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# GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEM PROJECT

NETWORK ANALYSIS

## ASSOC. PROF DR ABD NASSIR BIN MATORI

NAME ID
WAN AQIM SYAHMI BIN WAN BAHRUDDIN 22410
JUBEDA MICHEL CAMACHO CAMBE 20539
INTRODUCTION
1.1 Network Analysis

ArcGIS Network Analyst provides network-based spatial analysis tools for solving complex
routing problems. It uses a configurable transportation network data model, allowing organizations
to accurately represent their unique network requirements. In ArcGIS, transportation network is
modeled using network dataset while the utility dataset is modeled using geometric dataset.

Network analysis in ArcGIS can be used for different types of operation such as shortest path
analysis, best route, closest facility, allocation, OD-cost matrix and network partitioning. In the
shortest path analysis, it finds the path with the minimum cumulative impedance between nodes
of a network. The nodes may connect just two nodes an origin and a destination or have specific
stops between nodes. Best route can be the quickest or shortest depending on impedance chosen
whether the impedance is time or distance.

As for the closest facility, it finds the closest facility such as hospital, fire station, ATM or
others to any location on the network meanwhile allocation measures the efficiency of public
facilities in term of their service areas. In addition to that, location-allocation helps the user to
choose which facilities from a set of facilities to operate based on their potential interaction with
demand points. Od-cost matrix is a table that contains the network impedance from each origin to
each destination. Next, the network partitioning trace is used to understand which part of the
network is conditionally connected to a chosen node on the network known as trace origin.

In order to perform network analysis in a GIS program, the general procedures that need to
be done in order to solve the network analysis problem are:

## v) Perform the analysis

In this project, our group is creating four different route around Cameron Highland and by
using the software ArcMap and ArcCatalog, the shortest route can be produce for the total of four
different routes. Therefore, ArcMap and ArcCatalog are very vital in producing the network
analyst of a place.

1.2 ArcMap

ArcMap is the main component of Esri's ArcGIS suite of geospatial processing programs, and
is used primarily to view, edit, create, and analyze geospatial data. ArcMap allows the user to
explore data within a data set, symbolize features accordingly, and create maps. This is done
through two distinct sections of the program, the table of contents and the data frame. ArcMap is
the primary application used in ArcGIS and is used to perform a wide range of common GIS tasks
as well as specialized, user-specific tasks. Here is a list of some common workflows that can be
performed using ArcMap:

## 1. Work with maps

User can open and use ArcMap documents to explore information, navigate around the
map documents, turn layers on and off, query features to access the rich attribute data that
is behind the map, and to visualize geographic information.
2. Print maps
User can print maps, from the simplest to very sophisticated cartography, using ArcMap.
3. Compile and edit GIS datasets
ArcMap provides one of the primary ways that users automate geodatabase datasets.
ArcMap supports scalable full-function editing. User can select layers in the map document
to edit and the new and updated features are saved in the layer's dataset.
4. Use geoprocessing to automate work and perform analysis
GIS is both visual and analytical. ArcMap has the ability to execute any geoprocessing
model or script as well as to view and work with the results through map visualization.
Geoprocessing can be used for analysis as well as to automate many other tasks such as
map book generation, repairing broken data links in a collection of map documents, and to
perform GIS data processing.
5. Organize and manage geo databases and ArcGIS documents
ArcMap includes the Catalog window that enables user to organize all of the GIS datasets
and geo databases, map documents and other ArcGIS files, geo processing tools, and many
other GIS information sets. User can also set up and manage geo database schemas in the
Catalog window.
6. Share maps, layers, geo processing models, and geo databases with other users
ArcMap includes tools that make it easy to package and share GIS datasets with other users.
This includes the ability to share the user GIS maps and data using ArcGIS Online.
7. Document geographic information of the user
A key goal in GIS communities is to describe the user geographic information sets to help
in documenting the projects and for more effective search and data sharing. Using the
Catalog window, user can document all of their GIS contents. For organizations who use
standards-based metadata, user can also document their datasets using the ArcGIS
8. Customize the user experience
ArcMap includes tools for customization, including the ability to write software add-ins to
add new functionality, to simplify and streamline the user interface, and to use

1.3 ArcCatalog
The ArcCatalog application provides a catalog window that is used to organize and manage
various types of geographic information for ArcGIS for Desktop. The kinds of information that
• Geodatabases
• Raster files
• Map documents, globe documents, 3D scene documents, and layer files
• Geoprocessing toolboxes, models, and Python scripts
• GIS services published using ArcGIS for Server
• Standards-based metadata for these GIS information items
ArcCatalog presents this information in a tree view and allows user to select a GIS item, view
its properties, and to access tools to operate on the selected items.
METHODOLOGY
The methodology that was followed is shown in figure below and in this project, the
analysis are focusing solely on shortest path analysis.

## 2.1 Network Dataset

Spatial data from Geographic Information System database is being used more and more in
transportation planning due to the convenient structure they provide for entering, viewing and
manipulating spatially-oriented data. Applications of GIS in the traffic safety area has been
limited mostly to visual representation of accident locations. Network dataset is built mainly
from two GIS data layers. They are major road network which is captured as line features, and
junctions and important landmarks that are captured as point features. These two are playing
prominent role in keeping network alive at all time.
Road network is properly connected in GIS with junctions and important landmarks. Necessary
attribute data such as name of roads, length of roads, name of the junctions and important
landmarks have been given as input in network dataset.

## 2.2 Shortest Path Analysis

A shortest path problem is finding a path with minimum travel distance from one or more
origins to one or more destinations through a connected network. It is an important issue because
of its wide range of applications in transportation networks. In some applications, it is also
beneficial to know the second or third shortest paths between two nodes. For instance, in order to
improve the effectiveness of travel information provision, there is a need to provide some rational

Having built the network GIS data layers, shortest path between any two destinations can be
efficiently found. The shortest path takes into account road distance and not radial distance. It is
also possible to find out a route which has the least travel time. In the case of travel time based
shortest path, the impedance is to be given based on the road condition, vehicle type and other
influencing parameters. In the present case, the best way to get from one location to another was
worked out based on road distance where the destinations can be chosen by the user interactively.
It has also been built in such a way that due to any reason if the road is closed, the user can
introduce a barrier interactively. In such situations, the best possible alternative route is identified
and made available to the user along with the distance he has to travel

## 2.3 Steps in Using Network Analyst

1. Start ArcCatalog by clicking Start > All Programs > ArcGIS > ArcCatalog 10

## iii) Click Close

3. On the Standard Toolbar, click the Connect To Folder button. The Connect to Folder

## 4. Navigate the default location for the data to Cameron Data.

5. Click OK. A shortcut to the folder is added to the Catalog Tree under Folder Connections.

6. Right click the road network dataset in the folder, and click Create new data set.

## 9. The Network Analyst toolbar is added to the ArcMap.

12. Click new route on the Network Analyst toolbar and pick the starting point.
13. The starting point will appear as no 1 inside the small circle and pick the end point of the
route and no 2 will be appear inside the small circle.
14. In order to compute the best route, click the solve button on the Network Analyst toolbar.
15. A line will be created for the best route from the starting point to the end point.
16. Next, right click the routes and choose the Attribute Table. The attribute table will display
the total distance from the starting point towards the end point.
17. Repeat the same procedure for another route.
RESULT AND DISCUSSION

## 3.1 Analysis Project

This project, there are four different route that were created using both software ArcCatalog and
ArcMap. The area that was covered for this project is around Cameron Highland area and there
are four different routes that were created using the software. The figures below show the four
different routes that were created around Cameron Highland. The first route is indicated by the
purple line, the second route is represented by the blue line, the aqua line represents the third route
and the dark purple lines represent the fourth route.
Route 1
It was found that for the route 1, the total distances from the starting point are around 4.6
km. The stop count indicates that there are only 2 points for this route which are starting and end
points. Apart from that, in comparison from the Google Map, it was found that the total normal
distance from the starting point to Hulu Tirom to Kampung Raja are around 5.6 km and takes 9
minutes ride by car which is quite far compare to the modeling. Therefore, Network Analyst able
to shorten the distance from starting point to end point from 5.6 km to 4.6 km.
Route 2
It was found that for the route 2, the total distances from the starting point to end point
are around 7 km. The stop count indicates that there are only 2 points for this route which are
starting and end points. Apart from that, in comparison from the Google Map, it was found that
the total normal distance from Kampung Orang Asli to Jalan Gunung Brinchang are already
around 8.1 km which takes about 18 minutes by car. Therefore, Network Analyst able to shorten
that distance since our end points is far above Kampung Orang Asli by referring to the route
network.
Route 3
It was found that for the route 3, the total distances from the starting point are around 5.5
km. The stop count indicates that there are only 2 points for this route which are starting and end
points. Apart from that, in comparison from the Google Map, it was found that the total normal
distance from Habu Height to Taman Orchid Deluxe Park 5.9 km which takes about 14 minutes
by car. Therefore, Network Analyst able to shorten that distance since our end points is a little bit
further from Habu Height by referring to the route network.
Route 4
It was found that for the route 4, the total distances from the starting point are around 7.2
km. The stop count indicates that there are only 2 points for this route which are starting and end
points. Apart from that, in comparison from the Google Map, it was found that the total normal
distance from Habu Height Felicia to Ringlet Town are around 8.7 km which takes about 17
minutes by car. Therefore, Network Analyst provides a distance that are almost similar to the
Google Map since our location is a little bit below the Ringlet Town as the end point.