he displayed towards his fellow workers. Opp.: safe
6.31 have one (or two) too many (idm) = to be slightly 6.41 glamorous /`gl±mºrºs/ (adj) = attractive
drunk / trochę za dużo wypić in an exciting and special way / czarujący, uroczy
e.g. Jim spoiled my birthday party: he had one too e.g. Jackie Onassis was a sophisticated
many and started telling us dirty jokes. and glamorous woman.
6.42 mundane /m∑n`dΩn/ (adj) = very ordinary
Language Focus (pp. 122-125) and therefore not interesting / przyziemny
e.g. As the new boy in the office, he was given
6.32 refuse collector /`refj∂s kº`lektºr/ (n) = a rubbish the mundane and rather tedious tasks.
collector, a dustman / śmieciarz, osoba zajmująca się 6.43 stimulating /`stæmjμlΩtæ…/ (adj) = inspiring,
wywozem śmieci motivating / stymulujący, inspirujący
e.g. Giving workers fancy job titles such as “refuse e.g. I found it a stimulating conversation
collector“ instead of “dustman“ boosts morale that inspired me to greater things.
in the short term. Opp.: dull
6.33 talent scout /`t±lºnt ¿sk¬t/ (n) = sb who looks 6.44 work to rule = to do only such work as is included
for people who have the skills they want, in one’s contract in order to protest against sth /
esp in entertainment or sport / łowca talentów prowadzić strajk włoski
e.g. The talent scout attended the football match e.g. “The office management did not want to accept
in the hope of finding a prospective player our suggestions, so we decided to work to rule: from
for the club he represented. now on do not expect secretaries to do any cleaning!”
6.34 civil servant /`sævºl `sªvºnt/ (n) = sb who works 6.45 go on the picket line = to picket, to stand outside
for the government / urzędnik państwowy the entrance to a building and stop other
e.g. He felt he could best serve his community people from entering it, in order to protest
by working for the government as a civil servant. against sth / pikietować
6.35 blue-collar worker /`bl∂¿k≥lº `wªkºr/ (n) = sb who e.g. The protesters went on the picket line
does physical or unskilled work in a factory and prevented the embassy staff from entering.
rather than office work / pracownik fizyczny 6.46 perk /pªk/ (n) = an advantage or benefit, such as
e.g. As technology has advanced, the number money or goods, which one is given because
of blue-collar workers is steadily declining. of their job / dodatkowe korzyści związane z pracą
6.36 white-collar worker /`w¡t¿k≥lº `wªkºr/ (n) = sb who e.g. The promotion brought him additional perks,
works in offices, doing work that needs mental including a company car.
rather than physical effort / pracownik umysłowy 6.47 apprentice /º`prentæs/ (n) = sb who has agreed to
e.g. White-collar workers now work longer hours work for a skilled person for a particular period
at their desks than ever before. of time and often for low payment, in order to
6.37 fulfilling /fμl`fælæ…/ (adj) = satisfying / satysfakcjonujący, learn that person's skills / uczeń, praktykant
dający poczucie spełnienia e.g. At 16 he decided to leave school to become
e.g. My career as a teacher is so fulfilling that I always an apprentice electrician in order to learn
go home with a sense of satisfaction. the necessary skills for a career in the trade.
6.38 arduous /`≤djΔs/ (adj) = difficult, tiring and Der.: apprenticeship (n)
needing a lot of effort / żmudny, uciążliwy, mozolny 6.48 recruit /ræ`kr∂t/ (n) = a new member (of an
e.g. It was a long and arduous journey that organisation, job, etc) / rekrut; nowy pracownik
left him absolutely shattered. e.g. He was a raw army recruit, about to undergo
6.39 mind-numbing /`m¡nd¿n∑mæ…/ (adj) = extremely ten weeks of rigorous training.
boring / niezwykle nudny, otępiający Der.: recruitment (n)
e.g. He was constantly bored; his job entailed 6.49 boardroom /`b¥dr∂m/ (n) = a room where
the mind-numbing task of watching monitor screens the people who control a company
all day long. or organisation meet / sala zebrań zarządu
6.40 hazardous /`h±zºdºs/ (adj) = dangerous / e.g. The directors met in the boardroom to decide
niebezpieczny the future of the company.
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6.50 cubicle /`kj∂bækl/ (n) = a small space that is separate e.g. He was ecstatic when his boss informed him
from the rest of a room where you can be he was getting a raise.
private when working / boks, kącik 6.60 grant /gr≤nt/ (n) = a sum of money given
e.g. Most offices today are divided into cubicles by the government to a person or organisation
where people can work in privacy. for a special purpose / stypendium lub dotacja
6.51 flexi-time /`fleksit¡m/ (n) = a system of working na określony cel, grant
in which people work a set number of hours e.g. The British government is debating whether
within a fixed period of time, but can vary the or not to reintroduce student grants.
time they start or finish work / ruchomy czas pracy 6.61 depose /dæ`pøz/ (v) = to remove sb important
e.g. Many working mothers prefer working flexi-time from a powerful position / pozbawić władzy
because they can tailor their hours to suit them e.g. Former Romanian dictator, Nicolae Ceausescu,
and their children. was deposed and executed in 1989.
6.52 credentials /kræ`den«ºlz/ (n pl) = a proof of sb's Der.: deposition /depº`z櫺n/ (n)
abilities and experience / referencje, listy 6.62 workmate /`wªkmΩt/ (n) = sb who works
uwierzytelniające in the same place as you / kolega z pracy
e.g. "I would hire him; his credentials are impeccable," e.g. My workmates and I socialise after work
the recruitment officer said to his manager. every Thursday.
6.53 reference /`refºrºns/ (n) = a letter that is written 6.63 workbench /`wªkben∏/ (n) = a strong table
by sb who knows you, to describe you and say for doing practical jobs / stół do pracy, stół
if you are suitable for a job or course / referencje, warsztatowy
list polecający e.g. As his hobby was DIY, he bought a workbench
e.g. He was required to bring a reference from his for his shed.
previous employer to the job interview with him. 6.64 job hunter /`π≥b ¿h∑ntºr/ (n) = sb who is looking
6.54 trade /trΩd/ (n) = a job, especially one which needs for a job / osoba szukająca pracy
special skills and involves working with your e.g. The current economic climate has resulted
hands / fach, rzemiosło, zawód in too many job hunters seeking too few jobs.
e.g. He was a plumber by trade, but supplemented 6.65 workhorse /`wªkh¥s/ (n) = sb who does a lot of
his income by driving a taxi at night. work, especially of a type which is necessary
6.55 vocation /vø`kΩ«ºn/ (n) = a type of work that Ône but not interesting / dosł. koń pociągowy; tu: osoba
feels they are suited to doing and to which one wykonująca niewdzięczną pracę w zespole
should give all their time and energy / powołanie e.g. The captain was the workhorse of the team,
e.g. He was a priest convinced of his vocation constantly trying to break down the opposition’s
to provide spiritual guidance to his flock. defence.
6.56 toil /t√l/ (v) = to work hard / trudzić się, tyrać, harować 6.66 whiz(z) /wæz/ (n) = sb with a very high level of skill
e.g. He toiled in the coal mine to provide for his family. or knowledge in a particular subject / ekspert,
Der.: toil (n) specjalista
6.57 meet the deadline (idm) = to do sth within specific e.g. He was a computer whiz at school, and now
time limits / dotrzymać terminu owns a successful software design company.
e.g. He had to meet the deadline for the project that 6.67 paper-shuffler /`pΩpº ¿«∑flºr/ (n) = sb who is lazy
the psychology lecturer had assigned him. and tries to work as little as possible / osoba
6.58 trade union /¿treæd `j∂njºn/ (n) = an organisation „przekładająca papierki“ (leniwa i unikająca
that represents people who work in a particular ciężkiej pracy)
industry, protects their rights and discusses their e.g. He is a work-shy paper-shuffler; the company
pay and working conditions with employers / would be better-off without him.
związek zawodowy 6.68 stirrer /`stªrºr/ (n) = sb who makes trouble
e.g. Former Prime Minister, Margaret Thatcher, for other people / intrygant
will be remembered for crushing the trade unions e.g. "Watch out for him; he’s a stirrer who likes
in the 1980s. causing trouble for people," she told her friend.
6.59 raise /rΩz/ (n) = (American English) a rise,
an increase in the fixed amount of money
one earns for doing a job / podwyżka
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6.69 slave driver /`slΩv ¿dr¡vºr/ (n) = sb who makes 6.79 division /dæ`v滺n/ (n) = a separate part of a large
people work extremely hard / „poganiacz organisation / dział, wydział
niewolników“, gnębiciel e.g. The Military Police are a division of the British
e.g. Rosie’s boss is a real slave driver; she works armed forces.
too hard and is permanently overtired. 6.80 recruit /ræ`kr∂t/ (v) = to hire / rekrutować, zatrudniać
Idioms e.g. Microsoft is currently recruiting computer
programmers because they are expanding into China.
6.70 beaver away at sth = to work hard for a long
Der.: recruitment (n)
time / długo nad czymś harować
6.81 on behalf of = representing sb else / w imieniu
e.g. He’s always beavering away at something
e.g. "I will speak on behalf of my client," the lawyer
around the house, decorating something or other.
told the police officer.
6.71 keep one’s mind on the job = to concentrate
6.82 seek /s∞k/ (v) = to try to find or get sth / szukać
on what one is doing / skupić się na pracy
e.g. He has been seeking work as an engineer
e.g. If you’re operating heavy machinery,
unsuccessfully for the past six months.
it’s advisable to keep your mind on the job.
6.83 assume responsibility for sth = to be responsible
6.72 make ends meet = to have just enough money
for sth / wziąć na siebie odpowiedzialność (za coś)
to pay for the things that one needs /
e.g. As the commanding officer, the general had to
wiązać koniec z końcem
assume responsibility for the failure of the operation.
e.g. I’m going to have to take another job
to make ends meet. Fixed Phrases (with on)
6.73 get sth off the ground = to start a project, etc / 6.84 on the verge of = about to do sth / na skraju,
rozpocząć pracę nad projektem, zabrać się na granicy
do czegoś, uruchomić coś e.g. Jim had had strenuous two months and was
e.g. We’re struggling financially to get the project off on the verge of a nervous breakdown.
the ground as we are short of funds. 6.85 on offer = available / dostępny, w ofercie
6.74 be sb’s right-hand man = to be a person who e.g. Refreshments and snacks are on offer
helps sb with their work / być czyjąś prawą ręką in the cafeteria.
e.g. The White House Chief of Staff, Dick Cheney, 6.86 on the dole = receiving unemployment benefit /
is George W. Bush’s right-hand man, and therefore na zasiłku
the person he turns to for advice. e.g. Tom was out of work and on the dole for six
6.75 call the shots = to be able to make the decisions months.
which will influence a situation / kierować czymś, 6.87 on the level = honest / szczery
grać pierwsze skrzypce e.g. Claire is a trustworthy person; she’s always
e.g. John is the manager, so he’s the one who calls straight and on the level.
the shots and what he says must be done. 6.88 be put on hold = to have to wait until the person
6.76 have time on one’s hands = to have nothing to one wants to talk to is free / czekać na połączenie
do / nie mieć nic do roboty, mieć dużo wolnego czasu lub rozmowę z daną osobą
e.g. I need to take up a hobby; I have too much time e.g. The problem with telephone banking is that
on my hands. when you call the bank, you are always put on hold.
6.77 keep one’s nose to the grindstone = to continue 6.89 on a roll = having a successful or lucky period /
to work very hard without stopping / nie odrywać na fali, w dobrym okresie
się od pracy, nie przestawać ciężko pracować e.g. David is on a roll; he’s correctly predicted
e.g. He keeps his nose to the grindstone; he has the winner of the last five races.
to provide for his extensive family. 6.90 on and on = continuously / ciągle, bezustannie
6.78 inside job = a crime committed by sb against e.g. I love my grandfather but he always goes
the organisation that they work for / on and on about the problems of the youth of today.
przestępstwo przeciwko instytucji, w której dana osoba 6.91 on and off = intermittently / sporadycznie,
jest zatrudniona z przerwami
e.g. In the course of their investigation, the police e.g. Their relationship had been on and off for the
discovered that the robbery was an inside job; past year, constantly splitting up and getting back
it turned out that one of the cashiers was involved. together.
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6.92 on demand = done or available whenever sb asks / she never makes any mistakes in her calculations.
na żądanie Opp.: inefficiency
e.g. The aid agency committed itself to providing food 6.102 briefing /`br∞fæ…/ (n) = information that is given to sb
and medical assistance on demand for refugees. just before they do sth, or a meeting where this
happens / odprawa
6.93 steelworks /`st∞lwªks/ (n) = a factory where steel e.g. The police officer went to the morning briefing
is made / huta stali before going out on patrol.
e.g. Alice’s father works long hours in the local 6.103 letterhead /`letºhed/ (n) = the top part of a piece
steelworks which employs over a thousand people. of writing paper where the name and address
6.94 rate /rΩt/ (n) = the speed at which sth happens of a person or business is printed / nagłówek
or changes / tempo, szybkość (listu lub papeterii firmowej)
e.g. The twentieth century saw an unprecedented e.g. Each person in the office has their own personal
rate of technological development. letterhead on their stationery.
6.104 appraisal /º`prΩzºl/ (n) = assessment, evaluation /
Phrasal verbs ocena, oszacowanie
6.95 work off /`wªk `≥f/ = to eliminate / wyeliminować, e.g. In our company, job appraisals are performed
pozbyć się, spalić (kalorie) by the management every six months.
e.g. "I’m going to the gym to work off all the excess 6.105 assessor /º`sesºr/ (n) = an evaluator / ekspert,
food I ate over Christmas," she said. osoba przeprowadzająca ocenę
6.96 work into /`wªk `æntº/ = to manage to include / e.g. The marking of the exam papers calls for both
dać radę coś włączyć (np. w plan zajęć lub dnia), internal and external assessors, which should result
znaleźć czas na coś in a comprehensive evaluation.
e.g. He promised her to try and work a meeting 6.106 badge /b±π/ (n) = a small identifying piece of
into his busy schedule. metal or paper that is pinned to Ône’s clothing /
6.97 get around /`get º`r¬nd/ = to overcome / znak, odznaka, symbol, plakietka
rozwiązać, przejść przez coś (np. problem) e.g. The police are required to wear their badges
e.g. No organisation has found a way to get around on their uniforms at all times.
the problem of the widening gap between the rich 6.107 scheme /sk∞m/ (n) = an officially organised plan
and poor. or system / program
6.98 work sb up /`wªk `∑p/ = to upset sb / zdenerwować, e.g. Increasing longevity and decreasing birth rates
doprowadzić do wściekłości mean that pension schemes throughout the EU
e.g. She worked herself up over the workmen’s are in crisis.
blatant incompetence. 6.108 in compliance with sth = according to rules
or requests made by people in authority /
6.99 schedule /`«edj∂l/ (n) = a list of planned activities zgodnie z regulaminem, przepisami itp.
or things to be done showing the times or dates e.g. All construction work must be done
when they are intended to happen / in compliance with safety regulations.
plan, harmonogram 6.109 vocational /vø`kΩ«ºnºl/ (adj) = providing skills and
e.g. The teaching schedule dictates that education that prepare sb for a job / zawodowy
the coursebook must be completed two weeks e.g. Many schools are offering more vocational
before the end of the term. courses for pupils to prepare them for life beyond
6.100 incredibly /æn`kredæbli/ (adv) = extremely / niezwykle, education.
niewiarygodnie
e.g. She is an incredibly talented artist; people come Reading (pp. 128-129)
from all over the world to see her paintings.
6.110 the public sector /∫º ¿p∑blæk `sektºr/ (n) = the part
of a country’s economy that is controlled
Listening & Speaking (pp. 126-127)
or financially supported by the government /
6.101 efficiency /æ`f櫺nsi/ (n) = performing a task well and sektor publiczny, państwowy
quickly / skuteczność, wydajność, efektywność e.g. Many jobs in the public sector will be lost when
e.g. Her efficiency in mathematics is such that economic reforms are implemented later this month.
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6.111 inflexible /æn`fleksæbºl/ (adj) = fixed and unable 6.120 morale /mº`r≤l/ (n) = the amount of confidence felt
or unwilling to change / nieelastyczny, nieugięty, by a person or group of people, especially when
niewzruszony in a dangerous or difficult situation / morale
e.g. The most common complaint against the housing e.g. Morale is of vital importance in team sports.
market is that it is too inflexible, meaning that buyers 6.121 backlog /`b±kl≥g/ (n) = a large number of things
don’t have enough choice over payment plans. that one should have done and must do now /
Der.: inflexibly (adv), inflexibility (n) nawał zaległych spraw
6.112 rigid /`ræπæd/ (adj) = stiff, fixed / sztywny, twardy, e.g. There is a huge backlog of cases at the High Court
nieugięty with hundreds of people awaiting trial.
e.g. The rigid tax system is urgently in need of reform 6.122 backhanded /`b±kh±ndæd/ (adj) = indirect
because taxpayers find it difficult to get their finances or unintended / pośredni; niezamierzony
in order by the April deadline. e.g. I think that the overtime payment scheme is
Opp.: flexible a backhanded way of making us work longer hours.
6.113 turnover /`tªnøvºr/ (n) = the rate at which 6.123 self-rostering /¿self`r≥stºri…/ (n) = putting one’s
employees leave and are replaced in a company / name on a list of jobs that have to be done
fluktuacja kadr in a particular time / dzielenie się obowiązkami
e.g. There is a high turnover rate in the labour market przez pracowników
as people go on to more lucrative careers. e.g. Our boss gives us a lot of independence
6.114 housing benefit /`h¬zæ… `benæfæt/ (n) = money paid and relies on self-rostering.
by the government to help poor people to pay 6.124 ram the point home to sb (idm) = to emphasise sth
for part or all of their rent / zasiłek mieszkaniowy strongly and make others listen / uzmysłowić coś
e.g. He was receiving housing benefit because he was komuś
unemployed and unable to pay his rent. e.g. If they do not see the need for improvement,
6.115 council benefit /`k¬nsºl `benæfæt/ (n) = money paid we’ll have to ram the point home to them.
by the local authority to help people with low 6.125 survey /`sªvΩ/ (n) = a review, a study / badanie,
income or other problems / zasiłki wypłacane przegląd, ankieta
przez lokalne władze samorządowe osobom e.g. A recent survey of public opinion shows that
w trudnej sytuacji finansowej people are dissatisfied with health services.
e.g. As he was earning the minimum wage, 6.126 cynic /`sænæk/ (n) = sb who believes that people are
he was entitled to council benefit. only interested in themselves and are not good
6.116 take its toll on sb/sth (idm) = to cause damage or sincere / cynik
or suffering / mieć tragiczne konsekwencje e.g. He is a complete cynic who always sees the worst
e.g. The continued use of leaded fuel is taking in people.
its toll on the ozone layer. Der.: cynical (adj)
6.117 prompt /pr≥mpt/ (v) = to make sb decide to say 6.127 ploy /pl√/ (n) = sth that is done in order to get an
or do sth / podpowiadać, podszeptywać, zachęcać advantage, often dishonestly / wybieg, sztuczka
e.g. Johny is a clever boy but you have to continually e.g. The insurance scheme was a ploy; they were
prompt him to read and learn more. only interested in your money.
6.118 core hours /`k¥r ¿¬ºz/ (n) = designated periods
when employees must be present in the English in Use (pp. 130-133)
workplace / wyznaczone godziny, w których
pracownicy muszą być w pracy 6.128 lottery /`l≥tºri/ (n) = a game in which numbered
e.g. The hours between 9 and 12 are our core hours tickets are sold to people who then have
when most deals with our clients are struck. a chance of winning a prize if their number
6.119 abolish /º`b≥læ«/ (v) = to end an activity or custom is chosen / loteria
officially / znieść, obalić e.g. Many people dream of winning the lottery
e.g. Slavery was abolished in British Colonies in 1834 and living a life of luxury.
and was officially ended in the United States in 1865. 6.129 come into force = to start existing and being used /
Der.: abolition (n) (np. o ustawie) wejść w życie
e.g. The new Public Disorder Bill comes into force
next month.
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6.130 gourmet /`gΔmΩ/ (adj) = related to fine food e.g. There’s too much salt in this dressing,
and drink / wyśmienity, dla smakoszy otherwise your salad is perfect.
e.g. Anton Edelmann is one of the top gourmet chefs 6.141 herb /hªb/ (n) = a type of plant whose leaves are
in the world and has written several books including used in cooking to give flavour to particular
Taking Tea at the Savoy. dishes / zioło
6.131 unpick the safety net (idm) = to become daring / e.g. Herbs are essential ingredients that should be kept
przestać działać zachowawczo in the kitchen of any aspiring chef.
e.g. John unpicked the safety net: he gave up his 6.142 kitchenware /`kæ∏ænw≈r/ (n) = plates, bowls, knives,
regular office job and became a carpenter. forks, spoons, etc used in the kitchen / sprzęt
6.132 throw oneself from the ledge (idm) = to dare to kuchenny
do sth innovative / skoczyć na głęboką wodę e.g. A well-stocked kitchen should include an ample
e.g. He threw himself from the ledge and started his supply of kitchenware, like sharp knives and pots
own business. and pans.
6.133 thud /ı∑d/ (n) = the sound that is made when sth 6.143 gift-wrapped /`gæftr±pt/ (adj) = wrapped in paper
heavy falls or hits sth else / łomot, głuchy odgłos in order to be presented as a gift / ozdobnie
e.g. Jonathan heard a heavy thud from the hall zapakowany
and went to investigate. e.g. He asked for the present to be gift-wrapped.
6.134 franchise /`fr±n∏¡z/ (n) = the right to sell 6.144 start-up /`st≤t∑p/ (adj) = (of a fee, costs, etc)
a company's products in a particular area needed for starting a company, business, etc /
using the company's name / koncesja na sprzedaż (o kosztach, wydatkach, finansach) na rozruch
produktów określonej marki na wyznaczonym terenie, e.g. The bank gave Janet the start-up funds for her
franszyza own business.
e.g. Philip was determined to open a franchise 6.145 sceptical /`skeptækºl/ (adj) = doubting that sth
of the Subway restaurant chain. is true or useful / sceptyczny
6.135 albeit /¿¥l`b∞æt/ (conj) = although / chociaż, aczkolwiek e.g. I have to admit that I’m rather sceptical
e.g. We will receive some financial help, of the benefits of the euro currency.
albeit a temporary one. 6.146 dismissal /¿dæs`mæsºl/ (n) = removing sb from
6.136 template /`templΩt/ (n) = pattern, model / szablon, their job / wymówienie, zwolnienie
wzorzec e.g. The dismissal of the minister came as a surprise
e.g. Although the novel was the template for the film, to everyone.
the director had to invent some storylines for dramatic 6.147 catch-all /`k±∏¥l/ (adj) = general and intended
effect. to include everything / ogólny, zawierający wszystko
6.137 legitimate /læ`πætæmºt/ (adj) = legal / uzasadniony, e.g. Package holiday is a catch-all term meaning that
uprawniony, prawowity your flights, accommodation, meals and the like are
e.g. Prince Michael Stewart has a legitimate claim included in the cost.
to the throne of Britain. 6.148 make redundant = to lay off / zwolnić (z pracy)
Opp.: illegitimate e.g. The company has been taken over by a rival firm
6.138 trademark /`trΩdm≤k/ (n) = a name or a symbol and many workers will be made redundant.
which is put on a product to show that it is 6.149 maternity /mº`tªnæti/ (n) = being or becoming
made by a particular producer and which a mother / macierzyństwo
cannot be legally used by any other producer / e.g. Mary has just had a baby and is on maternity
znak handlowy leave.
e.g. Companies protect their products through 6.150 assertion /º`sª«ºn/ (n) = a claim, statement
the use of trademarks. or declaration / stwierdzenie, potwierdzenie
6.139 truffle /`tr∑fºl/ (n) = a small round chocolate which e.g. A recent court case has provided the opportunity
is soft and creamy / trufla for the assertion of healthcare rights.
e.g. A truffle, which is made with chocolate and Der.: assertive (adj)
cream, is an excellent after-dinner treat. 6.151 statutory /`st±∏μtºri/ (adj) = decided or controlled
6.140 dressing /`dresæ…/ (n) = a thin sauce used with by law / ustawowy, regulaminowy
salads, usually made from oil or vinegar / e.g. Ministers have a statutory duty to report
sos sałatkowy any additional income they receive.
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6.152 tribunal /tr¡`bj∂nºl/ (n) = a special court or group 6.162 generate /`πenºrΩt/ (v) = to produce, to result in /
of people who are officially chosen to examine generować, powodować, przynosić
legal problems of a particular type / trybunał, sąd e.g. The advertisement placed in the newspaper
e.g. A military tribunal has been convened generated a lot of business by bringing in more
to investigate claims of negligence among sentries customers.
at air bases. 6.163 impartial /æm`p≤«ºl/ (adj) = fair, unbiased /
6.153 justifiable /¿π∑stæ`f¡ºbºl/ (adj) = reasonable / bezstronny, sprawiedliwy
uzasadniony, słuszny e.g. It is very important that the judge and jury
e.g. The man asserted that his use of deadly force remain impartial throughout a court case.
against the robber was justifiable under law. Der.: impartiality (n)
Der.: justifiably (adv) 6.164 facilitator /fº`sælætΩtºr/ (n) = sb or sth that makes
Opp.: unjustifiable things possible or easier / osoba lub czynnik
6.154 consult /kºn`s∑lt/ (v) = to discuss sth with sb ułatwiający coś
before one makes a decision / konsultować e.g. The Red Cross is a facilitator of aid to the most
e.g. The detective advised the suspect to consult needy in the world.
his lawyer before answering any questions. 6.165 structure /`str∑k∏ºr/ (n) = the way in which
Der.: consultant (n), consultation (n) the parts of a system or object are arranged
6.155 redeploy /¿r∞dæ`pl√/ (v) = to move employees or organised / struktura
to a different place or use them in a more e.g. The organisation of the company is based
effective way / przenieść pracowników na nowe on a pyramid structure.
stanowiska lub lepiej wykorzystać ich pracę 6.166 commodity /kº`m≥dæti/ (n) = a substance or product
e.g. The UN is redeploying troops to trouble spots that can be traded, bought or sold / towar
around the world. e.g. The price of basic commodities, such as bread
Der.: redeployment (n) and fruit, rose sharply when the euro was introduced.
6.156 get the most out of sth = to take full advantage 6.167 chaos /`kΩ≥s/ (n) = a state of total confusion
of sth / wykorzystać coś w całości, wycisnąć co się da and lack of order / chaos
e.g. My father advised me to get the most out of life e.g. The electrical failure in the country plunged
and to do as much as I could to help those who are the eastern part into chaos.
less fortunate. 6.168 dispense /dæ`spens/ (v) = to give out things,
6.157 chairperson /`∏≈pªsºn/ (n) = sb in charge of especially products, services or amounts
a meeting or organisation / przewodniczący of money, to people / rozdać, rozdzielać, wydawać
e.g. The chairperson invited the first speaker e.g. The aid agency dispensed food to the famine-
to take the floor. stricken country.
6.158 agenda /º`πendº/ (n) = a list of items to be 6.169 alternate /`¥ltºnΩt/ (v) = to happen or exist one
discussed at a meeting / porządek obrad, after the other repeatedly / występować
program zebrania na przemian, zmieniać się
e.g. We have three important problems on the agenda e.g. For the last few days, the weather’s been
for today. alternating between sunshine and rain.
6.159 turn up /`tªn `∑p/ (phr v) = to appear / pojawić się Der.: alternation (n), alternative (adj/n)
e.g. He hadn’t been at a lesson for two weeks, 6.170 stop-gap /`st≥pg±p/ (adj) = temporary / tymczasowy
so I was rather surprised that he turned up today. e.g. Before we employ fully qualified staff, we can hire
6.160 hand out /`h±nd `¬t/ (phr v) = to give sth to each student volunteers as a stopgap solution.
person in a group of people / rozdać 6.171 give the thumbs down (idm) = to reject / odrzucić
e.g. The teacher asked the pupil to hand out e.g. John’s proposal was given the thumbs down
a photocopy to everybody in the class. by his boss who disapproved of his ideas.
6.161 handout /`h±nd¬t/ (n) = a document given 6.172 resign oneself to sth /ræ`zaæn/ (v) = to accept sth
to people which contains information about unpleasant that cannot be changed or avoided /
a particular subject / materiały na określony temat poddać się z rezygnacją, pogodzić się z czymś
rozdawane np. uczestnikom spotkania lub zajęć e.g. He resigned himself to his fate, believing that
e.g. "I have a handout to help you structure your whatever will happen cannot be prevented.
essays," the teacher told her class.
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6.173 glowing /`gløæ…/ (adj) = enthusiastic / entuzjastyczny 6.185 switchboard /`swæ∏b¥d/ (n) = a piece of equipment
e.g. Peter got a glowing report card from his teacher which is used to direct all the telephone calls
with favourable comments. made to and from a particular building or area /
6.174 glistening /`glæsºnæ…/ (adj) = shiny / błyszczący, centrala telefoniczna
połyskujący e.g. The switchboard operator connected the call
e.g. The diamond necklace was glistening as requested.
in the moonlight. 6.186 jam /π±m/ (v) = to block sth / zablokować, zaklinować
6.175 admittance /±d`mætºns/ (n) = permission to enter e.g. The poor quality paper jammed the printer
a place / wstęp, dostęp so he had to have it repaired.
e.g. The sign above the door read “No admittance Der.: jam (n)
to persons under 18.“ 6.187 significantly /sæg`næfækºntli/ (adv) = considerably /
6.176 decent /`d∞sºnt/ (adj) = socially acceptable or good / znacząco
przyzwoity e.g. "Your effort in the classroom has significantly
e.g. Jim is paid a decent salary that allows him to live improved," the teacher told the pupil.
fairly comfortably. 6.188 incur /æn`kªr/ (v) = to have to pay (costs) /
6.177 would-be /`wμdb∞/ (adj) = wanting or trying to be / ponosić (koszty)
niedoszły, potencjalny e.g. The company incurs too high costs, so we must
e.g. Norman is a would-be film director, desperately economise on heating and electricity.
trying to break into the industry. 6.189 cutback /`k∑tb±k/ (n) = a reduction in sth made
in order to save money / redukcja, cięcie
(zwł. w ramach oszczędności)
Writing (pp. 134-138)
e.g. The memo stated that in order for the firm to save
6.178 comment on/about sth /`k≥ment/ (v) = to say money, cutbacks would be made in the workforce.
or write sth that expresses one’s opinion / 6.190 rectify /`rektæf¡/ (v) = to correct / naprawić krzywdę,
skomentować prostować, korygować
e.g. For their homework assignment, the students e.g. The mistake was his fault so he attempted
were asked to comment on the impact of current to rectify the situation.
agriculture policies on third-world countries. Der.: rectification (n)
6.179 conducive to sth /kºn`dj∂sæv/ (adj) = making things 6.191 export /`eksp¥t/ (n) = sending goods to another
likely to happen / sprzyjający czemuś country in order to sell them there / eksport
e.g. Consuming caffeine late at night is not conducive e.g. Export businesses are doing well under the current
to sleep. economic climate.
6.180 disciplinary /`dæsæplænºri/ (adj) = resulting from 6.192 cabinet /`k±bænæt/ (n) = a piece of furniture with
particular rules or standards / dyscyplinarny shelves, cupboards or drawers, which is used
e.g. "Disciplinary action will be taken against anyone for storing things / szafka, gablotka
breaking the rules," the headmaster said. e.g. The businessman ordered a cabinet so that
6.181 loyalty /`l√ºlti/ (n) = devotion / lojalność, oddanie, he could store his files.
wierność 6.193 adjustable /º`π∑stºbºl/ (adj) = able to be changed
e.g. The great thing about dogs is their loyalty to suit particular needs / regulowany
to their owners. e.g. If you’re going to work at a desk, get a chair
6.182 firm /fªm/ (n) = a company / firma with an adjustable back so you don’t damage
e.g. The insurance firm was looking to merge your posture.
with one of their rivals. 6.194 ergonomically /¿ªgº`n≥mækli/ (adv) = in such a way
6.183 lack /l±k/ (n) = absence of sth / brak as to improve effectiveness in the working
e.g. Greed for money and power has resulted environment / ergonomicznie
in a lack of compassion in the world today. e.g. The office was ergonomically designed
6.184 distracting /dæ`str±ktæ…/ (adj) = turning sb’s to improve the workers’ productivity.
attention away from what they intended to do / 6.195 put up /`pμt `∑p/ (phr v) = to stick or fasten
rozpraszający, przeszkadzający (to a wall) / wywiesić, powiesić (na ścianie)
e.g. Noise can be distracting when you’re trying e.g. The girl put up a poster of her favourite pop singer
to study for exams. on her bedroom wall.
97
UNIT 6

6.196 relocate /¿r∞lø`kΩt/ (v) = to move to a new place / 6.203 CV (curriculum vitae) /¿s∞ `v∞/ (n) = a short written
przenieść się, przemieścić, przestawić description of one’s education, qualifications,
e.g. The head office of the company relocated to the previous employment and personal interests,
other side of the city where rental prices were cheaper. sent to an employer when one is trying to get
Der.: relocation (n) a job / życiorys
6.197 sprained /sprΩnd/ (adj) = injured by a sudden e.g. He posted off his CV along with a letter
movement / skręcony, nadwerężony of recommendation from his former employers.
e.g. Due to his sprained ankle, the athlete couldn’t 6.204 have a bash at sth (idm) = to try / spróbować sił
participate in the race. w jakiejś dziedzinie
6.198 hands-free /`h±ndzfr∞/ (adj) = (of a piece of e.g. "It’s a difficult skill to master but have a bash
equipment) that can be used without holding at it," the instructor told his pupil.
it in one’s hand / sprzęt nie wymagający trzymania 6.205 sack /s±k/ (v) = to dismiss / zwolnić
w rękach e.g. He was sacked from his job for poor timekeeping.
e.g. Hands-free devices for your mobile phone 6.206 turn down /`tªn `d¬n/ (phr v) = to reject / odrzucić
are useful whilst driving. e.g. He turned down the offer in the hope of getting
6.199 eradicate /æ`r±dækΩt/ (v) = to destroy or get rid a yet better deal.
of sth completely / wykorzenić, zlikwidować 6.207 owe sb one = to be grateful to sb for sth /
e.g. Smoking is a nasty habit and should be być czyimś dłużnikiem
eradicated. e.g. "You saved my life back there; I owe you one,"
Der.: eradication (n) he said to his colleague.
6.200 degree /dæ`gr∞/ (n) = the qualification given to a 6.208 exaggerate /æg`z±πºrΩt/ (v) = to make sth seem
student who has completed a course of study larger, more important, better or worse than
at a university / tytuł lub stopień naukowy it really is / przesadzać, wyolbrzymiać
e.g. The student was awarded his degree after four e.g. Many politicians appear to exaggerate
years of hard work. their importance.
6.201 trustworthy /`tr∑stwª∫i/ (adj) = reliable / godny Der.: exaggeration (n), exaggeratedly (adv)
zaufania, solidny 6.209 supplier /sº`pl¡ºr/ (n) = a company, person, etc that
e.g. He is such a trustworthy individual that provides things which people want or need,
he can be entrusted with any secret. especially over a long period of time / dostawca
Opp.: unreliable e.g. A new supplier offered us a better deal, so now
6.202 vacant /`vΩkºnt/ (adj) = not filled or occupied, we get our goods for 15 per cent less.
available / pusty, wakujący 6.210 feature /`f∞∏ºr/ (v) = to present / prezentować
e.g. "The position of head chef is vacant; do you want e.g. The film Heat features Al Pacino and Robert
the job?" the manager asked. De Niro as a policeman and a thief respectively.

98
UNIT 6

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.


1 Janet’s dog went missing but eventually .......... of its own 6 Kelly was head of the teachers’ .......... for over twenty
accord. years.
A turned up C put up A trade union C firm
B handed out D turned down B trademark D public sector
2 The .......... was delayed because not all the fans were 7 The company was the main .......... of dairy products for
in the stadium. the entire region.
A take-off C lay-off A commodity C franchise
B trade-off D kick-off B supplier D steelworks
3 As a young .........., he received the minimum wage for 8 After the workout, Jim’s face was .......... with sweat.
two years before becoming a fully qualified tradesman. A glowing C gourmet
A assessor C apprentice B glamorous D glistening
B facilitator D recruit 9 John has a very .......... view of people; he believes they
4 He enjoyed his job as a .......... because he got to travel all always put themselves first.
round the country looking for gifted teenagers. A nasty C awkward
A chairperson C paper-shuffler B cynical D sceptical
B refuse collector D talent scout 10 Whenever there was an argument, Sally could always be
5 The meeting was scheduled for 2 pm in the .......... . relied upon to remain .......... .
A cubicle C boardroom A impartial C trustworthy
B division D switchboard B decent D assertive

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

The 2.4 km Forth Rail Bridge is one of the most famous landmarks in Scotland and one of the
greatest 0) engineering feats of the nineteenth century. Construction of a suspension bridge ENGINEER
designed by Sir Thomas Bouch began in 1879. However, when the Tay Bridge designed by
Bouch collapsed in a storm, killing many people, his plans were scrapped. In the aftermath of
the disaster, the public were naturally 1) ....................... about suspension bridges and APPREHEND
therefore an 2) ....................... design had to be found. Parliament demanded that certain ALTERNATE
conditions be met in order to overcome the 3) ....................... of the public, and foremost SCEPTIC
amongst these was the amount of 4) ....................... . The new bridge had to "gain the RIGID
confidence of the public and enjoy a reputation of being not only the biggest and strongest,
but also the stiffest bridge in the world." In other words, nothing less than 5) ....................... STRUCTURE
perfection would be acceptable. After fulfilling all the criteria, civil engineers John Fowler and
Benjamin Baker, who were both later knighted in 6) ....................... of their work, submitted RECOGNISE
a new design and construction on their bridge began in 1883. 7) ......................., the bridge INCREDIBLE
was completed in only seven years using over 55,000 tonnes of steel, 586,000 square metres
of paint, almost 200,000 tonnes of stone and concrete, over 21,000 tonnes of cement and
between 6 and 7 million rivets. However, in the 8) ....................... working environment, 57 HAZARD
men lost their lives, 106 received serious injuries and over 500 other accidents occurred.
In 1890 the Prince of Wales formally opened the Forth Rail Bridge in a ceremony in which he
drove home the last rivet.

99
UNIT 6

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ nasty ñ awkward ñ blunder ñ mundane ñ grant ñ lottery ñ dispense ñ relocate ñ export ñ exaggerated
1 The general made a tactical ...................... that cost the 6 ...................... businesses have been facing financial
lives of several men under his command. hardships recently due to a rise in tariffs.
2 The cost of construction had been greatly ......................; 7 He wanted to impress his bosses so he tackled even the
the final bill was considerably less than predicted. most ...................... tasks with enthusiasm.
3 In some countries, pharmacists cannot ...................... any 8 He felt a bit ...................... being in a room full of
medicine that contains the drug codeine. complete strangers.
4 John played the ...................... in the hope of becoming 9 Due to an impending ecological disaster, the indigenous
an instant millionaire. population of the island has to be ...................... .
5 You can see that he has a really ...................... side to him 10 After months of pleading, the scientist was finally
by the cruel and demeaning comments he often makes awarded a research ...................... .
to people.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.

1 Reductions on all suits are on offer/on hold/on demand 4 Due to the nature of their jobs, civil servants/blue-collar
at the tailor’s. workers/white-collar workers must remain apolitical.
2 I go to the gym in order to work off/work into/work up 5 Christina’s boss was so impressed with her work that she
excess fat. received a substantial raise/grant/perk.
3 My workmate/workbench/workhorse and I are going to 6 Ben was jammed/sacked/adjusted for poor timekeeping.
the bowling alley after we clock off.

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B
1 a blessing a inside job
2 meet b time on one’s hands
3 keep one’s mind c the thumbs down
4 mean d the deadline
5 make e to the grindstone
6 get something off f business
7 have g in disguise
8 keep one’s nose h ends meet
9 be an i on the job
10 give j the ground

1 Police received an anonymous tip-off that the robbery 6 The Prime Minister .................... the minister’s proposal
..................................................................................... . ..................................................................................... .
2 It’s going to be hard but provided we receive financial 7 The new boss definitely ................................................;
backing, we should be able to .................... the business he’s restructuring the entire managerial system.
..................................................................................... . 8 If we don’t ..............................., we’ll lose the contract.
3 We’ll have to spend much less for a few months if we’re 9 The collapse of the trade conference may yet prove to be
going to ...................................................................... . ..................................................................................... .
4 Bill’s ..............................................................................; 10 You should ignore what’s going on around you and
he’s got to finish his project by the end of the week. ..................................................................................... .
5 The problem with holidays is that unless you make plans,
you often .................... too much ............................... .
100
SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 3

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jeden błąd ortograficzny lub interpunkcyjny. Znajdź i popraw błąd, zapisując poprawkę
w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej linijce nie ma błędu, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

Off the north coast of Scotland, on the barren Orcadian island of Lamb 0 ✓
Holm stands an astonishing work of art, known as the Italian Chapel. Its 00 art known
beuty is such that few can believe that Italian prisoners of war 000 beauty
constructed it from a simple Nissen hut and scrap. 1,200 Italian POWs 1 ........................
arrived in Orkney in January 1942 to work on the costruction of the 2 ........................
Churchill Barriers. What was to emerge from their stay is an induring 3 ........................
symbol of peace and reconciliation. During the long nights, prisoners 4 ........................
thoughts would stray to their families in far-off Italy in the words of 5 ........................
Bruno Volpi, “Only by thinking of something nobler more elevated, 6 ........................
could we find inner peace and hope; so the tiny chapel came gradually 7 ........................
into existence. Domenico Chiocchetti, an artist and sculptor, recruited 8 ........................
craftsman from among the prisoners and work began. The painted 9 ........................
interier resembles brickwork and a façade disguises the Nissen hut. The 10 ........................
impressive altarpiece, painted by Chiocchetti, depicts the Madonna and 11 ........................
Child surrounded by cherubs, with a scrole which reads “Queen of 12 ........................
Peace, prey for us”. Jesus holds an olive branch while a cherub is 13 ........................
sheathing a sword both symbols of peace. Another cherub holds a shield 14 ........................
bearing the heraldic badge of Moena, Chiocchettis hometown. When 15 ........................
the POWs left Orkney, they left behind a small peace of Italy and a 16 ........................
remarkable example of how faith can survive in the face of advercity. 17 ........................

Self-Assessment Module 3
SA3.5 adamant /`±dºmºnt/ (adj) = determined not to
Vocabulary & Grammar (p. 139)
change one’s mind about sth / twardy, nieugięty,
SA3.1 core /k¥r/ (v) = the central or main part of sth / bezkompromisowy
rdzeń, sedno, istota e.g. He is adamant that the plan will go ahead despite
e.g. He had a talent for being able to get straight any shortcomings that have been pointed out to him.
to the core of a problem. SA3.6 crack /kr±k/ (v) = to break / złamać; załamać się
SA3.2 devise /dæ`vaæz/ (v) = to conceive and design e.g. Working seventy hours a week to provide for his
(an idea, plan, etc) / obmyślić, opracować five children proved too much for him and he cracked
e.g. The marketing director devised a plan that would under the pressure.
enable the company to increase its profits. SA3.7 gross /grøs/ (adv) = in total, before deductions /
SA3.3 stifle /`staæfºl/ (v) = to suppress, to prevent from brutto
happening / zdusić, stłamsić, stłumić e.g. David earns $50,000 gross, but his wife earns
e.g. He tried to stifle a yawn, but was unable to do so much more.
because he was tired after a long hard day at work. Opp.: net
SA3.4 asset /`±sºt/ (n) = sb or sth that is considered SA3.8 do sth on the offchance (idm) = to do sth although
useful or helps a person or organisation to be there is little hope of success / podjąć działanie
successful / kapitał, cenny nabytek mimo nikłych szans powodzenia
e.g. He’s proving to be a useful asset; the company e.g. He attended the party on the offchance that
has been better-off since he joined. he would meet a VIP.

101
SELF-ASSESSMENT MODULE 3

SA3.9 drown /dr¬n/ (v) = to die because one went or e.g. It is disheartening to see so many people wasting
was pushed under water and couldn’t breathe / their lives with drugs.
utonąć SA3.18 fake /fΩk/ (adj) = not genuine, false / sztuczny,
e.g. If you don’t follow the rules when you are in or fałszywy
around a swimming pool, you could have an accident e.g. He spoke with a fake American accent,
and perhaps even drown. but everybody could hear he was British.
SA3.19 land sth /l±nd/ (v) = to get sth (especially a job)
that many other people want to get /
Use of English (p. 140)
załapać się
SA3.10 ultimately /`∑ltæmºtli/ (adv) = finally, after a long e.g. Mike landed a managerial position: he was
complicated series of events / ostatecznie, w końcu, selected from among fifty candidates!
wreszcie SA3.20 be marooned = to be left in a place from where
e.g. Ultimately, it was the best course of action it is difficult to escape / znaleźć się w odludnym
we could take. miejscu lub w niesprzyjających okolicznościach
SA3.11 pool /p∂l/ (n) = a group of people available for work e.g. After the ship went down, the sailors were
when needed / pula, zasoby, rezerwy, zespół marooned on a desert island.
e.g. Software companies from California found yet SA3.21 wannabe /`w≥nºb∞/ (n) = sb who tries very hard
another pool of computer specialists in India. to be like a famous person / nieudolny naśladowca
SA3.12 committee /kº`mæti/ (n) = a group of people who (np. znanej osoby)
meet to make decisions or plans for a larger e.g. He was a wannabe Hollywood star but lacked
group or organisation that they represent / the talent.
komitet, komisja SA3.22 prerequisite /pr∞`rekwæzæt/ (n) = a precondition,
e.g. Most universities have a staff-student committee sth that must happen or exist before another
that hears suggestions, complaints and the like from thing is possible / warunek wstępny, przesłanka
students of a particular department. e.g. A prerequisite for working as a taxi driver
SA3.13 ward /w¥d/ (n) = a part of a hospital for people is a clean driving licence.
with similar medical conditions / oddział szpitalny SA3.23 guild /gæld/ (n) = an organisation of people who do
e.g. The children’s ward at our local hospital is among the same job / stowarzyszenie zawodowe, korporacja
the best in this country. e.g. To become a professional actor, you have to join
the Screen Actors’ Guild.
SA3.24 voucher /`v¬t«ºr/ (n) = here: a document
Reading (pp. 140-141)
confirming you worked on a film or TV project /
SA3.14 prove oneself = to show other people how good tu: dokument potwierdzający pracę w filmie lub telewizji
one is at doing sth / sprawdzić się e.g. It is necessary for young actors to collect vouchers
e.g. Jack had three months to prove himself so as to have evidence of their professional experience.
in his new job. SA3.25 fabulous /`f±bjμlºs/ (adj) = extremely good, great /
SA3.15 flock /fl≥k/ (v) = to go somewhere in large bajeczny, wspaniały
numbers / gromadzić się, napływać e.g. “Have you seen Fiona’s new dress? It’s simply
e.g. Hundreds of people flocked to the airport to catch fabulous!“
a glimpse of the rock star. SA3.26 joint /π√nt/ (n) = a cheap place when people meet
SA3.16 audition /¥`d櫺n/ (n) = a short performance by to eat, drink or dance / tani lokal
an actor, singer, dancer or musician so that e.g. “Let’s have a quick lunch at the fish’n’chips joint
a conductor or director can decide if sb is good round the corner.“
enough to be in an orchestra, film or play / SA3.27 B-movie /`b∞m∂vi/ (n) = a film which is produced
przesłuchanie quickly and cheaply and is often considered
e.g. He attended the audition in the hope of getting to have little artistic value / film klasy B
the lead role in the play. e.g. B-movies are a cheap means of entertainment.
SA3.17 disheartening /dæs`h≤tºnæ…/ (adj) = depressing, SA3.28 tenacious /tæ`ne櫺s/ (adj) = determined not to give
making one feel disappointed, less confident, up easily / wytrwały, nieustępliwy
less hopeful / zniechęcający, deprymujący, e.g. He was a very tenacious individual who never
przygnębiający gave in to anything easily.
102
UNIT 7

SA3.29 break up /`breæk `∑p/ (phr v) = (of a relationship, etc) SA3.32 give it a shot (idm) = to try to do it / spróbować
to end / zerwać; rozstać się; (o związku) rozpaść się e.g. I know windsurfing is difficult but I’ll give it a shot.
e.g. After a stormy six months together, the couple SA3.33 film extra /`fælm ¿ekstrº/ (n) = sb who plays
decided to call it a day and break up. unimportant parts in a film / statysta
SA3.30 minefield /`maænf∞ld/ (n) = here: a situation where e.g. The standard rate of pay for a film extra
there are a lot of hidden dangers or problems, is $50 a day.
so people need to behave with care / dosł. pole SA3.34 bleak /bl∞k/ (adj) = hopeless and discouraging /
minowe; tu: niebezpieczna sytuacja niewesoły, przygnębiający
e.g. Race issues are a minefield for politicians e.g. When Stewart’s mother died, the future looked
so they try to stay clear of them. bleak to him.
SA3.31 clipped /klæpt/ (adj) = neatly cut / skrócone, przycięte
e.g. She was a well-educated and articulate young
Englishwoman who spoke with neatly clipped vowels.

Fit for Life 7


e.g. During her long illness, Mary felt gloomy
Lead-in (p. 145)
about being confined to the house for so long.
7.1 diagnose /`d¡ºgnøz/ (v) = to identify an illness / 7.7 sovereign /`s≥vræn/ (adj) = supreme / nadrzędny,
zdiagnozować najważniejszy; doskonały
e.g. Doctors had no trouble diagnosing Carl’s illness e.g. Fitness enthusiasts swear by exercise
and it wasn’t long before he was completely cured. as a sovereign remedy for overall well-being.
Der: diagnosis (n) 7.8 invigorator /æn`vægºrΩtºr/ (n) = sth that makes
7.2 alternative medicine /¥l`tªnºtæv `medsºn/ (n) sb feel fresher, healthier and more energetic /
= treatment without using drugs but medicines pokrzepienie, orzeźwienie
from plants, massage, etc / medycyna alternatywna e.g. Yoga is said to be an excellent invigorator
e.g. Nowadays, aromatherapy is a popular form of both body and mind.
of alternative medicine.
7.3 indigestion /¿ændæ`πes∏ºn/ (n) = pain in the stomach Reading (pp. 146-147)
caused by difficulties in digesting food /
niestrawność 7.9 quote /kwøt/ (v) = to mention, to allude to /
e.g. Eating too much pastry gives Sarah indigestion, cytować, przytaczać
so she tries to avoid it whenever possible. e.g. Newscasters on most of the major TV channels
7.4 acupuncture /`±kjμp∑…k∏ºr/ (n) = treatment quoted the minister’s speech on health reform
by sticking small needles into one's body / last night.
akupunktura Der: quotation (n)
e.g. The family doctor recommended that Brian 7.10 utter /`∑tºr/ (v) = to say / powiedzieć
try acupuncture as a treatment for pain relief. e.g. When the doctor reprimanded Tina for forgetting
7.5 frustrated /fr∑`strΩtæd/ (adj) = discontented, to take her medicine, she didn’t utter a word.
not satisfied / sfrustrowany Der: utterance (n)
e.g. The patient felt frustrated when she was 7.11 fundamental /¿f∑ndº`mentºl/ (adj) = basic /
told that her doctor couldn’t see her for a week. fundamentalny, podstawowy
7.6 gloomy /`gl∂mi/ (adj) = depressed / ponury, e.g. The doctor’s fundamental concern was that
przygnębiony his patient received the best possible treatment.

103
UNIT 7

7.12 antibiotics /¿±ntæb¡`≥tæks/ (n) = medical drugs used 7.28 Ernest Duchesne /`ªnæst djμ`«Ωn/
to kill bacteria and treat infections / antybiotyki 7.29 Hippocrates /hæ`p≥krºt∞z/
e.g. Tim’s ear infection was so severe that his doctor 7.30 Felix Hoffman /`f∞læks `h≥fmºn/
prescribed a five-day course of antibiotics.
7.13 vein /vΩn/ (n) = a thin tube in one's body through 7.31 undertake /¿∑ndº`tΩk/ (v) = to agree or promise
which the blood flows towards the heart / żyła to do sth / podjąć (zadanie)
e.g. It was difficult for the nurse to find a suitable vein e.g. Wendy promised to undertake the task of looking
in which to inject the drug. after her ailing father.
7.14 circulation of the blood = the movement 7.32 dispel /dæ`spel/ (v) = to make a feeling or belief
of the blood through the body / krążenie krwi disappear / rozwiać (np. obawy, wątpliwości)
e.g. Anyone who has poor circulation of the blood e.g. The government is trying to dispel the idea
should seek medical advice before flying. that the National Health Service is in decline.
7.15 valve /v±lv/ (n) = a small piece of tissue in the 7.33 propel /prº`pel/ (v) = to cause sth to move
heart or in a vein which controls the flow of in a particular direction / napędzać, poruszać, pchać
blood and keeps it flowing in one direction e.g. The heart is an organ in your chest that propels
only / zastawka blood around your body.
e.g. After years of suffering from a heart complaint, 7.34 artery /`≤tºri/ (n) = a tube in one's body that carries
Tom needed to have a heart valve replaced. blood from the heart to the rest of the body /
7.16 smallpox /`sm¥lp≥ks/ (n) = a serious infectious tętnica
disease which causes spots that leave deep e.g. The man had a painful ulcer on his leg that
marks on the skin / ospa was caused by a blocked artery.
e.g. The first symptoms of smallpox include fever, 7.35 circulatory system /¿sªkjμ`lΩtºri `sæstºm/ (n)
head and body pains and sometimes vomiting. = the circulation of the blood in the body /
7.17 contemporary /kºn`tempºrºri/ (n) = sb who lives układ krążenia
at the same time as sb else / współczesny, e.g. William Harvey made medical history with
rówieśnik his theory that the heart was at the centre
e.g. A contemporary of Alexander Fleming, of the circulatory system.
Ernest Duchesne, is said to have first discovered 7.36 puzzled /`p∑zºld/ (adj) = confused / zaintrygowany,
the antibiotic properties of penicillin in 1896. zakłopotany
7.18 preventive medicine /præ`ventæv `medsºn/ (n) e.g. Doctors were puzzled by the woman’s strange
= medicine which prevents a disease / symptoms and suggested that she undergo various
medycyna zapobiegawcza tests.
e.g. Preventive medicine is valuable because 7.37 riddle /`rædºl/ (n) = a puzzle that people have been
it reduces the risk of becoming sick and having to unsuccessfully trying to understand / zagadka
suffer the consequences of more serious illnesses. e.g. It was months before the doctor solved the riddle
7.19 contradict /¿k≥ntrº`dækt/ (v) = to oppose / of Tim’s constant backache.
zaprzeczać, przeczyć 7.38 motion /`mø«ºn/ (n) = movement / ruch
e.g. The majority of Darwin’s peers contradicted e.g. Don’t stand so close while the machine
his theory of evolution, believing it to be totally is in motion.
misleading . 7.39 entitled /æn`t¡tºld/ (adj) = having a given title /
Der: contradiction (n), contradictory (adj) zatytułowany
e.g. He received a copy of a medical journal
Pronunciation tips
entitled Life and Science.
7.20 eureka /jμº`r∞kº/
7.40 debunk /¿d∞`b∑…k/ (v) = to show that sth is less
7.21 penicillin /penº`sælæn/
important or not as good as it has been made
7.22 aspirin /`±spræn/
to appear / odbrązowić, zdemaskować
7.23 lysozyme /`l¡zøz¡m/
e.g. The decline of conditions in hospitals has
7.24 William Harvey /`wiljºm `h≤væ/
debunked the idea of free, high-quality health care.
7.25 Hieronymius Fabricius /h¡º`r≥næmºs fº`br櫺s/
7.41 misconception /¿mæskºn`sep«ºn/ (n) = an idea that
7.26 Edward Jenner /`edwºd `πenºr/
is not correct, a fallacy / błąd myślowy, błędne
7.27 Alexander Fleming /±læg`z≤ndº `flemæ…/
przekonanie
104
UNIT 7

e.g. People were under the misconception that the e.g. The latest statistics on infectious diseases
earth was flat until Copernicus suggested otherwise. are undoubtedly alarming, especially in countries
7.42 liver /`lævºr/ (n) = a large organ in the body which without proper sanitation.
processes and cleans the blood / wątroba 7.54 universally /¿j∂næ`vªsºli/ (adv) = by everyone or
e.g. Roger will undergo a liver transplant as soon in every case / generalnie, ogólnie, powszechnie
as a suitable donor is found. e.g. The new drug will treat thousands of infected
7.43 footing /`fμtæ…/ (n) = the basis on which sth people, but unfortunately it is not universally
is established or organised / stopa, pozycja available.
e.g. This year, with the higher sales volume, 7.55 bacterial /b±k`tƒriºl/ (adj) = connected with
our company is on a new financial footing. or caused by bacteria / bakteryjny
7.44 deadly /`dedli/ (adj) = lethal / śmiercionośny, zabójczy e.g. Cholera is a bacterial infection caused by drinking
e.g. Deadly fumes overcame many workers during contaminated water or by eating contaminated food.
a recent chemical plant explosion. 7.56 cell /sel/ (n) = the smallest basic unit of a plant
7.45 intrigue /æn`tr∞g/ (v) = to fascinate / intrygować or animal / komórka
e.g. The theory of human evolution has intrigued e.g. All animals and plants are made up
scientists for many decades. of millions of cells.
7.46 country-lore /`k∑ntri¿l¥r/ (n) = local, traditional Der: cellular (adj)
knowledge concerning a particular subject, 7.57 dissolve /dæ`z≥lv/ (v) = to mix with liquid
usually transmitted orally / mądrość ludowa, and disappear / rozpuścić (się)
opowieści związane z danym tematem lub miejscem e.g. She prefers to take soluble aspirin when she has
e.g. The country-lore says these forests are inhabited a headache because it can be dissolved in water.
by unfriendly trolls. 7.58 dead end (idm) = sth that does not lead to further
7.47 cowpox /`k¬p≥ks/ (n) = a disease of cattle / developments / ślepy zaułek
krowianka, ospa krowia e.g. His research came to a dead end when he learnt
e.g. Cowpox produces immunity to a more serious that the government had withdrawn further funding.
infectious disease known as smallpox. 7.59 efficacious /¿efæ`kΩ«ºs/ (adj) = effective / skuteczny,
7.48 contract /kºn`tr±kt/ (v) = to get an illness / efektywny
nabawić się choroby, zarazić się e.g. The latest drug on the market for treating hay
e.g. The woman sued the hospital after contracting fever is said to be highly efficacious and relieves
an illness from a blood transfusion. people of their distressing symptoms in no time.
7.49 dairymaid /`d≈rimΩd/ (n) = a woman who works 7.60 nonpathogenic /¿n≥np±ıº`πenæk/ (adj) = (of any
in a place where milk products are made / virus or bacteria) which does not cause disease /
mleczarka, dojarka nie chorobotwórczy, nie patogenny
e.g. Milking cows was once a dairymaid’s job e.g. There are two types of bacteria: one causes
but now it’s done by modern machinery. disease while the other is nonpathogenic.
7.50 rash /r±«/ (n) = an area of red spots on the skin / 7.61 disintegrate /dæs`æntægrΩt/ (v) = to fall to pieces /
wysypka rozpaść się, zdezintegrować
e.g. The doctor explained that the rash on Julie’s body e.g. The rescue plane disintegrated into a thousand
was an allergic reaction to something she’d eaten. pieces after crashing into the snow-covered mountain.
7.51 scratch /skr±∏/ (v) = to rub one's fingernails Der: disintegration (n)
against the skin / drapać (się) 7.62 mould /møld/ (n) = a fine soft substance like fur
e.g. The young boy’s mother warned him not that forms on stale food or on objects left
to scratch the spots on his face for fear they became in warm wet air / pleśń
infected. e.g. On returning from holiday, David was horrified
7.52 scalpel /`sk±lpºl/ (n) = a knife with a short thin when he saw a piece of cheese on the kitchen table
sharp blade used by surgeons during that was covered in mould.
operations / skalpel 7.63 hypothesize /h¡`p≥ıæs¡z/ (v) = to speculate /
e.g. The surgeon used a scalpel to make an incision spekulować, wysuwać hipotezy
in the patient’s chest. e.g. The medical team hypothesized that the man’s
7.53 undoubtedly /∑n`d¬tædli/ (adv) = without doubt / condition could have resulted from a childhood illness.
niewątpliwie, bezsprzecznie
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7.64 receive credit for sth = to be praised for sth / e.g. He is said to have died of a stroke after a blood
zdobyć uznanie vessel ruptured in his brain.
e.g. The rescue party received credit for saving the life 7.75 heart attack /`h≤t º¿t±k/ (n) = a sudden illness
of two young skiers who had been buried in the snow in which the heart beats irregularly causing
for more than twelve hours. great pain and sometimes death / zawał serca
7.65 fungus /`f∑…gºs/ (n) = any of various types of e.g. One of Bob’s colleagues was rushed to hospital
organisms which obtain their food from after suffering a massive heart attack.
decaying material or other living things / grzyb
e.g. Certain types of fungus, such as mushrooms,
Language Focus (pp. 148-151)
are edible while others are extremely poisonous.
7.66 bark /b≤k/ (n) = tough material that covers 7.76 cornea /`k¥niº/ (n) = the transparent skin covering
the outside of a tree / kora the outside of the eye / rogówka
e.g. While on an excursion in the country, the young e.g. The cornea in the man’s left eye was so badly
couple carved their initials in the bark of a tree. damaged that he needed a transplant.
7.67 willow tree /`wælø tr∞/ (n) = a kind of tree with 7.77 pupil /`pj∂pæl/ (n) = the small round black hole
long branches and long narrow leaves that in the centre of the eye / źrenica
grows near water / wierzba e.g. Cats’ pupils expand enormously, which is why
e.g. As the girls relaxed by the side of the river, the long they can see well in the dark.
flowing branches of the willow tree shaded them 7.78 eardrum /`ƒdr∑m/ (n) = the thin piece of tightly
from the midday sun. stretched skin inside the ear which vibrates
7.68 synthesize /`sænıæs¡z/ (v) = to manufacture, when sound waves reach it / bębenek
produce / wytwarzać, produkować e.g. Suzie’s ear infection was so bad that her eardrum
e.g. Vitamins are chemical compounds that cannot actually burst.
be synthesized by the human body. 7.79 ear lobe /`ƒ løb/ (n) = the soft part at the bottom
7.69 salicylic acid /¿s±lº`sælæk `±sæd/ (n) = a kind of acid / of the ear / płatek ucha
kwas salicylowy e.g. Richard had one of his ear lobes pierced because
e.g. Salicylic acid, more commonly known as aspirin, he wanted to wear a diamond earring.
is used to treat aches and pains. 7.80 airway /`≈wΩ/ (n) = the passage from the nose
7.70 prostaglandin /¿pr≥stº`gl±ndæn/ (n) = a kind and mouth down to the lungs through which
of enzyme / prostaglandyna air enters and leaves the body / drogi oddechowe
e.g. Prostaglandins are derivatives of fatty acids e.g. The patient almost died after accidentally
that are produced in most tissues of the body. swallowing something that caused a blockage
7.71 enzyme /`enz¡m/ (n) = a chemical substance found in his airway.
in living creatures which produces changes in 7.81 skull /sk∑l/ (n) = the bony part of the head which
other substances without being changed itself / encloses the brain / czaszka
enzym e.g. The X-rays showed that the woman had
e.g. Enzymes accelerate and control all biochemical a fractured skull and several broken bones.
processes in the body. 7.82 incisor /æn`s¡zºr/ (n) = a tooth at the front of the
7.72 blood vessel /`bl∑d vesºl/ (n) = a narrow tube mouth which is used for biting into food / siekacz
through which the blood flows / naczynie e.g. Little Stewart fell on the pavement and broke one
krwionośne of his incisors.
e.g. The driver whose car was wrecked in the accident 7.83 collarbone /`k≥lºbøn/ (n) = the bone which runs
was so angry that he burst a blood vessel in his nose. from the throat to the shoulder / obojczyk
7.73 dilation /d¡`lΩ«ºn/ (n) = becoming wider / e.g. James was in agony after breaking his collarbone
rozszerzenie while playing rugby.
e.g. The doctor put some drops in the patient’s eyes 7.84 spine /sp¡n/ (n) = the row of bones down
to measure the dilation of her pupils. the back / kręgosłup
7.74 stroke /strøk/ (n) = a sudden illness in the brain e.g. Curvature of the spine is often the result
that is caused when a blood vessel bursts of sleeping on a soft mattress.
or becomes blocked / udar

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7.85 breastbone /`brestbøn/ (n) = the long bone which e.g. Rich food is hard to digest so it’s better
goes from the throat to the bottom of the ribs to avoid eating it late at night.
and to which the ribs are attached / mostek Der: digestion (n), digestive (adj)
e.g. A symptom of indigestion is a sharp pain under 7.96 blurred vision /`blªd `v滺n/ (n) = a condition
the breastbone. in which sb cannot see things clearly /
7.86 ribcage /`ræbkΩπ/ (n) = the structure of ribs widzenie niewyraźne, nieostre
around the chest / klatka piersiowa e.g. Because the workman was suffering from
e.g. The biology teacher explained to the young blurred vision, he was advised not to drive
students that the ribcage protects the heart or operate any heavy machinery.
and other vital organs. 7.97 hoarseness /`h¥snºs/ (n) = having a voice which
7.87 kneecap /`n∞k±p/ (n) = the bone at the front sounds rough and unclear / chrypka
of the knee / rzepka e.g. The hoarseness in his voice is due to smoking
e.g. Skateboarders are advised to wear pads on their too many cigarettes.
legs to protect their kneecaps from injury. 7.98 hazy /`hΩzi/ (adj) = that cannot be seen clearly /
7.88 shin /«æn/ (n) = the front part of the leg between zamglony, mętny, niejasny
the knee and the ankle / goleń e.g. Everything in the room seemed hazy to her just
e.g. After falling off her bike, Dora’s shins and elbows before she collapsed on the floor.
were so badly scraped that her mother took Opp: clear
her to hospital. 7.99 blotch /bl≥∏/ (n) = a mark on the skin, usually
7.89 wheeze /w∞z/ (v) = to breathe with difficulty and not regular in shape / krosta, plama na skórze
make a whistling noise / mieć świszczący oddech e.g. Tim loves strawberries but unfortunately they
e.g. The elderly gentleman must have problems with bring him out in red blotches all over his body.
his chest because he coughs and wheezes the whole 7.100 ophthalmologist /¿≥fı±l`m≥lºπæst/ (n) = a doctor
time. who specialises in problems and diseases
7.90 yawn /j¥n/ (v) = to open the mouth very wide affecting the eyes / okulista, oftalmolog
and breathe in more air than usual / ziewać e.g. The ophthalmologist suggested laser treatment
e.g. It’s only manners to cover your mouth when to correct his patient’s myopia.
you yawn. 7.101 cardiologist /¿k≤di`≥lºπæst/ (n) = a doctor who
7.91 throb /ır≥b/ (v) = to feel a series of strong and specialises in the heart and its diseases / kardiolog
painful beats in a part of the body / pulsować, e.g. South African cardiologist Christian Bernard
tętnić carried out the first heart transplant operation.
e.g. Halfway through the meeting she had 7.102 dermatologist /¿dªmº`t≥lºπæst/ (n) = a doctor
a throbbing headache, so she asked to be excused who specialises in the study of the skin
and went home. and its diseases / dermatolog
7.92 blink /blæ…k/ (v) = to close the eyes and open them e.g. The dermatologist recommended a new drug
quickly / mrugnąć to treat the teenager’s skin complaint.
e.g. I thought Catherine was about to cry, but she 7.103 orthopaedic surgeon /¿¥ıº`p∞dæk ¿sªπºn/ (n)
blinked a few times and then gave me = a doctor who specialises in injuries and
a half-hearted smile. diseases affecting bones and muscles /
7.93 swallow /`sw≥lø/ (v) = to cause food to go from chirurg ortopeda
the mouth down into the stomach / połknąć e.g. After months of suffering with a bad back,
e.g. When I was ill, I had to swallow about five tablets I eventually made an appointment to see
three times a day. an orthopaedic surgeon.
7.94 bruise /br∂z/ (v) = to develop or make a purple 7.104 ENT (ear, nose and throat) specialist /¿∞ en `t∞
mark on the skin as a result of an injury / ¿spe«ºlæst/ (n) = a doctor who specialises in
posiniaczyć; zsinieć diseases affecting the ear, nose and throat /
e.g. The boy’s eye was badly bruised so his mother laryngolog
put an ice pack over it to stop the swelling. e.g. The child had trouble breathing through the nose,
7.95 digest /d¡`πest/ (v) = to change food in the so the doctor referred him to an ENT specialist.
stomach in such a way that it can be used
by the body / trawić
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7.105 arthritis /≤ı`r¡tæs/ (n) = a medical condition 7.116 referee /¿refº`r∞/ (n) = the official who controls
in which the joints in one's body are swollen a sports event such as a football or basketball
and painful / zapalenie stawu lub stawów game / sędzia sportowy
e.g. The elderly lady needed a walking frame e.g. The referee gave the footballer a red card
to get about as she was crippled with arthritis. and sent him off the pitch.
7.106 pulled muscle /`pμld `m∑sºl/ (n) = a muscle that has 7.117 shuttlecock /`«∑tºlk≥k/ (n) = the small object that sb
been injured / naciągnięty, nadwerężony mięsień hits over the net in a game of badminton / lotka
e.g. A pulled muscle in her neck prevented her from e.g. Sam packed his racket and shuttlecocks in his
working on her computer. sport’s bag and set off for the badminton tournament.
7.107 eczema /`eksæmº/ (n) = a skin disease which makes 7.118 puck /p∑k/ (n) = the small rubber disc in a game
the skin itchy, sore and rough / wyprysk, egzema of ice hockey / krążek hokejowy
e.g. A new wonder drug on the market has brought e.g. The ice hockey player slammed the puck
relief to thousands of people suffering from eczema. into the back of the net to score the winning goal.
7.108 concussion /kºn`k∑«ºn/ (n) = loss of consciousness 7.119 commentator /`k≥mºntΩtºr/ (n) = a broadcaster
or feeling sick after a blow to one's head / who gives a radio or television commentary
wstrząśnienie mózgu of an event / komentator
e.g. The boy was rushed to hospital with concussion e.g. The sports commentator claimed that it was
after falling off his horse during a polo match. the most exciting match of the season.
7.109 fatigue /fº`t∞g/ (n) = a feeling of extreme physical 7.120 tarmac /`t≤m±k/ (n) = a material used for making
and mental tiredness, exhaustion / wyczerpanie road surfaces / asfalt
e.g. The climbers struggled on for days before the cold e.g. One of the racing drivers skidded on the wet
and fatigue finally forced them to turn back. tarmac before crashing into the barrier.
7.110 bone fracture /`bøn ¿fr±k∏ºr/ (n) = a slight crack 7.121 sprain /sprΩn/ (n) = injury caused to a joint /
or break in a bone / złamanie, pęknięcie kości uraz stawu, skręcenie
e.g. David’s leg was set in plaster after he suffered e.g. The footballer was suffering from a painful
a bone fracture during an accident. ankle sprain and was carried off the pitch.
7.111 appendicitis /º¿pendæ`s¡tæs/ (n) = an illness in which 7.122 shinguard /`«æng≤d/ (n) = a pad for the protection
the appendix is infected and painful / of the lower leg / nagolennik
zapalenie wyrostka robaczkowego e.g. Hockey players wear shinguards to protect their
e.g. Kelly was said to be suffering from acute legs from injury.
appendicitis after complaining that her abdomen 7.123 archery /`≤∏ºri/ (n) = a sport in which the
was swollen and painful. contestant shoots arrows at a target using
7.112 homeopathy /¿hømi`≥pºıi/ (n) = a way of treating a bow / łucznictwo
an illness in which the patient is given small e.g. Bob borrowed someone’s bow and arrow at the
amounts of a drug that produces symptoms archery festival and managed to score a bull’s eye
of the illness in healthy people / homeopatia on his very first shot.
e.g. There is said to be more than 100,000 doctors 7.124 snooker /`sn∂kºr/ (n) = a game with coloured balls
practising homeopathy around the world today. played on a large table by hitting the balls with
7.113 sling /slæ…/ (n) = a piece of cloth which supports a long stick / snooker
one's broken or injured arm and is tied around e.g. Peter has a games room in his house and invited
the neck / temblak me for a game of snooker.
e.g. After the woman injured her arm, it was in a sling 7.125 rowing /`røæ…/ (n) = a sport in which people or
for quite a few weeks. teams race against each other in boats with
7.114 cast /k≤st/ (n) = a case made of plaster that covers oars / wioślarstwo
a broken bone / gips e.g. During one of the most popular rowing events
e.g. Frank’s leg is in a cast, he broke it again! in England, one of rowers dropped his oar and his
7.115 stopwatch /`st≥pw≥∏/ (n) = a watch with buttons team was disqualified.
which sb presses at the beginning and end 7.126 go-kart racing /`gøk≤t ¿rΩsæ…/ (n) = the sport
of an event to measure how long it lasts / stoper of racing in a very small motor vehicle with
e.g. According to the sports trainer’s stopwatch, four wheels / wyścigi gokartów
the athlete had set a new world record.
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e.g. The boy and his father went go-kart racing 7.136 court /k¥t/ (n) = the area in which a game such
last weekend and they really enjoyed the speed as tennis, basketball, badminton or squash
and competition. is played / kort (np. tenisowy) lub boisko
7.127 wrestling /`reslæ…/ (n) = a sport in which two people (np. do badmintona, koszykówki)
wrestle and try to throw each other to the e.g. One of the tennis players was ordered off court
ground / zapasy after insulting the umpire.
e.g. Mike won a bronze medal in the wrestling 7.137 invigorating /æn`vægºrΩtæ…/ (adj) = refreshing,
competition after pinning his opponent to the floor. revitalising / krzepiący, orzeźwiający
7.128 synchronised swimming /`sæ…krºn¡zd ¿swæmæ…/ (n) e.g. Bob likes to take an invigorating shower
= a sport in which two or more people perform before work.
complicated and carefully planned movements 7.138 stamina /`st±mænº/ (n) = the physical or mental
in water in time to music / pływanie artystyczne energy needed to do a tiring activity for a long
lub synchroniczne time / wytrzymałość
e.g. The synchronised swimming team were e.g. The marathon runner wasn’t sure if he had
in and out of the pool all day long, practising enough stamina to finish the race.
for their upcoming display. 7.139 excruciating /æks`kr∂«iΩtæ…/ (adj) = unbearable,
7.129 angling /`±…glæ…/ (n) = the activity or sport painful / (o bólu) nie do zniesienia, rozdzierający
of fishing with a fishing rod / wędkarstwo e.g. After twisting his ankle, the athlete was
e.g. My father’s favourite pastime is angling in excruciating pain and collapsed to the ground.
even though he rarely catches any fish. 7.140 nagging /`n±gæ…/ (adj) = irritating / dokuczliwy
7.130 squash /skw≥«/ (n) = a game in which two players e.g. The swimmer tried to ignore the nagging pain
hit a small rubber ball against the walls of in his neck until the race was over.
a court using rackets / squash 7.141 internal /æn`tªnºl/ (adj) = inner / wewnętrzny
e.g. When the boys finished their game of squash, e.g. Although the stunt artist had very few visible
they were exhausted. injuries, he was found to be suffering from internal
7.131 softball /`s≥ftb¥l/ (n) = a game similar to baseball bleeding which almost killed him.
but played with a larger softer ball / softball, Opp: external
odmiana baseballu 7.142 contagious /kºn`tΩπºs/ (adj) = infectious,
e.g. Because the boys have broken so many windows transmittable / zaraźliwy, zakaźny
playing ball games, their mother forbids them to play e.g. The contagious diseases unit of the hospital was
anything but softball. off-limits to everyone except authorised personnel.
7.132 track /tr±k/ (n) = an oval-shaped piece of ground 7.143 outpatient treatment /`¬tpΩ«ºnt ¿tr∞tmºnt/ (n) =
used for races / tor wyścigowy treatment given to a patient who is not going
e.g. The spectators cheered loudly as the final runner to stay in hospital / leczenie ambulatoryjne
rounded the track and staggered towards the e.g. Her injury wasn’t serious enough to be admitted
finishing line. to hospital, but she had to attend the outpatient
7.133 pitch /pæ∏/ (n) = an area of ground used for playing treatment centre almost every other day.
a game such as football, cricket or hockey / 7.144 rigorous /`rægºrºs/ (adj) = exact, thorough /
boisko surowy, rygorystyczny; dokładny
e.g. The cricket match was postponed because e.g. The woman had to undergo a series of rigorous
the pitch was too wet after a recent storm. tests before the heart transplant surgery could
7.134 ring /ræ…/ (n) = an enclosed place where a wrestling go ahead.
or a boxing match takes place / ring 7.145 baffle /`b±fºl/ (v) = to confuse, to puzzle / wprawić
e.g. The reporters clambered into the ring as soon w zakłopotanie, zmieszać, zbić z tropu
as the boxing match was over, hoping to interview e.g. Even after months of medical tests, the child’s
the new heavyweight champion of the world. illness continued to baffle her doctors.
7.135 rink /ræ…k/ (n) = a large area covered with ice for 7.146 meningitis /¿menæn`π¡tæs/ (n) = a serious infectious
ice skating, or with concrete for roller skating / illness which affects the brain and spinal cord /
lodowisko lub tor do jazdy na wrotkach zapalenie opon mózgowych
e.g. Every Saturday morning, Jill has a private skating e.g. The common symptoms of meningitis are fever,
lesson at the local ice-skating rink in town. severe headache and stiffness in the neck.
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7.147 pneumonia /nj∂`møniº/ (n) = a serious disease e.g. Jonathan really kicked up his heels at the annual
which affects the lungs / zapalenie płuc dancing festival and hardly sat down all night.
e.g. Harry’s persistent cough and breathing difficulties 7.158 scare the life out of sb = to frighten sb a great
were finally diagnosed as a serious bout deal / śmiertelnie kogoś przestraszyć
of pneumonia. e.g. The doctor scared the life out of me when
7.148 stomach bug /`st∑mºk b∑g/ (n) = a disease caused he said that I needed to see a specialist.
by a bug in the stomach / wirus żołądka 7.159 be of sound mind and body = to be in good
e.g. On a recent trip to Spain the girls caught physical and mental health / być zdrowym
a stomach bug that ruined their holiday. na ciele i umyśle
7.149 hepatitis /¿hepº`t¡tæs/ (n) = a serious disease which e.g. My grandmother is of sound mind and body
affects the liver / zapalenie wątroby despite recently celebrating her 90th birthday.
e.g. Hepatitis can be cured if treatment starts very 7.160 have nerves of steel = to be calm, not easily
soon after infection. upset / mieć stalowe nerwy
7.150 mental breakdown /¿mentºl `breækd¬n/ (n) = e.g. Workmen who construct high-rise flats must
a situation in which sb becomes very depressed / have nerves of steel to undertake such a job.
załamanie psychiczne 7.161 keep a stiff upper lip = not to show one's
e.g. After the death of her husband, Mandy suffered emotions / ukrywać emocje, mieć kamienną twarz
from acute depression and her family were afraid e.g. Although he tried to assure everyone that he was
she was on the verge of a mental breakdown. fine, his attempt at keeping a stiff upper lip failed
7.151 whooping cough /`h∂pæ… k≥f/ (n) = a serious when he saw how upset his family were.
infectious disease which causes a cough
followed by a gasp for breath / krztusiec, koklusz 7.162 pro (=professional) /prø/ (n) = sb who does
e.g. The child was coughing and gasping for breath a particular thing to earn money rather
while suffering from whooping cough. than as a hobby / zawodowiec, profesjonalista
Idioms e.g. During the golf tournament, he played alongside
some of the top pros from Europe and America.
7.152 be over the hill = to be old and no longer fit or
Opp: amateur
able to work / być starym i niezdatnym do pracy
e.g. Employers often consider job applicants Fixed Phrases (with under)
to be over the hill once they reach 35-40 years of age.
7.163 under the circumstances = considering
7.153 be given a clean bill of health = to receive
the conditions affecting the situation /
a doctor’s statement that one is completely fit
w tych okolicznościach, w tych warunkach
and healthy / być w pełni sił, otrzymać zapewnienie
e.g. Under the circumstances, Mary was extremely
lekarza, że jest się w pełni zdrowym
lucky to have survived such a terrible accident.
e.g. After months of hospital tests and treatment,
7.164 under suspicion of sth = suspected of having
Fred was finally given a clean bill of health.
done sth wrong / podejrzany, pozostający
7.154 be black and blue = to be badly bruised /
w kręgu podejrzeń
być posiniaczonym, mieć sińce na całym ciele
e.g. The police finally caught up with the two men
e.g. Fortunately Tom didn’t break any bones
who were under suspicion of burglary.
in the accident, although he was black and blue
7.165 under normal conditions = considering the normal
from head to toe.
factors that affect a situation / w normalnych
7.155 be fit as a fiddle = to be very fit and healthy /
warunkach
być zdrowym jak ryba
e.g. Under normal conditions, the long journey
e.g. The man had hardly ever had a day’s illness
wouldn’t have bothered him, but the bad weather
in his life and at 80 he was fit as a fiddle.
was making driving almost impossible.
7.156 have butterflies in one's stomach = to feel nervous
7.166 under pressure = stressed / pod presją, pod naciskiem
and excited about sth / denerwować się, mieć tremę
e.g. The local government is under pressure from
e.g. I had butterflies in my stomach as I was waiting
various environmental groups to clean up
to go on stage for my very first live performance.
the town’s polluted river.
7.157 kick up one's heels = to enjoy oneself a lot /
doskonale się bawić
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7.167 under age = not old enough / poniżej określonej 7.178 clear away /`klƒr º`wΩ/ = to put away things that
granicy wieku, nieletni have been used (esp. for eating and cooking) /
e.g. Because she is under age, she isn’t allowed posprzątać, usunąć, wynieść
to vote in the forthcoming general elections. e.g. Mum asked the children to clear away the pots
and pans after dinner.
7.168 slogan /`sløgºn/ (n) = a short phrase easy 7.179 hold out /`høld `¬t/ = to hold sth so that sb can
to remember / slogan, hasło take it / podać, podstawić
e.g. Nowadays, manufacturers often use catchy e.g. The child held out his plate for a second helping
slogans to advertise their products. of his favourite chocolate pudding.
7.169 close to sb's heart = of deep interest 7.180 hold up /`høld `∑p/ = to go into a bank, shop, etc
and concern to sb / bliski sercu with a gun and demand money / obrabować,
e.g. The idea of building a fully equipped medical dokonać napadu z bronią
centre in the village was close to his heart, so he e.g. A customer overcame a thief as he attempted
was thrilled when they finally approved his plans. to hold up one of the town’s busiest supermarkets.
7.170 see eye to eye with sb (idm) = to agree with sb, 7.181 hold back /`høld `b±k/ = to restrain / powstrzymać
have the same opinions and views / zgadzać e.g. The patient couldn’t hold back her tears of joy
się z kimś, mieć te same poglądy when the doctor gave her the good news.
e.g. The teenager didn’t always see eye to eye 7.182 hold off /`høld `≥f/ = to delay / opóźnić
with her parents, but she knew they loved her dearly. e.g. The doctor tried to hold off the operation
7.171 literally /`lætºrºli/ (adv) = factually, exactly / dosłownie for as long as possible, in the hope that the patient’s
e.g. As I ran home in the storm, the wind was so strong condition would stabilise.
that it literally lifted me off my feet.
7.172 convert /kºn`vªt/ (v) = to change sth into 7.183 locker /`l≥kºr/ (n) = a small cupboard with a lock
a different form / przekształcić, przeobrazić, zmienić (in a station, school, sports club, etc) where sb
e.g. The couple planned to convert the loft into can put personal possessions / schowek, szafka
a playroom for their children. e.g. Tina got soaked coming home from work because
7.173 alter /`¥ltºr/ (v) = to change / zmienić she forgot to take her umbrella from her locker.
e.g. The doctor altered the patient’s prescription when 7.184 baton /`b±t≥n/ (n) = a small light stick used
he saw that the tablets weren’t doing her much good. in a relay race and passed from one runner
Der: alteration (n) to another / pałeczka sztafetowa
7.174 disguise /dæs`g¡z/ (v) = to wear unusual clothes e.g. You have to be careful while handing
so as not to be recognised / przebrać się za kogoś over the baton so as not to drop it.
e.g. The thief disguised himself as a woman 7.185 grab /gr±b/ (v) = to take sth or pick it up suddenly
by wearing a blond wig and a long dress, and roughly, to snatch / chwycić, porwać, złapać
but his masculine voice gave him away. e.g. When the children saw the snow in the garden,
7.175 critical /`krætækºl/ (adj) = crucial, serious / istotny, they grabbed their jackets and ran out to play.
przełomowy, krytyczny 7.186 take a nap = to have a short sleep /
e.g. The motorist sustained multiple injuries in the zdrzemnąć się
accident and is said to be in critical condition. e.g. Jill watches her favourite soap opera every
Phrasal verbs afternoon while her baby daughter takes a nap.

7.176 clear out /`klƒr `¬t/ = to throw away things that


are no longer needed / wysprzątać, pozbyć się Listening & Speaking (pp. 152-153)
niepotrzebnych rzeczy
7.187 medical advisor /¿medækºl ±d`v¡zºr/ (n)
e.g. When Simon left home for medical school, it was
= an expert who gives advice on medical
a perfect opportunity for his mother to clear out
matters / konsultant medyczny
his room.
e.g. After listening to a medical advisor talking
7.177 clear up /`klƒr `∑p/ = (of a disease) to go away /
about fitness and health, Lynne made up her mind
(o chorobie) minąć
to join a gym.
e.g. The teenager’s spots on her forehead finally
cleared up after a course of antibiotics.
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7.188 negate /næ`gΩt/ (v) = to cause sth to lose its effect


Reading (pp. 154-155)
or value / negować, zaprzeczyć; zniweczyć, zniszczyć
e.g. Costly expenses negated increases in the 7.197 fierce /`fƒs/ (adj) = violent, brutal / zażarty, ostry,
company’s profits and the management feared brutalny
they would be forced to close down. e.g. After a fierce clash between the police
Der: negation (n) and the football hooligans, over a hundred people
7.189 heliskiing /`helæskææ…/ (n) = jumping from a helicopter were arrested.
on a pair of skis / heliskiing, wyskakiwanie 7.198 alopecia /¿±lº`p∞«º/ (n) = loss of hair, baldness /
z helikoptera z przypiętymi nartami alopecja, łysienie
e.g. Bob admitted that heliskiing was a bit scary, e.g. The doctor assured Sam that his alopecia
especially when you’re about to jump out of the was only temporary.
helicopter onto the snow covered mountain slopes 7.199 disorder /dæs`¥dºr/ (n) = illness / zaburzenie, choroba
below. e.g. The patient needed psychiatric treatment
7.190 avalanche /`±vºl≤n∏/ (n) = a large mass of snow as he was suffering from a mental disorder.
that falls down the side of a mountain / lawina 7.200 distinctive /dæ`stæ…ktæv/ (adj) = having a special
e.g. Two teenage snowboarders are said to be alive quality which makes sb/sth different from
and well after yesterday’s avalanche claimed the lives others / charakterystyczny, wyróżniający
of three skiers. e.g. One of the actor’s most distinctive features
7.191 steep /st∞p/ (adj) = rising or falling sharply, is the deep cleft in his chin.
not gradually / stromy 7.201 vote /vøt/ (v) = to indicate one's choice officially
e.g. The slope was so steep that the climbers in a meeting or election / głosować
used donkeys to carry their provisions. e.g. The footballer was voted best sportsman
7.192 subjectively /sºb`πektævli/ (adv) = personally / of the season for the second consecutive year.
subiektywnie 7.202 diligent /`dælæπºnt/ (adj) = hardworking / pilny,
e.g. In spite of what most people believe, subjectively pracowity
speaking I find that he exaggerates a lot. e.g. We weren’t surprised when Ron was promoted;
Opp: objectively he is surely the most diligent worker in the company.
7.193 assess /º`ses/ (v) = to evaluate / ocenić, oszacować 7.203 financial consultant /f¡`n±n«ºl kºn`s∑ltºnt/ (n) =
e.g. The candidates for the job are subject to a variety an expert who gives advice on financial matters /
of rigorous tests to assess their potential as managers. doradca finansowy
Der: assessment (n) e.g. The couple sought the advice of a financial
7.194 groundskeeper /`gr¬ndzk∞pºr/ (n) = sb who looks consultant before going into business on their own.
after a park or sports ground / dozorca 7.204 kinship /`kæn«æp/ (n) = relation, affinity / braterstwo,
e.g. The groundskeeper of the local football ground pokrewieństwo
was amazed when he saw how much damage e.g. The athlete felt a strong sense of kinship towards
the fans had caused. his fellow team members.
7.195 fund-raiser /`f∑ndrΩzºr/ (n) = sb who collects an 7.205 weary /`wƒri/ (adj) = tired / zmęczony
amount of money for a particular purpose / e.g. The weary traveller regretted not having made
osoba zbierająca fundusze a hotel reservation in advance.
e.g. My mother is a keen fund-raiser for a variety 7.206 commit an error = to make a mistake /
of worthy causes and is always looking for volunteers popełnić błąd
to help her. e.g. The player was heavily fined for committing
7.196 operating theatre /`≥pºrΩtæ… ıƒtºr/ (n) = a room an error that led to the team’s defeat.
in a hospital used for medical operations / sala 7.207 waver over /`wΩvºr `øvºr/ (phr v) = to hesitate
operacyjna and be unable to make a decision / wahać się
e.g. Only authorised medical staff can enter e.g. We need a more decisive manager as John
the operating theatre. wavers over any decision.
7.208 deliberately /dæ`læbºrºtli/ (adv) = on purpose /
celowo, naumyślnie
e.g. Their star player was sent off the pitch after
deliberately fouling one of his opponents.
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7.209 relegation /¿relæ`gΩ«ºn/ (n) = moving to a less e.g. She served her visitors generous portions of
important position / przeniesienie na mniej ważne smoked salmon followed by lemon cheesecake.
stanowisko, relegacja, degradacja 7.220 morsel /`m¥sºl/ (n) = a bit, a piece / kęs, kawałek
e.g. The team knew they had to win the forthcoming e.g. The guests were amazed when their hostess
match; otherwise they faced relegation to the Second began feeding her pet poodles morsels of chicken
Division. from her plate.
7.210 recurring /ræ`kªræ…/ (adj) = happening more than 7.221 swell /swel/ (v) = to become larger and rounder
once / nawracający, powracający than normal / puchnąć
e.g. His recurring leg injury kept him from playing e.g. The child had an allergic reaction to certain foods
in the most important match of the season. that caused her face to swell to almost twice its size.
7.211 inclination /¿ænklæ`nΩ«ºn/ (n) = tendency / skłonność, 7.222 anaphylaxis /¿±nºfæ`l±ksæs/ (n) = a kind of allergy /
tendencja anafilaksja
e.g. The football manager’s success lies in his e.g. The doctor explained that the child was suffering
inclination to spot potential talent. from anaphylaxis, a severe allergic reaction
7.212 clinch /klæn∏/ (v) = to achieve or win sth / zdobyć; to something that she had eaten.
przypieczętować 7.223 jab /π±b/ (n) = an injection of sth into one’s
e.g. The team clinched the First Division title when blood to prevent illness / zastrzyk, szczepionka
Saunders scored the winning goal. e.g. Δhe students were told that they needed to have
7.213 ultimate /`∑ltæmºt/ (adj) = final / końcowy, ostateczny painful anti-malaria jabs before travelling to Africa.
e.g. To be chosen to play football for his country one 7.224 adrenaline /º`drenºlæn/ (n) = a substance which
day is the player’s ultimate aim. one's body produces when they are scared,
7.214 affable /`±fºbºl/ (adj) = easygoing / życzliwy, przyjazny angry or excited / adrenalina
e.g. Everyone agreed that George was an extremely e.g. Richard admitted that bungee jumping gave
affable man who was never too busy to lend him the greatest adrenaline rush of his life.
a helping hand. 7.225 respiratory system /ræ`spærºtºri `sæstºm/ (n)
7.215 principled /`prænsæpºld/ (adj) = moral / moralny, = the system of breathing / układ oddechowy
z zasadami e.g. The child was given a course of antibiotics
e.g. The coach took a principled stand when one to fight off a virus that attacked her respiratory
of his players was accused of fouling, and argued system and caused her breathing problems.
that he didn’t deserve to be disqualified. 7.226 administer /±d`mænæstºr/ (v) = to give drugs,
7.216 unapproachable /¿∑nº`prø∏ºbºl/ (adj) = unfriendly, medicine, etc / podawać (leki)
not easy to talk to / nieprzystępny e.g. The nurse was given the job of administering
e.g. Dan thought the new colleague seemed rather drugs to the elderly patients.
unapproachable at first, but once he got to know him 7.227 yearn for sth /jªn/ (v) = to want sth very much /
better, he decided that he was actually quite sociable. tęsknić za czymś, bardzo czegoś chcieć
e.g. The tired housewife yearned for a life of wealth
and luxury.
English in Use (pp. 156-159)
7.228 distinguish /dæ`stæ…wæ«/ (v) = to recognise the
7.217 waive /wΩv/ (v) = not to demand any longer / difference between two things / rozróżnić
odstąpić od czegoś, uchylić wymagania e.g. Because Harry is colour-blind, he finds it almost
e.g. The leisure centre agreed to waive its admission impossible to distinguish between green and red.
fees for students and senior citizens. 7.229 prejudiced /`preπμdæst/ (adj) = having dislike or
7.218 hygiene /`h¡π∞n/ (n) = the practice of keeping distrust of a person, group, custom, etc that is
oneself and their surroundings clean, based on fear or false information / uprzedzony
esp in order to prevent illness / higiena e.g. The supervisor was sacked for making prejudiced
e.g. The restaurant owner was very strict about remarks against some of the Asian workers.
hygiene, especially in the kitchen and restroom area. 7.230 rebel /ræ`bel/ (v) = to fight against / buntować się
7.219 smoked salmon /`smøkt `s±mºn/ (n) = the flesh e.g. The British workforce rebelled against the
of a salmon which is smoked and eaten raw / government’s decision to increase taxation by going
łosoś wędzony on strike.
Der: rebellion (n), rebellious (adj)
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7.231 blindfold /`bl¡ndføld/ (adj) = having a strip of 7.242 aspect /`±spekt/ (n) = part of the character
cloth tied over one's eyes / z zawiązanymi oczami or nature of sth / aspekt
e.g. The kidnapped businessman was taken blindfold e.g. David was asked to examine the proposal
to a secret place. from every aspect before making a decision.
7.232 simultaneous /¿sæmºl`tΩniºs/ (adj) = happening 7.243 attempt /º`tempt/ (n) = effort / próba, wysiłek
or existing at the same time / równoczesny e.g. Robin made an attempt to beat the world record,
e.g. The army had to repel the enemy’s simultaneous but he just didn’t have the strength to pull it off.
attacks from the east and west. 7.244 top /t≥p/ (v) = to be at the highest level, to be first /
7.233 draw /dr¥/ (n) = the result of a game in which być na szczycie, wejść na szczyt
neither side wins / remis e.g. It is the only time a French singer has topped
e.g. The fans, eager for victory, were dissatisfied the British music chart for six consecutive weeks.
when the final match ended in a draw. 7.245 crown /kr¬n/ (v) = to award a royal title /
7.234 neurotic /njμº`r≥tæk/ (adj) = frightened or worried ukoronować
about unimportant things / nerwicowy, neurotyczny e.g. Elizabeth was crowned Queen in Westminster
e.g. The pop star was almost neurotic about being Abbey.
seen in public and often went out in disguise. 7.246 peak /p∞k/ (v) = to reach the highest level, the top /
7.235 wander /`w≥ndºr/ (v) = to walk around / włóczyć się, osiągnąć maksimum, wejść na szczyt
wędrować e.g. His football career peaked during the 1990s,
e.g. I love to wander around the shops at Christmas at which time he was said to be the most highly
time and admire the festive displays. paid player in the world.
7.236 unpretentious /¿∑npræ`ten«ºs/ (adj) = simple 7.247 pact /p±kt/ (n) = formal agreement / pakt,
in appearance rather than luxurious / porozumienie
bezpretensjonalny, skromny e.g. The two boys made a pact never to tell a living
e.g. Even though he was a millionaire, British soul what they had seen on that fatal night.
comedian Benny Hill led an unpretentious lifestyle. 7.248 highlights /`h¡l¡ts/ (n pl) = the most interesting
7.237 give sb a glance = to have a quick look at sb / parts of an event, activity or period of time /
rzucić na kogoś okiem, spojrzeć przelotnie najważniejsze, najistotniejsze momenty
e.g. Nobody gave Madonna a glance as she was e.g. One of the highlights of his career was in 2001
walking along the street in shabby clothes. when he was awarded the title of Best Actor
7.238 conceal /kºn`s∞l/ (v) = to keep sth/sb from being of the Year.
seen / ukryć 7.249 tournament /`tμºnºmºnt/ (n) = a sports
e.g. The actress tried to conceal her identity competition / turniej
by registering at the hotel under an assumed name. e.g. One of the youngest competitors in the chess
7.239 accumulation /º¿kj∂mjμ`lΩ«ºn/ (n) = a large number tournament was a six-year-old schoolboy.
or amount of sth put together / mnóstwo; 7.250 registration /¿reπæ`strΩ«ºn/ (n) = recording (a name
nagromadzenie; zasób on a list) / rejestrowanie, wpisanie (się) na listę
e.g. Thanks to the accumulation of evidence, e.g. The students were reminded that Friday 16th
the police identified the robber. was the final day of registration for the art course.
7.240 fantasise /`f±ntºs¡z/ (v) = to imagine that sth 7.251 sponsorship /`sp≥nsº«æp/ (n) = financial support
is happening although it is unlikely to happen / given by an individual or an organisation /
fantazjować sponsorowanie, finansowanie
e.g. Young Jamie often fantasises that he will be e.g. The athlete was thrilled when he was offered
spotted by a talent scout and signed up to play sponsorship from a famous clothing manufacturer.
Premier League baseball. 7.252 donate /dø`nΩt/ (v) = to give, to provide /
7.241 feature /`f∞∏ºr/ (n) = part of one's face / cecha, przeznaczyć, ofiarować
rys (twarzy) e.g. The villagers donated around í5,000
e.g. One of the model’s most charming features to help build a new health centre.
is her sparkling smile. Der: donation (n), donor (n)

114
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7.264 apparatus /¿±pº`rΩtºs/ (n) = equipment,


Writing (pp. 160-164)
machinery / sprzęt, urządzenie, aparat, aparatura
7.253 whirlpool spa /`wªlp∂l ¿sp≤/ (n) = Jacuzzi / jacuzzi e.g. One of the girls had to be rescued from
e.g. The ultra-modern health club offered members the burning building by a fireman wearing
a great many facilities, including a whirlpool spa. breathing apparatus.
7.254 query /`kwƒri/ (n) = inquiry / pytanie, prośba 7.265 reinforce /¿r∞æn`f¥s/ (v) = to strengthen / wzmocnić
o informację e.g. The government was doing everything in its
e.g. The estate agent suggested I take his business power to reinforce relations between the two
card in case I had any queries concerning countries, as this would facilitate trade between them.
the property. Der: reinforcement (n)
7.255 gorgeous /`g¥πºs/ (adj) = stunning, magnificent / 7.266 supervision /¿s∂pº`v滺n/ (n) = care and control /
wspaniały, cudowny, przepiękny nadzór, opieka
e.g. On a recent trip to London, we stayed e.g. The students were under close supervision
in a gorgeous 5-star hotel overlooking Hyde Park. to make sure everyone knew exactly what they
7.256 indebted /æn`detæd/ (adj) = obliged, grateful / were expected to do.
zobowiązany, wdzięczny 7.267 abseiling /`±bsΩlæ…/ (n) = the sport of going down
e.g. I was deeply indebted to Ann for her help during a very steep slope by holding on to a rope
my illness, so I sent her a bouquet of flowers to show which is fastened to the top of the slope /
my appreciation. abseiling, sport lub technika wspinaczkowa polegająca
7.257 succinct /sºk`sæ…kt/ (adj) = brief and clear / na opuszczaniu się na linie z urwistej skały
jasny i zwięzły e.g. The first time the boy went abseiling down the
e.g. Try to be as succinct as possible when answering steep slope, he was afraid that the rope would snap.
the questions in your test. 7.268 hang-gliding /`h±…gl¡dæ…/ (n) = the sport of flying
7.258 bulk /b∑lk/ (n) = mass, size / masa, ogrom; duże while hanging from a frame covered in cloth /
rozmiary; większość lotniarstwo
e.g. The housewife managed to finish the bulk e.g. Because of strong winds, the hang-gliding
of her spring-cleaning before the visitors finally competition was cancelled.
arrived for the weekend. 7.269 paragliding /`p±rºgl¡dæ…/ (n) = the sport of
7.259 contravention /¿k≥ntrº`ven«ºn/ (n) = violation / jumping out of an aircraft with a special
naruszenie przepisów parachute that allows sb to travel a long
e.g. By accepting the bribe, she was in contravention horizontal distance before they land /
of company policy and was dismissed from her job paralotniarstwo
immediately. e.g. During a paragliding session, Jack jumped
7.260 expulsion /æks`p∑l«ºn/ (n) = exclusion, removal / out of the plane successfully but he landed badly
wydalenie, wyrzucenie and broke his shoulder.
e.g. His hatred of authority finally led to his expulsion 2.270 orienteering /¿¥rien`tƒræ…/ (n) = a sport in which
from the armed forces. sb has to find their way to somewhere on foot
7.261 chairman /`∏≈mºn/ (n) = the person in charge as quickly as possible by using a map and
of a committee, organisation or company / a compass / bieg na orientację
prezes, przewodniczący e.g. The students who were taking part in the
e.g. The chairman of the local health spa is looking orienteering exercise had to reach their destination
for new ways of attracting more business. in less than an hour.
7.262 step up /`step `∑p/ (phr v) = to increase, intensify / 2.271 rugged /`r∑gæd/ (adj) = uneven and covered with
zwiększyć, nasilić rocks / nierówny, wyboisty
e.g. The company is hoping to step up production, e.g. After walking for miles across the rugged
which will eventually lead to more job opportunities. countryside, the hiker felt as though his feet were
7.263 purchase /`pª∏ºs/ (v) = to buy / nabywać, kupować covered in blisters.
e.g. Jason took out a bank loan in order to purchase 2.272 refectory /ræ`fektºri/ (n) = canteen / stołówka
a new van for his catering business. e.g. We usually eat our meals in the university
refectory where the food is cheap and quite tasty.

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2.273 fully-stocked /¿fμli`st≥kt/ (adj) = having a full supply e.g. When the rain started dripping through the leaky
of goods available / dobrze zaopatrzony roof of our holiday cottage, we knew it was time
e.g. Our freezer at home is always fully-stocked to go home.
because my mother doesn’t have time to go shopping 2.277 adequate /`±dækwºt/ (adj) = sufficient / wystarczający
every day. e.g. The compensation she received after the crash
2.274 like-minded /¿l¡k`m¡ndæd/ (adj) = having similar was adequate enough to buy a small second-hand
opinions, ideas, attitudes or interests / podobnie car.
myślący Opp: inadequate
e.g. Joining a local youth club will give you the chance 2.278 rough it (idm) = to live for a short time in
to meet other like-minded teenagers. uncomfortable conditions / „koczować“, mieszkać
2.275 amenities /º`m∞nætæz/ (n pl) = facilities / udogodnienia, przez jakiś czas w prymitywnych warunkach
wyposażenie, dodatkowe atrakcje e.g. “We can rough it for a week or so and sleep
e.g. The shopping centre amenities include free at a youth hostel, I don’t mind.”
parking, a children’s supervised play area and home 2.279 communal /`k≥mjμnºl/ (adj) = shared, common /
delivery service. wspólny
2.276 leaky /`l∞ki/ (adj) = having faults which allow liquids e.g. At weekends, the hotel often has live
and gases to pass through / nieszczelny, entertainment in the communal lounge.
przeciekający

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 The patient’s disorder was quickly ………….. but treating 6 My husband and I just can’t …………….. on the issue
it would take much longer. of private medical insurance.
A eradicated C diagnosed A turn a blind eye C bat an eyelid
B contradicted D converted B see eye to eye D cast our eyes

2 The woman was suffering from a highly ……….. disease 7 Bob missed the last train so he put his luggage in a …………
so she was kept in isolation. and set out to find a hotel for the night.
A contagious C infected A closet C cupboard
B catching D deadly B locker D dresser

3 One of the boxers was badly cut around the eye so the 8 Angry demonstrators shouted ……………. in protest
…………… stopped the fight. against the government.
A judge C referee A mottos C slogans
B umpire D arbiter B jingles D phrases

4 Sheila made an appointment with her doctor as she’d 9 Tina found herself out of breath as she climbed
had a …………… pain in her side for days. the …………. flight of stairs.
A nagging C distressing A sheer C abrupt
B fierce D critical B high D steep

5 The tennis star walked off the …………… and refused 10 From a very early age children are able to …………. right
to continue the game. from wrong.
A pitch C rink A distinguish C decide
B track D court B judge D separate

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B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

There are many 0) infectious diseases which continue to be of concern to world INFECTION
health officials. While authorities are hoping to see the 1) ………….. of illnesses such ERADICATE
as malaria and tetanus in the near future, even they realise that they face a daunting
challenge. This is especially true for countries where there is 2) ……………. health ADEQUATE
care and a lack of preventive medicine. Officials admit that, the world over, more
than 800 million people live in 3) …………….conditions where poor sanitation and HYGIENE
unsafe water supplies increase their vulnerability to disease. These developing
countries are 4) ……………….. in need of help and assistance from other nations DOUBT
and charities. Luckily, those countries which are in a position to do so, make
generous 5) ……...…....................….. that go a long way towards combating DONATE
6) ….............…...... poverty and disease. Many developing countries are also COMMUNITY
7) …..............……….. to pharmaceutical companies which graciously provide DEBT
8) …..........…........., free of charge, during outbreaks of diseases such as VACCINATION
meningitis and polio.

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ bruise ñ vote ñ adrenaline ñ wander ñ gloomy ñ refectory ñ contract ñ arthritis ñ highlights ñ conceal

1 Julie found it hard to …………… her disappointment when 7 The workers took a(n) ……….. on whether to come out
she wasn’t given a part in the school play. on strike or not.
2 The elderly lady suffered from ………….. and was 8 We never eat in the college …………… because the food
confined to a wheelchair most of the time. is absolutely disgusting.
3 The ……….. on the boy’s cheek was black and blue and 9 The ………… of today’s sporting events can be seen on
badly swollen. BBC 1 after the evening news.
4 David was in a …………… mood when they told him he 10 Extreme sports, such as bungee jumping and hang-gliding,
would need to spend a few days in hospital. are said to give you a powerful …….....…. rush.
5 On her first day at the new job, she was asked to sign
a ……………. of employment.
6 Because he had some time to kill, Mike thought he would
…………… around the car showroom for a while.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.

1 You need a great deal of power/force/stamina to take 4 The salesman managed to assure/seal/clinch a lucrative
part in a cross-country marathon. job with an international company.
2 The questions asked by the lawyer only seemed to 5 Even though he broke the camera consciously/deliberately/
baffle/daze/boggle the witness even more. knowingly, he refused to apologise.
3 The young boy managed to wrench/grab/trap his 6 James made very little try/attempt/endeavour to conceal
mother’s hand as she reached out to help him. the fact that he hated his job.

117
UNIT 7

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B

1 be given a stiff upper lip


2 kick up b out of sb
3 be over c in one’s stomach
4 have butterflies d a clean bill of health
5 keep a e one’s heels
6 scare the life f the hill

1 It …………………… when I turned the corner and saw 4 Kim managed to ………………… even though she
a fire engine outside my house. was devastated by the news.
2 As I waited in line to meet the president, 5 Most fashion models are said to ……………….. by
I ………………… the whole time. the age of thirty.
3 The students ……………….. at their high school 6 The old man ……………….. following a thorough
graduation party. check-up at the city hospital.

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jedno zbędne słowo. Znajdź je i zapisz w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej
linijce nie ma zbędnego słowa, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

The cold and flu season is upon us once again. The summer is over 0 ✓
and colder temperatures of autumn mean that some more children 00 some
are confined indoors for most of the day. Undoubtedly, this will 1 ........................
increases the number of cases of the common cold and the number 2 ........................
of people likely to suffer from bouts of the influenza. Both of these 3 ........................
ailments are respiratory infections caused by a virus. Although they 4 ........................
have some of similar symptoms, their outcomes can often be very 5 ........................
much different. If the illness is incorrectly diagnosed, potentially life- 6 ........................
threatening complications, such as pneumonia, then may be 7 ........................
overlooked. Realising what the differences between the two will 8 ........................
ensure a quicker recovery for both cold and flu sufferers. It was once 9 ........................
believed that in the cold weather brought on the cold virus, but 10 ........................
research has proven that this theory incorrect. In fact, more people 11 ........................
catch colds during cold weather because they spend more time 12 ........................
inside and spread out the virus more easily. The two most frequent 13 ........................
ways of catching a cold virus is by their hand-to-hand contact with 14 ........................
someone who already he has a cold or by touching objects that they 15 ........................
have handled. The second mode of transmission is by inhaling 16 ........................
airborne particles only from an infected person after they have 17 ........................
coughed or sneezed.

118
Live and Learn 8
8.10 plagiarism /`plΩπºræzºm/ (n) = the illegal use
Lead-in (p. 165)
of sb’s idea or a part of their work / plagiat
8.1 enslave /æn`slΩv/ (v) = to control and keep e.g. Tom was accused of plagiarism after he copied
sb forcefully, to make a slave of sb / zniewolić an article from the Internet and handed it in
e.g. She felt enslaved by her husband as he was to his teacher.
always telling her what to do. 8.11 pull down /`pμl `d¬n/ (phr v) = to demolish,
Der.: enslavement (n), enslaved (adj) to knock down / zburzyć
e.g. They are planning to pull down the old cinema
and build a supermarket on the site.
Reading (pp.166-167)
8.12 iconoclastic /¡¿k≥nº`kl±stæk/ (adj) = here: opposed
8.2 perseverance /¿pªsæ`vƒrºns/ (n) = continued effort to generally accepted beliefs and traditions /
and determination / wytrwałość obrazoburczy
e.g. It took a lot of perseverance but, after several e.g. His essay was rather iconoclastic as it presented
attempts, she finally managed to complete her novel. several original ideas which went against traditional
8.3 fresher /`freǼr/ (n) = a student at a British university theories.
who has just started his/her first term / 8.13 rake over /`rΩk `øvºr/ (phr v) = to talk or think
świeżo upieczony student about sth repeatedly when it would be better
e.g. I felt extremely vulnerable as a fresher, but soon to forget about it / roztrząsać, rozpamiętywać,
I found new friends who helped me to adapt rozgrzebywać stare sprawy
to university life. e.g. My father wanted to know exactly what had
8.4 outcast /`¬tk≤st/ (n) = sb who has no place happened but I refused to rake over the past.
in society and is unaccepted / wyrzutek 8.14 drag /dr±g/ (v) = to pull / ciągnąć, wlec, tachać
(społeczeństwa) e.g. This chair is too heavy to carry; we will have
e.g. He felt like an outcast when he lost his job to drag it over to the table.
because many of his friends stopped calling him. 8.15 flick through /`flæk `ır∂/ (phr v) = to look quickly
8.5 scribble /`skræbºl/ (v) = to write or draw sth quickly at the pages of a magazine, book, etc /
or carelessly / bazgrać, gryzmolić przekartkować
e.g. I just had time to scribble John a quick note before e.g. I usually flick through a magazine while
leaving. I am in the doctor’s waiting room.
8.6 be mystified = to be confused by sth very strange 8.16 discard /dæs`k≤d/ (v) = to reject / odrzucić
or impossible to explain / być zadziwionym e.g. Because Ron’s ideas seemed unrealistic to the
e.g. Sally was mystified by the letter as she couldn’t board of directors, they were completely discarded.
work out who had sent it. 8.17 condense /kºn`dens/ (v) = to reduce the length
8.7 have a feel for sth = to be naturally good of a speech or piece of writing / skrócić
at doing sth / mieć wrodzone zdolności do czegoś e.g. When you send a text message, you have
e.g. David has a feel for music; he can play several to condense your news into a short, abbreviated
instruments even though he has never had any music sentence.
lessons. Der.: condensed (adj), condensation (n)
8.8 pitch sth at sb /pæ∏/ (v) = to target sth at sb, aim 8.18 spontaneous /sp≥n`tΩniºs/ (adj) = impulsive /
sth at sb / przeznaczać dla kogoś, kierować do kogoś spontaniczny
e.g. She pitches her books at young professional e.g. I wish he could be more spontaneous sometimes,
women by writing about experiences they can but he always likes to have a plan and stick to it.
identify with. Der.: spontaneity /sp≥ntº`nΩºtæ/ (n)
8.9 second-guess /¿sekºnd`ges/ (v) = to try to guess 8.19 strike a balance (idm) = to find a compromise
in advance what sb will do / spróbować between two things / znaleźć złoty środek
przewidzieć czyjeś zamiary e.g. You should strike the right balance between
e.g. He tried to second-guess his boss by thinking work and rest, you look so tired!
about what he was most likely to do.

119
UNIT 8

8.20 critically /`krætækºli/ (adv) = analytically / krytycznie, 8.31 compass /`k∑mpºs/ (n) = a device for finding
badawczo direction with a freely moving needle that
e.g. The director watched the performance critically always points to the magnetic north / kompas
and made notes of all the parts which needed e.g. If you are going hiking, you should take
improvement. a compass in case you get lost.
8.21 bewildered /bæ`wældºd/ (adj) = confused, puzzled / 8.32 easel /`∞zºl/ (n) = a wooden frame with three legs
oszołomiony, zdezorientowany that holds a picture which an artist is painting
e.g. I was totally bewildered by his polite behaviour; or drawing / sztaluga
he is normally so rude. e.g. The artist looked thoughtfully at the picture on his
8.22 pluck out /`pl∑k `¬t/ (phr v) = to remove / usunąć, easel, then picked up his brush and started to paint.
wyrwać 8.33 abacus /`±bºkºs/ (n) = a square or rectangular
e.g. Jenny spends hours plucking out her eyebrows, frame holding an arrangement of small balls on
then she draws them back on with a pencil! metal rods or wires, which is used for counting,
adding and subtracting / liczydło
e.g. Before the calculator was invented, complicated
Language Focus (pp.168-171)
sums could be done on an abacus.
8.23 innovative /`ænøvΩtæv/ (adj) = ground-breaking, 8.34 prop /pr≥p/ (n) = an object used by the actors
pioneering / innowacyjny, nowatorski performing in a play or film / rekwizyt
e.g. The computer is one of the most innovative e.g. Don’t remove this doll from the theatre;
products of the last century and has changed it is a prop in tonight’s play!
the way we live and work. 8.35 test tube /`test tj∂b/ (n) = a small glass tube with
8.24 assessment /º`sesmºnt/ (n) = evaluation / ocena, one closed rounded end, which is used
oszacowanie in scientific experiments / probówka
e.g. This is a book of tests for the assessment e.g. The children poured the two different chemicals
of children’s progress in mathematics. into the glass test tube and waited to see what
8.25 finals /`f¡nºlz/ (n pl) = tests taken at the end would happen.
of a school year or college course / egzaminy 8.36 reference book /`refºrºns bμk/ (n) = a book of
końcowe facts, such as a dictionary or an encyclopaedia,
e.g. He studied hard for his finals because they which one uses to find particular information /
were his last chance to improve his grades. słownik lub encyklopedia, książka, w której szukamy
8.26 clergy /`klªπi/ (n) = priests / kler informacji na określony temat
e.g. Frank has always been religious, so it came e.g. This encyclopaedia is an excellent reference
as no surprise when he decided to join the clergy. book; you can find all kinds of information in it.
8.27 seminary /`semænºri/ (n) = a college for training 8.37 musical score /`mj∂zækºl `sk¥r/ (n) = a piece
people to become priests / seminarium duchowne of written music with the parts for all the
e.g. John spent three years training at the seminary instruments and voices arranged on separate
before he became a priest. lines / nuty, zapis utworu muzycznego
8.28 inevitable /æn`evætºbºl/ (adj) = (of sth) that cannot e.g. This is the original handwritten musical score
be avoided or prevented / nieuchronny of Mozart’s last work, worth millions of pounds.
e.g. You lay in the sun for six hours; it was inevitable 8.38 glass slide /`gl≤s sl¡d/ (n) = a small piece of glass
that you would get sunburnt! on which a scientist puts sth in order to look
8.29 tutorial /tj∂`t¥riºl/ (n) = a period of study with at it through a microscope / szkiełko mikroskopowe
a tutor involving one student or a small group / e.g. The doctor put the skin cells onto a glass slide
seminarium, zajęcia w niewielkiej grupie and examined them through a microscope.
e.g. I found that tutorial very helpful; it’s good to have 8.39 cramming /`kr±mæ…/ (n) = learning many things
a chance to discuss ideas with my tutor. in a short time, in preparation for an exam /
8.30 assignment /º`s¡nmºnt/ (n) = a piece of work wkuwanie do egzaminu
given to a student as part of their studies / e.g. Cramming is not a good way to study; you can’t
zadanie, projekt remember your notes if you read them all at the last
e.g. I can’t go out tonight; I have to finish writing this minute.
two-thousand-word assignment before tomorrow.
120
UNIT 8

8.40 editing /`edætæ…/ (n) = reorganising and correcting 8.50 accelerated /±k`selºrΩtæd/ (adj) = speedy /
a written text / redakcja tekstu przyspieszony
e.g. She was not happy with the editing of her novel e.g. I’ve already told my boss that I speak French,
as she did not like the changes which had been made. so I’m going to have to take an accelerated course
8.41 proof-reading /`pr∂fr∞dæ…/ (n) = checking and and learn as fast as I can!
marking mistakes in a piece of work / korekta Der.: acceleration (n)
e.g. I have finished writing the report but it needs 8.51 guarantee /¿g±rºn`t∞/ (v) = to assure, to promise /
proof-reading; could you check it carefully gwarantować
for any mistakes? e.g. I can guarantee that if Harry continues to work
8.42 archaic /≤`kΩæk/ (adj) = ancient, very old / archaiczny, so well, he will pass his exams with top marks.
bardzo stary, przestarzały 8.52 expel /æks`pel/ (v) = to force out, to banish /
e.g. This law is archaic and really should usunąć, wydalić
be abolished in this day and age. e.g. The school was forced to expel the two naughty
Der.: archaically (adv), archaism (n) boys in order to set an example to the rest of the
Opp.: modern students.
8.43 substantial /sºb`st±n«ºl/ (adj) = considerable / Der.: expulsion (n)
znaczny, pokaźny 8.53 suspend /sº`spend/ (v) = to prevent sb from holding
e.g. The educational reform has a substantial number a particular job or function for a period of time /
of supporters in the parliament. zawiesić
8.44 bigoted /`bægºtæd/ (adj) = showing strong, e.g. πf you continue to be absent from all weekly
unreasonable beliefs and unwilling to change meetings, you will be suspended from the union.
them / bigoteryjny; pełen uprzedzeń; zacofany; Der.: suspension (n)
skostniały Idioms
e.g. He is extremely bigoted; he still thinks that
a woman’s place is in the home. 8.54 the teacher’s pet = a student in a class who is liked
8.45 kindergarten /`kændºg≤tºn/ (n) = a nursery school / best by the teacher and therefore treated better
przedszkole than the other students / pupilek nauczyciela
e.g. Sending children to kindergarten allows them e.g. Claire is the teacher’s pet; her teacher seems
to get used to mixing with other children before to think she can do nothing wrong.
they start school. 8.55 mind ones p’s and q’s = to be polite / być grzecznym,
8.46 opinionated /º`pænjºnΩtæd/ (adj) = dogmatic, ważyć słowa
intolerant / nietolerancyjny, zadufany w sobie, e.g. Now I need you to behave politely, so mind your
nieznoszący sprzeciwu p’s and q’s.
e.g. It’s impossible to talk to someone as opinionated 8.56 learn sth by heart = to know or learn sth so that
as him; he refuses to accept that he may be wrong. one can remember it perfectly / nauczyć się
8.47 severe /sæ`vƒr/ (adj) = harsh / surowy na pamięć
e.g. Being expelled from school is the most severe e.g. The teacher told us to learn this poem by heart
punishment the education system can impose. for tomorrow’s lesson, but I can’t remember any of it.
Der.: severity /sæ`verºtæ/ (n) 8.57 as easy as one, two, three = extremely easy /
Opp.: lenient bardzo łatwy
8.48 sheltered /`«eltºd/ (adj) = protected / osłaniany, e.g. It won’t take you long to get used to doing this
osłonięty, chroniony task; it’s as easy as one, two, three.
e.g. He has been sheltered by his parents all his life 8.58 be of the old school = to have traditional ideas
and has never had to deal with any problems on his about how to do sth and not accept new ways
own. of doing it / być staroświeckim
8.49 post-graduate /¿pøst`gr±πuºt/ (adj) = involved e.g. The headmaster here is of the old school and not
in a programme of study after a bachelor's very open to new ideas about education.
degree / podyplomowy 8.59 know sth like the back of one’s hand = to know
e.g. When Daniel finished his degree, he decided sth very well / znać coś jak własną kieszeń
to do a post-graduate course to further his studies. e.g. Don’t worry, we won’t get lost; I know this area
like the back of my hand.
121
UNIT 8

8.60 pass with flying colours = to pass an examination 8.71 by law = legally / zgodnie z prawem
with a very high score / zdać śpiewająco e.g. Children under sixteen are required by law
e.g. He has studied hard for the exam, so he should to attend school.
pass with flying colours. 8.72 by word of mouth = through various
8.61 make the grade = to succeed in sth because one’s conversations / (podawać informację) z ust do ust,
skills are good enough / poradzić sobie dzięki (znać coś) ze słyszenia
właściwym kwalifikacjom e.g. We didn’t have to advertise the new restaurant;
e.g. He doesn’t have enough experience to make its fame spread by word of mouth.
the grade, so he didn’t get the job.
8.73 coincidentally /kø¿ænsæ`dentºlæ/ (adv) = in the same
8.62 multiplication table /¿m∑ltæplæ`kΩ«ºn ¿tΩbºl/ (n) place or at the same time / przypadkowo, na skutek
= a list that shows the results of multiplying zbiegu okoliczności
one number by a set of other numbers, used e.g. Coincidentally, I and Monica flew to Berlin
especially by children at school / tabliczka on the same plane.
mnożenia 8.74 smoke detector /¿smøk dæ`tektºr/ (n) = a device
e.g. Jane spent hours studying her multiplication that makes a loud noise when smoke appears to
table, trying to remember all the sums on it. tell people that there is a fire / wykrywacz dymu
8.63 jeer at sb /πƒr/ (v) = to laugh or shout insults e.g. Just in case, she always sets the smoke detector
at sb / drwić, wyśmiewać, szydzić on before leaving the house.
e.g. The boys jeered at the new teacher when he told 8.75 sprinkler system /`spræ…klº ¿sæstºm/ (n) = a piece of
them to be quiet because they could see that their equipment for scattering water onto fires to put
laughter was upsetting him. them out / automatyczny system gaszenia pożaru
8.64 chant /∏≤nt/ (n) = a word or group of words e.g. Δhe sprinkler system is set to go off automatically
repeated over and over again / powtarzane with any sign of smoke.
monotonnie słowa
e.g. In front of the ministry, a group of protesters Phrasal verbs
repeated their chant: “Resign! Resign!” 8.76 drag down /`dr±g `d¬n/ = to make sb unable
Fixed Phrases (with by) to succeed or to make sb behave badly
by setting a wrong example / ciągnąć w dół,
8.65 by and large = generally speaking / ogólnie rzecz
obniżać poziom
biorąc
e.g. His teachers say that his work is suffering because
e.g. By and large, British schools offer a sound
he mixes with naughty children who drag him down.
education to children of all abilities.
8.77 keep to /`k∞p tº/ = to adhere to sth / trzymać się
8.66 by and by = eventually / wreszcie, w końcu
czegoś, przestrzegać
e.g. Don’t keep asking him to come inside. Give him
e.g. Slow down – you really should try to keep
time to calm down and he’ll come in by and by.
to the speed limit, you know.
8.67 fall by the wayside = to come to nothing /
8.78 keep up with /`k∞p `∑p wæ∫/ = to stay level with /
spełznąć na niczym
dotrzymać kroku
e.g. All her plans to open her own business fell
e.g. No matter how hard he ran, he couldn’t keep
by the wayside when she started a family.
up with the others who raced ahead.
8.68 by chance = incidentally / przez przypadek
8.79 drag out /`dr±g `¬t/ = to manage to obtain /
e.g. They lost contact when they left school, but they
wyciągnąć (od kogoś informacje)
met by chance several years later and their friendship
e.g. She didn’t want to tell me what she had been
was as strong as ever.
doing, but I managed to drag it out of her.
8.69 by the way = coincidentally / przy okazji, a propos
8.80 keep back /`k∞p `b±k/ = to reserve / zachować
e.g. By the way, have you seen my new jacket
na później
anywhere?
e.g. Grate all of the cheese, but keep some back
8.70 by the book = exactly as one is instructed /
to use for the topping later.
dokładnie, według instrukcji
8.81 drag in /`dr±g `æn/ = to mention sth irrelevant /
e.g. He does his job by the book; he follows every
wtrącić coś nie na temat
instruction to the letter.
122
UNIT 8

e.g. Of course, she managed to drag in her 8.91 transcript /`tr±nskræpt/ (n) = an official record
engagement although it had nothing to do of a student’s work that shows the courses
with the conversation. taken and the marks obtained / wykaz ocen
8.82 drag on /`dr±g `≥n/ = to continue unnecessarily / studenta
przeciągać się, ciągnąć się bez potrzeby e.g. Upon graduation, I received my diploma
e.g. Sorry I’m late; the meeting dragged on much and student’s transcript.
later than I expected.
8.83 keep on /`k∞p `≥n/ = to continue to employ / Reading (pp.174-175)
trzymać na etacie, nie zwalniać
e.g. Eric’s work is of a very low standard; I can’t think 8.92 coax sb into doing sth /køks/ (v) = to persuade /
why the company keeps him on. nakłonić, zachęcić
e.g. The stray kitten was very shy but, with patience,
8.84 arrogant /`±rºgºnt/ (adj) = proud and rude / I was able to coax it into drinking some milk.
arogancki, zadufany 8.93 bribe /br¡b/ (v) = to try to make sb do sth for you
e.g. That man is so arrogant, he really thinks by giving them money, presents or sth else that
he is something special. they want / przekupić
Der.: arrogance (n) e.g. I bribed my little sister to stay in her room all night
Opp.: humble, modest by giving her some sweets.
8.85 resemble /ræ`zembºl/ (v) = to be similar to / Der.: bribe (n), bribery (n)
przypominać 8.94 remedial /ræ`m∞diºl/ (adj) = intended to help those
e.g. I don’t think the twins resemble their mother very students or pupils who have problems
much, but they are the spitting image of their father. with learning / dokształcający, dodatkowy
Der.: resemblance (n) e.g. Paul has problems with reading, so he is taking
Opp.: differ remedial classes to help him catch up.
8.86 bear resemblance to = to look like / 8.95 oxymoron /¿≥ksi`m¥r≥n/ (n) = two words used
być podobnym do together which have, or seem to have, opposite
e.g. Have you ever noticed that Sam bears a striking meanings / oksymoron
resemblance to Brad Pitt? They could be brothers! e.g. Critics joked that “British fashion“ was rather
an oxymoron, as the people of that country have
Listening and Speaking (pp.172-173) not previously been known for their sense of style.
8.96 blazon /`blΩzºn/ (v) = to make news or information
8.87 A-level /`Ω¿levºl/ (n) = a British exam in a particular widely known or to make sure it is easily
subject, taken in the final year of school noticeable / rozgłaszać; tu: wydrukować dużymi
at the age of 18 / w Wielkiej Brytanii egzamin literami
końcowy z danego przedmiotu w szkole średniej e.g. News of the pop star’s wedding was blazoned
e.g. I worked hard at school towards my A-levels. over the front page of all the tabloid papers.
8.88 shortage /`«¥tæπ/ (n) = lack / niedobór, brak 8.97 euphemism /`j∂fºmæzºm/ (n) = a word or phrase
e.g. The school may have to close down due used to avoid saying an unpleasant or offensive
to a shortage of funding; we simply can’t afford word / eufemizm
to stay open. e.g. The term “pass away“ is a euphemism for “die“.
8.89 HND /¿Ω∏ ºn `d∞/ (abbr) = in Britain, Higher National Der.: euphemistic (adj), euphemistically (adv)
Diploma, especially in technical or scientific 8.98 singlemindedness /¿sæ…gºl`m¡ndædnºs/ (n)
subjects / w Wielkiej Brytanii dyplom zawodowy = steadiness, determination to achieve sth /
uzyskiwany po dwu- lub trzyletnich studiach determinacja, wytrwałość w dążeniu do celu
e.g. Instead of going to university, Jane decided e.g. The reason he is such a successful athlete
to do an HND course in Hotel Management is his singlemindedness about training.
at her local college. 8.99 unacknowledged /¿∑n±k`n≥læπd/ (adj)
8.90 be having sb on (idm) = to play a trick on sb / = not recognised, subconscious / podświadomy,
nabierać kogoś nieuświadomiony
e.g. You didn’t believe him, did you? Couldn’t you see e.g. If you have unacknowledged fears or worries,
that he was having you on? this can lead to bad dreams.
123
UNIT 8

8.100 submission /sºb`m櫺n/ (n) = accepting one’s defeat 8.111 peek /p∞k/ (v) = to look, especially for a short time
and the need to obey sb / uległość, poddanie się, or while trying to avoid being seen / zerkać
posłuszeństwo e.g. She quickly peeked round the door to see
e.g. The army surrounded the city, hoping to starve if there was anyone in the room.
the people into submission. 8.112 assuage /º`swΩπ/ (v) = to make unpleasant
Der.: submissive (adj) feelings less strong / uśmierzyć, złagodzić
8.101 secrete /sæ`kr∞t/ (v) = to hide / ukryć e.g. To assuage Tom’s disappointment at missing
e.g. The shoplifter secreted stolen goods about the party, his mother let him watch his favourite
his person and attempted to leave the store. film on video.
8.102 contraband /`k≥ntrºb±nd/ (n) = goods which are 8.113 exuberant /æg`zj∂bºrºnt/ (adj) = very energetic /
brought into or taken out of a country secretly żywiołowy, pełen energii, entuzjazmu
and illegally / kontrabanda e.g. Robin is a very exuberant child; he is always
e.g. Why did you buy those smuggled cigarettes; don’t running around and playing energetic games.
you know that it is illegal to buy contraband goods? Der.: exuberance (n)
8.103 prise /pr¡z/ (v) = to separate by force / rozdzielić siłą 8.114 deal a blow to sb/sth (idm) = to be shocking
e.g. We didn’t have a bottle opener with us, so we used or harmful to sb/sth / być dużym ciosem
a key to prise off the lid. (wymierzonym w kogoś lub coś)
8.104 coerce /kø`ªs/ (v) = to force sb to do sth / zmusić e.g. Being rejected from his chosen university
e.g. The prisoner insisted that the police had used dealt a huge blow to Henry’s confidence
force to coerce him to make a confession. and it took him a long time to recover.
Der.: coercion (n), coercive (adj) 8.115 exert /æg`zªt/ (v) = to use (influence, pressure, etc)
8.105 meddle /`medºl/ (v) = to try to change or have in a strong or determined way / wywrzeć (wpływ,
an influence on things which are not one’s nacisk, itp.)
responsibility / wtrącać się (do cudzych spraw) e.g. Exerting pressure on children to study can have
e.g. The argument was between Katie and Lee; the opposite effect and make them rebel against
it’s not up to you to meddle in their business. learning.
8.106 stigmatised /`stægmºt¡zd/ (adj) = treated unfairly 8.116 unabashedly /¿∑nº`b±«ædli/ (adv) = without worry
because one is disapproved of / napiętnowany about possible criticism or embarrassment /
e.g. When Peter first started school, he was nie pesząc się, bez zawstydzenia, bezwstydnie
stigmatised because of his speech problem, but the e.g. He was unabashedly honest about the mistake
other children soon learned that he was no different he had made and did not seem embarrassed at all.
from them. 8.117 lug /l∑g/ (v) = to carry or pull sth with effort /
8.107 paramount /`p±rºm¬nt/ (adj) = more important taszczyć, wlec, targać
than anything else / główny, najważniejszy e.g. The problem with not having a car is that you
e.g. I believe that teaching children to read should have to lug all the shopping home from the
be paramount in schools, as they cannot progress supermarket on foot.
in life if they cannot read. 8.118 stance /st±ns/ (n) = the way of thinking about sth,
8.108 drill sb into sth = to teach sb a skill by way especially when expressed in public / (oficjalne)
of repetition / wyuczyć kogoś, wpoić coś komuś stanowisko w jakiejś sprawie
e.g. The teacher tried to drill the children into learning e.g. The government has agreed to reconsider
their sums by saying them over and over again. its stance on adopting the euro; it is hoped
8.109 compel /kºm`pºl/ (v) = to force sb to do sth / zmusić, that they will decide to be more flexible.
przymusić 8.119 perverse /pº`vªs/ (adj) = deliberately opposing
e.g. The new law compels all cyclists to wear the acceptable way of behaviour / przewrotny,
a protective helmet. przekorny
Der.: compulsive (adj), compulsory (adj), e.g. Jamie can be so perverse at times; he only
compulsion (n) decided to come to the theatre because I wanted
8.110 voracious /vº`rΩ«ºs/ (adj) = avid, very eager for sth / him to stay at home.
żarłoczny, nienasycony 8.120 heresy /`heræsi/ (n) = an opinion or belief that
e.g. Steve is a voracious reader; you will often see him is against the official or popular opinion / herezja
with his nose in a book. e.g. It is a heresy to say that women should not vote!
124
UNIT 8

8.131 inventory /`ænvºntri/ (n) = a detailed list / spis,


English in Use (pp.176-179)
inwentarz
8.121 MP /¿em `p∞/ (n) = Member of Parliament / e.g. Before I moved in, the landlord made an
poseł, deputowany inventory of all the furniture in the flat to make sure
e.g. If you have a problem with the services in your that none of his property was damaged or removed.
area, you should talk to your local MP as he or she is 8.132 chorology /kº`r≥lºπi/ (n) = the study of the causal
your representative in the Parliament. relations between geographical phenomena
8.122 Damascus /dº`m±skºs/ (n) = Damaszek occuring within a particular region / chorologia,
8.123 paperweight /`pΩpºwΩt/ (n) = a small heavy object nauka o związkach pomiędzy zjawiskami geograficznymi
that is put on top of loose papers to keep them na danym obszarze
in place / przycisk do papieru e.g. ∞s part of his research on African rivers
e.g. I bought this silver paperweight and deserts, the geographer spent most of his time
in an antique shop. focusing on chorology.
8.124 be shipwrecked = to have an accident in which 8.133 scrabble /`skr±bºl/ (n) = a game played on a board
a ship is destroyed or sunk at sea / covered in squares in which players win points
być rozbitkiem, uczestniczyć w katastrofie statku by creating words from letters with different
e.g. When Robinson Crusoe was shipwrecked, he values and connecting these words with ones
spent years living on a desert island until he was already on the board / gra w scrabble
rescued. e.g. Lizzie loves playing scrabble; she knows a lot
8.125 neurobiology /¿njμºrøb¡`≥lºπi/ (n) = a branch of of unusual words, so she usually wins.
biology that examines the neurological system / 8.134 fertile /`fªt¡l/ (adj) = productive / żyzny, urodzajny
neurobiologia e.g. We are lucky to have such fertile land on this
e.g. Mr Brown is a professor of neurobiology farm because we have great crops every year.
and knows all about the nervous system. Der.: fertility /fª`tælºtæ/ (n)
8.126 navigate /`n±vægΩt/ (v) = to find a direction across, 8.135 cultivate /`k∑ltævΩt/ (v) = to prepare land and grow
along or over an area of water or land / crops on it / kultywować, uprawiać
pilotować, odnajdywać drogę e.g. Jane has cultivated a small vegetable garden
e.g. It will be hard to navigate a safe route of her own and grows most of her own food.
to the island as it is surrounded by large rocks. Der.: cultivation (n)
Der.: navigation (n) 8.136 irrigate /`ærægΩt/ (v) = to supply land with water
8.127 polish /`p≥læ«/ (n) = a cream or other substance that so that crops and plants will grow /
one uses to clean sth and make it shine / pasta irygować, nawadniać
do czyszczenia lub polerowania e.g. We are able to use the water from the nearby
e.g. You can’t clean the furniture just by wiping it; lake to irrigate our land, so our crops do very well.
you need to use polish to make it really shine. Der.: irrigation (n)
8.128 flower arrangement /`fl¬ºr º¿rΩnπmºnt/ (n) 8.137 child prodigy /¿∏¡ld `pr≥dæπi/ (n) = a young child
= a composition of flowers / kompozycja kwiatowa who has great abilities / mały geniusz, cudowne
e.g. The table was set with the best silver and there dziecko
was a beautiful flower arrangement in the centre. e.g. Bill is a child prodigy; he is only seven but
8.129 discipline /`dæsæplæn/ (n) = a particular area of study, he speaks two foreign languages fluently and plays
especially a subject studied at a college the piano and violin very well.
or university / dyscyplina (naukowa) 8.138 debatable /dæ`bΩtºbºl/ (adj) = not clear, not certain /
e.g. History is still a very popular discipline sporny
and is studied by thousands of students e.g. Whether or not he was actually guilty of the theft
at universities across the country. is debatable; no one seems to be able to agree on that
8.130 static /`st±tæk/ (adj) = not changing for a long time / point.
statyczny, stały, niezmienny, trwały 8.139 grant access to sth = to give permission to use sth /
e.g. Her grades have remained static for the last three udostępnić
years; she always gets straight A’s. e.g. All students are granted access to the computer
Der.: statically (adv) room where they can make use of the latest
technological equipment.
125
UNIT 8

8.140 upon arrival = when one arrives / tuż po przybyciu 8.150 get one’s foot in the door = to have access /
e.g. He was greeted by the mayor upon arrival uzyskać gdzieś dostęp, dostać się gdzieś
and made to feel very welcome. e.g. Once you get your foot in the door
8.141 prescribed /præ`skr¡bd/ (adj) = suggested / zalecany of a profession, you can work your way up to the top.
e.g. This book is on the list of prescribed reading 8.151 stand on one’s own two feet = to be able to live
matter for my university course; I don’t have independently / stanąć na własnych nogach
to read it, but I think I ought to. e.g. It’s time you stood on your own two feet
8.142 bear in mind = to remember a piece of information and stopped depending on your parents.
when making decisions or thinking about 8.152 pull out all the stops = to make a lot of effort
a matter / mieć coś na uwadze, pamiętać to do sth well / dołożyć wszelkich starań
e.g. You can go to the party if you like, but bear in e.g. Tara had really pulled out all the stops to make
mind that you have a busy day tomorrow, so you the party a success; she must have worked really hard.
should get some rest. 8.153 pick sb’s brains = to ask for information or advice
from sb who knows more about a subject /
zasięgnąć rady lub informacji u kogoś z większym
Writing (pp.180-184)
doświadczeniem
8.143 hyperbole /h¡`pªbºli/ (n) = a way of speaking e.g. Can I pick your brains for a minute? I want to ask
or writing that makes sb or sth appear bigger, you a question about the music industry.
better, more, etc than they are / hiperbola, 8.154 a matter of course = sth happening without people
przesadnia thinking about whether they want it or not /
e.g. The hyperbole on the poster said the band rzecz oczywista, naturalna
were the greatest rock musicians in the world, e.g. All new pupils at the school are given
though in truth they were fairly average. an assessment test as a matter of course.
8.144 Georgian /`π¥πºn/ (adj) = (of architecture and 8.155 teach sb a lesson = to punish sb so that they will
furniture) coming from the time of the British not behave badly again / dać komuś nauczkę
kings George I-IV (1714-1830) / georgiański e.g. When Tim lied to his parents, they banned him
(np. styl, meble) from watching TV for a week to teach him a lesson.
e.g. When John was promoted to manager, he could 8.156 put all the eggs in one basket = to risk losing
afford to buy a fine Georgian house. everything by putting all one’s efforts or money
8.145 at sb’s disposal = available to be used by sb / into one plan / postawić wszystko na jedną kartę
do czyjejś dyspozycji e.g. Rachel insisted on investing all her money in one
e.g. My car is at your disposal for the duration of your company, even though I told her not to put all her
visit; feel free to use it any time you like. eggs in one basket.
8.146 roomy /`r∂mi/ (adj) = spacious, large / przestronny
e.g. This is a very roomy apartment; it’s much more 8.157 comforts /`k∑mfºts/ (n pl) = objects that make one’s
spacious than my old flat. life easier / wygody
8.147 breathtaking /`breıtΩkæ…/ (adj) = extremely exciting, e.g. Jill isn’t very keen on camping as she likes to have
beautiful or surprising / zapierający dech w piersiach the comforts of home around her.
e.g. We had a breathtaking view of the mountains 8.158 homesick /`hømsæk/ (adj) = unhappy because
from our hotel room. of being away from home for a long period /
stęskniony za domem lub krajem
Idioms
e.g. Harriet felt rather homesick when she first went
8.148 a stone’s throw = very close / o rzut kamieniem to study abroad, but she soon got used to the new
e.g. I am lucky enough to live a stone’s throw way of life.
from the office; it only takes me two minutes Der.: homesickness (n)
to get to work in the morning. 8.159 self-sufficiency /¿selfsº`f櫺nsi/ (n) = ability
8.149 put one’s heart and soul into sth = to put one’s to provide everything one needs for oneself
efforts into sth / włożyć w coś całe serce i duszę without the help of others / samowystarczalność
e.g. Poor Sarah! She put her heart and soul into that e.g. Leaving home at a young age gives people
audition; it’s such a shame that she didn’t get the part the chance to learn self-sufficiency instead
after all her efforts. of depending on their parents.
126
UNIT 8

8.160 rapidly /`r±pædli/ (adv) = fast, quickly / gwałtownie, 8.164 welfare /`welf≈r/ (n) = a system which allows
szybko the government of a country to provide social
e.g. He only started his business two years ago, services to people who need them / opieka
but it expanded rapidly and he is already making społeczna
huge profits. e.g. The job paid so little that I would have been better
Opp.: slowly off on welfare benefits for the unemployed.
8.161 encompass /æn`k∑mpºs/ (v) = to include / zawierać, 8.165 up and running = ready to operate / gotowy
obejmować do działania lub pracy
e.g. Claire is a great pianist; her repertoire e.g. After a few technical problems, the new computer
encompasses everything from Beethoven is now up and running.
to the Beatles. 8.166 detention /dæ`ten«ºn/ (n) = the punishment of being
8.162 nostalgic /n≥`st±lπæk/ (adj) = feeling slightly sad kept at school for some time after the classes
about things that happened in the past / are over / (w szkole) „koza“, zatrzymanie po lekcjach
nostalgiczny; odczuwający tęsknotę, nostalgię za czymś za karę
e.g. The older I get, the more nostalgic I feel about e.g. Ben misbehaved at school, so his teacher finally
the past; I miss the people and places I used to know. gave him a detention.
Der.: nostalgically (adv) 8.167 brush up on /`br∑« `∑p ºn/ (phr v) = to improve,
8.163 fruitful /`fr∂tfºl/ (adj) = successful / owocny, udany refresh (one’s skills) / odświeżyć wiadomości lub
e.g. This morning’s meeting was quite fruitful as many przypomnieć sobie nabyte wcześniej umiejętności
important decisions were made. e.g. I am taking some evening classes to brush up on
Opp.: fruitless my French before I go to Paris, as I hardly remember
anything I learnt at school.

VOCABULARY EXERCISES

A Wybierz właściwe słowo lub zwrot.

1 Companies are prohibited .......... from firing staff 6 Carl has been given a .......... pay increase, so he is able to
without good reason. afford a new car.
A by chance C by law A severe C spontaneous
B by the way D by the book B substantial D sheltered

2 Tony had to take extra classes in order to .......... his 7 I really must .......... my tennis skills before the match on
school work. Saturday.
A keep to C keep back A flick through C brush up on
B keep up with D keep on B pluck out D pull down
3 I have been asked to .......... a list of all those who are 8 I have told him time and time again not to .......... the
willing to work overtime this week. younger children, but he just doesn’t listen.
A compile C condemn A coax C coerce
B condense D compel B bribe D bully

4 I hope the meeting doesn’t .......... for too long; I have an 9 I can’t stand the way Robert thinks he is better than
appointment at four o’clock. everyone else; he is so .......... .
A drag down C drag in A arrogant C voracious
B drag out D drag on B exuberant D opinionated
5 Julie has been working on her homework .......... all
10 I don’t know why you asked Sam to .......... the journey;
evening; she really makes an effort with her studies.
he’s always getting lost.
A assessment C tutorial
A irrigate C navigate
B assignment D finals
B cultivate D secrete

127
UNIT 8

B Uzupełnij tekst wyrazami utworzonymi od słów podanych w tej samej linijce po prawej stronie.

Mark’s problems at school all began when he handed in an 0) assignment to one of his ASSIGN
tutors which, apparently, bore a striking 1) ........................... to an article in one of the RESEMBLE
school’s textbooks. A group of teachers examined the essay 2) ........................... and CRITICAL
decided that Mark was guilty of 3) ........................... . Mark was very upset and said PLAGIARISE
that this was an unfair 4) ........................... . He claimed that he had never seen the ASSESS
article, let alone copied it. Well, whether or not he was telling the truth is
5) ........................... , but in the end the teachers decided that the DEBATE
6) ........................... of the crime meant that Mark had to be punished. Mark was SEVERE
afraid that this would mean 7) ........................... and that he would have to find a new EXPEL
school, but, luckily, the teachers decided that a week’s 8) ........................... would be SUSPEND
punishment enough.

C Uzupełnij zdania podanymi słowami.


ñ perseverance ñ discard ñ spontaneous ñ inevitable ñ compass ñ immense ñ shortage ñ gratifying
ñ meddle ñ famine

1 To be successful in any field usually requires 6 Richer countries should do more to help the victims of
....................... . ....................... in third-world countries.
2 It was ....................... that he would fail his exams as he 7 Even though he was rich and successful, he did not
had hardly studied at all. ....................... his working class roots and always
3 Without a ......................., it was impossible to tell which remembered where he came from.
way we should be going. 8 There is a ....................... of staff at this school, which
4 She is so nosy, she is always trying to ....................... in means that classes are much larger than they should be.
other people’s affairs. 9 Why don’t we do something ......................., like
5 It was extremely ....................... to see Kate get her throwing a party tonight!
degree, especially as I had helped her with her studies 10 It is hard for us to understand how ....................... the
throughout her course. universe really is, because our brains cannot conceive of
such great distances.

D Podkreśl właściwe słowo.

1 All homes should be fitted with a smoke detector/sprinkler 4 The term “let someone go“ is often used as a(n)
system/multiplication table to ensure that people have an oxymoron/euphemism/contraband for firing someone.
early warning in the event of a fire. 5 I can’t stand talking to bigoted/opinionated/arrogant
2 Only minor changes should be made at the people who never listen to my point of view.
editing/proof-reading/cramming stage as you should 6 Steve has such a voracious/wretched/perverse appetite;
only be checking for typing errors. he never stops eating!
3 We can’t guarantee/assuage/encompass that the
operation will be successful, but there is a 95 percent
chance that it will work.

128
UNIT 8

E Dopasuj do siebie zwroty z kolumn A i B. Utwórz właściwe kolokacje, a następnie uzupełnij nimi podane zdania.

A B
1 fall a the grade
2 mind b something by heart
3 know c one’s heart and soul into something
4 make d one’s foot in the door
5 learn e by the wayside
6 pass f somebody a lesson
7 get g somebody ’s brains
8 pick h with flying colours
9 put i something like the back of one’s hand
10 teach j one’s p’s and q’s

1 He was sure he had failed his exam, so he was 6 Stanley knows all about history, so why don’t you ...
delighted to find that he had ................................. . ................ instead of asking me all these questions?
2 Can you help me to memorise this passage? I have to 7 There’s no way Gary will get lost; he ........................
............................................. for tomorrow’s lesson. the woods .............................................................. .
3 Without a degree, it can be hard to ......................... 8 Ben didn’t get a promotion. Even though he works
...................................... of any business these days. hard, he just doesn’t .............................................. .
4 I can’t believe the teacher didn’t like my essay; I ...... 9 The naughty children were suspended from school in
.......................................................... into writing it. the hope that it would ........................................... .
5 Now, you need to make a good impression on your 10 All our travel arrangements ......................................
new teachers, so .................................................... . ............... when the airline company went bankrupt.

F W większości linijek w tekście jest jeden błąd ortograficzny lub interpunkcyjny. Znajdź i popraw błąd, zapisując poprawkę
w wyznaczonym miejscu po prawej stronie. Jeśli w danej linijce nie ma błędu, zaznacz ją znakiem (✓).

If your working day is so busy that you bearly have time to grab lunch, how on 0 barely
earth are you supposed to find time to fit in a workout. It’s much easier than you 00 workout?
think. If done efficiently, a mid-day workout only needs to take about 40 000 ✓
minutes. And when youre finished, you’ll arrive back at your desk feeling fresh 1 ........................
and energised. All you have to do is manage your time. Make exercise a natural 2 ........................
part of your daily routine. Allow time for it each day and don’t let other activitys 3 ........................
steal from your exercise time. You can combine exercise with your daily schedule. 4 ........................
If you’re often stuck in meetings persuade your colleagues into walking 5 ........................
meetings, or even meetings held in the gym. The change could do your company 6 ........................
the world of good, as a new enviroment can stimulate new ideas If this idea 7 ........................
won’t work for you, why not go for a walk in your lunch break? After all, this is 8 ........................
the easyest and cheapest form of exercise, as you’ve already got all the 9 ........................
equippment you need! Buy your lunch at a shop further away from your office 10 ........................
than usual, or take a different root every day to keep yourself interested. you could 11 ........................
even head to the nearest park and do a brief workout on the grass. Whatever you 12 ........................
decide to do, remember that you dont have to end up sweating and gasping for 13 ........................
air. Take it easy. You only need to do around twenty minutes exercise a day to keep 14 ........................
your heart and body in great shape. 15 ........................

129
4 Self-Assessment Module

Vocabulary & Grammar (p. 185) Reading (pp. 186-187)

SA4.1 uppermost /`∑pºmøst/ (adj) = the most SA4.9 brainpower /`breænpaμºr/ (n) = intelligence /
important / najważniejszy inteligencja, umiejętność rozumowania
e.g. Winning this match should be uppermost in our e.g. Scientists claim that eating fish can improve
minds at the moment; nothing else matters right now. your brainpower and help you to think.
SA4.2 submerge oneself /sºb`mªπ/ (v) = to give all the SA4.10 edict /`∞dækt/ (n) = here: an authoritative statement /
attention to an activity and not think about tu: stanowcze stwierdzenie
anything else / zagłębić się, zatopić w czymś e.g. The new edict of the boss is that all staff must
e.g. Clare loves to submerge herself in a book every wear smart clothes to work.
evening and forget all about her busy day at work. SA4.11 neural /`njΔrºl/ (adj) = relating to the nervous
SA4.3 be immersed = to become completely involved system / nerwowy
in sth that one is doing / być pogrążonym w czymś e.g. The brain interprets colour, shape and movement
e.g. It’s no use trying to talk to Chris; he’s immersed by using different neural pathways to process
in his computer game and won’t listen. the information taken in by the eyes.
SA4.4 plaster /`pl≤stºr/ (n) = a smooth paste made SA4.12 nurture /`nªt«ºr/ (v) = to care for a child /
of sand, lime and water which goes hard wychowywać dziecko, dbać, troszczyć się o nie
when it dries / gips, tynk e.g. Children depend on their parents to nurture
e.g. We will have to give the walls a coat of plaster and protect them while they are small.
before we can paint them because they are so uneven. SA4.13 medic /`medæk/ (n) = a doctor or medical student /
SA4.5 piercing /`pæºsæ…/ (adj) = (of a sound) high-pitched, lekarz lub student medycyny
sharp and clear in an unpleasant way / e.g. You really don’t look very well; I think you should
przejmujący, przeraźliwy, przeszywający see a medic as soon as possible.
e.g. Tom gave a long piercing whistle and his dog SA4.14 Ôrphanage /`¥fºnæπ/ (n) = a place where orphans
came running towards him. live and are looked after / sierociniec
SA4.6 tuition /tju`櫺n/ (n) = being taught about a subject / e.g. When her parents died, Sarah spent two years
nauczanie, (dodatkowe) zajęcia, korepetycje in the orphanage before a kind couple adopted her.
e.g. Helen is having extra tuition in maths because SA4.15 trauma /`tr¥mº/ (n) = a very severe shock or very
she finds it a difficult subject and needs a bit of help. upsetting experience which may cause
psychological damage / trauma, uraz
e.g. After the trauma of the car accident, she had
Use of English (p.185)
counselling sessions in order to deal with her feelings
SA4.7 meditation /medæ`te櫺n/ (n) = the act of remaining of shock.
in a silent and calm state for a period of time, Der.: traumatic (adj), traumatise (v)
as part of a religious training, or so that one is SA4.16 frontal /`fr∑ntºl/ (adj) = (of brain parts) situated
more able to deal with the problems near the forehead / czołowy
of everyday life / medytacja e.g. My grandfather’s health problems result
e.g. Meditation is good for you as it is healthy to clear from the injury in the frontal area of the brain.
your mind and relax for a short time every day. SA4.17 temporal /`tempºrºl/ (adj) = (of brain parts) near
SA4.8 mindfulness /`maændfºlnºs/ (n) = thinking about sth the sides of the head / skroniowy
and considering it when taking action, e.g. He received a blow to the side of his head
awareness / rozwaga, troska which damaged the temporal lobe of his brain.
e.g. Doing this task requires mindfulness, as it is SA4.18 regulate /`regjμleæt/ (v) = to control an activity
important to think about it carefully and avoid or process / regulować, normować
making any mistakes. e.g. There are three judges who will regulate the
competition and make sure it is carried out fairly.
Der.: regulation (n)

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SA4.19 rear /rƒr/ (v) = to bring up, to look after / wychować, SA4.30 cataract /`k±tºr±kt/ (n) = a layer over sb’s eye
opiekować się that prevents them from seeing properly /
e.g. Lizzie reared her brother’s two children from when katarakta, zaćma
they were babies, and she treated them as if they were e.g. Mrs Green has just had a cataract removed from
her own. her eye and her vision has improved enormously.
SA4.20 abnormality /¿±bn¥`m±læti/ (n) = an unusual feature SA4.31 cortex /`k¥teks/ (n) = the outer layer of the brain
in sb’s behaviour / anomalia, nieprawidłowość or of another organ / kora (np. mózgowa)
e.g. Tim has difficulty expressing his emotions; e.g. The surgeon successfully removed the lump
doctors say this abnormality was caused by neglect found on the patient’s cerebral cortex.
in his early childhood. SA4.32 empathetic /¿empº`ıetæk/ (adj) = able to share
SA4.21 stimulation /¿stæmjμ`le櫺n/ (n) = encouragement another person’s feelings or emotions /
to begin or develop further / stymulacja, empatyczny, wrażliwy na sprawy innych
pobudzenie, bodziec e.g. Sarah is a very empathetic listener; she can
e.g. My job gives me the mental stimulation I need; always understand how others are feeling.
it is often very challenging. SA4.33 abstract /`±bstr±kt/ (adj) = based on general
SA4.22 synapse /`s¡n±ps/ (n) = one of the points in the ideas rather than on real things or events /
nervous system at which a signal passes from abstrakcyjny
one nerve cell to another / synapsa, połączenie e.g. James does not like abstract paintings; he prefers
nerwowe pictures to be realistic and show objects clearly.
e.g. Alcohol is known to destroy synapses in the brain. SA4.34 consistently /kºn`sæstºntli/ (adv) = continually,
SA4.23 neuron /`njΔr≥n/ (n) = a cell which is part of the again and again / ciągle, konsekwentnie
nervous system / neuron, komórka nerwowa e.g. Lisa is consistently late; she never arrives on time.
e.g. Neurons send messages to and from the brain SA4.35 cognitive /`k≥gnætæv/ (adj) = relating to the mental
by means of electrical impulses. process involved in knowing, learning
SA4.24 adverse /`±dvªs/ (adj) = unfavourable / przeciwny, and understanding things / poznawczy
niesprzyjający, niepomyślny e.g. As children get older, their cognitive processes
e.g. The manager’s resignation had an adverse effect improve and they are able to learn and understand
on the company as sales decreased after he left. things more easily.
Der.: adversity /ºd`vªsºti/ (n) SA4.36 attachment /º`t±t«mºnt/ (n) = being fond
SA4.25 infancy /`ænfºnsi/ (n) = very early childhood / of or loyal to sb / przywiązanie
niemowlęctwo, dzieciństwo e.g. Davey has developed a strong attachment to his
e.g. Children are totally dependent on their parents nanny and he gets upset whenever she is not there.
during infancy. SA4.37 bombardment /¿b≥m`b≤dmºnt/ (n) = a strong and
SA4.26 wiring /`w¡ºræ…/ (n) = the network of neurons continuous bombing attack / bombardowanie
which send messages to and frÔm the brain / e.g. The citizens found safety in underground bomb
dosł. okablowanie; tu: sieć połączeń nerwowych shelters during the bombardment of the city.
e.g. If the wiring in a person’s brain is faulty, this can SA4.38 be hostage to sth = to be restricted in one’s
lead to mental problems. actions by things that one cannot control /
SA4.27 varying /`veºriæ…/ (adj) = different from each other być zakładnikiem czegoś
in size, amount or degree / różnorodny, e.g. I would love to buy a new car but I am afraid
urozmaicony I am hostage to my salary, so I simply can’t afford to!
e.g. No two cups in her kitchen were the same; SA4.39 impulse /`æmp∑ls/ (n) = a sudden desire to do sth /
they were all of varying sizes and colours. impuls, odruch
SA4.28 pace /peæs/ (n) = the speed at which sth happens e.g. When I saw this shirt, I had an impulse to buy it;
or is done / tempo I just knew I had to have it!
e.g. Life in the country moves at a slower pace than Der.: impulsive (adj), impulsiveness (n)
in the city; people are not in such a rush all the time. SA4.40 hypersensitive /¿haæpº`sensætæv/ (adj) = easily
SA4.29 neglect /næ`glekt/ (n) = lack of attention / zaniedbanie annoyed or offended / nadwrażliwy, przewrażliwiony
e.g. The children were suffering from neglect as their e.g. Don’t feel too bad about upsetting Jenny;
parents were never at home to care for them. she is hypersensitive and cries at the slightest thing.
Der.: neglect (v), neglectful (adj), negligence (n)
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SA4.41 disturbance /dæ`stªbºns/ (n) = a state in which sb’s


Listening (p. 187)
body or mind is not working in the normal way /
zakłócenie, zaburzenie SA4.48 dementia /dæ`men«º/ (n) = a serious illness of the
e.g. The doctor told her that she had a heart rhythm mind, inolving loss of intellectual capacity /
disturbance and that her heart was not beating demencja
normally. e.g. Several elderly people suffer from dementia,
SA4.42 cardiovascular /¿k≤diø`v±skjμlºr/ (adj) = relating as the mind becomes more prone to disease with age.
to the heart and blood vessels /
sercowo-naczyniowy .
Writing (p. 188)
e.g. People who smoke are at risk of cardiovascular
disease, as smoking can damage the heart. SA4.49 flier /`fl¡ºr/ (n) = a small sheet of paper advertising
SA4.43 intervention /¿æntº`ven«ºn/ (n) = getting involved in a product or event / ulotka reklamowa
a situation and trying to change it / interwencja e.g. Students often earn money distributing fliers
e.g. Many people do not approve of the United States’ to people in the streets.
intervention into other countries’ affairs. SA4.50 scholar /`sk≥lºr/ (n) = sb who studies an academic
SA4.44 grey matter /`greæ m±tºr/ (n) = (informal) subject and knows a lot about it / uczony,
intelligence / szare komórki, inteligencja naukowiec
e.g. Come on, Sally, use your grey matter; e.g. Gary is a dedicated scholar; he has been studying
the question isn’t that hard to answer. history for years and knows almost everything there
SA4.45 malleable /`m±liºbºl/ (adj) = able to be changed is to know about past events.
easily / plastyczny; tu: podatny na zmianę i wpływy Der.: scholarly (adj)
e.g. Silver is the most malleable of all metals and easy SA4.51 ethical /`eıækºl/ (adj) = morally right or acceptable /
to bend into different shapes. etyczny
SA4.46 conduct /kºn`d∑kt/ (v) = to organise and carry out / e.g. I don’t think it is ethical to use products which
przeprowadzić damage the environment.
e.g. Scientists have conducted many experiments Der.: ethically (adv)
to find out the effects of genetically modified foods.
SA4.47 reverse /ræ`vªs/ (v) = to change sth to its opposite /
odwrócić, odmienić
e.g. The manager decided to reverse the wrong
decision before it was too late.
Der.: reversible (adj)

132
The Image Business 9
9.9 bold /bøld/ (adj) = brave / śmiały, odważny
Lead-in (p. 191)
e.g. She is not shy at all; in fact it was very bold
9.1 image /`æmæπ/ (n) = the way sb appears to other of her to tell the boss exactly what she thought
people / wizerunek about the new project.
e.g. His public image is that of a very confident 9.10 restrained /ræ`strΩnd/ (adj) = (of clothes) simple
outgoing person but when you meet him in private, and not too bright-coloured, tasteful /
he is quite shy and sensitive. (o ubraniu) dyskretny, stonowany, elegancki
9.2 illustrator /`ælºstrΩtºr/ (n) = an artist who draws e.g. I think it is best to wear restrained, conservative
pictures and diagrams for books colours, such as blue or grey, when attending
and magazines / ilustrator, rysownik an interview – never wear loud colours, such
e.g. We have some very good writers working for this as bright green, for instance.
magazine and the illustrators draw really funny 9.11 oddity /`≥dæti/ (n) = a strange thing or person /
cartoons. dziwadło, dziwactwo, osobliwość
9.3 image-consultant /`æmæπkºn¿s∑ltºnt/ (n) = sb who e.g. With his long hair and wild appearance,
gives expert advice to people on how to improve my Physics teacher was a bit of an oddity at a school
their image / doradca ds. wizerunku where everybody else was conservatively dressed.
e.g. We have hired a firm of image-consultants 9.12 dominated /`d≥mænΩtæd/ (adj) = strongly influenced /
to help us improve our public image after the recent zdominowany
financial scandal. e.g. In the 1980s, British politics was dominated
9.4 deceptive /dæ`septæv/ (adj) = misleading / zwodniczy, by the powerful figure of Margaret Thatcher.
złudny, kłamliwy, iluzoryczny 9.13 tactics /`t±ktæks/ (n pl) = methods / taktyka
e.g. My neighbour goes to work by bus every day e.g. He used some highly skilful tactics to gain
and looks very poor but appearances are deceptive – influence, such as befriending powerful journalists
he’s actually quite a rich man. and politicians.
9.5 beauty is in the eye of the beholder (proverb) 9.14 flight of fancy = an idea or statement that
= the perception of beauty is a very personal is very imaginative but complicated, silly
and subjective thing / ładne jest to, co się komu or impractical / wymysł, wytwór wyobraźni
podoba e.g. She is usually a realistic person but in her
e.g. My brother thinks that Karen is very pretty, occasional flights of fancy, she imagines herself
but I suppose beauty is in the eye of the beholder. to be a princess living in a palace.
9.6 gullible /`g∑læbºl/ (adj) = being easily tricked into 9.15 inhabit /æn`h±bæt/ (v) = to live in a place /
believing sth / łatwowierny, naiwny zamieszkiwać
e.g. That man said he was related to the Queen e.g. It seems that fashion designers inhabit
and Tracey was so gullible that she believed him! an imaginary world in which everybody is tall,
slim and beautiful.
Der.: inhabitant (n)
Reading (pp. 192-193)
9.16 eternal /æ`tªnºl/ (adj) = everlasting / wieczny
9.7 eccentric /æk`sentræk/ (adj) = having habits e.g. That woman never seems to get older – has
or opinions which are strange or different she discovered the secret of eternal youth?
from those of most people / ekscentryczny 9.17 display /dæs`plΩ/ (n) = a show / pokaz, wystawa,
e.g. Giles has got some rather eccentric habits ekspozycja
such as walking to the shops wearing his pyjamas. e.g. The Chelsea flower show is a wonderfully colourful
Der.: eccentricity (n), eccentric (n) display that attracts visitors from around the world.
9.8 loyal /`l√ºl/ (adj) = faithful / lojalny 9.18 deliberate /dæ`læbºrºt/ (adj) = intentional, done
e.g. I have always been a loyal employee at this firm on purpose / celowy, rozmyślny
and I would never do anything to harm its reputation. e.g. I don’t believe he did that accidentally; it was
Der.: loyalty (n) a deliberate attempt to break the other player’s leg.
Opp.: disloyal
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9.19 restraint /ræ`strΩnt/ (n) = calm and controlled e.g. Our marketing consultants have advised us to
behaviour / powściągliwość, wstrzemięźliwość aim at the youth market in order to maximise profits.
e.g. Police constables have to show a lot of restraint Der.: consultancy (n)
when dealing with violent members of the public. 9.29 come full circle (idm) = to return to the initial
9.20 regime /rΩ`»∞m/ (n) = the way sth is organised situation after a long series of events /
or run on a regular basis / reżim, (narzucony) zatoczyć pełne koło, wrócić do punktu wyjścia
system e.g. Mark used to work for me, then I was under him
e.g. There has been a much needed regime change for a while at an advertising agency and now he’s
in that country with the introduction of a democratic back working for me at my new firm; it looks like
government and the restoration of law and order. things have come full circle.
9.21 imperative /æm`perºtæv/ (adj) = vital, extremely 9.30 by any measure = however you look at sth /
important / niezbędny, konieczny niezależnie od punktu widzenia
e.g. It is imperative that you get to your job interview e.g. Without doubt, David Beckham is the best free
on time if you want to be considered for the post. kick taker in the world by any measure.
9.22 yen for sth /jen/ (n) = craving, desire / pragnienie, 9.31 recession /ræ`se«ºn/ (n) = a period when the
ochota na coś economy of a country is doing badly / recesja
e.g. I am considering leaving Britain to go travelling e.g. During the recent economic recession, many
around the world; I have always had a strong yen people were forced to cut down on their spending
for visiting foreign countries. and others lost their jobs.
9.23 the rag trade = (informal) the business 9.32 tacky /`t±ki/ (adj) = of poor quality or in bad taste /
of designing, making and selling clothes / tandetny
przemysł odzieżowy e.g. He’s got really tacky dress sense; he always wears
e.g. What I like most about working in the rag trade loud colours such as orange and bright red, and ties
is that women’s fashions are always changing with Disney characters on them.
and you have to be creative all the time. 9.33 trite /tr¡t/ (adj) = dull and boring because of
9.24 outmanoeuvre /¿¬tmº`n∂vºr/ (v) = to gain repetition / banalny, szablonowy, trywialny, oklepany
an advantage over sb in a particular situation e.g. These soap operas on the television are really trite;
by behaving in a clever and skilful way / they always contain the same old boring storylines
wymanewrować, przechytrzyć and wooden characters.
e.g. If we want to stay ahead in this business, 9.34 go downhill (idm) = to become worse or less
then we have to outmanoeuvre our competition successful, deteriorate / staczać się
by always coming up with fresh, new ideas. e.g. Since his wife died, he’s gone completely downhill
9.25 wayward /`wΩwºd/ (adj) = unmanageable, hard and spends all day watching television and feeling
to control / samowolny, kapryśny, nieobliczalny sorry for himself.
e.g. The Duke’s wayward son is always getting into 9.35 enamoured of sth /æn`±mºd/ (adj) = fond of sth /
trouble with the police; he was recently arrested zakochany, zauroczony czymś
for drinking and driving. e.g. We have become quite enamoured of the idea
9.26 collective /kº`lektæv/ (n) = a business which is run, of buying a pretty cottage in the countryside where
and often owned, by a group of people / we can retire.
spółdzielnia produkcyjna 9.36 sit-in /`sætæn/ (n) = a kind of protest in which people
e.g. The business is a collective, so all the employees refuse to leave a public place / strajk okupacyjny
have an interest in making success out of it. e.g. The students carried out a sit-in at the university
9.27 amputate /`±mpjμtΩt/ (v) = to cut all or part to protest against the proposed education cuts.
of sb’s arm or leg off in an operation because 9.37 ego /`∞gø/ (n) = the sense of one’s own worth / ego
it is diseased or badly damaged / amputować e.g. In order to survive as a politician, one has to have
e.g. After the car crash, his leg was so badly injured a thick skin and a strong ego.
that it was amputated. 9.38 fortuitously /f¥`tj∂ætºsli/ (adv) = luckily / szczęśliwie,
Der.: amputation (n) szczęśliwym trafem
9.28 consultant /kºn`s∑ltºnt/ (n) = sb who gives expert e.g. After being made redundant, I somewhat
advice to a person or organisation on fortuitously found another job – otherwise
a particular subject / konsultant, doradca I don’t know what I would have done!
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9.39 mess about with /`mes º`b¬t wæ∫/ (phr v) = to do e.g. He is a charismatic managing director who has
sth for pleasure without any particular purpose inspired his firm to achieve record financial profits
or without achieving anything / bawić się czymś and has gained the respect and recognition of all
e.g. When I want to create a new recipe, I love messing who meet him.
about with lots of different ingredients and see if I can 9.49 approachable /º`prø∏ºbºl/ (adj) = friendly and easy
come up with something tasty and original. to talk to / przystępny
9.40 durability /¿djμºrº`bælæti/ (n) = lasting for a long time e.g. You shouldn’t be apprehensive about talking
without breaking or getting weaker / trwałość, to the boss; Mr Goddard is a really friendly and
wytrzymałość approachable man who likes chatting to his staff.
e.g. The tyres on Formula 1 racing cars have to have Opp.: unapproachable
a great deal of durability. 9.50 unassuming /¿∑nº`sj∂mæ…/ (adj) = quiet and not
trying to appear important / skromny,
Language Focus (pp. 194-197) bezpretensjonalny
e.g. Even though he has a quiet and unassuming
9.41 stripy /`str¡pi/ (adj) = with stripes / w paski manner, you shouldn’t underestimate his quality
e.g. She likes wearing stripy T-shirts and trendy as a highly talented member of the staff.
sweatpants. 9.51 untrustworthy /¿∑n`tr∑stwª∫i/ (adj) = unreliable /
9.42 tank-top /`t±…kt≥p/ (n) = a knitted or cotton piece niegodny zaufania
of clothing with no sleeves, collar or buttons / e.g. We were forced to sack him as he was
sweterek bez rękawów an untrustworthy employee; he had been
e.g. Tank-tops are great for wearing in the summer stealing money from the till for some time.
and show off nice slender arms. 9.52 introverted /`æntrºvªtæd/ (adj) = quiet and shy,
9.43 charcoal /`∏≤køl/ (adj) = a colour close to black / finding it difficult to talk to other people /
(o kolorze) grafitowy, niemal czarny introwertyczny
e.g. I want to buy those charcoal coloured jeans e.g. She is quite a shy and introverted girl, so it will
which will go really well with my black tank-top. be difficult to persuade her to go to that party.
9.44 dungarees /¿d∑…gº`r∞z/ (n pl) = a one-piece garment Opp.: extroverted
consisting of trousers, a piece of cloth which 9.53 ill-disciplined /¿æl`dæsæplænd/ (adj) = not having
covers the chest and straps which go over enough discipline / niezdyscyplinowany
the shoulders / spodnie ogrodniczki e.g. The army does not tolerate ill-disciplined
e.g. When I was younger, I had some blue denim behaviour among soldiers of any rank.
dungarees and I still wear them as they never 9.54 impish /`æmpæ«/ (adj) = rather disrespectful
go out of fashion. or naughty in a playful way / psotny, figlarny
9.45 chores /∏¥z/ (n pl) = housework / prace domowe e.g. Those children are impish creatures; I wonder
e.g. This weekend we’ll have to do some household what naughty scheme they are planning now.
chores; you mop the floors and I’ll wash the clothes. 9.55 coarse /k¥s/ (adj) = talking and behaving in a rude
9.46 outgoing /`¬tgøæ…/ (adj) = very friendly and and offensive way, vulgar / ordynarny, grubiański,
sociable, extrovert / otwarty, towarzyski prostacki
e.g. My friend Chris is a very friendly and outgoing e.g. His behaviour is rather coarse, I wouldn’t call
person as he enjoys meeting new people. him a gentleman.
9.47 sophisticated /sº`fæstækΩtæd/ (adj) = knowing about 9.56 stuffy /`st∑fi/ (adj) = formal and old-fashioned /
social matters e.g. culture, fashion, etc / obyty, oficjalny i staroświecki
wyrafinowany e.g. It was rather stuffy of the neighbours to complain
e.g. Nigella is a highly sophisticated young lady who about the volume of the music; it wasn’t even
likes nothing better than spending the evening at the very loud!
opera or ballet and dining out at fine restaurants. 9.57 hair trimmer /`h≈ træmºr/ (n) = a machine that cuts
Der.: sophistication (n) off small amounts of hair in order to make it
9.48 charismatic /¿k±ræz`m±tæk/ (adj) = (of a person) look neater and tidier, mostly used by men /
attracting and inspiring people / charyzmatyczny maszynka do włosów
e.g. I didn’t want to go to the barber’s so I cut my hair
using a hair trimmer.
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UNIT 9

9.58 nail file /`nΩl f¡l/ (n) = a small strip of rough metal 9.68 cuff /k∑f/ (n) = part of a shirt or dress at the end
or card that one rubs across the end of the nails of the sleeve, thicker than the rest of
to shorten them or shape them / the sleeve / mankiet
pilniczek do paznokci e.g. When you wear a suit, part of the shirt cuff
e.g. She doesn’t want to ruin her beautiful nails, should be exposed at the wrist.
so she uses a nail file instead of scissors to keep 9.69 shoelace /`«∂lΩs/ (n) = a long narrow piece
them looking nice. of material like a piece of string that is used
9.59 blusher /`bl∑«ºr/ (n) = a coloured substance that to fasten shoes, a shoestring / sznurówka
women put on their cheeks / róż do policzków e.g. I learnt to tie my shoelaces at an early age,
e.g. If you apply a certain amount of blusher, as I attended a school where black lace-up shoes
it will give your cheeks a lovely glow. and uniforms were compulsory.
9.60 moisturiser /`m√s∏ºr¡zºr/ (n) = a cream that one 9.70 razor /`rΩzºr/ (n) = a tool that people use for
puts on their skin to make it feel softer and shaving / żyletka
smoother / krem nawilżający e.g. I have always used a razor and shaving foam
e.g. My skin gets quite dry in the summer, so I apply to get a really clean shave – electric razors just don’t
lots of moisturiser to keep it soft and smooth. give you the same results.
9.61 polish remover /`p≥læ« ræ¿m∂vºr/ (n) = a substance 9.71 foundation /f¬n`dΩ«ºn/ (n) = a skin-coloured cream
that removes nail polish / zmywacz do paznokci that is put on the face before the rest of the
e.g. You’ll have to borrow my nail polish remover make-up / podkład pod makijaż
before you go to that interview – you can’t go there e.g. Women with good complexions don’t need
wearing that bright red nail polish. to wear foundation; however, it’s nice to have
9.62 tweezers /`tw∞zºz/ (n pl) = a small tool that one your skin looking perfect.
uses for picking up small objects or pulling out 9.72 drum one’s fingers = to tap one’s fingers on
hair / pinceta a surface regularly, making a continuous
e.g. Mary uses tweezers to pluck her eyebrows and beating sound / bębnić palcami (np. po stole)
make them look beautiful. e.g. While I was trying to work out the answer,
9.63 sideburns /`s¡dbªnz/ (n pl) = two strips of hair I sat at my desk drumming my fingers on the table.
growing down man’s either cheek / baczki 9.73 wrinkle one’s nose = to tighten the muscles in
e.g. He looks like a fisherman or sailor with his beard one’s face so that the skin on one’s nose folds /
and sideburns, together with his ruddy complexion. marszczyć nos
9.64 bow tie /`bø t¡/ (n) = a tie in the form of a bow, e.g. I love it when she wrinkles her nose like that;
worn by men on formal occasions / muszka it makes her look really sweet and innocent.
e.g. Some of the professors at university wear bow-ties 9.74 purse one’s lips = to move one’s lips into a small
– I think the reason is that they can’t be bothered rounded shape or draw them in, usually because
to tie a normal tie properly! Ône disapproves of sth or when one is thinking /
9.65 ball gown /`b¥l g¬n/ (n) = a long dress that zacisnąć usta, zasznurować wargi
women wear to formal dances / suknia balowa e.g. My aunt used to purse her lips when she was
e.g. At the May ball, she wore a lovely silver gown cross about something.
and patent black shoes. 9.75 clench one’s fists = to curl one’s fingers up tightly,
9.66 stilettos /stæ`letøz/ (n pl) = ladies’ shoes that have usually because of anger / zacisnąć dłonie w pięści
high, very narrow heels / szpilki (buty) e.g. He clenched his fists and punched his opponent
e.g. Mary was wearing a tight red dress and black who fell to the ground.
stilettos, which made her look even taller than 9.76 nod one’s head = to move one’s head downwards
she was. and upwards to show that one is answering
9.67 wellingtons /`welæ…tºnz/ (n pl) = long rubber boots “yes“ to a question, or to show agreement,
which Ône wears to keep their feet dry / kalosze understanding or approval / skinąć głową
do kolan, wysokie gumowe buty e.g. The teacher asked the children if they had
e.g. If you are going to take the dogs for a walk, please understood the question and all the students
wear your wellingtons so that your shoes don’t get nodded their heads.
muddy. Opp.: shake one’s head

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9.77 fidget /`fæπæt/ (v) = to keep moving one’s hands or e.g. Great epics such as Gone with the Wind and
feet slightly or changing one’s position slightly Spartacus, which run for more than three hours each,
because of being nervous, bored or excited / are things of the past now.
wiercić się 9.87 film noir /¿fælm `nw≤r/ (n) = a type of film which
e.g. Please will you stop fidgeting, children! shows the world as a dangerous or depressing
Can’t you sit still for one minute? place where many people suffer, esp. because
9.78 assent /º`sent/ (n) = agreement / zgoda, akceptacja of the greed or cruelty of others / film noir,
e.g. The board of directors expressed their assent nurt pesymistycznego kina lat 40. XX w.
to the proposals put forward to them. e.g. Build my Gallows High is one of the best films
Der.: assent (v) noir ever made and contains all the right ingredients
9.79 dress code /`dres koμd/ (n) = the rules about what of that genre.
kind of clothes people are allowed to wear in 9.88 adaptation /¿±d±p`tΩ«ºn/ (n) = a film or a television
a place / zasady dotyczące ubioru programme based on a book or a play / adaptacja
e.g. At many nightclubs there is a strict dress code; e.g. There is a wonderful new film adaptation
for instance, no jeans or trainers are ·llowed. of Charles Dickens’ David Copperfield
9.80 cosmetic surgery /k≥z¿metæk `sªπºri/ (n) = surgery out at cinemas from December 1st.
done to make a person look more attractive / 9.89 corny /`k¥næ/ (adj) = not original, too often used
operacja plastyczna to be interesting / stary, oklepany
e.g. Many celebrities have undergone so much e.g. It was a terribly boring party, with Uncle Joe telling
cosmetic surgery that their appearance has been us his corny jokes again.
completely altered. 9.90 screenwriter /`skr∞nr¡tºr/ (n) = a person who writes
9.81 tailored /`tΩlºd/ (adj) = (of clothes) fitting well the script of a film, scriptwriter / scenarzysta
and closely / przylegający do ciała, dopasowany e.g. The screenplay for Doctor Zhivago was written
e.g. He is · smartly dressed young man and wears by the great late screenwriter Robert Bolt.
tailored suits and designer clothes. 9.91 editor /`edætºr/ (n) = sb who prepares a film
9.82 well-defined /¿weldæ`f¡nd/ (adj) = clear, precise / or a radio or television programme by selecting
wyraźny i precyzyjny, ściśle określony some of what has been filmed or recorded and
e.g. There are some well-defined rules to observe putting it in a particular order / montażysta
at this firm, such as a nÔ-smoking policy. e.g. The film editor has to put the film together by
9.83 costume drama /`k≥stj∂m ¿dr≤mº/ (n) = a film set cutting out the parts he doesn’t need and selecting
in the past in which the actors wear the type the parts that he wants included in the film.
of clothes worn in that period / film kostiumowy 9.92 double /`d∑bºl/ (n) = an actor who replaces a star
e.g. One of my favourite costume dramas was usually in dangerous scenes / dubler
Dickens’ Nicholas Nickelby, in which all the actors e.g. For their stunt scenes, most actors use a stunt
wear period clothing from the 19th century. double so that they don’t get injured.
9.84 slapstick comedy /`sl±pstæk ¿k≥mºdi/ (n) = a simple 9.93 gainful /`gΩnfºl/ (adj) = (of employment) which
type of comedy in which the actors behave gives money / dobrze płatny
in a rough and foolish way / komedia sytuacyjna e.g. It’s time you got some gainful employment
e.g. I have always thought that slapstick comedy was and left home instead of living off your parents.
rather childish – all those silly actors running around 9.94 validly /`v±lædli/ (adv) = in a way that is legally or
slapping pancakes into each other’s faces. officially accepted / we właściwy, prawomocny
9.85 spoof /sp∂f/ (n) = a television programme or film sposób
that seems to be about a serious matter but is e.g. You have to have your passport stamped validly
actually a joke / (o filmie lub programie) parodia in order to enter certain countries.
e.g. Spoof films such as Scary Movie are really funny 9.95 in its own right = in itself, because of its own
in their parody of other films such as Scream. value / jako taki, sam w sobie
9.86 epic /`epæk/ (n) = a long film whose story extends e.g. The Gucci label is famous in its own right for
over a long period of time and tells of great making high quality clothes for fashionable men and
events / film o doniosłych wydarzeniach, epopeja women.
filmowa

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9.96 decline /dæ`kl¡n/ (v) = to become less in quantity, Fixed Phrases (with down)
importance or strength / zmniejszyć się, osłabić
e.g. The steel and coal mining industries declined 9.105 down-and-out = sb without money or means
drastically in the 1980s and many workers were made of support / kloszard
unemployed as a result. e.g. After he lost his job, he started drinking and
9.97 common sense /¿k≥mºn `sens/ (n) = one’s natural gambling heavily – eventually he lost everything
ability to make good judgements and behave and became a down-and-out.
in a practical and sensible way / zdrowy rozsądek 9.106 down in the mouth = unhappy and depressed /
e.g. He may be an intelligent person but he lacks basic nieszczęśliwy i przygnębiony
common sense; for instance, the other day he left e.g. I’ve been a bit down in the mouth recently –
the house without bothering to lock the window. perhaps it’s due to this horrible weather.
9.107 ups and downs = good and bad times /
Idioms
wzloty i upadki
9.98 smack one’s lips = to show that one is excited e.g. I’ve had my ups and downs in life just like
about sth and wants it to happen soon / everybody else; recently things have been looking
cieszyć się na coś, oblizać się na myśl o czymś up as I’ve found a great new job.
e.g. I smacked my lips at the exciting prospect 9.108 down the drain = (of time, money or work) lost,
of watching the European Cup Final between wasted / (o czasie, pieniądzach lub wysiłku) stracony,
Real Madrid and Manchester United. zmarnowany
9.99 keep up appearances = to pretend that everything e.g. All that money Jim spent years working for has
is going well although it is not / zachowywać gone down the drain; now he’s got nothing.
pozory 9.109 down-to-earth = practical, realistic / praktyczny,
e.g. After he was made redundant, he couldn’t face twardo stąpający po ziemi
telling his wife for months, so he left the house every e.g. Jane is a practical and down-to-earth girl;
morning as usual just to keep up appearances. you should ask her for some sensible advice.
9.100 bite one’s tongue = to avoid saying sth one 9.110 hand-me-downs = things, esp. clothes, which have
wanted to say because it would be wrong been used before and which are given to sb else
or inappropriate / ugryźć się w język to use / rzeczy używane
e.g. When she asked me whether I liked her new e.g. When I was a child, my parents didn’t have much
wallpaper, I had to bite my tongue as I thought money so I had to wear my elder brother’s hand-me-
it looked awful. downs instead of wearing brand new clothes.
9.101 have sb’s ear = to be able to influence sb by giving 9.111 down payment = a deposit / depozyt
advice or information / mieć na kogoś wpływ e.g. I put a down payment of í5,000 on the car
e.g. Jeff Thompson has quite an influential position and I’ll pay off the rest in instalments.
at this firm; after all, he’s got the manager’s ear: 9.112 down-at-heel = (of a person, thing or place)
the boss certainly listens to his ideas and suggestions. in a bad condition, uncared for, shabby /
9.102 sink one’s teeth into sth = to become deeply (o osobie, rzeczy lub miejscu) zaniedbany, w złym stanie
involved with sth / zagłębić się w coś e.g. I bumped into an old school friend at the
e.g. I’m looking forward to sinking my teeth into my supermarket recently and thought he looked
new job; it’s going to be an exciting new challenge. a bit shabby and down-at-heel – I think he must
9.103 money comes out of sb’s ears = sb is very rich / be unemployed or something.
(o osobie) ma forsy jak lodu
e.g. Steve is very well-off – in fact money comes Phrasal verbs
out of his ears! 9.113 go up /`gø `∑p/ = (of a price, amount or level)
9.104 pull a face = to show one’s dislike or disgust to increase, rise / rosnąć
by putting an exaggerated expression on one’s e.g. The price of fresh fruit and vegetables has gone
face / zrobić minę up by 20% compared to last year.
e.g. I remember when the teacher turned her back, 9.114 go under /`gø `∑ndºr/ = (of a business or a project)
some of the naughty boys in the class pulled a face to fail / (o przedsiębiorstwie lub projekcie) upaść
at her – it was rude but funny at the time. e.g. Simon’s business went under a few months ago
because of too much debt to cope with.
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9.115 go on /`gø `≥n/ = to continue / kontynuować 9.125 coordinate with sth /kø`¥dænΩt/ (v) = to match,
e.g. Anyway, sorry for interrupting you; look nice together / pasować do czegoś
do go on with what you were saying before. e.g. This colour coordinates with white, grey
9.116 go over /`gø `øvºr/ = to examine, discuss and black.
or think about sth carefully / omówić, zbadać, 9.126 hideous /`hædiºs/ (adj) = monstrous, horrible /
przemyśleć obrzydliwy, okropny
e.g. I think we should go over those plans in greater e.g. I thought Harriet’s new dress was hideous
detail at our next board meeting. but I couldn’t tell her, so I told her it looked nice.
9.117 pick out /`pæk `¬t/ = to choose, select / wybrać 9.127 cumbersome /`k∑mbºsºm/ (adj) = very complicated
e.g. If you like, we can go to the shops and you can and inefficient / niewygodny, nieporęczny
pick out a nice dress to wear at Rachel’s birthday e.g. Those old mobile phones were so big and
party. cumbersome – isn’t it amazing how small and handy
9.118 pick on /`pæk ≥n/ = to treat sb unkindly they’ve become in only a few years?
or repeatedly, criticise sb / dokuczać komuś, 9.128 reluctant /ræ`l∑ktºnt/ (adj) = unwilling to do sth,
czepiać się kogoś hesitant / niechętny
e.g. At school, he was a small intelligent boy who e.g. I am reluctant to go to that party as I know my
studied hard and some of the other boys used to pick ex-girlfriend will be there with her new boyfriend.
on him; they made his life miserable. Der.: reluctance (n)
9.119 pick up /`pæk `∑p/ = to collect / odebrać (kogoś skądś) 9.129 implausible /æm`pl¥zæbºl/ (adj) = unlikely to be true /
e.g. I can’t meet you later because I promised to pick niewiarygodny
Tim up from the airport. e.g. He told me that he had played professional
9.120 pick at /`pæk ºt/ = to nibble, to eat small amounts football; however, I thought it a little implausible
of food / jeść bez apetytu since he was short and very fat.
e.g. When he went out to dinner, Sarah looked bored 9.130 vanity /`v±næti/ (n) = excessive pride in one’s
and distracted and she wasn’t interested in her food appearance or abilities / próżność
at all; she just picked at it. e.g. She has placed full-length mirrors all around
9.121 be taken aback /bi `teækºn º`b±k/ (phr v) = the house, which proves her excessive vanity.
to be surprised or shocked by sth /
być zdziwionym lub zszokowanym Reading (pp. 200-201)
e.g. I was rather taken aback when I heard the news
that Roger and Sandra were getting divorced; 9.131 sceptic /`skeptæk/ (n) = sb who has doubts about
I thought they were such a happy couple. things other people believe / sceptyk
9.122 come off it /`k∑m `≥f æt/ (phr v) = (informal) to stop e.g. John’s such a sceptic – he thinks David and Tracy
talking about sth that is wrong or stupid / will get divorced within a year.
dać sobie spokój z jakimś tematem 9.132 manor /`m±nºr/ (n) = a large private house in the
e.g. Come off it! He’s not nearly good enough to play country which also includes land and smaller
for the school team! buildings around it / dwór, włości
e.g. A friend of mine made a fortune on the stock
Listening & Speaking (pp. 198-199) market and he’s thinking of buying an Elizabethan
manor in the countryside.
9.123 grungy /`gr∑nπi/ (adj) = untidy and unpleasant / 9.133 deceased /dæ`s∞st/ (adj) = dead / zmarły
niechlujny, zaniedbany e.g. My deceased husband generously provided
e.g. When I was a student at university, I must admit for me in his will and I shall be able to continue
I was quite grungy but now that I’ve got an office job, the life I am accustomed to.
I wear much more formal clothes and I’ve cut my hair 9.134 soundstage /`s¬ndstΩπ/ (n) = a stage or set
short. which is suitable for recording sound,
9.124 complement /`k≥mplæment/ (v) = to combine well esp for films / scena, studio (nagrań)
with sth and make its good qualities more e.g. Real houses are not usually used for the filming
noticeable / podkreślać, pasować do czegoś of motion pictures, so a suitable soundstage is set
e.g. I must say, Vanessa, that dress of yours up instead.
complements your eyes and complexion beautifully!
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9.135 hoaxer /`høksºr/ (n) = sb who tells a lie intended e.g. He dabbles in the stock market from time to time
as a joke / kawalarz, dowcipniś although I don’t think he’s bought any lucrative stocks
e.g. The emergency services receive many calls from lately.
hoaxers, who are usually kids phoning up about a fire 9.146 ethereal /æ`ıƒriºl/ (adj) = not of the real world /
or accident that hasn’t taken place. eteryczny, zwiewny, nieziemski
9.136 there is more to sth than meets the eye e.g. With her long hair and marble white skin,
= sth is not as simple as it seems to be / she has the ethereal beauty of a ghost lady.
coś jest bardziej skomplikowane niż się wydaje 9.147 duplicate /`dj∂plækΩt/ (v) = to make a copy of sth /
e.g. I think there’s more to Geoff’s intelligence than powielać, kopiować, robić duplikat
meets the eye; he’s actually a very clever man indeed. e.g. If you lose your driving licence, you’ll have
9.137 spook /sp∂k/ (n) = ghost / duch, zjawa to have a new one duplicated.
e.g. I have never seen any spooks in my life Der.: duplicate (n/adj), duplication (n)
but if I did, I would be scared out of my wits! 9.148 exorbitant /æg`z¥bætºnt/ (adj) = (of a price or fee)
Der.: spooky (adj) excessive / (o cenie) wygórowany, horrendalny
9.138 poltergeist /`p≥ltºg¡st/ (n) = a ghost or e.g. I can’t afford the exorbitant prices at this shop,
supernatural force which is believed to move so let’s go somewhere cheaper.
furniture or throw objects around / 9.149 doctor /`d≥ktºr/ (v) = to change sth in order
hałaśliwy i złośliwy duch, duch stukający to deceive people / sfałszować, podrobić
e.g. Our next door neighbours said their house e.g. These certificates have been doctored;
was haunted by a poltergeist that moved furniture I’m sure they’re not authentic.
around! 9.150 trickery /`trækºri/ (n) = the use of dishonest methods
9.139 snapshot /`sn±p«≥t/ (n) = a photograph that is in order to achieve sth / oszustwo, szalbierstwo
taken quickly and casually / pośpiesznie zrobione e.g. The con man used trickery and deception to enter
zdjęcie, migawka the homes of old people and rob them of their cash
e.g. Here, let’s have a look at those holiday snapshots and jewellery.
of you on the beach in Santorini. 9.151 fanfare /`f±nf≈r/ (n) = much discussion, celebration
9.140 paranormal /¿p±rº`n¥mºl/ (adj) = supernatural, or publicity / dosł. fanfary; tu: aplauz, pompa
that cannot be explained by scientific laws / e.g. The new university library was opened with great
paranormalny, nadprzyrodzony fanfare.
e.g. Some paranormal activity has been reported 9.152 crumble /`kr∑mbºl/ (v) = to fall apart, to come
at that house, although it seems highly unlikely to an end / rozpaść się, kruszyć się
to me as I don’t believe in ghosts. e.g. The Western Roman Empire crumbled in the 5th
9.141 alleged /º`leπd/ (adj) = that has been stated but century AD when the Goths sacked and burnt Rome
not proved to be true / rzekomy, domniemany to the ground.
e.g. ∞ list of the alleged World War Two criminals 9.153 spectre /`spektºr/ (n) = a ghost / duch, zjawa
was handed to the court. e.g. This is a house of spectres: ghosts are said
9.142 reportedly /ræ`p¥tædli/ (adv) = without having been to have been haunting it for generations.
proved, apparently, allegedly / rzekomo, podobno 9.154 townsfolk /`t¬nzføk/ (n) = the people of a town
e.g. Reportedly, the defendant murdered his wife or city, townspeople / mieszkańcy miast(a)
and buried the body in the back garden. e.g. All the townsfolk gathered around to hear
9.143 undetected /¿∑ndæ`tektæd/ (adj) = which cannot the mayor’s speech.
be seen or found / nie wykryty 9.155 surface /`sªfæs/ (v) = to appear, become known /
e.g. Many crimes, such as burglary or theft, ujrzeć światło dzienne, pojawić się
go undetected by the police or are never reported. e.g. Fresh evidence has surfaced about the true
9.144 engraver /æn`grΩvºr/ (n) = sb who cuts designs identity of Jack the Ripper.
on metal, glass or wood / rytownik, grawer 9.156 pasted-in /`pΩstæd`æn/ (adj) = not appearing real
e.g. My jeweller is also a highly skilled engraver or genuine, as if awkwardly added / wklejony,
who initialled my wedding ring beautifully. dodany
9.145 dabble in sth /`d±bºl/ (v) = to be busy with sth but e.g. The child’s album contained a series of pasted-in
not in a serious way / bawić się czymś, parać się cartoon strips and postcards.
czymś, zajmować niezbyt serio
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9.157 compelling /kºm`pelæ…/ (adj) = convincing and e.g. Our daughter is a highly suggestible young
attractive / przekonujący, nieodparty, zniewalający woman and we don’t want her to be surrounded
e.g. Stephen King’s recent novel is absolutely by people putting the wrong ideas into her head.
compelling. 9.169 delusion /dæ`l∂»ºn/ (n) = a state of believing things
9.158 irrefutable /¿æræ`fj∂tºbºl/ (adj) = indisputable / that are not true / złudzenie, błędne wyobrażenie
niezbity, niezaprzeczalny e.g. She has delusions of grandeur; she goes around
e.g. The prosecution lawyer produced irrefutable pretending she is a member of the royal family!
evidence to prove that the defen