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Acknowledgment……………………………………………………………………………..1

Objectives of the investigation ……………………………………………………….. .2

Statement of problem ……………………………………………………………………..3

Experimental design……………………………………………………………………….4

List of materials and equipment used……………………………………………….5

List of activities dated and described. …………………………………………. 6

Data collection………………………………………………………………….………..7

Interpretation of data……………………………………………………….………..8

Presentation of data (Graph)……………………………………………..……….9

Analysis of data …………………………………………………………….…………10

Findings ………………………………………………………………………….……..11

Discussion on findings ……………………………………………………….……13

Limitation …………………………………………………………………….……....14

Conclusion …………………………………………………………………….……..15

Cost analysis…………………………………………………………………………16

Analysis ………………………………………………………………………………17

Reference ……………………………………………………………………..…….18
Objectives of the investigation

1. To investigate which manure is better for the cultivation of Pak-Choi.


2. To investigate which manure produces a higher yield with a lower cost of
production.
Statement of problem

Manure is a substantial expense in cultivating crops. The researcher has


observed that within the past few years the cultivation of crops was difficult to
accomplish due to the use of substandard manure. The crops produced were sold
at a lower cost due to the lower yield produced by former students.
The researcher is conducting a survey to determine which manure whether
organic or inorganic is better to use to produce a high yield of crops and also to
see if this factor can lower the expenses on the students.
The Pak-Choi grown will be measured weekly and have their heights compared
at the end of the six weeks and will further be analyzed and placed for easier
interpretation on graphs.
Experimental Design

For the purpose of this investigation a total of 30 pak-Choi was planted. The
researcher cultivated 2 beds. Bed A and bed B both consisting of 15 pak-Choi
seedlings each. On each bed different fertilizer was administered.

Bed A will be cultivated using organic manure (cow manure) while bed B will be
cultivated using inorganic manure (Urea).

Both beds will be cultivated in a period of 6 weeks prior to reaping. Five seedlings
will be selected randomly from both bed and their growth will be measured and
recorded weekly; after which a comparison and analysis will be done.

The researcher will further plot a graph using the results for easy interpretations.
List of materials and equipment used.

Materials Description on activity

Organic fertilizers Researcher mixed the soil with cow


dung.

Inorganic fertilizers (Urea) Researcher combined inorganic


fertilizers with the soil.

Seedlings Researcher transplanted the seedlings


on to the land prepared.

Equipment Description on activity

Cutlass Researcher used a cutlass to aid in land


clearing.

Pitch fork Researcher used pitch fork to lift hay


and dispose it.

Shovel Researcher used shovel to make the


drains on both side.

Hoe Researcher used hoe to dig up the soil.

Rake Researcher used rake to remove the


leaves and hay and heaped them up
into windrows.

Watering Hose Researcher used hose to convey water


to a sprinkler on to the land.

Trowel Researcher used trowel to dig and


apply small amount of soil on the
seedling.
List of activities dated and described.

Date Activities Description

09/10/2017 Land preparation The land had bushes and


grasses, the researcher
used a cutlass to clear
the grasses, a rake was
used to heap into
windrow followed by a
pitch fork to dispose the
dry hay.

11/10/2017 Tillage The soil was broken up


by secondary tillage
which involves the
breaking up of larger
colds of soil to smaller
bits so that water and air
can enter more freely.
This was done using a
hoe and trowel.

13/10/2017 Drainage The drain was necessary


to ensure that the soil
was properly aerated
since excess or standing
water can choke the
crop. This was done
using a shovel.

16/10/2017 Leveling and preparing The land was made into


the bed (s) a bed that was suitable
for the plants, weather
conditions, and soil
type. A raised bed was
constructed since it
carries macro pores that
allows a proper
irrigation in the beds

18/10/2017 Watering the bed The bed was soaked


using water can before
transplanting the
seedlings.

23/10/2017 Transplanting the After the bed was soaked


seedlings the seedlings were
transplanted with the
use of a trowel to make
the small holes.

23/10/2017 Making of covering Sticks were placed into


the soil to support the
branch covering. The
branched covering was
made to avoid direct
sunlight from getting
directly to the seedlings.

Coconut tree branches


were used to make the
covering.

This was done every day Daily watering Since watering is


until harvest. compulsory for the
requirement of the
plants they were watered
for 6 weeks.

30/10/2017 Weed control The checking of


unwanted vegetation
was done and it was
removed.
06/11/2017 Pest and disease Pest and disease cause
management extreme harm to plants
it is thus necessary for
the plants to be checked
and remove all pest and
get rid of diseases.

13/11/2017 Harvesting or reaping The plants were


harvested by pulling
directly from the
ground.

13/11/2017 Packaging The pac-Choi was


packaged and sold to
local stalls in the area.
Data collection.

The aims of this experiment support the fact to determine which type of
manure is best suited for the production of higher yields of Pak-Choi while
maintain a low cost of production. Both bed of Pak-Choi were grown for six (6)
weeks. The results obtained are shown below:

Table showing the growth of Pak-Choi using organic manure


Length of leaves in cm
Week Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Plant 4 Plant 5
1 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6
2 1.8 2.1 2.2 1.5 2.0
3 2.0 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.9
4 5.1 4.3 4.7 5.3 5.7
5 7.6 8.3 8.4 7.2 8.8
6 11.3 9.6 12.3 12.2 12.5
Table showing the growth of Pak-Choi using inorganic manure
Length of leaves in cm
Week Plant 1 Plant 2 Plant 3 Plant 4 Plant 5
1 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.5

2 2.3 2.6 2.8 3.0 2.4

3 4.0 4.3 4.2 3.7 4.4

4 6.8 7.2 6.3 6.0 6.0

5 11.0 12.3 11.6 13.2 11.7

6 16.3 16.7 17.1 15.9 16.8

Interpretation of data
Throughout week one (1) there was a fluctuation in the height of the Pak-Choi
for both beds of plant. At the end of the week plants growing with inorganic
manure showed higher heights.

For week two(2) there was less fluctuation in the heights when compared to
week one(1).both bed of plants had steady heights but those growing with
organic manure had higher heights.

Week three (3) shows a rapid increase for plants growing with inorganic
manure but a slow increase of height for the other plant when compared to the
heights recorded for week two (2)

Throughout week four (4), five (5) and six (6) there was a rapid increase in
both beds of plant when compared to the previous results. From the results
it was observed that growth rate of plants growing with inorganic manure was
more rapid than those receiving organic.

Graph displaying results.

Graph showing a comparison of the average


growth of the Pak-choi
18

16
Average growth in cm

14

12

10

8 Organic
6 Inorganic
4

0
1 2 3 4 5 6

Weeks

Analysis

The graph above shows the growth rate of the pak-Choi within six weeks using
organic fertilizer against organic fertilizer. The graph shows the length of Pak-
Choi grown and measured in centimetres. The graph showed that inorganic
fertilizers made the plant grew bigger and faster.
Findings/Observations
The following findings/observations were obtained during the completion of
this project:

 Plants that grew with inorganic manure had smaller leaves when

compare to plants that grew with organic manure.

 Plants that grew with inorganic manure produce a high yield when

compare to plants that grew with organic manure.


Discussion on findings

Based on the investigation carried out, researcher found out that the

Pak-Choi grew better with the use of organic manure but the others that

were on inorganic manure grew faster and it produced a higher yield

when being compared with that of organic manure.


Limitation

The following limitations were obtained during the completion of this project:

 Incorrectly applied inorganic fertilizers caused damage to the plants that

they were applied to.

 Most of the organic manure was washed away due to rainfall.

 The change in weather condition affected the growth of the crop.


Recommendations

Based on the results obtained in the experiment, the researcher recommends

that:

 Plants should be watered daily to avoid wilting in the heat of the sun.

 A large supply of organic manure should be added to the soil.

 Avoid handling plants when wet.


Conclusion

Based on the results obtained it can be concluded that organic manure is better for

the cultivation of Pak-Choi, since it produces a higher yield with a lower cost of

production when compare to inorganic manure.


Cost analysis

Projected Budget

Income Quantity (Head) Unit cost ($) Total ($)

Sale of crop 30 100 3000

Total Project Income 3000

Expenditure Quantity (Head) Unit cost ($) Total ($)

Seedlings 10 300 300

Organic manure 3 lbs. 120 360

Inorganic manure (urea) 1 lb. 100 100

Packaging Bag 1 pack 100 100

Projected expenditure 860

Projected income = Total projected 3000 – 860 =


income – projected expenditure 2,140
Actual Budget

Income Quantity (Head) Unit cost ($) Total ($)

Sale of crop 30 140 4200

Total Project Income 4200

Expenditure Quantity (Head) Unit cost ($) Total ($)

Seedlings 10 300 300

Organic manure 3 lbs. 120 360

Inorganic manure (urea) 1 lb. 100 100

Packaging Bag 1 pack 100 100

Projected expenditure 860

Actual budget = Total projected 4200– 860 =


income – projected expenditure 3,340
Analysis

Comparison of projected and actual income, expenditure and surplus.

Projected Budget Total($) Actual Budget Total($)

Projected income 2,104 Actual income 4,200

Projected 860 Actual expenditure 860


expenditure

Projected surplus 1,244 Actual surplus 3,340

In this project there was not a loss. In comparison between the projected

budget and the actual budget, the projected income was $2,104 while the

actual income was $4,200 .This is as a result of an increase in the quantity and

price of crop. This accounted for the increase in actual profit.

The projected expenditure was $860 and the actual expenditure was $860

because some of the materials on the projected budget were provided free of

cost by the school.


References