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ABOUT JOURNAL Workshop on

Geosynthetics are now being increasingly used the world over for every conceivable application in civil Natural Hazard Mitigation with Geosynthetics
engineering, namely, construction of dam embankments, canals, approach roads, runways, railway
embankments, retaining walls, slope protection works, drainage works, river training works, seepage 11-12 January 2019, Thiruvananthapuram, (Kerala)
control, etc. due to their inherent qualities. Its use in India though is picking up, is not any where close OBJECTIVE
to recognitions. This is due to limited awareness of the utilities of this material and developments having
take place in its use. (EAVYRAIN FOLLOWEDBYLANDSLIDE IN+ERALADURING!UGUST WASTHEWORSTmOODIN+ERALAIN
NEARLYACENTURY/NESIXTHOFTHETOTALPOPULATIONOF+ERALAHADBEENDIRECTLYAFFECTEDBYTHEmOODS
The aim of the journal is to provide latest information in regard to developments taking place in the relevant
AND RELATED INCIDENTS LIKE LANDSLIDES (EAVY RAINS IN7AYANAD +ANNUR AND )DUKKI HAVE CAUSED
field of geosynthetics so as to improve communication and understanding regarding such products,
among the designers, manufacturers and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering
severe landslides and left the hilly districts completely isolated.
communities. The present workshop is being organise to analyse the extent of damages occurred due to landslides
The Journal has both print and online versions. Being peer-reviewed, the journal publishes original IN+ERALAANDTOSUGGESTMITIGATIONMETHODS
research repor ts, review papers and communications screened by national and international REGISTRATION FEE
researchers who are experts in their respective fields.
4HEPARTICIPANTSFROM+ERALAWILLBEEXTENDEDCOMPLIMENTARYREGISTRATION
The original manuscripts that enhance the level of research and contribute new developments to the
geosynthetics sector are encouraged. The work belonging to the fields of Geosynthetics are invited. 4HE REGISTRATION FEE PAYABLE PER DELEGATE FOR THE PARTICIPATION FROM OTHER THAN +ERALA IS AS
The manuscripts must be unpublished and should not have been submitted for publication elsewhere. follows:
There are no Publication Charges.
-EMBERSOF#")0)'3 ).2  '34 
/THERS ).2  '34 
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In case of 4 or more nominations from an organization, one delegate will be offered
s -R.ARENDRADalmia $IRECTOR 3TRATA'EOSYSTEMS)NDIA 0VT,TD complimentary registration.
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s $R+Rajagopal 0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING ))4-ADRAS will also be available, provided the prior information is received.
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s $R'6Rao &ORMER0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING))4$ELHIAND'UEST0ROFESSOR
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#OLLEGEOF%NGINEERING4RIVANDRUM +ERALA
s -R - Venkataraman 'EOSYNTHETIC AND 'EOTECHNICAL #ONSULTANT AND 'UEST 0ROFESSOR
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s -R3AURABHVyas (EAD 4ECHNICAL3ERVICES 4ECH&AB)NDIA )NDUSTRIES,TD
ABOUT JOURNAL Workshop on
Geosynthetics are now being increasingly used the world over for every conceivable application in civil
engineering, namely, construction of dam embankments, canals, approach roads, runways, railway
Natural Hazard Mitigation with Geosynthetics
embankments, retaining walls, slope protection works, drainage works, river training works, seepage 11-12 January 2019, Thiruvananthapuram, (Kerala)
control, etc. due to their inherent qualities. Its use in India though is picking up, is not any where close OBJECTIVE
to recognitions. This is due to limited awareness of the utilities of this material and developments having
take place in its use. (EAVYRAIN FOLLOWEDBYLANDSLIDE IN+ERALADURING!UGUST WASTHEWORSTmOODIN+ERALAIN
NEARLYACENTURY/NESIXTHOFTHETOTALPOPULATIONOF+ERALAHADBEENDIRECTLYAFFECTEDBYTHEmOODS
The aim of the journal is to provide latest information in regard to developments taking place in the relevant
AND RELATED INCIDENTS LIKE LANDSLIDES (EAVY RAINS IN7AYANAD +ANNUR AND )DUKKI HAVE CAUSED
field of geosynthetics so as to improve communication and understanding regarding such products,
among the designers, manufacturers and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering
severe landslides and left the hilly districts completely isolated.
communities. The present workshop is being organise to analyse the extent of damages occurred due to landslides
The Journal has both print and online versions. Being peer-reviewed, the journal publishes original IN+ERALAANDTOSUGGESTMITIGATIONMETHODS
research repor ts, review papers and communications screened by national and international REGISTRATION FEE
researchers who are experts in their respective fields.
4HEPARTICIPANTSFROM+ERALAWILLBEEXTENDEDCOMPLIMENTARYREGISTRATION
The original manuscripts that enhance the level of research and contribute new developments to the
geosynthetics sector are encouraged. The work belonging to the fields of Geosynthetics are invited. 4HE REGISTRATION FEE PAYABLE PER DELEGATE FOR THE PARTICIPATION FROM OTHER THAN +ERALA IS AS
The manuscripts must be unpublished and should not have been submitted for publication elsewhere. follows:
There are no Publication Charges.
-EMBERSOF#")0)'3 ).2  '34 
/THERS ).2  '34 
!CADEMIC2ESEARCH)NSTITUTES ).2  '34 
EDITORIAL BOARD 3TUDENTS ).2  '34 

s $R$ALI.AIDUArnepalli !SSISTANT0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING ))4-ADRAS


4OAVAILTHESTUDENTCONCESSIONINTHEREGISTRATIONFEE THEREGISTRATIONFORMREQUESTWILLHAVETOBE
s $R + Balan $EAN 0'  2ESEARCH 2AJADHANI )NSTITUTE OF %NGINEERING AND4ECHNOLOGY
SUBMITTEDALONGWITHACERTIlCATEFROMTHEHEADOFTHE$EPARTMENTINSTITUTE
Trivandrum
In case of 4 or more nominations from an organization, one delegate will be offered
s -R.ARENDRADalmia $IRECTOR 3TRATA'EOSYSTEMS)NDIA 0VT,TD complimentary registration.
s -S-INIMOLKorulla 6ICE0RESIDENT 4-$ -ACCAFERRI%NVIRONMENTAL3OLUTIONS0VT,TD The registration fee covers the cost of registration kit, lunch and tea in-between the technical sessions.
s -R4IRUKulkarni 0RESIDENTAND(EADn'EOSYNTHETICS$IVISION 'ARWARE7ALL2OPES,TD 4HEPARTICIPANTSWILLHAVETOMAKETHEIROWNARRANGEMENTSFORTRAVELANDSTAY.OlNANCIALSUPPORT
will be provided by the organizers.
s -R3ATISHNaik #%/ "EST'EOTECHNICS0VT,TD
4HELASTDATEFORRECEIPTOFTHEREGISTRATIONFORMIS*ANUARYSpot registration facilities
s $R+Rajagopal 0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING ))4-ADRAS will also be available, provided the prior information is received.
s $R'63Raju &ORMER%NGINEER IN #HIEF2" 'OVERNMENTOF!NDHRA0RADESH
SEMINAR SECRETARIAT
s $R'6Rao &ORMER0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING))4$ELHIAND'UEST0ROFESSOR
!LLCORRESPONDENCESRELATINGTOTHE3EMINARSHOULDBEADDRESSEDTO
$EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING))4'ANDHINAGAR
Mr. V.K. Kanjlia, Secretary
s -S$OLARoychowdhury 6ICE0RESIDENT : 4ECH)NDIA 0RIVATE,TD #ENTRAL"OARDOF)RRIGATION0OWER -ALCHA-ARG #HANAKYAPURI .EW$ELHI )NDIA
s $R*IMMYThomas 0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING !LBERTIAN)NSTITUTEOF3CIENCE Contact Persons:
AND4ECHNOLOGY+OCHI +ERALA -R5DAY#HANDER #HIEF-ANAGER #")0$R3HEELA%VANGELINE9 0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING
#OLLEGEOF%NGINEERING4RIVANDRUM +ERALA
s -R - Venkataraman 'EOSYNTHETIC AND 'EOTECHNICAL #ONSULTANT AND 'UEST 0ROFESSOR
-OBILE.O Uday Chander  Dr. (Ms.) Sheela Evangeline Y. 
$EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING))4'ANDHINAGAR
% -AIL UDAY CBIPORGSHEELABALA GMAILCOM
s -R3AURABHVyas (EAD 4ECHNICAL3ERVICES 4ECH&AB)NDIA )NDUSTRIES,TD
Indian Chapter of International Geosynthetics Society

Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and


Ground Improvement
Volume 8, No. 1 January 2019

CONTENTS
Page

From Editor’s Desk 2


Articles
• A Study on the Effect of Micropiles on Load Capacity of Pile Foundation in a Cohesionless Soil
– Nitesh Pandey and Satyendra Mittal 3
• Conservation Trenches and Its Effects on Plantation Crop in Degraded Watershed in Kandhamal
District of Odisha – C.R. Subudhi 10
• Shoreline Evolution along Uppada Coast in Andhra Pradesh Using Multi Temporal Satellite Images
and Model Based Approach – R. Kannan, Abhrankash Kanungo, M.V. Ramana Murty, and K.V. Ramana 14
• Construction of Geo-tube Embankment at Pentha in Kendrapara District of Odisha – A Case Study
– Jugal Kishore Tripathy 20
• Slope Stability Analysis of Overburden Dumps – V.Ramya Krishna and J.Y.V.Shiva Bhushan 26
International Geosynthetics Society (IGS) 33
Indian Chapter of IGS 37
Activites of Indian Chapter of IGS 41
IGS News 52

All communications to be addressed to :


The Member Secretary
Indian Chapter of IGS
CBIP Building, Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri, New Delhi 110 021
Editor
• Mr. V.K. Kanjlia, Member Secretary, Indian Chapter of IGS and Secretary, Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP)
Associate Editors
• Dr. G.P. Patel, Treasurer, Indian Chapter of IGS and Director (WR), Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP)
• Mr. Uday Chander, Chief Manager, Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP)

Subscription Information 2019/ (2 issues) Disclaimer : The opinions expressed in this journal are those of the authors.
They do not purport to reflect the opinions or views of the Indian Chapter
Institutional subscription (Print & Online) : Rs. 900/US$75 of IGS or its members. Reproduction of the material contained in this
Institutional subscription (Online Only) : Rs. 600/US$50 journal may be made only with the written permission of the Publications
Institutional subscription (Print Only) : Rs. 600/US$50 Manager. Although every effort is made to ensure the correctness of
information submitted for publication, the journal may inadvertently contain
Subscription for 10 Years (Print) : Rs. 5,000 technical inaccuracies or typographical errors. Chapter of IGS assumes no
responsibility for errors or omissions in this publication or other documents
Subscription for 10 Years (Print & Online) : Rs. 8,000 that are referenced by or linked to this publication.
From the Editor’s Desk
At the outset I wish you all a Very Happy and Prosperous New Year.
The New Year gives us an opportunity to look back and review the activities of the Indian Chapter
during the year bygone.
Engineering students often have had little or no exposure to the appropriate use of geosynthetics
in engineering practices. The International Geosynthetics Society (IGS) has taken an initiative
to provide training to the academicians to impart basic knowledge by the geosynthetics and its
applications. Educate the Educators (ETE) program, is part of the that program which educates
the professors how the core principles of geosynthetics can be incorporated into their existing
curricula.
The main goal of this program is to make sure that every engineering student receives some
basic exposure to geosynthetics. One way to carry out this action is to equip educators with the
necessary knowledge and tools to help them integrate geosynthetic topics into their engineering curricula. ETE workshops
provide attending professors with a host of resources to support this mission.
International Geosynthetics Society (India), the Indian Chapter of International Geosynthetics Society (IGS), hosted the
IGS sponsored Educate the Educator Program at Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IIT Madras) during 5-6 February
2018.
As part of knowledge dissemination the Indian Chapter of IGS and Central Board of Irrigation & Power, jointly organized
a Workshop on “Design and Construction of Pavements using Geosynthetics” at New Delhi during 30-31 January 2018,
with an objective to provide an opportunity for the researchers, academicians, engineers, and students to learn about
geosynthetic applications in road construction and maintenance.
The Chapter also organised a Seminar on “Geosynthetics for Erosion Control and Coastal Protection” at Bhubaneswar
during 25-26 October 2018, with an objective to deliberate on recent development in the use of geosynthetics in
geotechnical, hydraulic, coastal and offshore engineering, and also discuss the benefits of geosynthetics to modern
building technology.
The Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP), the Secretariat of Indian Chapter of IGS, has been striving hard to
provide the best of its services in the capacity building/HR development programs in the field of development of Water,
Power and Renewable Energy Sectors. Accordingly, CBIP and Indian Chapter have conceptualized training programs, on
the identified topics keeping in view the problems being faced by the various departments/organisations in accelerated
development of these sectors.
Apart from general programmes at Delhi, CBIP and Indian Chapter have jointly conducted door step training programmes
at their desired venue for the Water Resources Departments of Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Odisha and Tamil Nadu,
besides other organisations such as NHAI, NHPC Ltd., and NTPC Ltd., to name a few.
The catastrophic flood in Keral and cyclone in Andhra Pradesh and Odisha are amongst the worst recent disasters which
have shaken the confidence of the nation in pursuing the infrastructure developmental models. The massive devastation
which occurred in June, 2013 due to heavy rain and cloud burst followed by landslides, in Uttarakhand, has created a
situation in the state which needed short term and long term solutions. Geosynthetics, a very versatile material, has lot of
scope for preventive as well as short/long term mitigation measures.
Heavy rain, followed by landslide, in Kerala during August 2018, was the worst flood in Kerala in nearly a century. One
sixth of the total population of Kerala had been directly affected by the floods and related incidents like landslides. Heavy
rains in Wayanad, Kannur and Idukki have caused severe landslides and left the hilly districts completely isolated. In
this context the Indian Chapter is going to organise a Workshop on “Natural Hazard Mitigation with Geosynthetics” at
Thiruvananthapuram, during 11-12 January 2019, to analyse the extent of damages occurred due to landslides in Kerala
and to suggest mitigation methods.
One of the suggestions received from the readers of the journal is to take up more case studies of such happenings. I
request all the readers and their colleagues/fellow professionals to contribute the case studies to further improve the utility
of the Journal.

V.K. Kanjlia
Member Secretary
Indian Chapter of IGS

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 2


A Study on the Effect of Micropiles on
Load Capacity of Pile Foundation in a
Cohesionless Soil
Nitesh Pandey and Satyendra Mittal
Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee, India

ABSTRACT
Micropiles, initially, devised to aid the reconstruction in post-war era, are small diameter piles that are highly
capable of sustaining high loads. The in-situ application of micropiles, to increase the bearing capacity
and reduce the settlement, has been observed as a practical and technically effective method. Reinforcing
the ground, increasing the bearing capacity, stabilizing slopes and retaining walls, restraining differential
settlement and deformation by tunnelling, and increasing the resistance to earthquake forces are some
of the applications of micropiles. This paper deals with the parametric study of the reinforcement effect of
micropiles on the settlement of pile foundation and improvement in the load capacity. Tests were carried out
on model piles of diameter 75 mm and length 500 mm in unreinforced and reinforced ground, prepared in
a 600 mm diameter circular tank using dry sand. The micropiles were installed in the ground in a circular
pattern around the model pile. Parameters such as diameter of micropiles (d), distance of micropiles
from the edge of the model pile (x) and spacing between micropiles (s) were considered variables in the
study. The results obtained from the experimental work was validated through the FEM-based software,
PLAXIS 3D. This study showed a significant reduction in the settlement and improvement load capacity
of pile upon varying the diameter of micropiles.

INTRODUCTION laboratory tests has also been done using PLAXIS 3D


software.
The technique of improving the ground strength using
micropiling was first implemented in Italy in the early LITERATURE REVIEW
1950s when the search was on for an innovative and
reliable method to underpin the historic buildings and Harikrishna and Ramana Murty (2000) carried out model
monuments. It was in 1952 when Dr. Fernando Lizzi tests on sand using vertical and inclined GI strips to study
developed a new type of pile called paliradice (root piles) their effect on bearing capacity. Tests were performed on
and a piling system called reticolo di radice (reticulated a footing in sand bed with micropiles installed around it to
root piles) (Mittal, 2014). Over the last two decades, determine the optimum distance from the centre of footing
the advances in drilling equipment and technique have and angle of installation of micropiles to improve bearing
extended the applicability of micropiles to projects of capacity. GI strips of width 25 mm and length 375 mm
increasing complexity (Cadden et al. 2004). were used as micropiles. It was observed that maximum
bearing capacity was achieved when the reinforcements
Since their development in 1952, micropiles have been were installed at a distance of 1B (B : width of footing)
effectively used for improving the bearing capacity of the from the centre of the footing and inclined at an angle
foundations and restricting settlement. Micropiles are of 75° with horizontal while the reinforcing effect was
small diameter piles withdiameter ranging from 50 mm negligible beyond a distance of 2B away from the footing.
to 250 mm which can either be drilled/grouted or simply However, it was observed that the reduction in settlement
driven into the ground. Due to the various advantages was highest when the reinforcements were installed at
of micropiling over the large piling system, such as an angle of 90° with the horizontal and at a distance of
smaller and lighter drilling equipment, in-situ construction 2B from the footing.
and applicability, relatively low vibration and noise etc.
micropiles can be used effectively and economically in Babu et al. (2004) used 4 m long 100 mm diameter
areas of restricted movement. micropiles to improve the bearing capacity of foundation
soil under an existing two-storeyed structure constructed
In this paper, findings of the study of the influence of on a loose sandy soil. The building was subjected to
variation of micropile diameter, spacing and distance differential settlement due to wrong estimation of bearing
from the edge of foundation on the load carrying capacity capacity of soil. And as a result, the plinth beam and tie
and settlement of conventional pile foundation in sandy beams at the middle level developed cracks indicating
soil are discussed. Validation of results obtained from considerable distress when backfilling was near

3 Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


4 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

completion. As a retrofit measure, it was recommended cohesion etc., triaxial tests were performed. The angle of
to use 100 mm diameter micropiles at a c/c spacing of internal friction (Φ) was found to be 34° while the value
200 mm to achieve the required level of improvement in of cohesion was observed to be approximately zero.
bearing capacity. Micropiles were driven into the soil at The grain size distribution curve obtained from the sieve
an inclination angle of 70° with the horizontal on all side analysis is shown below in Fig.1.
of the footing. The remedial measures, taken to stabilize
the structure, proved to be more than sufficient to meet Model test piles with diameter 75 mm and length 500
the original requirements and showed a significant mm were casted using M-25 grade concrete as per IS
improvement in the bearing capacity. 456: 2000. Single steel bar of diameter 12 mm was used
as the reinforcement in model piles.
Bhattacharjee and Mittal (2011) carried out small-scale
laboratory tests to study the behaviour of square footings Table 1 Physical properties of sand used
resting on sand with micropiles as vertical reinforcing
elements. A tank with dimensions 1015 mm x 1015 Parameter Value
mm x 500 mm was used for the tests on a square steel Max. Dry Density, pmax(gm/cc) 1.55
footing of size 150 mm x 150 mm and thickness 10 mm. Min. Dry Density, pmax(gm/cc) 1.34
The footing was loaded axially as well as eccentrically.
Max. void ratio, emax 0.8
Parameters such as spacing between micropiles,
diameter of micropiles, distance of micropiles from the Min. void ratio, emin 0.54
edge of footing and length of micropiles were varied Relative Density, Dr (%) 50.18
for different tests. Improvement in bearing capacity is
Coefficient of curvature, Cc 1.8
determined from the bearing capacities of unreinforced
and reinforced soil. Results were studied to analyze the Coefficient of uniformity, Cu 2.22
influence of each parameter. Effect of eccentricity on Effective particle size, D10 (mm) 0.09
settlement and tilt has also been studied. A significant
Specific Gravity, G 2.65
improvement in bearing capacity and reduction in
settlement was observed with an increase in diameter EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
and length of micropile and decrease in spacing and
The test setup consisted, mainly, of three components –
distance of micropiles from the edge of footing
soil tank, micropiles and loading system. For the pile load
Lee et al. (2014) investigated the reinforcement effect tests on model piles, a circular steel tank with diameter
induced by the mechanical interaction between soil 60 cm and depth 86 cm was used. The tank was filled
and micropiles using model tests. Steel sticks of 1 with sand up to a height of 75 cm from the base of the
mm diameter with a covering of sand to increase shaft tank. Density of the prepared ground was maintained at
friction, were used as micropiles. A steel tank of length maximum dry density throughout the depth by rainfall
1.65 m, width 0.58 m and depth 0.8 m was used to method (Fig.2). A sieve with aperture size of 3 mm
prepare the sand bed. Parameters such as spacing
between micropiles (S), reinforcing range (W), angle
of inclination of micropiles (O) with the horizontal and
length of micropiles (L) were considered as variables for
the tests. It was observed that the angle of installation of
micropiles (O) was more critical than other parameters
to restrict settlement and improve the soil stiffness. A
rapid increase in the reinforcement effect was observed
when micropiles of length 2B were installed at reinforced
angle (O) ranging between 45°~75° up to a reinforced
range (W) of 2B (B: width of footing).

MATERIAL PROPERTIES
In order to obtain the properties of the sand to be used
as ground for model pile load tests, various preliminary
tests were carried out. The maximum and minimum dry
densities obtained were 15.5 kN/m3 and 13.3 kN/m3.
Properties of soil are given in Table 1.
Further, to determine the values of the shear strength
parameters of the sand such as angle of internal friction, Fig. 1 : Particle size distribution curve

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


A Study on the Effect of Micropiles on Load Capacity of Pile Foundation in a Cohesionless Soil 5

was used for filling the tank for both unreinforced and distance of the micropiles from the edge of model pile
reinforced case. From the previously conducted tests to (x) were varied for different loading tests (Fig.4).
determine the height of the drop for obtaining maximum Vertical axial load was applied by the means of a hydraulic
dry density, it was observed that the dry density of sand jack acting through a calibrated proving ring of capacity
increases with increase in the height of drop, though not 3 tons with a plunger attached to it. As suggested in IS
much significant. The test density of sand was, thus, 2911: Part 4 (2013), each load was maintained for a time
maintained at 15.5 kN/m3. duration till the readings of settlement gauges became
Hollow aluminium pipes of two different diameters (5 fairly constant. Two dial gauges with a least count of
mm and 10 mm) were used as micropiles for different 0.01 mm were installed on a steel strip to measure the
tests. The prepared ground was reinforced with vertical displacements. The distance of the dial gauges
micropiles around the model test pile by simply driving from the edge of the model pile was kept equal on both
the micropiles vertically into the sand (Fig.3).The loading sides (Fig.6).
apparatus consisted of a reaction frame to which, a The values of vertical displacement for each load
movable hydraulic jack was connected through which increment were recorded until failure was encountered.
the loads were applied. According to IS 2911:Part 4 (2013), soil is considered to
have failed at the load at which net vertical displacement
attains a value equal to 10% of the diameter of pile. In this
study, the failure was considered at a total settlement of
7.5 mm i.e. 10% of the diameter of model pile. The size
of tank used for tests was so chosen that there was no
effect of the boundaries on the structural elements i.e.
model pile and micropiles.
NUMERICAL MODEL
In order to verify the results obtained from model pile
load tests, a numerical model using PLAXIS 3D was
created. PLAXIS is a finite element program, specifically
developed for the analysis of deformation, stability and
flow in geotechnical engineering projects.
For the analysis, model pile was designed as an
embedded beam of diameter 0.075 m and length 0.5
m. The material assigned to the pile was concrete of
M-25 grade. Micropiles surrounding the model pile were
designed as embedded beams of length 0.25 m. Two
different diameters, 5 mm and 10 mm were assigned to
micropiles for different tests. The material assigned to
the micropiles was aluminium (as aluminium pipes were
used as micropiles for laboratory tests). The material
Fig. 2 : Tank filled with sand using rainfall method properties adopted in numerical model are defined in
Table 2.
MODEL TESTS
Laboratory test conditions were simulated in the
Pile load tests were carried out on unreinforced ground numerical model. Since dry sand was used to prepare
(without micropiles) and reinforced ground (with the soil subgrade, the depth of water table was kept
micropiles). The diameter of micropiles (d), spacing sufficiently below the ground level so as to ensure there
between micropiles (s), number of micropiles (n) and is no effect of water table on the results.

Table 2 : Materials properties and parameters used for numerical analysis

Material Model Cohesion, c Φ (°) E (MPa) v µ (kN/m3)


(kPa)
Sand Mohr-Coulomb 0.001 34 25 0.3 15.18
Pile Linear Elastic - - 2.5 x 10 4
0.15 25
Micropile Linear Elastic - - 6.9 x 10 4
0.33 26.47

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


6 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Fig. 3 : Ground reinforced with Fig. 4 : Line diagram showing plan of test Fig. 5 : Line diagram showing cross-
10 mm diameter micropiles setup section of test setup

Fig. 6 : Test setup Fig. 7 : Numerical model created on PLAXIS Fig. 8 : Arrangement of
micropiles around test pile

Fig. 9 : Finite element mesh Fig. 10 : Load-settlement curve for unreinforced and reinforced ground

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


A Study on the Effect of Micropiles on Load Capacity of Pile Foundation in a Cohesionless Soil 7

Fig. 11(a) : Load-settlement curve for s/d = 1.41, x/D = 1, d/D Figure 11(b) : Load-settlement curve for s/d = 1.17, x/D =
= 0.133 1.5, d/D = 0.133

Fig. 11(c) : Load-settlement curve for s/d = 1.067, x/D = 1.5, Fig.11(d) : Load-settlement curve for s/d = 1, x/D = 1.5,
d/D = 0.133 d/D = 0.133

Fig. 11(e) : Load-settlement curve for s/d = 0.88, x/D = 1, Fig. 11(f) : Load-settlement curve for s/d = 0.75, x/D = 1,
d/D = 0.133 d/D = 0.133

Fig. 11 : Comparison of load-settlement curves obtained from model tests and


numerical analysis with micropiles at different spacing

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


8 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Mohr-Coulomb model was used to model the foundation 10 mm. A comparison between the load-settlement
soil while test pile and micropiles were modelled as elastic characteristics obtained from the numerical model
material, as mentioned in Table 2. The arrangement and laboratory tests for different spacing is shown
of micropiles around the test pile as simulated in the in Fig.11.A small percentage of improvement in load
numerical model is shown in Fig. 8. The finite element carrying capacity was observed upon decreasing the
mesh generated for analysis of the model is shown in spacing between micropiles. Reduction in settlement
Fig. 9. was observed to be dependent on both – diameter
and spacing between micropiles, and was observed
RESULTS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA to increase with increase in diameter and decrease
Results from the tests were presents in the form of load in spacing (Fig. 12 and Fig. 13).However, the rate of
carrying capacity ratio (LCR) and settlement ratio (SR). increase in the load carrying capacity of pile decreases
Load carrying capacity ratio is defined as the ratio of as the diameter of reinforcing elements is increased.
ultimate load capacity of foundation in reinforced soil to In each test case, the improvement in load carrying
that in unreinforced soil. capacity and reduction in settlement was more when
LCR = Pu/Pu0 where, the micropiles were installed at a distance of 1D (D:
diameter of test pile) from the edge of pile than when the
Pu: ultimate load capacity in reinforced soil micropiles were installed at 1.5D from edge of pile.
Pu0: ultimate load capacity in unreinforced soil
Settlement ratio, for a particular load, is defined as the
ratio of settlement of foundation in reinforced soil to that
in unreinforced soil.
SR = S/S0 where,
S: settlement of foundation in reinforced soil at a
particular load
S0: settlement of foundation in unreinforced soil at that
load
From the data obtained from model tests and numerical
model, load vs. settlement and LCR vs. s/D curves
were plotted. Fig.10 shows load-settlement curves
obtained from the laboratory test. The graph compares Fig. 12 : LCR vs. s/D curve for d/D = 0.067
the load-settlement characteristics obtained from tests
on unreinforced soil to those obtained from tests on soil
reinforced with micropiles having diameter 10 mm (d/D
= 0.133 where D is the diameter of model test pile), at
a distance of 1D and 1.5D from the edge of the pile and
spaced at 0.75D and 1D respectively.
Load carrying capacity and settlement ratios were
computed from the load-settlement curves for all the
cases and compared to understand the effect of each
parameter (diameter of micropile, spacing between
micropiles and distance of micropiles from the edge
of pile) on the load carrying capacity and settlement.
Settlement ratios were calculated for three different
loads (1 kN, 2kNand 3kN).
It was observed that the improvement in load Fig. 13 : LCR vs. s/D curve for d/D = 0.133
carrying capacity increased with the installation
of micropiles and a reduction in settlement was CONCLUSIONS
achieved. An improvement of up to 36% in load
carrying capacity was recorded while a maximum of 1. The load capacity of reinforced ground increased
41% reduction in settlement was observed with an 1.1 to 1.36 times that of unreinforced ground
increase in the diameter of micropiles from 5 mm to with the installation of micropiles and attained its
maximum value when the micropiles were installed

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


A Study on the Effect of Micropiles on Load Capacity of Pile Foundation in a Cohesionless Soil 9

at a distanceof 1D from the pile and spaced c/c at ground while reducing the settlement to 0.68 times
0.75D. that of unreinforced ground.
2. The settlements at different loads decreased to REFERENCEs
0.59~0.91 times that of unreinforced ground upon the
implementation of micropiles. Maximum reduction in 1. Mittal, S. 2014, An Introduction to Ground Improvement
settlement of 41% was observed to be achieved when Engineering. pp. 180.
the micropiles were inserted at a distance of 1D from 2. Cadden, A., Gómez, J., Bruce, D., &Armour, T. 2004
the edge of the pile and spaced c/c at 0.75D. Micropiles: recent advances and future trends, Current
3. The increase in load capacity was observed to be Practices and Future Trends in Deep Foundations.
between 8% and 27% when micropiles of diameter 140-165.
0.067 times that of the diameter of main pile were 3. Hari Krishna, P., and Ramana Murthy, V. 2000 Effect
used. For micropiles with diameter of 0.133D, of Orientation of Reinforcement on Bearing Capacity
increase in load capacity was observed to range of Reinforced Sand Bed. IGC-2000: The Millennium
between 10% and 36%. Conference. 325-326.
4. For micropiles of diameter 0.067D a reduction 4. Babu Sivakumar, G.L., Murthy Srinivasa, B.R.,
in settlement of 8% to 39% of the settlements Murthy, D.S.N., and Nataraj, M.S. 2004 Bearing
in unreinforced ground was observed while for Capacity improvement Using Micropiles A Case
micropiles of diameter 0.133D, the reduction in Study. Geosupporrt 2004. 692-699.
settlement was recorded to be 10% to 41%. 6. Bhattacharjee, A., Mittal, S., and Krishna, A. 2011
5. Keeping in mind the economic feasibility, from the test Bearing capacity improvement of square footing by
data and aforementioned conclusions, an optimum micropiles. International Journal of Geotechnical
arrangement of micropiles around a pile foundation, Engineering. 5(1): 113-118.
was arrived at. It is concluded that micropiles of 7. Lee, T.H., Chul, I.J., and Kim, C. 2014 A Method for
diameter 0.133D, spaced c/c at 0.88D and installed Reinforcing the Ground Adjacent to the Footing Using
at a distance of 1D are sufficient to improve the load Micropiles. Marine Georesources and Geotechnology.
carrying capacity up to 1.33 times that of unreinforced 34(4): 341-355.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


CONSERVATION TRENCHES AND ITS EFFECTS ON
PLANTATION CROP IN DEGRADED WATERSHED IN
KANDHAMAL DISTRICT OF ODISHA
C.R. Subudhi
Department of Soil and Water Conservation Engineering, Collage of Agricultural Engineering,
OUAT, Bhubaneswar, Odisha, India

ABSTRACT
Kandhamal district situated in central part of Orissa receives an annual rainfall of 1396mm and this region
is highly prone to soil and runoff loss due to heavy rainfall during kharif. A trial was conducted during
2001-04 to study the effect of conservation trenches on plantation crop. This trial was conducted on
farmers field of Sudreju village of Kandhamal district under National Agricultural Technology Project (NATP,
RRPS-7) with the following objectives.1.To conserve moisture for establishment of plantation crop. 2.To
reduce erosion from upstream area.3 To increase production of timber, fruit species, fuel wood and fodder.
The following treatments were tried.1.No treatment.2.Continuous V-ditches at 10m horizontal interval.3
Continuous V-ditches at 20m horizontal interval.4.V-ditches staggered at 5m horizontal interval. 5 V-ditches
staggered at 10m horizontal interval. Mango varieties Pusa Amrapalli was tried during kharif and during,
rabi Black gram (PU-30) was tried in between mango rows. It is observed that in, cont. contour V-ditch at
10m interval rate of growth was 2.06 cm/month in case of Amrapalli, which is 46 %higher compared to
control. The grain yield of niger, black gram & mustard are 33.4%, 23.5 % &26.6 % higher than control
respectively. Though the cost of construction is little high it is recommended to practice contour V-ditch
at 10m intervals, to conserve soil and moisture and to get more grain yield in degraded watershed of
Kandhamal district.

INTRODUCTION cultivated land of the country is rainfed. Scientific use of


these resources will definitely increase the productivity
Kandhamal, though receives rainfall around 1396 mm,
&conservation of resources like soil & water. Kumar
due to its uneven distribution, heavy downpour of rain
(2002) reported that impact of different soil& water
at times results in sudden high runoff which ultimately
conservation techniques viz. contour bunding ,terracing,
causes substantial soil loss. The uneven distribution of
land leveling , smoothening& gully plugging, sowing
rainwater and movement of soil within the watershed,
across the slope, vegetative barrier, increase the Kharif
results heavy loss to farmers. So conservation trenches
crops by 25-30 percent. .Establishment of vegetative
for plantation crops helps to conserve the soil and moisture
barrier with mechanical measures were more effective
and ultimately improves grain yield of the farmers.
in controlling soil erosion(3.8 t ha-1) over conventional
The objectives of the experiment are ,to conserve moisture method(9.64 t ha-1)and runoff thereby making more
for establishment of plantation crop ,to reduce soil erosion moisture available for crop growth. Anonymous (2003)
from upstream area and to increase production of timber, reported that V-ditch at 10 m CCVD increased the crop
fruit species, fuel wood and fodder. yield significantly compared to no treatment.
REVIEW OF LITERATURE MATERIALS AND METHODS
Samra, J.S.(2002) reported that renovation of terrace and The study area lies in the Pila-Salki Watershed of
plantation of fruit plants, timber plants improved biomass Mahanadi Catchment. It falls under Sudreju revenue
production, net returns, growth of crop, productivity, village of Khajuripada block in Phulbani district. As per
reduction of runoff in the range of 1.5-10.8 times, peak Soil Conservation Department Govt. of Orissa, it is a
flow rate by 20 times& soil loss in the range of 1.2 to 5.2 part of watershed ORM 3-9-6-5. As per watershed
times ,as well as water table rise. Subudhi et. al.(1999) map classification reported by the Orissa Remote
have reported that effect of vegetative barrier like Vetiver Sensing Application Center (Department of Science
has increased the rice yield ,decrease the soil loss and & Technology, Govt. Of Orissa) the selected Micro-
decrease the runoff compared to farmers practice. Arora Watershed falls under Sub-Watershed No 17-07-31-
et.al.(2002) reported that there is a growing need for rain 01-01. This sub-watershed consists of parts of Survey
water management since 96 m ha out of 142 m ha of net of India Topographical Sheet Nos. 73D/2, 73D/6,73D/3

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 10


Conservation Trenches and Its Effects On Plantation Crop in Degraded Watershed in Kandhamal District of Odisha 11

& 73D/7. However the Micro-Watershed under study RESULTS & DISCUSSION
falls only under Topo Sheet No. 73D/6. These Micro-
Monthly rainfall is presented in Table-1.It is observed
Watersheds are located at a distance of about 10
from above table that the year 2002 is a drought years,
Km from Phulbani district headquarters on Phulbani-
it received only 74 % of rainfall, a deficit of 36 % from
Sudrukumpa State Highway.
mean rainfall. But 2001 & 2003 are good years receiving
An on farm trial was conducted in the year 2001-04, at 39.6% and 4% more than the mean annual rainfall
Sudreju under Dryland Agril Research Project, Orissa respectively. The mean annual rainfall is 1396.14 mm.
University of Agriculture & Technology, Phulbani, The fluctuation shows the rainfall is very erratic in all the
financed through National Agriculture Technology three years.
Project, Rainfed Rice Production System-7. Five
following treatments were tested with 4 replication in Table-3 shows rate of growth of mango. The rate of
randomized block design. growth is highest (3.02cm/month) in T2-CCVD at 10
meter interval & lowest (1.22cm/month) in control
Treatments were;T 1 -No treatment;T 2 -Continuous from 2001-2003. The grain yield of Niger, black gram
V- ditches at 10 m horizontal intervals.;T3-Continuous & mustard are 33.4%, 23.5 % &26.6 % higher than
V-ditches at 20 m horizontal intervals.T 4-V-ditches control respectively (Table.3). This may be due to
staggered at 5 m horizontal interval.T 5 -V-ditches more soil and water conserved at root zone of the crop
staggered at 10m horizontal intervals. as the moisture content in T2 is more compared to all
The name of farmer is Kisore Pradhan. Mango variety other treatments and lowest in control as there was no
Amrapalli was tried during Kharif in 5 meter spacing V-ditch (Table 3) The soil conserved in T2 is 6.2 ton/
&Niger, Black gram and Mustard were tried during ha followed by T5 where soil conserved was 5.5 t/ha.
Rabi with 30cm spacing. Weather was favorable for all Patil, P.P et al (2004) has obtained similar result ,they
crops. got lowest soil loss (1.51 t/ha) and highest survival
Disease & Pest: Mango hopper in all Mango varieties. percentage of cashew nut plantation in Continuous
Crop stand: Good. Slope: Field was contour surveyed contour trench compared to staggered trench (3.95
and the slope was 4.15%.Soil loss was measured after t/ha) and control(16.55 t/ha). So it can be cocluded
the rainy season in the V-ditches, the soil was completely that 10meter CCVD should be recommended for
filled in 10m CCVD. So soil conserved was calculated uplands of degraded watershed at Kandhamal district
as we know the size of the V-ditch before and after the of Orissa.
rainy season.

Table.1 : Monthly rainfall (mm) during 2001, 2002 &2003 and their deviation from mean.

Month Monthly Actual Deviation Actual Deviation Actual in Deviation


normal in 2001 from normal, in 2002 from 2003 from
% normal, % normal, %
January 9.18 - -100 13.0 +41.6 0.0 -100
February 14.07 - -100 - -100 23.5 +67.0
March 21.70 56.0 +158.1 20.0 -7.8 12.5 -57.6
April 30.40 - -100 32.0 +5.2 89.0 +192.7
May 57.48 48.0 -16.5 70.0 +21.8 7.0 -87.8
June 191.62 504.9 +163.5 149.0 -22.2 117.0 -38.9
July 353.62 797.6 +125.6 129.0 -63.5 237.0 -33.0
August 378.65 300.1 -20.7 329.0 -13.1 358.1 -5.4
September 218.57 124.7 -42.9 134.9 -38.3 350.1 +60.2
October 88.93 111.5 +25.4 11.0 -87.6 216.0 +142.9
November 27.48 6.9 -74.9 - -100 0.0 -100
December 4.45 - -100 - -100 42.0 -843.8
Annual 1396.15 1949.7 +39.6 887.9 -36.4 1452.2 +4.0

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


12 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Soil : The soil data has been presented in Table 2 it reveals that pH is low in top soil (5.42)compared to bottom
soil(5.98)
Table 2 : Soil Analysis Report

Sl. No. Name of the Farmer Depth Crop pH EC OC OM


(cm) (1:2.5) (dsm-1) (g/kg) (g/kg)
1 Kishore Pradhan 0-30 Mango 5.42 0.0174 5.62 9.67
2 Kishore Pradhan 30-60 Mango 5.98 0.042 3.26 5.61
Table 3 : Yield, plant height and moisture content and soil conserved in different treatments

Treatments Niger (q/ha) Black gram Mustard Mean moisture Mean rate Mean Soil
(2001-02) (q/ha) (q/ha) Content (%) of growth of conserved
(2002-03) (2003-04) At 0-30 cm on mango (cm/ in ton/ha
weight basis month) during
during 2001-03 2001-2003
T1- No treatment 2.33 6.12 4.17 3.67 1.22 0
T2-Continuous 3.11 8.00 5.28 10.25 3.02 6.2
V- ditches at 10m
horizontal interval.
T3-Continuous 2.44 7.12 4.85 5.59 2.47 3.2
V-ditches at 20m
horizontal interval.
T4-V-ditches 2.51 7.37 5.15 8.47 2.42 5.5
staggered at 5 m
horizontal interval.
T5-V- ditches 2.49 7.25 5.00 7.02 2.50 3.1
staggered at 10m
horizontal intervals.
SE (m)+ 0.13 0.57 0.05
CD (0.05) 0.39 NS 0.17

SUMMERY & CONCLUSION Acknowledgement


The present study reveals that grain yield of niger, black The authors acknowledge the help of Vice Chanceller,
gram & mustard are 33.4%, 23.5 % &26.6 % higher than O.U.A.T., Director, CRIDA, Hyderabad & Dean of
control respectively. Though the cost of construction is Research. O.U.A.T., Bhubaneswar for time-to-time
little high it is recommended to practice contour V-ditch guidance &financial help to carry out this project. The
at 10m intervals, to conserve soil and moisture and to get authors also acknowledge the help of D.L.A.P. staff of
more grain yield in degraded watershed of Kandhamal Phulbani & staff of CAET, OUAT, Bhubaneswar, who
district. It is observed that in, cont. contour V-ditch at are helping for the success of the project.
10m interval rate of growth was 3.02 cm/month in case
of Amrapalli, which is 46 %higher compared to control. REFERENCES
Also we can conserve 6.2 t/ha of soil by 10m CCVD 1. Annonymous (2003)Final progress report of
which is highest among all the treatments. NATP,RRPS-7,DLAP,OUAT,Phulbani.
It can be cocluded that 10meter CCVD should be 2. Arora Dinesh & Gupta A.K.(2002)Effect of water
recommended for upland of degraded watershed of conservation measures in a pasture on the productivity
Kandhamal district of Orissa. of Buffel grass. Proceedings of Indian Association of

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Conservation Trenches and its Effects on Plantation Crop in Degraded Watershed in Kandhamal District of Odisha 13

Soil & Water Conservationists, Dehradun conference 5. P a t i l , P. P. , G u t a l G . B . , G a n v i r, B . N . a n d


held in 2001.pp –65-66. Bodake,P.S.,(2004)Soil and moisture conservation
3. Eswaran V.B.(2002)Wasteland development. practices for the hill slopes in Western Ghat
Proceedings of Indian Association of Soil & Water of Maharastra. Extended abstracts of National
Conservationists,Dehradun conference held in 2001. Conferences on Resource Conserving Technologies
pp 17-19 for Social Upliftment. pp 122-124.

4. Kumar munish (2002).Impact of soil & water 6. Samra,J.S.(2002)Watershed management a tool


conservation on erosion loss and yield of Kharif for sustainable production. Proceedings of Indian
crops under ravenous watershed. Proceedins of Association of Soil & Water Conservationists,Dehradun
Indian Association of Soil & Water Conservationists, conference held in 2001.pp 1-10
Dehradun conference held in 2001.pp 301-303 7. Subudhi C.R., Pradhan, P.C. & Senapati,P,C.(1999)
Effect of grass bund on erosion loss and yield of
rainfed rice, Orissa, India, T. Vetiver Network.19:32-
33.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Shoreline Evolution along Uppada Coast
in Andhra Pradesh Using Multi Temporal
Satellite Images and Model Based Approach
R. Kannan, Abhrankash Kanungo, M.V. Ramana Murty, and K.V. Ramana
Andhra Pradesh Space Applications Centre (APSAC), Vijayawada, India
Abstract
The coastline along Uppada region in Andhra Pradesh has been investigated. The shoreline was severely
eroded due to near shore processes in last 2 to 3 decades. In 2010, geo-synthetic tube and bags were
laid for about one kilometre along the Uppada coast in Andhra Pradesh in order to reduce and check the
coastal erosion but it is found that the structural measures are not efficient enough to handle the issues.
In 2016, it is observed that coastal erosion has again recaptured at the same stretch of shoreline. To
understand the shoreline erosion phenomena, the analysis of shoreline changes for the past 29 years
has been carried out to understand the coastal dynamics and its influence on the natural and man-made
features. In the present study, Landsat- 5 ETM (1989), IRS-P6 LISS III (1999), IRS-P6 LISS III (2005,
2010), LISS IV (2012), Landsat- 8 ETM+ (2014, 2015) and Sentinel (2016, 2017, and 2018) satellite
images were used for extracting the shoreline along the Uppada coast. The maps generated based
on earliest available topographical maps have been compared with the maps generated based on the
high resolution satellite data. The shoreline change detection is carried out using the Digital Shoreline
Analysis System (DSAS). The rate of shoreline change was assessed using Linear Regression (LRR)
and End Point Rate (EPR) methods. In those methods End Point Rate (EPR) was calculated by dividing
the distance of shoreline movement by the time elapsed between the earliest and latest measurements
at each transect. The result indicates that there are series of coastal erosion along Uppada area and
average 35.7meter per year has observed from the year of 1989 to 2018. In this study it is observed that
after placing Geo synthetics tube, some places had accretion. The coastline was found to be eroding
with average of 1.23 m/year.
Keywords: Shoreline changes, GIS, Satellite images, Geo-synthetic Tube, LRR, EPR, DSAS.

1. Introduction disintegration are: development of artificial structures,


mining of shoreline sand, seaward digging or building of
The shoreline is one of the quickly changing direct dams or waterways. It is in this way important to screen
highlights of the beach front zone which is dynamic shoreline changes and land utilizes design along beach
in nature. The issue of shoreline changes because of front territory. Multi-temporal Remote Sensing data is
ocean level ascent throughout the following century useful in analyzing, visualizing and mapping of shoreline
has progressively turning into a noteworthy social, changes in GIS environment. The aim of the study is
monetary and ecological worry to countless along the to map dynamic change of land-use land-cover and
drift, where it represents a difficult issue to nature and shoreline using Survey of India toposheet and satellite
human repayments. Shoreline retreat because of rising data.
ocean level has been perceived as a potential near
future hazard by various countries and this is same for 2. Materials and Methodology
the conditions of India along the drift. The landward
displacement of the shoreline caused by the powers of 2.1 Study Area
waves and currents is causing beach front disintegration. Uppada is a village in East Godavari district of the Indian
It is the loss of sub-flying landmass into an ocean or lake state of Andhra Pradesh (Fig. 1). It is located in Kothapalli
because of normal procedures, for example, waves, mandal of Kakinada revenue division. Uppada Jamdani
winds and tides, or even because of human obstruction. Sari is a handcrafted sari woven at the village and is
While the impacts of waves, currents, tides and wind are also a geographical indication of Andhra Pradesh. It is
essential regular factors that impact the drift alternate popular Fishery station for Prawns. Uppada is located
viewpoints dissolving the coastline include: the sand at 17.09°N 82.33°E and. The village is spread over an
sources and sinks, changes in relative ocean level, area of 4.50 km2 and is located on the east coast of Bay
geomorphological attributes of the shore and sand, etc. of Bengal. The coastline of Uppada is 5 kilometres long
Other anthropological impacts that trigger shoreline and stretches along Bay of Bengal.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 14


Shoreline Evolution along Uppada Coast in Andhra Pradesh Using Multi Temporal Satellite Images & Model Based 15

Fig. 1 : Study Area


2.2 Data Used 2.4 Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS)
This study is carried out by using multi-resolution and The Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) is a
multi-temporal satellite data of Landsat TM and IRS. GIS-based system developed by the United States
These datasets were acquired on cloud free days Geological Survey (USGS). DSAS measures gaps
of different dates over the chosen period (1989 to between the shoreline positions during defined periods
2015). The multi temporal capabilities allow tracking of time. This provides the basic data to calculate the
of changes over time (as same resolution data is not shoreline changes. The historical trend of these shore-
available for the desired period). Survey of India (SoI) line changes is based on indicators of the shoreline
toposheet (1:50,000 scale) are used for preparing base geometry. The system controls the following coastline
map (Table 1). characteristics: historical coastline dynamics, shoreline
Table 1 : Particular of Satellite Data Used change, development and evolution of gulls, cliff retreat
and erosion, shoreline measurement and modelling
Sensor Spatial Year Month Source (Oyedotun, 2014). DSAS generates transects that are
Resolution cast perpendicular to the base line at a user specified
(m)
spacing along shore. The transect shoreline intersections
Landsat 5TM 30 1989 November USGS along this baseline are then used to calculate the rate
IRS 1C - LISS 23.5 1999 January NRSC of change statistics. Based on the logical conditions
III in DSAS, 46 transects has been generated that are
IRS-P6 LISS III 23.5 2005 February NRSC oriented perpendicular to the baseline at each 100m
spacing and about 5 km along Uppada coast. DSAS
IRS-P6 LISS III 23.5 2010 January NRSC
4.2 has 6 statistical approaches to compute changes.
IRS-P6 LISS IV 5.8 2012 March NRSC In this study, the End Point Rate (EPR) was chosen
Landsat 8 30 2014, 2015 March USGS as the statistical parameter describing the spatial
ETM+ patterns of shoreline change (Thieler et al., 2009). EPR
Sentinal-2 10 2016, 2017, March USGS
measures shoreline change by dividing the distance
2,018 of the shoreline between its initial and the most recent
position of shoreline. LRR uses all the available data to
2.3 Shoreline Extraction and Delineation compute long-term rate of changes. Baseline, historical
shorelines, and shorelines uncertainty are input data
Shoreline position can refer to several different features
provided in the model for during simulation phase. The
such as vegetation line, high water line, low water line
spacing between transects along the baseline and the
or the wet/dry line (Himmelstoss et al., 2009). In GIS
platform, the extracted shorelines were overlaid on the length of transects were defined based on the Shoreline
satellite image. The high-water line (HWL) was therefore pattern.
adopted since it was relatively easy to distinguish it on all 2.5 Methodology
the images as a wet/dry line. The output vector however
consisted of other water/land boundaries such as those Multi-resolution satellite data such as Landsat TM,
of creeks and lagoons and could not be directly used IRS of different dates have been acquired, as same
for change detection. To extract the target sections, the resolution data is not available over the chosen period
extracted vector shoreline were overlaid on the colour (Table 1). Estimation of the rates of erosion and
composites and used as guide to digitize the target accretion along the Uppada coast is performed for the
shoreline. studied periods.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


16 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Fig. 3 : Shoreline Change Rate 1989 to 1999 and


1999 to 2005

3.2 Shore Line Changes from 2005 to 2010 and 2010


to 2012
Fig. 2 : Methodology Flow Chart During the period 2005 to 2010, the average accretion
rate is +1.69 m/yr and erosion rate is -2.57m/yr along
3. Results and Discussion the Uppada coast, where as from 2010 to 2012, cases of
The shoreline change estimation was carried out for the severe erosion is observed all along the Uppada coast
Uppada coast for a stretch of about 5 km. In this study, with high average erosion i.e. -8.08 m/yr and accretion
shorelines were extracted from satellite images for rate is +4.92 m/yr.
1989, 1999, 2005, 2010, 2012, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017
and 2018 by visual image interpretation technique. The
rate of change in the coastline was calculated using
DSAS model with two different statistical techniques i.e.
End Point Rate (EPR) and Linear Regression Rate-of-
Change (LRR). Base lines were constructed seaward
and parallel to the general trend of the shorelines.
Using DSAS transects were spaced 100m apart. Rates
of shoreline change were calculated at each transect
using linear regression. After the detailed analysis,
significant changes were observed along Uppada
Coast.

3.1 Shore Line Changes from 1989 to 1999 and 1999


to 2005: Fig. 4 : Shoreline Change Rate 2005 to 2010 and
2010 to 2012
During the period from 1989 to 1999, there has
been severe erosion occurred all along the Uppada 3.3 Shore line Changes from 2012 to 2014 and 2014
coast with average accretions rate of +1.26 m/yr to 2015:
and erosion rate -2.69 m/yr. From 1999 to 2005 the
average accretion rate is + 1.3 m/yr and erosion rate The period from 2012 to 2014 was a period of positive
is -1.47 m/yr. It is found that from 1989 to 2005 the coastal phenomena at many places along the Uppada
rate of erosion was higher than accretion and mostly coast because of the effect of the installation of Geo-
it happened in northern side of Uppada coast. It can tubes and bags in late 2010 and early 2011 for about
clearly be observed from the fig. 3 that northern side a kilometre. The average erosion rate during this
of Uppada which faced high rate of erosion from 1989 period is -1.98 m/yr and accretion is 7.98m/yr. But the
to 1999 has gone through a normal rate of accretion scenario changed during the year 2014 to 2015, with
from 1999 to 2005. On the other hand the southern the average erosion rate of -6.22m/ yr and accretion
side of the Uppada coast the rate of accretion and with 8.8 m/ yr.
erosion are balance with minor variation in some
specific pockets.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Shoreline Evolution along Uppada Coast in Andhra Pradesh Using Multi Temporal Satellite Images & Model Based 17

3.5 Time – Series Analysis:


The shoreline change rates along the Uppada coast
were calculated in the time-series manner for the
period between 1989 to 1999, 1999 to 2005, 2005 to
2010, 2010 to 2012, 2012 to2014, 2015 to 2016, 2016
to 2017, 2017 to 2018 and then for 1989 to 2018. It
is found that the overall rates of coastal erosion and
accretion ranges from -6.13 m/year to 5.68 m/year
respectively where negative values represent erosion
and positive values represent accretion (fig. 8). The
maximum rate of erosion and accretion is observed
during 2017 to 2018.
Fig. 5 : Shoreline Change Rate 2012 to 2014 and
2014 to 2015
3.4 Shore Line Changes from 2015 to 2016, 2016 to
2017 and 2017 to 2018
From 2015 to 2016, the average accretion rate observed
is 8.07 m/yr and erosion rate is about -2.57 m/yr and
2016 to 2017 the average accretion, erosion rate is 5.9
m/yr and -7.85 m/yr respectively.

Fig. 8 : The Maximum Erosion and Accretion


Rate (1989 to 2018)

Table 2 : Long term shoreline change from EPR for 29


years using different interval of shoreline

Year Erosion Accretion Maximum Minimum Average


(m/ yr) (m/ yr) (m/ yr) (m/ yr) (m/ yr)
1989- -2.69 1.26 -7.2 2.6 -1.43
1999

Fig. 6 : Shoreline Change Rate 2015 to 2016 and 1999- -1.4 1.3 -4.9 4.3 -0.10
2016to 2017 2005

The period of 2017 to 2018 (March) has been a mixed 2005- -2.57 1.66 -5.3 4.3 -0.91
scenario of coastal process along Uppada coast. The 2010
average accretion and erosion rate is 11.3 m/yr and 2010- -8.08 4.92 -7.6 15.9 -3.16
-12.67 m/yr respectively. 2012
2012- -1.98 7.98 -3.9 19.7 6.00
2014
2014- -6.22 8.8 -22.1 18.4 2.58
2015
2015- -11.75 8.07 -30.6 9.9 -3.68
2016
2016- -7.85 5.9 -18.8 13.8 -1.95
2017
2017- -12.67 11.3 -26.3 37.4 -1.37
2018
Fig. 7 : Shoreline Change Rate 2016-2017 and 2017-2018

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


18 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Uppada has shown a positive trend. The period of 2015


to 2016, almost Uppada coast has fully eroded because
of Hudhud cyclone hitting coast in the year of 2014 and
the rate of erosion was at -3.68m/ year. From the year
2015 onwards Uppada coast had constantly eroded
due to changing wave pattern and sediment transport
variation.
If the erosion and accretion activity is classified into
different groups by considering the rate of effect, which
has already been standardised for Indian sub-continent
by NCSCM, MoEF, GoI, then high erosion are observed
Fig. 9 : Average shoreline change rate in Uppada along the coast with more than -2m per year, medium
coast (1989 to 2018) erosion coast ranging from -2 m to -1 m per year and
Low Erosion coast ranging from -0.1m to -0.5m per
The time series analysis presented in the fig. 9 clearly
year. The coast is considered as stable with erosion or
shows the variation of erosion and accretion rate for
accretion status ranging from -0.5m to +0.5m. It is being
past 29 years. During the period 1999 to 2005 upto
observed from the analysis carried out for the last 29
2010 to 2012 periods the shoreline has constantly
years of that spatial data in DSAS model shows that the
eroded due to high wave interaction between land and
length of medium and low erosion is about 3.1 km and
sea. The sediments had been transported towards the
1.3 km respectively, about 94 % of the coastal tract along
north direction from south direction. From the year 2010
the Uppada is of Low to Medium erosion in nature (fig.
to 2012 year the average shoreline change rate is 6 m/
10). The more alarming part of the study & outcome is
year, because of effect of installation of 1 km length of
that the coastal stretch along the Subbampeta, Uppada
geo-synthetic bag placed along the Uppada coast and till
and Aminabada rural habitation is of medium erosion in
the year 2014 the accretion rate of the shoreline along
nature and is been constantly instable in nature. Because
of this nature of instability along this stretch of coast line
the geotube bags were installed but were unable to bear
the dynamic of the coastal processes.

Conclusion
The results show that there are significant changes
along the Uppada coast, either due to erosion or
accretion. The analysis indicated that there were severe
changes in shoreline in between 2005 to 2012 and 2015
to 2016, moderate erosion was observed during 2016
to 2018. Accretion was observed from 2012 to 2015
period. During the years of 1989 to 2010 the average
accretion rate is +1.40 m/yr and erosion rate is -2.22 m/
yr. The rate of accretion and erosion is observed to be
deviating between +7.8 m/yr and -8.09 m/yr. The erosion
activities are moderately high compare to accretion in
study are during the period 2012 to 2018. However,
erosion activities are not occurred in the middle region
of the Uppada coast. Thus it can be concluded that, a
detailed offshore and physical coastal process study
can be taken up to correlate the dynamic nature of
the shoreline. As it is evident that Uppada coast is
more of wave dominated than tide, thus role of littoral
drift accompanied by offshore wave and its behavior &
signature on the dynamic nature of the Uppada coast
may be taken up by research organization. Awareness
among the coastal community is also essential for taking
of coastal plantation and beach nourishment programs
Fig. 10 : Shoreline change map along Uppada coast along the Uppada coastline.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Shoreline Evolution along Uppada Coast in Andhra Pradesh Using Multi Temporal Satellite Images and Model Based 19

Acknowledgment Gopinath.G, Seralathan.P (2005) “Rapid erosion of


the Coast of the Sagar Island, West Bengal India”
The APSAC express their sincere gratitude to the
Environmental Geology 48: 1058-1067.
Chairman, APSAC for his continuous support for the
activity. Himmelstoss, E.A., Kratzmann, M., Hapke, C.J., Thieler,
E.R., List, J., 2011. The national assessment of shoreline
References change -a GIS compilation of vector shorelines and
Anthony, E. J., (2005) “Beach Erosion. Encyclopaedia of asso- ciated shoreline change data for the New England
Coastal Science” Springer. p140-144. and Mid-Atlantic coasts. U.S.Geological Survey Open-
File Report 2010-1119.
Bailey B. and Nowell D,(1996) “Techniques for monitoring
coastal change: a review and case study” Ocean and Maiti and A K Bhattacharya., (2009) “Shoreline change
Coastal Management, Vol. 2, pp. 85–95. analysis and its application to prediction: A remote
sensing and statistics based approach” Marine Geology,
Boak E. H. and I. L. Turner (2005), “Shoreline Definition 257(1–4): p. 11-23
and Detection: A Review,” Journal of Coastal Research,
214, pp. 688–703, Moore, L. J. (2000) “Shoreline mapping techniques”
Journal of Coastal Research, Vol. 16, 111-124.
Blodget, H. W., Taylor, P. T., Raork, J. H., (1991).
“Shoreline changes along the rosetta nile promontory - USGS (2005) User Guide and Tutorial for the Extension
monitoring with satellite-observations” Marine Geology, for ArcGIS v.9.0 (DSAS) version 3.2 Digital Shoreline
99: 67-77. Analysis System Part of USGS Open-File Report 2005-
1304.
Chen L.C. and J.Y. Rau, (1998), “Detection of shoreline
changes for tideland areas using multi- temporal satellite Thieler E R., E A Himmelstoss., J L Zichichi, and A
images,” International Journal of Remote Sensing, 19, Ergul., (2009) “The Digital Shoreline Analysis System
pp. 3383–339, (DSAS) version 4.0 an ArcGIS extension for calculating
shoreline change”, U.S. Geological Survey.
Dolan R., Hayden B.P. and May S, (1983) “Erosion of
the US shorelines” Journal of Remote Sensing, Vol.6, Oyedotun D.T. (2014) “Shoreline Geometry: DSAS as
pp.26-31. a Tool for Historical Trend Analysis” Geomorphological
Techniques, Chap. 3, Sec. 2.2
Fletcher C .H., B M Romine, A S Genz, M M Barbee, M
Dyer, T R Anderson, S C Lim, S Vitousek,

19 Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Construction of Geo-tube Embankment at
Pentha in Kendrapara District of
Odisha – a Case Study
Jugal Kishore Tripathy
Department of Water Resources, Govt of Odisha
Rengali Right Irrigation Project

Introduction In 2000, a study was conducted by Government of


Odisha with help of Bairds & Associates, Canada to
Pentha (20032.5’N 86047.5E) is a small coastal village
evaluate the possible maximum surge along coastline
in Kendrapara District of Odisha at a distance of 8.6 km
of Odisha. The study shows that in Kendrapara
from Rajnagar. As almost till the tip of beachfront from
district, near Pentha the maximum surge may be 7.2
the land, agriculture is being practiced in this locality.
metre.
The beach at Pentha is separated by an embankment
named as ‘Rajnagar Gopalpur Saline Embankment’. The Government of India had received a credit
The coastal stretch adjacent to Pentha village has from the International Development Association for
been continuously eroded for the last few years. Since the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Project
July 2007, the erosion continued to be most severe (ICZMP) and Government of Odisha intended to utilize
and the saline embankment was at stake. During 2011- a portion of the funds for the construction of suitable
12, the saline embankment to protect the village got Geo-tube Embankment on the seaside of retarded
damaged and a retarded embankment was built on embankment at Pentha. The Geo-tube embankment
the backside of the existing embankment in order to is located between the two points 20032’21.57”N-
protect the locality in case of complete failure of the 86047.15.12”E and 20032’39.08”N-86047’30.58”E for
existing embankment. 505 m length.

Fig.1 : Surge Map for Odisha Coast Line as prepared by Bairds& Associates, Canada in 2000

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 20


Construction of Geo-tube Embankment at Pentha in Kendrapara District of Odisha – A Case Study 21

Fig. 2 : Saline Embankment at Pentha devastated for 400 metre length during 2011 On the backside,
the retard embankment protected the locality from inundation

S oil C haracteristics , hydrolo g y & to higher wave celerity it plunges over foreshore up to
topography berm. This results in movement of sediments from the
The soil in this region is mainly composed of fine sand onshore and transported back to fore shore during back
and silt with pods and pockets of black colored clay wash and long shore transport (littoral drift). The site
with considerable amount of plasticity. This is semi- is continuously affected by cyclones and storm surge,
impermeable in nature and it is capable of inducing associated with a low pressure weather system. The
high hydrostatic pressure in the pore fluids and causing storm surge causes the water to pile up higher than the
impounding of groundwater. Various soil samples are ordinary sea level and tends to increase the wave height
collected and analysis of these soil samples reveal that which is the predominant reason for erosion of beach
the clay proportions in the soil content is about 29% and berms and sand dunes. Since storm surge waves are
silt particles more than (60%). Even though the silt is of high intensity and breaks after the long shore bar.
very fine, the particle fractions are very fine particles of the gradient in transport rate in the direction of the net
quartz ranging 0.001 to 0.0006, which is almost equal transport is increased.
to size clay particles. The region is connected with
Proposal of Geo-tube embankment
rivers such as Brahmani, Baitarani, Patasala, Maipura,
Kharasrota, and Dhamara. The coastal tracts with those The shore line at Pentha was 500m away from the
rivers are interconnected with fault lineament. The saline embankment built in 1975. Since this original
general topography is irregular with many drain cuts, embankment was eroded, a retarded embankment
rivers, lakes, ponds, swamps, estuaries and lagoons. was built 60m behind the original embankment. The
erosion was about 10 to 15m per annum and in 21st
Causes for erosion Nov. 2009 the shore line was at 50m from retarded
The high water level is about 3.6m above MSL, thereby embankment and in 23rd Oct 2011 the shore line was at
huge quantities of tidal waters enter into the rivers for 33m from retarded Embankment. About 300m stretch
more than 20 km distance from their mouths, since the of retarded embankment was subjected to storm
gradient between the tidal entrance and upland river waves from 2009. In order to protect the retarded
mouth is very gentle near the coast. The major reason embankment, a stand-alone geo-tube embankment
for erosion of Pentha which lies between two rivers is was designed with 30m base width and is aligned about
due to the circulation of currents in between the two river 5m to 10m away from the retarded embankment for a
clusters which discharges water into sea. length of 675 m in 2011. Due to subsequent erosion of
coast, the integrated geo-tube embankment with base
The tidal range pertain to Pentha varies with high tide of width of 24m was designed. It was confirmed from
(+)3.6 m above (MSL) and (-)0.5 m below (MSL) as low the soil investigation that there will be a possibility for
tide. The bathymetry is perfectly parallel to the shore line development of pore water pressure and differential
and the beach slope is gentle which results in formation settlement. For an ordinary gravity structure, there are
of regular waves at equal intervals, since the slope is possibilities for failure due to differential settlement.
gentle the wave breaks in the long shore bar and due Geo-textile tube was made of woven geo-textile

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


22 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

sheets which are flexible and perforated that allow Objectives of the Project
water to exit and development of pore water pressure  It is a pilot project proposed to develop structural
will be avoided. The strength of the sheet entraps the system to face wave action creating threat to the
solid particles inside the container. Even though there existing embankment.
may be a differential settlement, the geo-tube will
adjust with soil bed profile because of the flexibility  As the traditional counter wave embankment strategy
and porous nature of geo-tube. is not found feasible, the special pilot design is
intended for long term protection.
Design of geo-tube embankment  It is intended to protect the immediate cultivable land,
For Installation of Geo-Tube embankment at Pentha habitation of a village of Pentha and life and property
in Kendrapara, “Consultancy for survey, design, of the habitants of nearby villages also.
and estimation and construction supervision for  It is expected to extend protection to the life &
installation of geo-tube embankment at Pentha” was property of 6 Gram Panchayats consisting of 58
awarded to the Department of Ocean Engineering, IIT villages covering an area of 6883 Ha & Population
(Madras), Chennai. The Consultant has conducted of 41222.
the site investigation works, survey, scientific and Direct Benefits Anticipated
modeling studies and submitted a final design of the
embankment. Clearance of CRZ was obtained from  Coastal erosion in a critical vulnerable location at
Odisha Coastal Zone Management Authority. Govt. Pentha will be prevented.
of Odisha was pleased to issue permission to go  6883 ha of crop land will be protected from salt water
ahead with the work for construction of Geo- tube intrusion in paddy fields.
embankment at Pentha. The execution of the geo-  Sea beach will be improved & Sand dune stabilization
tube embankment is taken up as a pilot Project in the will be made.
State.
Construction of the Geo-tube Embankment
The geo-tube embankment was initially designed by
Through a National Competitive Bidding (NCB) process,
IIT(Madras) for a length of 675 metres with a base
the work was awarded to M/s Garware Wall Ropes Ltd,
width of 30m (Fig. 3) for a design water depth of 5m.
Pune, for an amount of Rs 3295.92 Lakhs. The date of
It was designed with a scour apron for depth of 3m
commencement & completion for the work initially was
below MSL and a toe mound of 3m above MSL. The
24.07.2013 & 23.06.2014 respectively. Accordingly, the
toe mound and scour apron would act as a protection
Agency mobilized men and machineries to work site but
to the structure from scouring action of waves. Four
due to monsoon, the work could not be physically started
layers of sand filled geo-tubes are aligned parallel by September 2013.
to the shore and gabions boxes are stacked over it.
The sand filled geo-tubes will act as protective barrier On 12th October 2013, a very severe cyclonic storm
against tidal waves and gabion boxes will absorb the ‘Phailin’ struck Odisha coast near Gopalpur. The cyclonic
energy. track generating a wind speed of 50 to 200 Km per hour
followed by torrential rain ranging from 100 to 305 mm

Fig. 3 : ‘Stand alone’ Geo-tube Embankment as initially designed by IIT(Madras)during 2012-13)

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Construction of Geo-tube Embankment at Pentha in Kendrapara District of Odisha – A Case Study 23

severely affected the coastal districts. Due to the effect diameter of discharge pipe was selected suitably so as to
of Phailin, the shoreline at Pentha was seriously eroded. fill the tube adequately to proper height.
The width of the beach as available earlier to locate
2. Polypropelene Rope Gabion Box
the geo-tube embankment as per original approved
design was not available in post-Phailin scenario. This Polypropylene Rope Gabion boxes are made of 16
unprecedented incident forced the Department and the mm or 9 mm diameter 4 strand tarred polypropylene
Project Consultant IIT (Madras) to revise the design of with adequate ultra violet stabilizer and the rope
the geo-tube limiting to the space available. In the revised confirms to IS 1969. Each rope gabion box is 2m x 1m
design, the geo-tube embankment is made integrated x 1m in size. Mesh opening size is 150 mm x150mm.
and monolithic with the retard embankment. The length Tensile strength-500Kg. Thermal stability, Abrasion
of the geo-tube embankment was revised to be 505 resistance–90%. The Box shall be filled with filling hard
meter instead of 675 metre. The length is reduced in the granite stones approved by the Engineer in charge.
location of wider beach available in northern side of the The placing of the gabion boxes are to be made as per
village Pentha. the drawing for (i) Cut-off Wall and the toe mound of
the embankment (ii) As a cover layer over geo-tubes so
as to protect it from UV ray action. (iii) as filler materials
for filling the gap between the retard embankment and
the geo-tubes so as to make it integrated as a single
unit. The dimensions were shown in the drawing for
various components.

Ffig. 4 : Revised Design of Integrated Geo-tube Embankment


as modified by IIT(Madras) after Phailin

Materials & Construction of the Geo-tube


embankment

1. Geo Textile Tubes


Geo-textile tubes are fabricated from GWF 80-350 as
per GRI (Geo-synthetics Research Institute) standard
woven multi-filament Geo Textiles with minimum tensile
strength of 80KN/m2. Mass/unit area is 350 gms per
sq.m. Tensile strength and Elongation at specified peak
tensile load should confirm IS 1969.Trapezoidal tearing
strength– 1600 N , Puncture strength– 600 N. Apparent
opening size 250 microns. The geo-tube is 3 m in dia
and 20 m in length. After completing the deployment and
anchorage of the geo-textile tube, filling with fine sand
was accomplished in accordance with the approved Plan
of Construction. The discharge line was fitted with Y-Valve
to allow control of the rate of filling. The discharge was in
the form of slurry (20%fine river sand and 80% water).The
Y-Valve system was fitted with an internal mechanism
such as gate valve, butter fly valve or pinch valve to
regulate discharge into the geo-textile tube. Any excess
discharge was directed away from the tubes towards the
borrow area. The discharge pipe was also fitted with a
pressure gauge as an aid to monitor pressure within the
tube. It should be noted that internal pressure and stress
on the tube fabric might vary along the length of the tube.
Care was taken to avoid any failure. Discharge pressure
at the tube fill ports should not exceed 35kPa (5psi). The Fig. 5 : Installation of Geo-tube – Filling to commence

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


24 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Fig. 5 : Installation of Geo-tube – Filling in progress )

Construction Methodology for Pentha Geotube Embankment


Construction Methodology for Pentha Geotube Embankment

Retrofitting and
Strengthening of Retarded

Construction of sea side Toe Wall

Site preparation and adoption of


Ground Improvement Measures in
Different Stages
Level the ground level
as per dimensions
Laying of Geo textile Tubes in
Different Stages
Compact the Ground surface
with rollers
Over laying Geo textile Bags
Inter locking in length wise
Spread 230 GSM Geo textile
on each edge with a
lapping length 1.5m per
Over laying with Gabion Box by
Interlocking Each layers Fill only coarse river sand for a
varying thickness of 450mm to

Inter locking in width wise 750mm and level the surface

direction

Spread 230 GSM Geotextile sheet

Spread 20mm aggregate for an


Quality Overview, Work
thickness of 100mm to an uniform
Perspective and Certification
level and compact well

Spread two layer of geo bags for


uniform level

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Construction of Geo-tube Embankment at Pentha in Kendrapara District of Odisha – A Case Study 25

Progress of Work
Geo-textile tube embankment by M/s Garware Wall
Ropes Ltd, Pune was taken up as a pilot Project in the
State under the design, supervision and monitoring
of IIT ( Madras ) Chennai as the Project Consultant.
The technical representatives of Project Consultant
IIT(Madras) were all along present in the site and
supervising and monitoring the work throughout
and the same work was fully completed during June
2016.

Major Item Total Executed


Quantities
Geo-textile tube, each 3 m dia 234 nos 234 nos
& 20 m long
16mm dia Rope Gabions, 7285 nos 7285 nos
2x1x1 m in size Fig. 5 : Installation of Geo-tube completed and
covered with gabion boxes
9mm dia Rope Gabions, 2x1x1 11888 nos 11888
m in size nos Major Achievement as observed
Installation of MS Sheet Piles, 1200 sqm 1200 sqm (i) As seen during severe cyclone Hudhud in October
12 m long. 2014, the portions of the sea side slope of the retard
embankment, which were covered by using rope
Quality Testing
gabions were not disturbed in spite of hitting of very
Quality Testing of used materials are regularly carried high tidal surge with strong impact.
out simultaneously in 4 numbers of National Level (ii) During last 3 months, It is observed that accretion of
Laboratories such as sand has started building up in front of the Geo-tube
(i) Central Soil & Material Research Station, Houz Khas, embankment.
New Delhi
Conclusion
(ii) Central Water and Power Research Station, Pune,
Maharastra. The installation of the geo-tube embankment is
completed during June 2016 as a pilot project in our
(iii) IIT ( Madras) Chennai
State. The performances of the embankment are being
(iv) Bombay Textile Research Association, Mumbai. critically observed since its inception. The accretion of
The results as obtained were compared and it confirmed sand has occurred in front of the embankment. There
the prescribed standards of materials. is no problem observed in the last two years and the
stake holders of village Pentha are now confident of
their safety. Earlier, the village was having mud walled
and straw thatched houses and recently it is seen that a
series of pucca RCC roofed buildings have come up. The
flow of tourists to beach at Pentha has increased many
folds. Thus the Project is found to be very successful for
the purpose of its design and execution.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


SLOPE STABILITY ANALYSIS OF
OVERBURDEN DUMPS
V.Ramya Krishna and J.Y.V.Shiva Bhushan
VNR Vigana Jyothi Institute of Engineering and Technology, Hyderabad, India
ABSTRACT
In open cast mine projects, Slope stability of overburden dumps plays an important role . Flyash released
from the coal based thermal power plants is increasing day by day. This should be disposed properly
such that it does not cause any harm to the environment. So in the present study the flyash is used as
anadmixture for the improvement of slopes by utilizing itin proper way making it environmental friendly.
The stability investigation of overburden dump for various rates of flyash has been finished utilizing
GEOSTUDIO software and concluded that among all the Limit Equilibrium methods, Morgenstern price
method gives best results Various tests are performed on soil to find parameters like cohesion, angle of
internal friction, density which are the inputs to GEOSTUDIO software, to find slope stability.
Keywords: Limit Equilibrium methods,Angle of internal friction, Backfill, Cohesion,Morgenstern price
method.

INTRODUCTION locate the critical failure surface and as well as to design


a safe slope. A study was carried out on slope stability
Stability of a slopedemonstrates the resistance of a
analysis for the waste dump[6] of a preferred iron ore
dump slope to fragmentation. This problem is generally
open cast mine. Several Geotechnical parameters are
encountered in many of mining operations, Civil works.
found and the values are given as input in GALENA
Now-a-days due to increasing in demand of minerals for
software to find the factor of safety of different sections
the country, it is necessary to learn open cast mines at a
of the existing design of the selected mine. Acombination
greater depth. Increase of depth leads to slope stability
of computerized method & manual method was used
failures [1]. So, there is a need to study stability of slopes
to design best stable slope by[7] using Geo-slope.
of working benches & waste dumps of open cast mines.
Numerical analysis of slopes were carried out using
To avoid this, design of slopes should be done properly.
the FLAC/Slopeby[8] which is a finite difference code.
The common methods used for designing of slopes are
The outcomes demonstrated that it was conceivable to
by traditional methods and numerical methods. In the
simulate several failure mechanisms, in particular circular
present study limit equilibrium methods are used [2].
shear and toppling failure, utilizing numerical modeling..
Many studies were carried out on slope stability Usage of flyash in various percentages and regarding
analysis[1-17].A contextual analysis of fizzled dump slope coal mine safety rules are taken from[9,10]. Classification
in western coal field limited[1], Nagpur, India was carried of soil[11] plays an important role in identifying the soil
out to find out the failure condition, shear strength in the selected site.Soil behaviour changes in both
reduction by using FEM.Slope Stability analysis using saturated and unsaturated conditions. Stability of such
galena software is done by [2].To study the effect of in- soils also differs. So there is a need to study them. Slope
situ stress on stability of slopes numerical modeling was stability in unsaturated soilsby[12] is made. Slope stability
used. To find the solid deformation fluid flow & stress analysis for Deccan traps, in Mahabaleshwar, India has
induced in soil due to rainfall infiltration a finite element been studied using FLAC SLOPE 5.0, a finite difference
model was developed by[3]. This is followed by use of code by[13]. Critical observations such as critical failure
Limit Equilibrium methods to compute the Factor of envelope, development of the tension crack of length
safety. An examination was carried out on stability of 9.5mhas been found. stability developments were
natural slope and embankment slope using the Limit done by[14]utilizing limit equilibrium (LE) and finite
Equilibrium Method, Slope/W, Finite Element Method element (FE) methods. The investigation utilizes one
and Plaxis 2D[4]and correlation of the analyzed outcome FE based programming (PLAXIS) and two LE based
was made. An attempt was made to find out the reason programming (SLOPE/W and SLIDE). Contrasted and
of slope failure on basis of experimental, design analysis, the FE (PLAXIS) investigations, the LE examinations
site investigations for NATRAX high speed track, by[5] may assess 5 – 14% higher Factor of safety, depending
pithampur in Dhar district. Slope stability analysis using on the conditions of a dry slope and a fully saturated
Geo-Studio (SLOPE/W) software, is done so that to slope with hydrostatic pore pressure appropriations. To

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 26


Slope Stability Analysis of Overburden Dumps 27

analyse the slope stability using GEOSTUDIO (slope/W) (OB) dump [5] put up to stature of 30m. Dump is
[15,16]
factor of safety plays a key role in deciding a slope compacted utilizing the dozers and checking is done
safetyUsage ofradar alaram system during mining for the stability of OB dump with various percentages
production to find unstable slope and to design safe of flyash additive. The toe of the dump is secured by
slope was carried out by [17]. putting the compact rocks (overburden material) with
In the present study, stability of overburden dumps a specific end goal to confine possibility of any failure
(OB) in JINDAL power limited (JPL)region is improved in future.
by adding flyash (FA) in different percentages i.e., 0%, LABORATOTRY TESTING
25%, 50%. This is a case study of coal mines [1,2] situated
in JINDAL power limited (JPL) region. So for different The following geotechnical parameters are
flyash percentages & at different bench angles [1], factor required to assess the factor of safety of a slope in
of safety is found using GEOSTUDIO 2004 software. GEOSTUDIO:
SLOPE/W [4, 5] is used. The inputs for the estimation Density (Kg/m3),Cohesion (Pa), Angle of internal friction
of factor of safety are cohesion, angle of shearing (o) [5].
resistance, density [5]. To find these parameters direct
shear test, standard proctor test [5, 6, 7], sieve analysis Notwithstanding these the grain size of the specimen
are performed for the soil which is mixed with different ought to be resolved to describe the kind of soil.
Therefore the following tests were performed on OB,
percentages of flyash. Limit equilibrium methods [8]
OB+25% flyash, OB+50% flyash.
are used for analysis of slope stability. Among all, the
method which gives the best value of factor of safety is Grain size analysis , proctor compaction test, Direct
[5]

found. shear test.

METHODOLOGY Grain Size Analysis:The variations in size of particles of


the grains in asoil mass can form one of the premise of
Different specimens of overburden soil and flyash from classification of soils.[IS 2720 part IV] [11].
the dump site were provided by the JPL [8].Presently
overburden dump stature is around 120m with most Figure 1 tells about sieve analysis test results conducted
extreme deck tallness upto 30 m in this mine. These on OB dump with 0%, 25% and 50% flyash. From the
dumps and slopes are seen to be stable at present. figure it is clear that as the percentage of flyash is
Stability analysis for the proposed dumps were increasing, the amount of % finer increases.
attempted utilizing different methods for the maximum
dump height of 120 m, which is a definitive depth of the
mine. Ground water level conditions are beneath the
13 m from the surface and benches are for the most
part dry. Most of the power plants generating flyash,
a strong coal ignition residue form due to the burning
of coal of about 16000 tons for each day for 1000 MW
power plant. Accordingly, amount of flyash powder
produced requires huge area for its dumping. Flyash
is being utilized at JPL alongside overburden material
for backfilling in the mine according to the new DGMS
guidelines [6,9, 10].
The following system was adopted for the dumping
procedure: Initially a row of overburden was dumped
forming an embankment with a width of more
noteworthy than 15m and height upto 5m all around the
proposed area for flyash dump. Various zones were Fig. 1: Grain size distribution curve for OB soil with different
formed in a layer wherein the flyash was dumped, so percentages of flyash [5]
each dump of flyash was blended with oberburden
dump of 15m wide keeping in mind the end goal Standard Proctor Test (IS -2720-PART-8-1980):
to control the airborne nature of the flyash. Flyash
Compaction test [12] was done to determine the
was dumped within this zone or area blended with
maximum dry density (MDD) and optimum moisture
overburden of height not surpassing 5m [1,2] in each
content (OMC) of a given overburden sample.
layer. Flyash 0%, 25%, 50% is mixed in overburden

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


28 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Figure 2 demonstrates the variation of dry density with


water content for various percentages of flyash additive
in OB dump. On adding the amount of flyash to the
overburden (OB) soil, the OMC increases & dry density
decreases (Table 1) [5]. When amount of % flyash
additive is added, unit weight is reduced because of
the reason that more the percentage of fines, more
will be OMC & when water content is further increased
beyond OMC, voids are filled up with water bringing
about challenges in compaction.

Fig. 3 : Normal Stress vs. Shear Stress for OB soil with


different percentages of flyash

Table 2 : Cohesion and Angle of Internal Friction


Values for Different percentages of Flyash
Sample type Cohesion Angle of shear
(kg/cm2) resistance, Φ (ͦ)
Soil with 0% flyash 0.19 36.670
Soil with 25% flyash 0.15 34.210
Fig. 2 : Compaction curve for OB soil with different
percentages of flyash. Soil with 50% flyash 0.06 33.180

Table 1 : Dry density and OMC for OB soil with Problem definition
different percentages of flyash
For finding slope stability, limit equilibrium analysis [4, 8, 13,
Soil Dry density (g/cc) OMC(%)
14]
was carried out using the Slope/W software [4, 15, 16]. The
geometry was made in .dxt format and imported into the
OB + 0% flyash 2.03 9.17 software. After choosing the analysis type, it is resolved
that failure will follow a right to left path. The Morgenstern
OB + 25% fly ash 1.85 11.88
Price analysis and half-sine function was selected and
OB+ 50% fly ash 1.72 15.96 the software also gives the result of factor of safety for
ordinary, Bishop, & Janbu[8] analysis type.
Direct Shear Test [12] Figure 4 [8, 13, 5] shows the view of slip surfaces drawn
Direct shear test was carried out following (IS-2720- using SLOPE/W.
PART-13-1986). The test was done to determine the
shear parameter of given samples.
Figure 3 demonstrates the variation of shear stress with
normal stress for various percentages of flyash additive
in OB dump. As the percentage of flyash additive
increases, it is observed that there is a reduction in
shear stress for particular normal stress because of
reduction in angle of shear resistance (Table 2).

Fig. 4 : View of slip surfaces [5, 8, 13]

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Slope Stability Analysis of Overburden Dumps 29

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS has achieved maximum value of 2.334, 2.332, for 25%
Flyash & same bench angle factor of safety maximum
Soil OB dumps of height 30 m were simulated for values are 1.725, 1.724, for 50% Flyash & same bench
different mixtures of overburden with 0%, 25% and angle factor of safety values obtained are 1.268, 1.267
50% of flyash to find factor of safety. The dumps were by using Morgenstern price Method.
assumed to be dry and resting on stone block whose
dimensions were large enough in comparison to the
dump so as not to affect stability. The geotechnical
parameters of soil decided in experimental analysis
were utilized to create model of the dump. The
steepest angle for which the factor of safety (FoS)
more prominent than 1.2 was acknowledged as safe
angle of slope [6,8].
Table 3 gives information about Equations of statics
satisfied and Interslice force characteristics and
relationships
Table 3. [5, 6]: Equations of statics satisfied and interslice force
characteristics and relationships
Method Moment Force Interslice Interslice Inclina-
Equilib- Equilib- Normal shear (X) tion of Fig. 5 : Bench angle=30 degrees, flyash=0%
rium rium (E) (X/E)
resultant
Ordinary Yes No No No No
Method interslice
forces
Bishops Yes No Yes No Horizontal
method
Janbu No Yes Yes No Horizontal
method
Morgenstern- Yes Yes Yes Yes Variable
Price method

STABILITY ANALYSIS AND RESULTS


The stability of the dry slope was first analyzed in
SLOPE/W [14]. Using entry and exit option, minimum
FoS& critical slip surface [4] are searched.
These parameters are sequentially picked until the point Fig. 6: Bench angle=30 degrees, flyash=25%
when the further increments do not change the FoS.
Similarly, a Mohr-Coulomb [12, 14] soil demonstrate was
chosen, without the feature of tension cracks. A half-
sine function was chosen to figure the interslice forces
with 1% of tolerance error. Besides, the determination of
a half-sine work depended on the presumption that the
interslice shear forces could be at maximum amidst the
critical slip surface [4] and zero at the entry & exit points.
SLOPE/W [15, 16] gives the FoS [14].

COMPARISON OF RESULTS FROM GEOSTUDIO


(2004) - STATIC SLOPE STABILITY: [John khan]
Figure 5,6,7 shows slope design using different
percentages of flyash and for bench angle 300 using the
software.
From Table 4 it is clear that, for 0% flyash & 300 bench Fig. 7 : Bench angle=30 degrees, flyash=50%
angle factor of safety with respect to force & moment

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


30 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Table 4 [5,17] : Variation of FoS for different methods


with different % of flyash additive for 30 degrees
bench angle
Factor of Factor of
Method safety w.r.t safety w.r.t
to force to moment
0% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 2.331 -
Bishop Method 2.334 -
Janbu method - 2.331
Morgenstern price Method 2.334 2.332
Fig. 9: Bench angle=45 degrees, flyash=25%
25% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 1.772 -
Bishop Method 1.725 -
Janbu method - 1.722
Morgenstern price Method 1.725 1.724
50% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 1.266 -
Bishop Method 1.268 -
Janbu method - 1.266
Morgenstern price Method 1.268 1.267
Figure 8, 9, 10 shows slope design using different Fig. 10 : Bench angle=45 degrees, flyash=50%
percentages of flyash and for bench angle 450 using the
software. Table 5 : Variation of FoS for different methods with
different % of flyash additive for 45 degrees bench angle
From Table 5 it is clear that, for 0%flyash & 45degrees
Method Factor of safety Factor of
bench angle Factor of safety with respect to force & w.r.t to force safety w.r.t
moment has achieved maximum value of 1.779, 1.777 to moment
for 25% Flyash & same bench angle factor of safety
0% of flyash additive
maximum values are 1.314,1.313, for 50% Flyash &
same bench angle factor of safety values obtained Ordinary slice method 1.776 -
are1.014,1.013 by using Morgenstern price Method. Bishop Method 1.780 -
Janbu method - 1.776
Morgenstern price Method 1.779 1.777
25% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 1.312 -
Bishop Method 1.315 -
Janbu method - 1.312
Morgenstern price Method 1.314 1.313
50% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 1.021 -
Bishop Method 1.014 -
Janbu method - 1.012
Fig. 8 : Bench angle=45 degrees, flyash=0% Morgenstern price Method 1.014 1.013

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Slope Stability Analysis of Overburden Dumps 31

Figure 11, 12, 13 shows slope design using different


Table 6 : Variation of FoS for different methods with
percentages of flyash and for bench angle 600 using the
different % of flyash additive for 60 degrees bench
software.
angle
From Table 6 it is clear that, for 0%flyash & 60degrees
bench angle Factor of safety with respect to force & Method Factor Factor of
momenthas achieved a value 1.513,1.510, for 25% of safety safety w.r.t
Flyash & same bench angle factor of safety maximum w.r.t to to moment
values are 1.118, 1.116, for 50% Flyash & same bench force
angle factor of safety values obtained are0.822, 0.820 0% of flyash additive
by using Morgenstern price Method.
Ordinary slice method 1.470 -
Bishop Method 1.515 -
Janbu method - 1.468
Morgenstern price Method 1.513 1.510
25% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 1.086 -
Bishop Method 1.119 -
Janbu method - 1.085
Fig.11 : Bench angle=60 degrees, flyash=0% Morgenstern price Method 1.118 1.116
50% of flyash additive
Ordinary slice method 0.798 -
Bishop Method 0.823 -
Janbu method - 0.798
Morgenstern Price Method 0.822 0.820
From Table 4, 5, 6 it is clear that, results of ordinary
method [12] are not safe compared with other methods.
For Bishopsand Janbu’s method[8] there is fairly good
result. Using Morgenstern-Price method[5,17] for finding
factor of safety has achieved maximum safety values
when compared with the remaining methods since, the
Fig.12 : Bench angle=60 degrees, flyash=25% force and moment equilibrium exists because of shear
and normal interslice forces inclusion.
Comparing all the results it can be understood that for
flyash with varying percentages of 0%, 25%, 50% and
varying bench angles of 30, 45, 60 degrees, factor of
safety values are within the range and the slope is stable
for all the bench angles with 0% & 25% flyash. But for all
the bench angles given, flyash of 50% has falling below
the factor of safety of 1.2 (safe). So slope cannot be
stable for 30,45, 60 degrees bench angles in case of
addition of 50% flyash. So it cannot be preferred.

CONCLUSION
Today the approach of stability analysis based on limit
equilibrium (LE) methods is widely used due to its user
Fig.13 : Bench angle=60 degrees, flyash=50% friendly, simplicity, good factor of safety. The scope of the

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


32 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

study is to compare different LE methods and choose the 5. H.S. Goliya & Priyesh Gour. 2012 Slope stability
best method which gives good factor of safety. analysis for High Embankment with Metacomputing
Technique “A Case Study of NATRAX High Speed
The conclusions are most part in light of circular slip
Track”. International Journal of Advanced Technology
surface analysis. The main findings from the studies
in Civil Engineering, 1(2):53-59
are summarised as follows for the application of LE
methods. 6. D r. M a n o j K u m a r M i s h r a . 2 0 1 3 I r o n m i n e ,
Jharkhand
● Factor of safetydecreases , with increase in bench
angle. 7. A b d o u l l a h N a m d a r, A z a m K h o d a s h e n a s
Pelko.2009Evaluation of slope stability performance
● With increase in % flyash additive, Factor of safety
in different methods.
decreases.
8. Dr. Debi Prasad Tripathy.2009 Jindal Power OCP,
● The simplified Bishop method (BSM) [8], Janbu’s
Mand Raigarh.
method (JM), Morgenstern‐Price method (MPM)
in most cases gives similarFoS for circular slip 9. The Coal Mine Regulations, 1957, Chapter X, Section
surface [3] on the slopes [6,17]. However, the Ordinary 98.
method (OM) for the circular critical slip surface may 10. Call, R.D, and Savely, J.P, 1990. “open pit mechanics”,
underestimate the FoS. In surface mining, 2nd Edition (ed. B.A. Kennedy),
● In any kind of slip surface analysis, generally the Society for mining, Metallurgy & Exploration, Inc.,
Morgenstern Price method is recommended to use 860-882.
[17]
. 11. IS 1498 - 1970 Ra.2002, Classification and
● All LE methods, except the ordinary method estimate identification of soils for general engineering
higher FoS. purposes.
12. Robert Allan.1976 Slope stability in unsaturated
REFERENCES
soils.
1. Ashutosh kainthola, Dhananjai verma, S.S. Gupte, 13. Ashutosh Kainthola, Dhananjai Verma, Rahul Thareja,
T.N.Singh.2011 A coal mine dump stability analysis. T.N. Singh.2013 A Review on Numerical slope
GeoMaterials.(1):1-13. stability analysis. International Journal of Science,
2. S. Jayanthu, ChVeera Reddy. 2011 Design of optimum Engineering and Technology Research.2(6):1315-
slopes for safety and conservation in opencast mines 1320.
– an appraisal 14. Dr. Sven Knutsson.2006Highway slope failure at
3. Ronaldo I. Borja, Joshua A. White, Xiaoyu Liu & Wei Krishnabhir, Tribhuwan highway Nepal.
Wu.2011 Factor of safety in a partially saturated 15. John Kahn. 2004 Geostudio Tutorials GEO-SLOPE/W
slope inferred from hydro-mechanical continuous International Ltd, Canada.
modelling. International journal for numerical and
analytical methods in geomechanics. 36:236–248 16. John Kahn.2004 Stability modeling with SLOPE/W,
GEO-SLOPE/W International Ltd Canada.
4. Md. Zillur Rahman.2012 A Case Study On Two Roads
Located Close To The Piteå River-In Sikfors And 17. Dr Neal Harries, Dr. David Noon, Mr. Keith Rowley.2006
Nystrand. A case study of slope stability Radar used in open
cut mines. The South African Institute of Mining and
Metallurgy, International Symposium on Stability of
Rock Slopes: 1-8.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


INTERNATIONAL GEOSYNTHETICS SOCIETY
The International Geosynthetics Society (IGS) was founded in Paris, on 10 November 1983, by a group of geotechnical
engineers and textile specialists. The Society brings together individual and corporate members from all parts of
the world, who are involved in the design, manufacture, sale, use or testing of geotextiles, geomembranes, related
products and associated technologies, or who teach or conduct research about such products.
The IGS is dedicated to the scientific and engineering development of geotextiles, geomembranes, related
products and associated technologies. IGS has 47 chapters, over 3,000 individual members and 161 corporate
members.
The aims of the IGS are:
• to collect and disseminate knowledge on all matters relevant to geotextiles, geomembranes and related
products, e.g. by promoting seminars, conferences, etc.
• to promote advancement of the state of the art of geotextiles, geomembranes and related products and of
their applications, e.g. by encouraging, through its members, the harmonization of test methods, equipment
and criteria.
• to improve communication and understanding regarding such products, e.g. between designers, manufacturers
and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering communities
The IGS is registered in the USA as a non-profit organization. It is managed by five Officers and a Council made up of
10 to 16 elected members and a maximum of 5 additional co-opted members. These Officers and Council members
are responsible to the General Assembly of members which elects them and decides on the main orientations of
the Society.
IGS Chapters
The IGS Chapters are the premier vehicle through which the IGS reaches out to and influences the marketplace
and the industry. Chapter activities range from the organization of major conferences and exhibits such as the
10th International Conference on Geosynthetics in September 2014 in Berlin, Germany and its predecessors in
Guaruja, Yokohama, Nice and Atlanta to the presentation of focused seminars at universities, government offices
and companies. Chapters create the opportunity for the chapter (and IGS) membership to reach out, to teach and to
communicate and they are the catalyst for many advances in geosynthetics. Participation in an IGS chapter brings
researchers, contractors, engineers and designers together in an environment which directly grows the practice by
informing and influencing those who are not familiar with our discipline.
Membership
Membership of IGS is primarily organised through national Chapters. Most individual members (94%) belong to the
IGS through Chapters. Chapter participation allows members to be informed about, and participate in, local and
regional activities in addition to providing access to the resources of the IGS.
IGS Offers the following categories of membership:
Individual
Individual member benefits are extended to each and every individual member of the IGS including Chapter Members. 
Additional chapter benefits are provided to Individual Members who join the IGS through a chapter.
Individual Member Benefits include:
• a membership card
• an IGS lapel pin
• on-line access to the IGS Membership Directory
• the IGS News newsletter, published three times a year
• on-line access to the 19 IGS Mini Lecture Series for the use of the membership
• information on test methods and standards
• discount rates:
- for any document published in the future by IGS
- at all international, regional or national conferences organized by the IGS or under its auspices
• preferential treatment at conferences organized by the IGS or under its auspices

33 Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


34 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

• possibility of being granted an IGS award


• Free access to the Geosynthetics International journal, now published electronically.
• Free access to the Geotextiles and Geomembranes journal, now published electronically.
Corporate
Corporate Membership Benefits include:
• a membership card
• an IGS lapel pin
• on-line access to the IGS Membership Directory
• the IGS News newsletter, published three times a year
• on-line access to the 19 IGS Mini Lecture Series for the use of the membership
• information on test methods and standards
• discount rates:
- for any document published in the future by IGS
- at all international, regional or national conferences organized by the IGS or under its auspices
• preferential treatment at conferences organized by the IGS or under its auspices
• possibility of being granted an IGS award
• free access to the Geosynthetics International journal, now published electronically.
• free access to the Geotextiles and Geomembranes journal, now published electronically.
• advertisement in the IGS Member Directory and on the IGS Website
• IGS Corporate Membership Plaque
• Company Profile in the IGS News
• right of using the IGS logo at exhibitions and in promotional literature
• priority (by seniority of membership within the IGS) at all exhibits organized by the IGS or under its
“auspices”
• opportunity to join IGS committees in order to discuss topics of common interest.
Student
Student Membership Benefits include:
• Electronic access to the IGS News, published 3 times a year
• Special Student discounts at all IGS sponsored/supported conferences, seminars etc.
• Listing in a special student members category in the IGS Directory
• Eligibility for awards (and in particular the IGS Young Member Award).

List of IGS Chapters Belgium


Belgian Chapter 2001
Algeria
Prof. Jan Maertens
Algerian Chapter 2018)
jan.maertens.bvba@skynet.be
Zahir Djidjeli
https://jstgsba.wixsite.com/asag Brazil
Brazilian Chapter 1997
Argentina Eng. André Estêvâo Ferreira da Silva
Argentinean Chapter 2009 andre@huesker.com.br
Dr. Marcos Montoro
marcos_montoro@yahoo.com.ar Chile
Chilean Chapter 2006
Australia and New Zealand Dr. Felipe Villalobos
Australasian Chapter 2002 avillalobos@ucsc.cl
Mr. Graham Fairhead
China
gfairhead@fabtech.com.au
Chinese Chapter 1990
Austria Prof. Chao Xu
Austrian Chapter 2016 c_axu@tongji.edu.cn
Prof. Heinz Brandl
g.mannsbart@tencate.com

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


International Geosynthetics Society 35

Chinese Taipei Iran


Chinese Taipei Chapter of the IGS Iranian Chapter 2013
Dr. Chou, Nelson N.S. Hossein Ghiassian
nchou1031@gmail.com h_ghiassian@iust.ac.ir
yuancl@mail.sinotech.com.tw
Italy
Colombia AGI-IGS, the Italian Chapter 1992
Colombian Chapter 2013 Dr. Ing. Daniele Cazzuffi
Prof. Bernardo Caicedo Hormaza agi@associazionegeotecnica.it
bcaicedo@uniandes.edu.co Japan
Czech Republic Japanese Chapter 1985
Czech Chapter 2003 Dr. Hiroshi Miki
Zikmund Rakowski miki-egri@nifty.com
president@igs.cz Kazakhstan
Egypt Kazakhstanian Chapter 2012
Egyptian Chapter (2018) Zhusupbekov Askar Zhagparovich
Prof. FatmaElzahraa Aly Baligh astana-geostroi@mail.ru
baligh.fatma@gmail.com Korea
KC-IGS, The Korean Chapter 1993
Finland Prof. Chungsik Yoo
Finish Chapter 2011 csyoo@skku.edu
Minna Leppänen
igsfin.secretary@gmail.com Malaysia
minna.leppanen@tut.fi Malaysian Chapter – 2013
Dr. Fauziah Ahmad
France cefahmad@yahoo.com
French Chapter 1993
Nathalie Touze Mexico
nathalie.touze@irstea.fr Mexican Chapter 2006
Dr. Rosember Reyes
Germany contacto@igsmexico.org
German Chapter 1993
Morocco
Dr.-Ing. Martin Ziegler
Morocco Chapter 2014
service@dggt.de
Houssine Ejjaaouani
ziegler@geotechnik.rwth-aachen.de
ejjaaouani@ipee.ma
Ghana
Netherlands
Ghana Chapter 2012
Netherlands Chapter 1992
Prof. Samuel I.K. Ampadu
E.A. Kwast
skampadu.coe@knust.edu.gh
mail@ngo.nl
jkkemeh@hotmail.com
North America
Greece North American Geosynthetics Society (NAGS)
HGS, Greek Chapter 2005 (Canada, USA) 1986
Anastasios KOLLIOS Dr. Richard Brachman
akollios@edafomichaniki.gr richard.brachman@queesu.ca
Honduras Norway
Honduran Chapter – Hon-duran Society of Geosynthetics Norwegian Chapter of IGS 2008
2013 Aina Anthi
MSc. Ing. Danilo Sierra D. aina.anthi@vegvesen.no
sierradiscua@yahoo.com tse-day.damtew@vegvesen.no
India Pakistan
Indian Chapter 1988 Pakistanian Chapter of IGS 2011
M. Venkataraman Lt. Col (Retd) Muhammad Raza
venkataramanm2000@gmail.com / uday@cbip.org colraza@syntechfibres.com
Indonesia Panama
INA-IGS, the Indonesian Chapter 1992 Panama Chapter 2014
Gouw Tjie Liong Amador Hassell
amelia.ina.igs@gmail.com amador.hassell@utp.ac.pa
ameliamakmur@gmail.com

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


36 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Peru South Africa


Peruvian Chapter 2001 South African Chapter 1995
Eng. Augusto V. Alza Edoardo Zannoni
administracion@igsperu.org ed-oardo.zannoni@maccaferri.co.za
aalza@tdm.com.pe inyirenda@gseworlds.com
Philippines
Spain
Philippine Chapter 2007
Spanish Chapter 1999
Mr. Mark Morales
Angel Leiro López
mark.k.morales@gmail.com
pabad@cetco.es
paul_navarro_javier@yahoo.com
aleiro@cedex.es
Poland
Polish Chapter 2008 Switzerland
Dr. Jacek Kawalec Swiss Chapter (2018)
jacek.kawalec@vp.pl Imad Lifa
svg@geotex.ch
Portugal
Portuguese Chapter 2003 Thailand
Jose Luis Machado do Vale Thai Chapter 2002
jose.vale@carpitech.com Prof. Suksun Horpibulsuk
suksun@g.sut.ac.th
Romania
Romanian Chapter 1996 Turkey
Christina Feodorov Turkish Chapter 2001
cristina.feodorov@iridexgroup.ro Dr. Fazli Erol Guler
adiol@utcb.ro eguler@boun.edu.tr
Russia United Kingdom
Russian Chapter of IGS (RCIGS) 2008 U.K. Chapter 1987
Dr. Andrey Ponomaryov Chaido Doulala-Rigby
ofrikhter@mail.ru crigby@tensar.co.uk
andreypab@mail.ru

Slovakia Vietnam
Slovakian Chapter of IGS 2011 Vietnam Chapter (VCIGS) 2013
Dr. Radovan Baslik Dr. Nguyen Hoang Giang
radobaslik@gmail.com giangnh@nuce.edu.vn

CalEndar of Events
Event Location Date E-Mail, Website
7 ICEGE 2019 - International Conference on Rome, Italy 17 - 20 Jun agi@associazionegeotecnica.it
Earthquake Geotechnical Engineering 2019
ISDCG 2019 – 7th International Symposium on Glasgow, UK 26 – 28 Jun
Deformation Characteristics of Geomaterials 2019
ECSMGE 2019 – XVII European Conference on Reykjavik, 01 - 06 Sep has@road.is
Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineer-ing Iceland 2019 http://www.ecsmge-2019.com
XVII African Regional Conference on Soil Me- Cape Town, 07 - 10 Oct denis.kalumba@uct.ac.za
chanics and Geotechnical Engineering South Africa 2019
XVI Asian Regional Conference on Soil Me- Taipei, China 21 - 25 Oct secretariat@16arc.org
chanics and Geotechnical Engineering 2019 http://www.16arc.org
XVI Panamerican Conference on Soil Mechan-ics Cancun, Quin- 18 - 22 Nov support@panamerican2019mex-ico.
and Geotechnical Engineering tana Roo, 2019 com
Mexico http://panamerican2019mexico.com
Nordic Geotechnical Meeting Helsinki, 27 - 29 May leena.korkiala-tanttu@aalto.fi
Finland 2020
6th International Conference on Geotechnical and Budapest, 07 – 11 Sep huszak@mail.bme.hu info@isc6-
Geophysical Site Characterization Hungary 2020 budapest.com
http://www.isc6-budapest.com
EuroGeo 7 Warsaw, 06 – 09 Sep eurogeo7inpoland@gmail.com
Poland 2020 http://www.eurogeo7.org/

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Indian Chapter of IGS
In the year 1985, Central Board of Irrigation and Power, (CBIP) as part of its technology forecasting activities identified
geosynthetics as an important area relevant to India’s need for infrastructure development, including roads. After
approval of IGS Council for the formation of Indian Chapter in October 1988, the Indian Chapter of IGS was got
registered under Societies Registration Act 1860 of India in June 1992 as the Committee for International Geotextile
Society (India), with its Secretariat at Central Board of Irrigation and Power. The Chapter has since been renamed
as International Geosynthetics Society (India), in view of the parent body having changed its name from International
Geotextiles Society to International Geosynthetics Society.
The activities of the Society are governed by General Body and Executive Board.
Executive Board of Indian Chapter of IGS
The Executive Board of the IGS (India) consists of President, elected by the General Body, two Vice-Presidents
and 16 members. The Secretary and Director (WR) of the CBIP are the as the Ex-Officio Member Secretary and
Treasurer, respectively, of the Society.
The present Executive Board is as under:
President:
• Mr. M. Venkataraman, Geotechnical and Geosynthetic Consultant and Guest Professor, Department of Civil
Engineering IIT Gandhinagar
Vice-Presidents:
• Dr. R. Chitra, Scientist E, Central Soil and Materials Research Station
• Mr. Vivek Kapadia, Chief Engineer & Additional Secretary, Water Resources Department, Government of
Gujarat
Immediate Past President:
• Dr. G.V.S. Suryanarayana Raju, Former Engineer-in-Chief, Roads & Buildings Department, Government of
Andhra Pradesh
Hon. Members:
• Dr. G.V. Rao, Former Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi and Guest Professor, Department
of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar
• Dr. K. Rajagopal, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras
Member Secretary
Mr. V.K. Kanjlia, Secretary, Central Board of Irrigation & Power
Treasurer
Dr. G.P. Patel, Director (WR), Central Board of Irrigation & Power
Past Presidents
The presidents of the society in the past were:
• Dr. R.K. Katti, Director, UNEECS Pvt. Ltd. and Former Professor, IIT Bombay
• Mr. H.V. Eswaraiah, Technical Director, Karnataka, Power Corporation Ltd.
• Dr. G.V. Rao, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
• Dr. D.G. Kadade, Chief Advisor, Jaiprakash Industries Ltd.
• Dr. K. Rajagopal, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras
Indian Representation on IGS Council
• Dr. K. Rajagopal, Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras
• Dr. G.V. Rao, Former Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Delhi
IGS Student Award Winners from India
The IGS has established Student Paper Award to disseminate knowledge and to improve communication
andunderstanding of geotextiles, geomembranes and associated technologies among young geotechnical
andgeoenvironmental student engineers around the world. The IGS student award consists of US$1,000 to be used

37 Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


38 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

tocover travel expenses of each winner to attend a regional conference.


Following from India have been honoured with IGS Student Paper Award:
• Dr. J.P. Sampath Kumar, National Institute of Fashion Technology, Hyderabad
• Dr. K. Ramu, JNTU College of Engineering, Kakinada
• Mrs. S. Jayalekshmi, NationalInstitute of Technology, Tiruchirappalli
• Dr. Mahuya Ghosh, IIT Delhi
• Dr. S. Rajesh, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Kanpur
• Mr. Suresh Kumar S., Department of Textile Technology, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar National Institute of
TechnologyJalandhar

Publications/Proceedings on Geosynthetics
In addition to the proceedings of the events on Geosynthetics, following publications have been brought out since
1985:
1. Workshop on Geomembranes and Geofabrics (1985)
2. International Workshop on Geotextile (1989)
3. Use of Geosynthetics – Indian Experiences and Potential – A State of Art Report (1989)
4. Use of Geotextile in Water Resources Projects - Case Studies (1992)
5. Role of Geosynthetics in Water Resources Projects (1993)
6. Monograph on Particulate Approach to Analysis of Stone Columns with & without Geosynthetics Encasing
(1993)
7. 2nd International Workshop on Geotextiles (1994)
8. Directory of Geotextiles in India (1994)
9. An Introduction to Geotextiles and Related Products in Civil Engineering Applications (1994)
10. Proceedings of Workshops on Engineering with Geosynthetics (1995)
11. Ground Improvement with Geosynthetics (1995)
12. Geosynthetics in Dam Engineering (1995)
13. Erosion Control with Geosynthetics (1995)
14. Proceedings of International Seminar & Techno Meet on “Environmental Geotechnology and Geosynthetics”
(1996)
15. Proceedings of First Asian Regional Conference “Geosynthetics Asia’1997”
16. Directory of Geosynthetics in India (1997)
17. Bibliography – The Indian Contribution to Geosynthetics (1997)
18. Waste Containment with Geosynthetics (1998)
19. Geosynthetic Applications in Civil Engineering- A Short Course (1999)
20. Case Histories of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects (2003)
21. Geosynthetics – Recent Developments (Commemorative Volume) (2006)
22. Geosynthetics in India – Present and Future (2006)
23. Applications of Geosynthetics – Present and Future (2007)
24. Directory of Geosynthetics in India (2008)
25. Geosynthetics India’08
26. Geosynthetics India’ 2011
27. Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Structures - Design & Construction (2012)
28. Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects (2013)
29. Applications of Geosynthetics in Railway Track Structures (2013)
30. Silver Jubilee Celebration (2013)
31. Directory of Geosynthetics in India (2013)
32. Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects (2014)
33. Geosynthetics India 2014

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Indian Chapter of IGS 39

34. Three Decades of Geosynthetics in India – A Commemorative Volume (2015)


35. History of Geosynthetics in India - Case Studies (2016)
36. Proceedings of 6th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthetics (2016)
37. Coir Geotextiles (Coir Bhoovastra) for Sustainable Infrastructure (2016)
Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement
The Indian Chapter of IGS has taken the initiative to publish Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground
Improvement(IJGGI), on half yearly basis (January – June and July-December), since January 2012.The aim of the
journal is to provide latest information in regard to developments taking place in the relevant field ofgeosynthetics
so as to improve communication and understanding regarding such products, among the designers,manufacturers
and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering communities.The Journal has both print and
online versions.
Events Organised/Supported
1. Workshop on Geomembrane and Geofabrics, September 1985, New Delhi
2. Workshop on Reinforced Soil, August 1986
3. International Workshops on Geotextiles, November 1989, Bangalore
4. National Workshop on Role of Geosynthetics in Water Resources Projects, January 1992, New Delhi
5. Workshop on Geotextile Application in Civil Engineering, January 1993, Chandigarh
6. International Short Course on Soil Reinforcement, March 1993, New Delhi
7. Short Course on Recent Developments in the Design of Embankments on Soft Soils, Nov./Dec. 1993, New
Delhi
8. 2nd International Workshop on Geotextiles, January 1994, New Delhi
9. Short Course on Recent Developments in the Design of Embankments on Soft Soils, January 1994, Kolkata
10. Workshop on Role of Geosynthetics in Hill Area Development, November 1994, Guwahati
11. Workshop on Engineering with Geosynthetics, December 1994, Hyderabad
12. Short Course on Recent Developments in the Design of Embankments on Soft Soils, May 1995, New Delhi
13. Seminar on Geosynthetic Materials and Their Application, August 1995, New Delhi
14. Short Course on Recent Developments in the Design of Embankments on Soft Soils, October 1995, New Delhi
15. Short Course on “Ground Improvement with Geosynthetics”, October 1995, New Delhi
16. Workshop on “Environmental Geotechnology”, December 1995, New Delhi
17. Workshop on “Role of Geosynthetics in Hill Area Development”, February 1996, Gangtok
18. Workshop on “Engineering with Geosynthetics”, March 1996, Visakhapatnam
19. Workshop on “Ground Improvement with Geosynthetics”, March 1996, Kakinada
20. Workshop on “Engineering with Geosynthetics”, May 1996, Chandigarh
21. International Seminar & Technomeet on “Environmental Geotechnology with Geosynthetics”, July 1996, New Delhi
22. Seminar on “Fields of Application of Gabion Structures”, September 1997, New Delhi
23. First Asian Regional Conference “Geosynthetics Asia’1997”, November 1997, Bangalore
24. Short Course on “Waste Containment with Geosynthetics”, February 1998, New Delhi
25. Symposium on “Rehabilitation of Dams”, November 1998, New Delhi
26. Training Course on “Geosynthetics and Their Civil Engineering Applications”, September 1999, Mumbai
27. Seminar on “Coir Geotextiles-Environmental Perspectives”, November 2000, New Delhi
28. Second National Seminar on “Coir Geotextiles – Environmental Perspectives”, April 2001, Guwahati, Assam
29. National Seminar on “Application of Jute Geotextiles in Civil Engineering”, May 2001, New Delhi
30. International Course on “Geosynthetics in Civil Engineering”, September 2001, Kathmandu, Nepal
31. Workshop on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects”, November 2003, New Delhi
32. Geosynthetics India 2004 – A Seminar Workshop on “Geotechnical Engineering Practice with Geosynthetics”,
October 2004, New Delhi
33. Introductory Course on Geosynthetics, November 2006, New Delhi

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40 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

34. International Seminar on “Geosynthetics in India – Present and Future” (in Commemoration of Two Decades
ofGeosynthetics in India), November 2006, New Delhi
35. Workshop on “Retaining Structures with Geosynthetics”, December 2006, Chennai
36. Special Session on “Applications of Geosynthetics” during 6th International R&D Conference, February 2007,
Lucknow (U.P.)
37. Workshop on “Applications of Geosynthetics – Present and Future”, September 2007, Ahmedabad (Gujarat)
38. International Seminar “Geosynthetics India’08” and Introductory Course on “Geosynthetics”, November 2008,
Hyderabad
39. Special Session on “Applications of Geosynthetics” during 7th International R&D Conference, February 2009,
Bhubaneswar (Orissa)
40. Seminar on “Applications of Geosynthetics”, July 2010, New Delhi
41. International Seminar on “Applications of Geosynthetics”, November 2010, New Delhi
42. Geosynthetics India’ 2011, September 2011, IIT Madras
43. Seminar on “Slope Stabilization Challenges in Infrastructure Projects”, October 2011, New Delhi
44. GEOINFRA 2012 – A Convergence of Stakeholders of Geosynthetics, August 2012, Hyderabad
45. Seminar on “Ground Control and Improvement”, September 2012, New Delhi
46. Workshop on “Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Structures - Design & Construction”, October 2012, New Delhi
47. Seminar on “Landfill Design with Geomembrane”, November 2012, New Delhi
48. Seminar on “Slope Stabilization Challenges in Infrastructure Projects”, November 2012, New Delhi
49. Seminar on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects”, June 2013, Bhopal
50. Seminar on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Railway Track Structures”, September 2013, New Delhi
51. Silver Jubilee Celebration, October 2013, New Delhi
52. Seminar on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects”, July 2014, Agra
53. Geosynthetics India 2014, October 2014, New Delhi
54. Seminar on Geotextiles: A Big Untapped Potential, September 2015, New Delhi
55. Three Decades of Geosynthetics in India – International Symposium Geosynthetics - The Road Ahead, November
2015, New Delhi, India
55. Three Decades of Geosynthetics in India – International Symposium Geosynthetics - The Road Ahead, November
2015, New Delhi, India
56. North Eastern Regional Seminar on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects”, June 2016,
Guwahati
57. Workshop on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Infrastructure Projects”, June 2016, Thiruvananthapuram
58. Training Course on Geosynthethics, November 2016, New Delhi
59. Workshop on Coastal Protection, November 2016, New Delhi
60. 6th Asian Regional Conference on Geosynthethics, November 2016, New Delhi
61. Training Course on "Geosynthetic Reinforced Soil Structures", February 2017, New Delhi
62. Training Course on “Applications of Geosynthetics”, December 2017, Dharwad (Karnataka)
63. Workshop on “Design and Construction of Pavements using Geosynthetics”, January 2018, New Delhi
64. IGS Educate the Educators Program, February 2018, IIT Madras
65. Training Course on “Applications of Geosynthetics”, February 2018, Trichy (Tamil Nadu)
66. Training Course on Design and Construction of Pavements with Geosynthetics and Geosyntheics Reinforced
Soil Slopes and Walls, 15 June 2018, New Delhi
67. Seminar on Slope Stabilization Challenges in Infrastructure Projects, 21-22 June 2018, New Delhi
68. Training Programme on “Applications of Geosynthetics in Dams and Hydraulic Structures”, August 2018,
Bhopal
69. Training Course on “Slope Stabilization Challenges in Infrastructure Projects”, October 2018, Dehradun
70. Seminar on “Geosynthetics Applications for Erosion Control and Coastal Protection”, October 2018,
Bhubaneswar

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Activities of the Society
Training Course

Applications of Geosynthetics in
Dams and Hydraulic Structures
28-29 August 2018, Bhopal (Madhya Pradesh)

A BRIEF REPORT

A Group Photograph of the participants with the Faculty Members and CBIP Officers

In the year 1985, the Central Board of Irrigation and Power (CBIP) as part of its technology forecasting activities
identified geosynthetics as important and relevant to India’s need for infrastructure development.
Over these three decades, extensive dissemination of information regarding use of geosynthetics in civil engineering
in India was made through publications and training courses/seminars, both at National and International levels.
In the past, when dealing with difficult sites for construction purposes, the conventional practice was limited to either
replacing the unsuitable soils with other suitable material, or bypassing them with costly deep foundations. Additionally,
the problem of land scarcity, the need to rebuild aging infrastructure in urban areas, increased realization of seismic
hazards, and environmental regulations, have been the impetus for the evolution of a number of ground improvement
techniques. Innovative ground modification approaches are used now to solve unique soil-related problems, and
often are considered to be the most economical means to improve an undesirable site condition.
Geosynthetics have proven to be among the most versatile and cost-effective ground modification materials in the
long run. Their use has expanded rapidly into nearly all areas of civil, geotechnical, environmental, coastal, and
hydraulic engineering.

41 Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


42 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Inauguration of the Course by Mr. Rajiv Kumar Suklikar, Dr. G.V. Rao lightening the lamp to mark the
Engineer-in-Chief, M.P. Water Resources Department auspicious beginning of the Course

Geosynthetics are now being increasingly used the world over for every conceivable application in civil engineering,
namely, construction of dam, embankments, canals, approach roads, runways, railway embankments, retaining walls,
slope protection works, drainage works, river training works, seepage control, etc. due to their inherent qualities.
Whereas in India, though its use is picking up, but with very slow pace. This is due to limited awareness of the utilities
of this material to probable users in India.
Indian Chapter has taken an initiative to organize Training Courses, in various States, to create awareness about
the applications of Geosynthetics.
The fourth programme in the series was organized at Bhopal during 28-29 August 2018 exclusively for the engineers
of Water Resources Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh.
Garware Technical Fibres Ltd. and Maccaferri Environmental Solutions Pvt. Ltd. extended their support to the Course
as Knowledge Partners.
The Course was attended by 45 participants.
The Course was inaugurated by Mr. Rajiv Kumar Suklikar, Engineer-in-Chief, Water Resources Department,
Government of Madhya Pradesh, and the inaugural function was presided over by Mr. Bharat Gosavi, Chief Engineer-
BODHI, Water Resources Department, Government of Madhya Pradesh.
Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian Chapter of IGS, highlighted the objective of the Course. Dr. G.P. Patel,
Director (Water Resources), CBIP, thanked all for their support in organising the programme at Bhopal.
Following topics were presented and discussed during the Course:
• Introduction to Geosynthetics - Dr. G. Venkatappa Rao, Former President, Indian Chapter of IGS and Guest
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar
• Types & Functions and Materials - Dr. G. Venkatappa Rao
• Geosynthetic Applications – Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian Chapter of IGS and Guest Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar
• Application of Geosynthetics in Water Resources Projects – Mr. Vivek Kapadia, Vice President, Indian Chapter of
IGS and Chief Engineer & Additional Secretary, Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply & Kalpasar Department,
Government of Gujarat
• Geosynthetics in Construction and Maintenance of Earth, Rock Fill and Masonry Dams - Dr. G. Venkatappa
Rao
• Canal Lining Systems – Mr. M. Venkataraman
• River Training and Slope Erosion Control Works – Ms. Dola Roychowdhury, Vice President, Z-Tech (India) Private
Ltd.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Activities of the Society 43

Mr. Bharat Gosavi, Chief Engineer-BODHI, M.P. Water Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian Chapter of IGS and
Resources Department, delivering the Presidential Address Guest Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
IIT Gandhinagar, highlighting the activities of the
Indian Chapter of IGS

• Slope Protection with Erosion Control Measures – Mr. M. Venkataraman


• Geosynthetics Testing and Evaluation - Dr. G. Venkatappa Rao
• Safety Aspects of Structures Designed by Use of Geosynthetics - Mr. M. Venkataraman
• Application of Geosynthetic in River Embankment Protection and Soil Erosion Control – Mr. Anup Deulkar, Senior
Manager - Sales & Marketing, Garware Technical Fibres Ltd.
• Application of Geosynthetics in Hydraulics – Unique Case Studies from India and Abroad - Ms. Jyoti Mann,
Maccaferri Environmental Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

Vote of Thanks by Dr. G.P. Patel, Director (WR), CBIP and


Treasurer, Indian Chapter of IGS

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


11th International Conference on Geosynthetics
16-21 September 2018, Seoul

A BRIEF REPORT
1. Record Participation
The Korean Chapter of International Geosynthetics hosted the 11th International Conference on Geosynthetics
(11 ICG) at Seoul during 16-21 September 2018, to continue in the ICG tradition of excellence, providing a forum
for engineers, practitioners and academia from various regions to explore current and future potential applications
for geosynthetics.
A total of 68 delegates from India participated in the Conference. In total 48 papers were selected from India for
presentations during the Conference.

Group Photograph of the Participants from India

Following Indian manufacturers displayed their products/services during the Exhibition:


• Charankattu Coir Manufacturing Company Private Limited
• Garware Technical Fibres Limited
• Megaplast India Pvt. Ltd.
• Strata Geosystems (India) Pvt. Ltd.
• TechFab India Industries Ltd.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 44


11th International Conference on Geosynthetics 45

2. Indian Special Session


As lessons learned from case histories are of particular importance in geosynthetics engineering. The Scientific
Committee of the 11 ICG thus decided to have chapter papers specifically focused on “Case histories of geosynthetics
engineering practice.” This initiative was designed to highlight regional experiences of geosynthetics engineering
and to encourage practicing engineers to submit more papers.
The organizing committee of 11th International Conference on Geosynthetics (11 ICG) offered Indian Chapter to
organize a Special Indian Session focusing on geosynthetics engineering practices, to highlight regional experiences
of geosynthetics engineering.
Indian Chapter organized the Special Session on “Ground Improvement for Construction over Poor and Swelling
Soils”, on 20 September 2018
The Session was Chaired by Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian Chapter of IGS and Co-Chaired by Mr. Vivek
Kapadia, Vice President, Indian Chapter of IGS.

Mr. M. Venkataraman and Mr. Vivek Kapadia, Co-chairing Dr. G.V. Rao, presenting the paper
the Indian Session

Following Case Studies were presented and discussed during the Session:
• Construction of embankments and retaining walls on black cotton soil deposits using geosynthetics – Dr. G.V.
Rao, Guest Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar
• Experiences gained from expansion of storage capacity of a lined pond at Hindustan Zinc Ltd. – Dr. K. Rajagopal,
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Madras
• Geosynthetics in irrigation canals in swelling soils of Gujarat, India : A Case Study – Mr. Vivek Kapadia,
Chief Engineer & Additional Secretary, Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply and Kalpasar Department,
Government of Gujarat
• Geosynthetic reinforcement in distressed canal embankment in Gujarat, India : A Case Study - Mr. Vivek Kapadia,
Chief Engineer & Additional Secretary, Narmada, Water Resources, Water Supply and Kalpasar Department,
Government of Gujarat
• Reinforced soil wall for Monsoon Palace, Aamby Valley – Mr. Saurabh Vyas, Head, Technical Services; TechFab
India Industries Ltd.
• Stabilization of Ravines : case study of Sabarmati river, Gujarat State, India – Ms. Prajakta Jadhav, Ph.D. Scholar,
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar
• Construction, Closure & Capping of Geosynthetic Lined Slurry Pond at Vishakhaptnam-India-15 year experience
– Mr. Ranjit Dash, Business Head (Landfill & Lining), Garware Technical Fibres Limited
• River bank protection using polymer gabions – A case study on the river Tapi in India – Mr. Tiru Kulkarni, President,
Garware Technical Fibres Limited

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46 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

3. Co-option of Mr. M. Venkataraman in IGS Council


Mr. M. Venkataraman, President of Indian Chapter, has been inducted in IGS
Council for the term 2018-2022 as an Invited Member.
Mr. M. Venkataraman is currently the Guest Professor in Civil Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Gandhinagar, Gujarat State, India. He is the
member of IGS for more than 15 years. He has worked with Indian geosynthetic
manufacturing companies in various capacities for 33 years and in the
geotechnical industry for 47 years. He did his B. Tech in Civil Engineering from
Indian Institute of Technology (IIT) Madras in 1969 and M. Tech in Geotechnical
engineering in 1971 from the same institute. He has designed and executed
many projects, in most of the geosynthetic related applications. He has also
developed indigenous products & systems for rockfall protection, reinforced
soil walls and river & coastal applications. He is instrumental in initiating and
popularising the use of Geotextile Tubes for Coastal Protection in India. He
has published more than 50 papers in different journals and conferences.
Mr. M. Venkataraman has long association with Indian Chapter of International
Geosynthetics Society as a member of its Governing Board and as Vice
President during 2012-2017. Currently, he is the President of the Indian Chapter. He has travelled widely all over
the world to attend different conferences and industry related assignments.

The new IGS Officers and Council

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


11th International Conference on Geosynthetics 47

4. IGS Young Members Session - Best Paper Award


The paper on “Erosion Control of Silty Ravines on the Banks of Sabarmati River” by Ms. Prajakta Jadhav, Ph.D.
Scholar, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar, was adjudged the for the Best Paper under IGS Young
Members Session.
Her research areas are Numerical and analytical modelling of soil-structure system under static and seismic loading,
Design of earth retaining structures, Design using Geosynthetics Effect of soil-structure interaction on the response
of the system and Slope stability analysis.

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48 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

5. IGS Chapter Presidents Meeting


The IGS Chapter Presidents attending the #11 ICG. Representatives from Germany, Italy, Taiwan, Malaysia, Russia,
Kazakhstan, South Africa, France, Austria, Turkey, Brazil, India, North America, South Korea, United Kingdom.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Seminar

Geosynthetics for Erosion Control


and Coastal Protection
25-26 October 2018, Bhubaneswar (Odisha)

A BRIEF REPORT

Dignitaries during Inaugural Session (L to R): Dr. G.P. Patel, Director, CBIP; Mr. J.K. Tripathy, Chief Construction Engineer, Water
Resources Department, Government of Odisha; Dr. G.V. Rao, Former President, Indian Chapter of IGS and
Guest Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar; Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian Chapter of IGS
and Guest Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar; Dr. R. Chitra, Vice President, Indian Chapter of IGS
and Scientist-E, Central Soil and Materials Research Station, New Delhi

Geosynthetic products offer the owners, engineers, and contractors a safe and economical solution to everyday
engineering challenges and construction requirements. Used as replacements to conventional materials, geosynthetic
products include a wide range of functions such as filtration, drainage, separation and reinforcement requirements.
The wide range of geosynthetic use includes landfill caps and base liner applications, environmental protection
under roads and railways, containment structures, dams, canals, ponds, rivers and lakes, coastal and offshore
protection. With the use of geosynthetics, most geotechnical structures can be improved and the design lifetime
can be increased.
Central Board of Irrigation and Power, in association with the Indian Chapter of International Geosynthetics Society
organized a Seminar at Hotel Swosti Premium, Bhubaneswar, with an objective to deliberate on recent development
in the use of geosynthetics in geotechnical, hydraulic, coastal and offshore engineering and also discuss the benefits
of geosynthetics to modern building technology.

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50 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian Chapter of IGS, lighting the Lamp, as mark of auspicious beginning of the Seminar,
accompanied by the dignitaries on the dais

The Seminar was co-sponsored by Garware Technical Fibres Ltd.


More than 65 participants from Andhra Pradesh Space Application Centre, Andhra Pradesh Water Resources
Department, Ashapura Group of Industries, Brahmaputra Board, Central Water and Power Research Station, Central
Water Commission, Directorate of Soil Conservation & Watershed Management; Odisha, Garware Technical Fibres
Ltd., Goa Water Resources Department, Inland Waterways Authority of India, Maccaferri Environmental Solutions
Pvt. Ltd., NHDC Ltd., NIT Durgapur, NIT Surathkal, Odisha Water Resources Department, Paradip Port Trust, Signet
Enertech Pvt. Ltd. and Telangana Irrigation & CAD Department attended the Seminar.
Following topics were discussed and presented during the Seminar:
• Introduction to Geosynthetics - Dr. G. Venkatappa Rao, Former President, Indian Chapter of IGS and Guest
Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, IIT Gandhinagar
• Types & Functions and Materials - Dr. G.
Venkatappa Rao
• Fundamentals of River and Coastal
Protection and the Role of Geosynthetics
- Mr. M. Venkataraman, President, Indian
Chapter of IGS and Guest Professor,
Department of Civil Engineering, IIT
Gandhinagar
• Techno-Commercial Evaluation of
Suitability of Geo-Textile Container
Technology for Coastal Protection : The
Experience in India – Mr. Tiru Kulkarni,
President & Head - Geosynthetics Division,
Garware Technical Fibres Ltd., Pune
• Geosynthetic Applications in Erosion
Control - Mr. M. Venkataraman
• Geosynthetics in River Erosion Control - Dr. G.V. Rao addressing the participants

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Activities of the Society 51

Welcome Address by Dr. G.P. Patel Address by Dr. R. Chitra

Case Studies – Dr. R. Chitra, Scientist-E, Central Soil and Materials Research Station, New Delhi
• Sustainable Construction Technique for River Front Construction - An Indian Experience - Ms. Dola Roychowdhury,
Vice President, Z-Tech (India) Private Ltd., New Delhi
• Laboratory Tests for Index and Performance Properties of Geosynthetics for Coastal Protection – Dr. G.
Venkatappa Rao, Former President, Indian Chapter of IGS and Guest Professor, Department of Civil Engineering,
IIT Gandhinagar
In addition, following Case Studies were presented:
• Construction of Geo-tube Embankment at Pentha in Kendrapara District of Odisha - A Case Study – Mr. Jugal
Kishore Tripathy, Chief Construction Engineer, Rengali Right Irrigation Project, Department of Water Resources,
Government of Odisha
• Shoreline Evolution along Uppada Coast in Andhra Pradesh using Multi Temporal Satellite Images and Model
Based Approach - R. Kannan, A. Kanungo, M.V.R. Murty and K.V. Ramana, Andhra Pradesh Space Applications
Centre, Vijayawada
• Conservation Trenches and its Effects on Plantation Crop in Degraded Watershed in Kandhamal District of
Odisha – Dr. C.R. Subudhi, Associate Professor, Department of SWCE, CAET, Odisha University of Agriculture
and Technology, Bhubaneswar
• Use of Geosystems for Nourishment of Eroding Zone of Nischintpur Bank at Kulpi - A Case Study – Mr. Shishir
Gupta, Maccaferri Environmental Solutions Pvt. Ltd.

Vote of thanks by Mr. Uday Chander, Chief Manager, CBIP A view of the attentive participants

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


52 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

NEWS
Message From The President September, is one good example, where 1239 experts
– Introducing ChungsikYoo, from 66 countries participated technical programs and
Ph.D. 109 global exhibitors from 23 countries showcased
full spectrum of innovated geosynthetics products and
Dear IGS Colleagues related technologies. Not only the conference was the
I am truly humbled, delighted and largest ICG ever in the 42 years of ICG history but
privileged to assume the role of also it provided a new leap forward for us in opening
President of the IGS for the next four next chapter of geosynthetics technology through high-
years (2018-2022). It is my greatest quality technical programs. The host chapter of 11ICG,
honor to have earned your support. I would be remiss IGS Korea, deserves to be proud of their achievement.
without acknowledging all the great work done by my As the new IGS President, it is my responsibility to take
two predecessors, Prof. Jorge Zornberg and Dr. Russell full advantage of the wealth of achievements and to
Jones. I am inspired by their leadership, commitments lead this great society to the next level. Just because
and outstanding contributions to the IGS during their the IGS is doing well doesn’t mean that we cannot do
presidency that have propelled our society to the current even better. It is critical for the IGS to remain forward-
state. I look forward to building on the previous work thinking and innovative. My aim is, therefore, to focus
done by the past presidents. on the future in order to move forward while continuing
I hold a special place for the IGS in my profession career. to carry on the current agenda that have been planned.
My involvement in the IGS goes back to the year 1997, The following goals will drive our efforts:
almost 20 years ago, as an individual member. I got E nhance activities of T echnical
more deeply involved in the IGS by hosting the 3rd Asian Committees.
Regional Conference (GeoAsia 2004) in Seoul 2004 as
Secretary General, and serving as a Council member and TCs are backbone of scientific and engineering societies.
Vice-President, since 2010 and 2014, respectively. Now, TCs activities can be enhanced by producing technical
here I am, the IGS President. Throughout my involvement documents that can benefit the members, such as best
with the IGS, I have been fortunate to meet many of you practice application guides and success stories.
in person. Thus, earning your trust today means not only Interaction with the industry and overlapping groups
professional but also personal responsibility. working in areas related to TCs specialty areas will be
In this endeavor, I am joined by outstanding fellow Officers increased in order to close the gap between the research
– Nathalie Touze (Vice President), EdoardoZannoni and practice. Knowledge sharing and dissemination of
(Secretary), Ian Fraser (Treasurer), and Russell Jones technical information within the TCs subject area and to
(Past President) – as well as the Council members who the IGS members will be enhanced.
represent the major regions of the world, i.e., Asia, Europe,
Improve education and knowledge sharing through
Africa-Middle East, and Pan-America. With their continued
up-to-date communication tools.
support and that of the IGS Secretariat Manger, Terry
Paulo, I am confident that we will be steadfast in addressing The IGS has been diligent in education. The education
the pressing challenges in the next four years. and knowledge sharing can be more effectively done by
During the past 35 years since its establishment in adopting up-to-date communication tools. These efforts
1983, the IGS has enjoyed great success with a long will include: 1) transforming the current IGS Newsletter
list of achievements, thanks to the concerted efforts to a webzine-style e-Newsletter which will be delivered
by the previous leaderships, its chapters, individual to the members more frequently; 2) creating an IGS App
and corporate members. The IGS has created strong for better communication with the members; 3) creating
outreach and education programs such as Ambassadors the IGS e-Library and e-Lecture Series where all IGS
and Educate the Educators (EtE) programs. Four IGS Regional and Int’l Conference proceedings, lecture
Technical Committees (TCs) were established in the past materials are open accessed to the members and public;
years and successfully hosted a number of TC specialty 4) developing digital media partnerships to outreach
workshops. Through these dedicated efforts, the IGS public, owners and regulators to increase awareness of
has successfully redefined its shape and capacity as geosynthetics.
a globally leading society in the fields of geosynthetics
Enhance awareness of geosynthetics.
and beyond.
11ICG proved that geosynthetics are fundamental to
These efforts are now starting to pay off in many
sustainable development and can provide solutions to the
ways. The great success of 11ICG, held in Seoul last

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 52


NEWS 53

global challenges such as disaster mitigation and response, Introducing the 18th IGS Council
climate change, environmental threats from human
society and much more. Awareness of geosynthetics
can be enhanced by liaising with international societies
“outside the box” involved in sustainability such as
UNISDR, UN Habitat, and ISOCARP. As part of these
efforts, the IGS will intensify efforts to produce and
disseminate promotional materials on success stories of
the use of geosynthetics in perspectives of sustainability,
public dispute, environmental issues, etc.

Get connected with members.


As a volunteer-based society, it is vital for the IGS to get
connected with members in order to better support the
members. In this way, the IGS can broaden individual and
corporate membership through outreaching to various At the recent 11th International Conference on
relevant sectors including industries that could benefit Geosynthetics (11th ICG) held in Seoul, Korea the
from the IGS membership. Continued supports will be IGS Council marked the beginning of a new Council
provided to our highly successful IGS Ambassadors and term. At the General Assembly the officers and council
EtE programs, and also to TCs activities, as means of members elected to serve for the 2018-2022 term
getting connected with the members. were announced and officially took office. The elected
Get young members involved. officers are: ChungsikYoo – President, Nathalie Touze
– Vice President and Russell Jones Immediate Past
Young members are the future of the IGS. One of my President. As per the IGS by-laws the new council
top priorities will be expanding young membership to elected a Treasurer and Secretary from amongst the
incorporate young minds for leadership development council membership. Ian Fraser, a 4 year member of the
in the IGS. More opportunities will be given to young Council was appointed to the position of IGS Treasurer.
members to share knowledge and ideas, to connect EdoardoZannoni, a 6 year member of the Council was
with leaders in the field, and to have better education appointed to the position of IGS Secretary General. In
and training. As a way of having more young members addition to these appointments the IGS Council co-opted
engaged in technical activities, a half-day or full-day members in order to better represent the diversity of the
“IGS-Young Geosynthetics Engineering Conference IGS membership within the council. Laura Carbone is
(IGS-YGEC)” will be implemented to the IGS Regional the current Chair of the Young Members Committee and
and International Conferences. Gerhard Bräu continues as the Editor of IGS News and
The listed goals are not easy to achieve and cannot be in those positions they have a permanent invitation to
done by just myself. We can only achieve these goals participate in council meetings. 
through concerted efforts by each and every member
of the IGS, including the leadership, Council members, Members of the 18th IGS Council – September 2018
and Individual and Corporate members. I am confident Officers:
that these efforts will lead this society to a higher level.
My focus will be to continue the efforts of bringing all the ChungsikYoo (Korea): IGS President
members together, while integrating the each and every Nathalie Touze (France): IGS Vice-President
member’s voice to lead this society in harmony. Russell Jones (UK): Immediate Past President
EdoardoZannoni (South Africa): IGS Secretary General
I thank you once again for giving me an opportunity to Ian Fraser (UK): IGS Treasurer
serve you and I will do my utmost to represent you to the
best of my abilities. Council Members:

Yours sincerely! DimiterAlexiew (Germany)


Sam Allen (USA)
Augusto Alza (Peru) +
Gerhard Bräu (Germany) *
Laura Carbone (Italy) *
ChungsikYoo, Ph.D. Jacques Cote (Canada)
Francesco Fontana (Italy)
President – International Geosynthetics Society ErolGuler (Turkey)

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


54 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

Jie Han (USA) the program to the fullest extent possible, the chapters
Chiwan Hsieh (Taiwan) + must accomplish the following:
Warren Hornsey (Australia) +
• Chapters must organize a contest or conduct a
Takeshi Katsumi (Japan)
nomination process to select the student candidate
JacekKawalec (Poland) * to represent the chapter. The process should include
submission by the student candidates of abstracts
Preston Kendall (Australia) and preparation of a technical paper for one of the
Hong Kwan (Hogan) Kim (Korea) IGS regional conferences in 2020 or 2021.
Junichi Koseki (Japan) • While the IGS chapters are free to define the
Flavio Montez (Brazil) + characteristics of the nomination/competition process,
this process should be documented and provided to
Boyd Ramsey (China)
the IGS.
PietroRimoldi (Italy)
• Chapters must notify the IGS of the name of the
M. Venkataraman (India) * student selected. Communication will be made by
Kent von Maubeuge (Germany) the IGS to all chapters as regards the deadlines for
those two actions.
Chao Xu (China) +
• The winner student should provide the IGS
Martin Ziegler (Germany)
Secretariat’s office (IGSsec@GeosyntheticsSociety.
+ Denotes a co-opted member org) with copy to IGS Students Awards Chairs: Laura
* Denotes an invited member Carbone (carbone@huesker.de ) and Lucía Davila
  (ldavila85@hotmail.com) in parallel to the conference
organizers with the abstract and paper submitted.
IGS Secretariat Manager:
The IGS Education Committee is available to help in the
Terry Ann Paulo preparation of such process.
The IGS will transfer US$1,000 to the student upon
IGS Students Awards: 2018 to 2021 receipt of the draft paper. IGS Student Award winners will
The success of the IGS Student Award program will participate in dedicated sessions at the corresponding
continue, now with its 8th award period of 2018 to 2021. regional conference, where they will present their
paper.
The Awards will be assigned in the years 2020-2021
and all successful candidates will be invited to attend IGS Student Awards recipients will be required to submit
one of the IGS regional conferences in 2020, i.e., a written report to the IGS on the regional conference
GeoAmericas 2020, EuroGeo7 or Geosynthetics Asia and on the IGS-related conference activities. This report
2021, or Geoafrica 2021. should also be provided by the Student Awards winners
to their own chapter.
The IGS student award was established to disseminate
knowledge and to improve communication and In recognition of the IGS Student Award winners and to
understanding of geotextiles, geomembranes and maximize benefits to the students, the organizers of the
associated technologies among young geotechnical and regional conferences are required to hold a dedicated
geoenvironmental student engineers around the world. session in which the student papers will be presented.
They must also provide the students with a free copy
The IGS student award will consist of US$1,000 to be of the proceedings and free admission to the sessions
used to cover travel expenses of each winner to attend a and the exhibition. In addition, a comprehensive student
regional conference. The US$1,000 will not be distributed program will be organized in each regional conference
without such attendance. If the student receives funding to maximize their exposure to geosynthetics and the
and subsequently does not attend the conference the IGS. This includes a recognition ceremony during the
Student’s IGS Chapter will be responsible for the refund conference as well as their participation in corporate
of the award. This award amount will be assigned to receptions, social functions, and activities specific to
only one student per IGS Chapter. The selected student each conference.
should have been an undergraduate, M.Sc. or Ph.D.
student during the period 2016-2019. Please feel free to contact the IGS Secretariat’s office
(IGSsec@GeosyntheticsSociety.org), or the Chairs of
The IGS is interested in encouraging the involvement the IGS Students Awards: Laura Carbone (carbone@
of the students during the selection process. To ensure huesker.de) or Lucía Davila (ldavila85@hotmail.com)
student representatives form each chapter participate in

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


NEWS 55

with questions about the IGS Student Award Program. IGS Journals
Dr Kerry Rowe will present the next Mercer Lecture This section offers a wide variety of geosynthetics
at three major conferences in Iceland, South Africa technical information. This information is a product of
and the USA, in 2019 and 2020. the IGS Education and Technical committees as well
Dr Rowe will discuss the use of geosynthetics as a number of other hard-working IGS volunteers.
in construction on soft soils at the 17th  European Information developed for the IGS is created and peer-
Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical reviewed by the foremost geosynthetics academics
Engineering in Reykjavik (1-6 September 2019), before and practitioners world-wide. Much of the information
travelling to Cape Town to speak at the South African is publicly available, however, some information is
Institution of Civil Engineering Geotechnical Division’s restricted to IGS Members only.
17th African Regional Conference (7-10 October 2019). If you are an IGS Member, please log in to the website to
He will complete his tour in the USA, presenting at the gain access to the member’s only content. If you would
Geo-Congress 2020 (25-28 February 2020). like access to the content but are not a current member
Dr Rowe, who holds the Canada Research Chair in of the IGS, please refer to our Membership section of the
Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering at site. You will be pleased with the reasonable cost and
Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, is a past president benefits associated with becoming an IGS Member.
of the International Geosynthetics Society, a Fellow
Geosynthetics International
of the Royal Society and a world-renowned expert in
geosynthetics and geonvironmental engineering. is a peer-reviewed technical journal that publishes
technical papers, technical notes, discussions, and
The Mercer Lecture aims to promote co-operation
book reviews on all topics relevant to geosynthetic
and information exchange between the geotechnical
materials (including natural fibre products), research,
engineering profession and the geosynthetics industry.
behaviour, performance analysis, testing, design,
The lecture series, sponsored by Tensar International, construction methods, case histories, and field
was established in 1992 in memory of the inventor of experience. Geosynthetics International is published
geogrids, Dr Brian Mercer, who was an advocate of electronically.
innovation, research and development.
As a membership benefit IGS Members receive full
Endorsed by the International Society for Soil Mechanics access to  Geosynthetics International  through the link
and Geotechnical Engineering and the International to the publishers website. All volumes, beginning with
Geosynthetics Society, the lecture tour gives individuals Volume 1 from 1994, are available through the link.
who have made a significant technical contribution to
Paid subscriptions to both Geosynthetics International
the advancement of geosynthetics the opportunity to
and Geotextiles &Geomembranes are available for non-
present their work at three major conferences on three
members.
continents.
This section offers a wide variety of geosynthetics Geotextiles & Geomembranes
technical information. This information is a product of publishes technical papers, technical notes, discussion
the IGS Education and Technical committees as well and book reviews on all topics relating to geosynthetics,
as a number of other hard-working IGS volunteers. research, behaviour, performance analysis, testing,
Information developed for the IGS is created and peer- design, construction methods, case histories and field
reviewed by the foremost geosynthetics academics experience. The journal strives to provide the authors
and practitioners world-wide. Much of the information with quick, constructive reviews and we appreciate the
is publicly available, however, some information is author’s hard work in addressing these comments and
restricted to IGS Members only. quick return of revised papers.
If you are an IGS Member, please log in to the website to Free access to Geotextiles and Geomembranes issues
gain access to the member’s only content. If you would from 1984 to the present are available through the link
like access to the content but are not a current member to the publishers web site. An additional login from the
of the IGS, please refer to our Membership section of the publisher is required.
site. You will be pleased with the reasonable cost and
benefits associated with becoming an IGS Member. Paid subscriptions to both Geosynthetics International
and Geotextiles &Geomembranes are available for non-
members.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and
Ground Improvement

Guidelines for Authors


This journal aims to provide a snapshot of the latest research and advances in the field of Geosynthetics. The journal
addresses what is new, significant and practicable. Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement
is published twice a year (January-June and July-December) by IndianJournals.Com, New Delhi. The Journal has
both print and online versions. Being peer-reviewed, the journal publishes original research reports, review papers
and communications screened by national and international researchers who are experts in their respective fields.
The original manuscripts that enhance the level of research and contribute new developments to the geosynthetics
sector are encouraged. The work belonging to the fields of Geosynthetics are invited. The journal is expected to
help researchers, technologist and policy makers in the key sector of Geosynthetics to improve communication
and understanding regarding geotextiles, geomembranes and related products among designers, manufacturers
and users The manuscripts must be unpublished and should not have been submitted for publication elsewhere.
There are no Publication Charges.
1. Guidelines for the preparation of manuscripts for publishing in “Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and
Ground Improvement”
The authors should submit their manuscript in MS-Word (2003/2007) in single column, double line spacing as per
the following guidelines. The manuscript should be organized to have Title page, Abstract, Introduction, Material &
Methods, Results & Discussion, Conclusion, and Acknowledgement. The manuscript should not exceed 16 pages
in double line spacing.
Take margin as 1.” (Left, Right, Top & Bottom) on A4 paper.
The Title of the paper should be in bold and in Title case .
The next item of the paper should be the author’s name followed by the co-authors.
Name of the corresponding author should be highlighted by putting an asterisk, with whom all the future
correspondence shall be made.
This should be followed by an affiliation and complete official addresses.
Providing e-mail id is must.
Please keep the title, author’s name and affiliation center aligned.
Use the following font sizes:
Title: 14 point bold (Title Case), Author’s name(s): 12-point bold, Author’s Affiliations: 10-point normal, Headings:
11-point bold & caps, Sub-headings: 11-point normal & caps, Body Text: 10-point normal.
The manuscript must be in English.
Manuscripts are accepted on the basis that they may be edited for style and language.
Use Times new roman as the font.
Words used in a special context should appear between single quotation marks the first time they appear.
Lines must be double-spaced (plus one additional line between paragraphs).
Tables and figures must be included in the same file as the text in the end of the manuscript. Figures must be inserted
into the document in JPEG or Tagged Image File Format (TIFF) format.
Abbreviations should be spelt out in full for the first time they appear and their abbreviated form included in brackets
immediately after.

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019 56


Guidelines for Authors 57

Communicating author will receive a soft copy of his/her published paper at free of cost.
Diagrams and Figures: Only black & white figures are accepted. Figures should be entered in one column (center
aligned) and should not exceed 6-inch total width. A minimum line width of 1 point is required at actual size. Annotations
should be in Times New Roman 12 point with only the first letter capitalized. The figure caption should be preceded
by ‘Figure’ followed by the figure number. For example, ‘Figure 10.
Photographs and illustrations: No color photographs are allowed. Image files should be optimized to the minimum
possible size without compromising the quality. The figures should have a resolution of 300 dpi.
Equations: Using the appropriate editor, each equation should appear on a new line. The equations referred to in
the text, should be numbered sequentially with their identifier enclosed in parenthesis, right justified. The symbols,
where referred to in the text, should be italicized.
E = mc2 (1)
References: The papers in the reference list must be cited in the text in the order in which they appear in the text.
In the text, the citation should appear in square brackets “[]”. References of Journals, Books and Conferences must
be written as shown in the example below.
Jones B., Brown, J., and Smith J. 2005, The title of the book. 1st edition, Publisher.
Jones B., Brown, J., and Smith J. 2005 The title of the conference paper. Proc Conference title 6: 9-17.
Jones B., Brown, J., and Smith J. .2005 The title of the journal paper. Journal Name. 3(4): 101-121.
Submission of Manuscript:
The manuscript must be submitted in doc and pdf to the Editor as an email attachment to uday@cbip.org. The
author(s) should send a signed declaration form mentioning that, the matter embodied in the manuscript is original
and copyrighted material used during the preparation of the manuscript has been duly acknowledged. The declaration
should also carry consent of all the authors for its submission to Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground
Improvement. It is the responsibility of corresponding author to secure requisite permission from his or her employer
that all papers submitted are understood to have received clearance(s) for publication. The authors shall also assign
the copyright of the manuscript to the Indian Chapter of International Geosynthetics Society.

Peer Review Policy:


Review System: Every article is processed by a masked peer review of double blind or by three referees and
edited accordingly before publication. The criteria used for the acceptance of article are: contemporary relevance,
updated literature, logical analysis, relevance to the global problem, sound methodology, contribution to
knowledge and fairly good English. Selection of articles will be purely based on the experts’ views and opinion.
Authors will be communicated within Two months from the date of receipt of the manuscript. The editorial office will
endeavor to assist where necessary with English language editing but authors are hereby requested to seek local
editing assistance as far as possible before submission. Papers with immediate relevance would be considered for
early publication. The possible expectations will be in the case of occasional invited papers and editorials, or where
a partial or entire issue is devoted to a special theme under the guidance of a Guest Editor.
The Editor-in-Chief may be reached at: uday@cbip.org

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


58 Indian Journal of Geosynthetics and Ground Improvement

INTERNATIONAL GEOSYNTHETICS SOCIETY


(INDIA)
OBJECTIVES
• to collect and disseminate knowledge on all matters relevant to geotextiles, geomembranes and
related products, e.g. by promoting seminars, conferences etc.;
• to promote advancement of the state-of-the-art of geotextiles, geomembranes and related products
and of their applications, e.g. by encouraging, through its members, the harmonization of test methods,
equipment and criteria; and
• to improve communication and understanding regarding such products, e.g. between designers,
manufacturers and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering communities.

MEMBERSHIP ELIGIBILITY
Membership is open to individuals/institutions, whose activities or interests are clearly related to the
scientific, technological or practical development or use of geotextiles, geomembranes, related products
and associated technologies.

Membership Categories and Subscriptions:


• Individual Membership for 01 Calendar year : Rs. 2,500.00
• Individual Membership for 10 Calendar years : Rs. 12,500.00
• Individual Membership for 20 Calendar years : Rs. 25,000.00
• Institutional Membership for 01 Calendar years : Rs. 25,000.00
• Institutional Membership for 02 Calendar years : Rs. 45,000.00
• Institutional Membership for 03 Calendar years : Rs. 60,000.00

For membership and other details, please contact

Mr. V.K. Kanjlia


Member Secretary
International GeosyntheticsSociety (India)
C/o Central Board of Irrigation and Power
Plot No. 4, Institutional Area
Malcha Marg, Chanakyapuri
New Delhi 110 021

Tel. : 011 2611 5984/2611 1294


Fax : 011 2611 6347
E-mail : uday@cbip.org, cbip@cbip.org

Volume 8 v No. 1 v January 2019


ABOUT JOURNAL Workshop on
Geosynthetics are now being increasingly used the world over for every conceivable application in civil
engineering, namely, construction of dam embankments, canals, approach roads, runways, railway
Natural Hazard Mitigation with Geosynthetics
embankments, retaining walls, slope protection works, drainage works, river training works, seepage 11-12 January 2019, Thiruvananthapuram, (Kerala)
control, etc. due to their inherent qualities. Its use in India though is picking up, is not any where close OBJECTIVE
to recognitions. This is due to limited awareness of the utilities of this material and developments having
take place in its use. (EAVYRAIN FOLLOWEDBYLANDSLIDE IN+ERALADURING!UGUST WASTHEWORSTmOODIN+ERALAIN
NEARLYACENTURY/NESIXTHOFTHETOTALPOPULATIONOF+ERALAHADBEENDIRECTLYAFFECTEDBYTHEmOODS
The aim of the journal is to provide latest information in regard to developments taking place in the relevant
AND RELATED INCIDENTS LIKE LANDSLIDES (EAVY RAINS IN7AYANAD +ANNUR AND )DUKKI HAVE CAUSED
field of geosynthetics so as to improve communication and understanding regarding such products,
among the designers, manufacturers and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering
severe landslides and left the hilly districts completely isolated.
communities. The present workshop is being organise to analyse the extent of damages occurred due to landslides
The Journal has both print and online versions. Being peer-reviewed, the journal publishes original IN+ERALAANDTOSUGGESTMITIGATIONMETHODS
research repor ts, review papers and communications screened by national and international REGISTRATION FEE
researchers who are experts in their respective fields.
4HEPARTICIPANTSFROM+ERALAWILLBEEXTENDEDCOMPLIMENTARYREGISTRATION
The original manuscripts that enhance the level of research and contribute new developments to the
geosynthetics sector are encouraged. The work belonging to the fields of Geosynthetics are invited. 4HE REGISTRATION FEE PAYABLE PER DELEGATE FOR THE PARTICIPATION FROM OTHER THAN +ERALA IS AS
The manuscripts must be unpublished and should not have been submitted for publication elsewhere. follows:
There are no Publication Charges.
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s -R.ARENDRADalmia $IRECTOR 3TRATA'EOSYSTEMS)NDIA 0VT,TD complimentary registration.
s -S-INIMOLKorulla 6ICE0RESIDENT 4-$ -ACCAFERRI%NVIRONMENTAL3OLUTIONS0VT,TD The registration fee covers the cost of registration kit, lunch and tea in-between the technical sessions.
s -R4IRUKulkarni 0RESIDENTAND(EADn'EOSYNTHETICS$IVISION 'ARWARE7ALL2OPES,TD 4HEPARTICIPANTSWILLHAVETOMAKETHEIROWNARRANGEMENTSFORTRAVELANDSTAY.OlNANCIALSUPPORT
will be provided by the organizers.
s -R3ATISHNaik #%/ "EST'EOTECHNICS0VT,TD
4HELASTDATEFORRECEIPTOFTHEREGISTRATIONFORMIS*ANUARYSpot registration facilities
s $R+Rajagopal 0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING ))4-ADRAS will also be available, provided the prior information is received.
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s $R'6Rao &ORMER0ROFESSOR $EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING))4$ELHIAND'UEST0ROFESSOR
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$EPARTMENTOF#IVIL%NGINEERING))4'ANDHINAGAR
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s -S$OLARoychowdhury 6ICE0RESIDENT : 4ECH)NDIA 0RIVATE,TD #ENTRAL"OARDOF)RRIGATION0OWER -ALCHA-ARG #HANAKYAPURI .EW$ELHI )NDIA
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ABOUT JOURNAL Workshop on
Geosynthetics are now being increasingly used the world over for every conceivable application in civil Natural Hazard Mitigation with Geosynthetics
engineering, namely, construction of dam embankments, canals, approach roads, runways, railway
embankments, retaining walls, slope protection works, drainage works, river training works, seepage 11-12 January 2019, Thiruvananthapuram, (Kerala)
control, etc. due to their inherent qualities. Its use in India though is picking up, is not any where close OBJECTIVE
to recognitions. This is due to limited awareness of the utilities of this material and developments having
take place in its use. (EAVYRAIN FOLLOWEDBYLANDSLIDE IN+ERALADURING!UGUST WASTHEWORSTmOODIN+ERALAIN
NEARLYACENTURY/NESIXTHOFTHETOTALPOPULATIONOF+ERALAHADBEENDIRECTLYAFFECTEDBYTHEmOODS
The aim of the journal is to provide latest information in regard to developments taking place in the relevant
AND RELATED INCIDENTS LIKE LANDSLIDES (EAVY RAINS IN7AYANAD +ANNUR AND )DUKKI HAVE CAUSED
field of geosynthetics so as to improve communication and understanding regarding such products,
among the designers, manufacturers and users and especially between the textile and civil engineering
severe landslides and left the hilly districts completely isolated.
communities. The present workshop is being organise to analyse the extent of damages occurred due to landslides
The Journal has both print and online versions. Being peer-reviewed, the journal publishes original IN+ERALAANDTOSUGGESTMITIGATIONMETHODS
research repor ts, review papers and communications screened by national and international REGISTRATION FEE
researchers who are experts in their respective fields.
4HEPARTICIPANTSFROM+ERALAWILLBEEXTENDEDCOMPLIMENTARYREGISTRATION
The original manuscripts that enhance the level of research and contribute new developments to the
geosynthetics sector are encouraged. The work belonging to the fields of Geosynthetics are invited. 4HE REGISTRATION FEE PAYABLE PER DELEGATE FOR THE PARTICIPATION FROM OTHER THAN +ERALA IS AS
The manuscripts must be unpublished and should not have been submitted for publication elsewhere. follows:
There are no Publication Charges.
-EMBERSOF#")0)'3 ).2  '34 
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Trivandrum
In case of 4 or more nominations from an organization, one delegate will be offered
s -R.ARENDRADalmia $IRECTOR 3TRATA'EOSYSTEMS)NDIA 0VT,TD complimentary registration.
s -S-INIMOLKorulla 6ICE0RESIDENT 4-$ -ACCAFERRI%NVIRONMENTAL3OLUTIONS0VT,TD The registration fee covers the cost of registration kit, lunch and tea in-between the technical sessions.
s -R4IRUKulkarni 0RESIDENTAND(EADn'EOSYNTHETICS$IVISION 'ARWARE7ALL2OPES,TD 4HEPARTICIPANTSWILLHAVETOMAKETHEIROWNARRANGEMENTSFORTRAVELANDSTAY.OlNANCIALSUPPORT
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4HELASTDATEFORRECEIPTOFTHEREGISTRATIONFORMIS*ANUARYSpot registration facilities
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Mr. V.K. Kanjlia, Secretary
s -S$OLARoychowdhury 6ICE0RESIDENT : 4ECH)NDIA 0RIVATE,TD #ENTRAL"OARDOF)RRIGATION0OWER -ALCHA-ARG #HANAKYAPURI .EW$ELHI )NDIA
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s -R - Venkataraman 'EOSYNTHETIC AND 'EOTECHNICAL #ONSULTANT AND 'UEST 0ROFESSOR
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