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Schools of Thought Development and Evolution Main Sources for this chapter:
Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. Manaaqib Abu Hanifa, Al-Makki. Manaaqib Malik, Al-Sayooti. Tabaqat Al-Shafi'iyya. Mus'nad Ahmad (Ahmad Ibn Hanbal).
WHAT IS MADH'HAB? No Schools of Thought ever existed in Islam at the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Neither his exemplary practices nor his Hadith (the Sunnah) were put in writing during his lifetime. After the death of the Prophet (pbuh) many of the prominent Sahaaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh) adhered to Imam Ali's explanation of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). The number of such luminous personalities increased gradually, and came to be known as the Devotees of the teachings of the Prophet (pbuh) as passed down by Ali. They were named Al- Khaassah, الخاصهmeaning the elite, the distinctive, or the special. In Arabic they were referred to as Al-Shi'a. The rest of the Muslims were referred to as Al- Aammah, العامهmeaning the general public or the common man. When Mu'awiya became the Khalifa (ruler), he promoted the term Al- Jama'ah ( الجماعهthe throng of the society) to gain support for himself among the people. About 150 years later, the term Jama'ah was modified (by people conforming to Abbasi government policy) in an attempt to fight off Ahlul Bayt's enormous influence in the society. Later the term Jama'ah was modified to Al- Sunnah wal Jama'ah .السنه والجماعه The term of Sunnah wal Jama'ah was prevalent during the 3rd century H. when the Schools of Thought in Islam المذاهبwere in a flux but were more or less consolidating. Later in the 3rd century H. the term was modified again, and rather than calling it Al-Sunnah wal Jama'ah, it was abbreviated to Ahlul Sunnah .اهل السنهThis became a general term for the four Sunni Schools of Thought. By the year 250H the four Sunni Schools of Thought were popularized and patronized by the Abbasi government, as well as by their own enthusiasts, thus spreading in various areas of the Islamic Ummah at variable speed. The existing Schools of Thought by this stretch of time were: Ja'fari, as headed by Imam Al-Saadiq. Hanafi, as headed by Abu Hanifa, Al-Na'maan. Maaliki, as headed by Malik Ibn Anas. Shafi'i, as headed by Ibn Idrees Al-Shafi'i. Hanbali, as headed by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal.
Outstanding among the vanished Schools of Thought were:
Madh'hab of Al-Thawri renowned for 2 centuries and could trace its
pathway to Imam Al-Saadiq's Institute.
Madh'hab of Ibn U'yainah, renowned for 3 centuries, and could trace
its pathway to Imam Al-Saadiq's Institute.
Madh'hab of Aw'zaa'i, followed for more than one century. Madh'hab of Dawood Ibn Ali Al-Dhaahiri, followed for several
WHAT IS SHI'I AND WHAT IS SUNNI? SHI'I: A Shi'i is a person who is a devotee of only the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by Ahlul Bayt. Ahlul Bayt are the direct family of Muhammad (pbuh), and a Shi'i regards their teaching of the Prophet's Sunnah as the most authentic and accurate. In brief a Shi'i sees himself as the Devotee of Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and nothing else and the Fiqh laid down by Ahlul Bayt. A Shi'i believes in Imamah, that the 12 Imams were Divinely Commissioned, and they were specified by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). He also believes in Ismah ( عصمهthat the Prophets and the Designated Imams are shielded by Allah from: a) Sin, b) Religious Error, and c) Forgetfulness). SUNNI: A Sunni is a person who follows mostly the Sunnah of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by the teachings of Sahaaba and Scholars after the Prophet (pbuh). Sunnah of some Khulafaa is said to be included in their teachings. In brief a Sunni sees himself as following the Sunnah as the Sahaaba and certain scholars had specified and the Fiqh as laid by the head of the particular Madh'hab. A Sunni does not believe in Imamah.
BEFORE THE YEAR 150H: The Shi'a School For the first 150 years after the Prophet (pbuh) the only evolving School of Thought was the Shi'a school as passed down by Imam Ali, and the chain of narration as the Golden Chain of Narration. At that period the Golden Chain of Narration consisted of Ali, Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, Zainul Abideen, Al-Baaqir, and Al-Saadiq all of whom are the direct lineage of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). This chain narrated Hadith and explained Islam with each Imam referring the narration by way of his father directly up to the Prophet (pbuh). For instance, Imam Al-Saadiq used to say “My narration is the narration of my father, and his is that of his father and so on, all going up to Ali who narrated directly from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)”. Those who followed this information (called Shi'a) would acknowledge narrations by other sources, as long as those narrations were confirmed by Ahlul Bayt [be they Hadith or examples of the Prophet (pbuh)]. Because of political predicaments with the rulers, and because Ahlul Bayt took the government of the time as invalid (unlawful) from Islamic point of view, there developed a boiling turmoil caused by the direct collision first with the government of Benu Umayya then with that of Benu Abbas. The governments were very eager to seek and enroll the support of Ahlul Bayt, but Ahlul Bayt adamantly refused supporting them, since genuine Islamic teachings and their consciousness of Allah, (Taq'wa) prevented Ahlul Bayt from playing politics with Islam. Because of their refusal to acknowledge the legitimacy of the Khalifa or his government, Ahlul Bayt and their devotees were exposed to tremendous harassment —if not near-persecution— at the hands of some Khalifas and their administration. When the government of Benu Umayya became weak, Al-Saadiq saw a golden opportunity, and he was the first to be able to freely pass down the teachings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) as his family had taught him. Thus the basis of the Ja'fari (Shi'i) School of Thought crystallized.
المام جـعــفـر الصــادق
Head of Ja'fari Madh'hab: 83H-148H Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq, the sixth descendant in the lineage of the Prophet (pbuh), was a charismatic leader of the highest integrity, whose piousness was acknowledged by both friends and enemies. The knowledge-seekers rushed in large numbers to Medina to learn at his hands. They left family, homes, businesses, went through the hazards of travel, to live in Medina for variable periods of time as needed, just for the sake of learning firsthand in the Islamic Institute of Ahlul Bayt headed by Al-Saadiq. Some stayed for two years such as Abu Hanifa, others stayed much longer, while others moved to Medina permanently. Intellectuals of various levels flocked to him, more so during Ramadhan or Haj times. He was the repository of Islamic knowledge (I'lm) العـلـمthe one sought after by people for Hadith narration, by the Fiqh specialists, the forerunners of intellectuals, as well as by the ordinary seekers of knowledge. People were spellbound by the depth of Imam Al-Saadiq's thinking, and mesmerized by the way he analyzed Fiqh inquiries. He uttered numerous Hadiths, in the thousands, quoting the Prophet (pbuh) very often and in every facet of life. He talked much about Islamic ethics and mannerism, integrity, goodness of character, and acts of worship, among other things. He contested and argued with Ghulaat, Khariji, Murji'ah, Mu'tazila, Jabriah, Qadariyah, and the Zandeeqs (see glossary of this chapter).
Growth of the Institute During Al-Saadiq's time the Institute of learning by Ahlul Bayt grew very large as did the number of its students. It was similar to a university, but the dean, professor, the religions head, and the tutor were one, and that was Imam Al-Saadiq. He held the discussions at his home, where the students were not only his apprentices but also his guests. Al-Saadiq's house was perpetually busy with discussions and consultations, and the household was trained to give the best treatment to its guests.
Discussions were also held in the Grand Mosque of Medina and during Haj time the discussions were conducted near the Ka'ba in Mecca, when seekers of knowledge flocked to him in large numbers for discussions, questioning, and clarification of Islamic inquiries, concepts and beliefs. The scholars who attended Al-Saadiq's school wrote books, taught others, and traveled to distant Islamic territories to spread the Hadiths and other Islamic matters; quoting Al-Saadiq extensively. Over the years as many as 4,000 scholars graduated at his hand, these were the scholars recorded by name who had quoted him. There were a multitude of others who attended but did not quote him. To hear at his hands about 1,000 student scholars hailed from Iraq (Kufa and Basrah). A good many hailed from Khurasan of Persia, also attending the Institute, despite the thousands of miles between the two areas. The same was also true of Egypt and Yemen. Even Syria, saw 10 scholars graduate at the hand of the Institute. As the Institute grew it branched out in other areas such as Kufa, Basrah, Mecca, and Qum. Al-Saadiq formed groups for training in the art of argument. Many of his brilliant students became famous, well known for the convincing way they presented their point of view. Prominent among these were Hisham, Al-Thawri, Ibn U'yainah, and Mu'min Al-Taaq to name a few. Subjects discussed consisted of some of the following: Sciences of the Quran and Tafseer, علـوم القـران والتـفــسـيـرforemost on the agenda, and so were Fiqh and Jurisprudence since there were numerous queries and questions that needed Fiqh Ah'kaam (edict).
Seerah of the Prophet (pbuh), الســيـرهAl-Saadiq added a great deal
of detail about the Prophet's Sunnah and the manner the Prophet lived, and was always ready to answer any questions in that regard.
Hadith, الحديثthousands of Hadiths were quoted and categorized
and put into writing. The Hadiths were quoted 1-2 centuries later in the Books of Sihaah Al-Sittah as these were authored.
Islamic philosophy الفلـســـفه السـلمـيهwas dealt with long before
anyone knew about the Greek philosophy.
Science of Kalaam, عـلم الــكلمstarted by Imam Ali, the art of
theological logic was vastly expanded by Imam Al-Saadiq.
Chemistry, الكيمياءand the Sciences of Biology علـوم الطــبـيـعـهbegan
to gain importance and though they were in the embryonic stage, they had their beginning at this time-period.
Arabic Language, اللـغــه الـعــربـيـهGrammar and literary works had
their share of studies at this stage too. Added to this was the scholarly discussion of Arabic literature الـفـصــاحـهand poetry . الـشــعر Al-Saadiq encouraged his students to write and author books for the benefit of others. Knowing human nature, Imam Al-Saadiq was afraid the enrollees of the Institute would soon forget, misquote, add to or subtract from what he said, therefore he encouraged them to put things in writing right away. He himself did not have time to write, but his students turned into fluent and prolific writers.
Books Written The recorded books written by the graduates of the Institute were numerous, 400 of them stand out, later they were called the 400 Usool.  These books were categorized about numerous subjects of Ah'kaam, basic beliefs, and manner of worship, among other subjects. They existed for many centuries and were quoted by many scholars of various generations. In addition to the above, books in Hadith, Islamic philosophy, science of Al-Kalaam, Tafseer, Literature, Ethics, etc. were also written by the graduates of Al-Saadiq’s Institute and were sought after and often referred to by later scholars. Two of the founders of other schools of Fiqh, i.e., the Hanafi and Maaliki, had the privilege of directly acquiring knowledge from Imam Al-Saadiq. They were proud of their affiliation. The heads of the other two Madh'habs (Shafi'i, and Hanbali) were equally grateful for their affiliation with Al-Saadiq by way of his students; for they were born after Al-Saadiq had died. Finally, Malik Ibn Anas (the head of the Maaliki Madh'hab) described Al-Saadiq as follows:
“I used to attend discourses given by Ja'far Al-Saadiq, who most of the time had a cheerful look and serene countenance, but whenever the Prophet's name was mentioned Al-Saadiq's color would immediately become pale [out of awe]. I frequently attended his discourses over a long period of time and often saw him either praying, fasting, or reading the Holy Quran. I never saw him talking about Allah's Messenger (pbuh) without him being in a state of Wudu.” ────══════·══════────
DURING THE YEARS 150H-200H: The Sunni Schools
Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanafi Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanafi was the product of the Fiqh rules and regulations as taught by Abu Hanifa. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Abu Hanifa's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), the halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).
FEATURES of Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanafi The Al-Hanafi School of Thought tends to put more emphasis on Qiyas ( القـيــاسAnalogy) and Raa'y ( الــرأىpersonal opinion) than an emphasis on Hadith choices, and the deductions there from. It does not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt. The Hanafi School of Thought began its popularity in the last quarter of the second century Hijrah.
ابو حنيفه النعمان ابن ثابت
Head of Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanafi: 80H-150H Abu Hanifa was born in 80H, grew up to be brilliant and inquisitive; he was a good business man, in charge of an enterprise dealing in the silk industry. He was the employer of many men, managing his enterprise in Kufa well. Abu Hanifa's keen interest in researching Islamic sciences led him to Basrah many times. At first both Al-Hasan Al-Basri and Abu Hanifa were associated with Murji'ah philosophy but later on Abu Hanifa dissociated himself from the movement. During his youth Abu Hanifa visited Hijaz to have a dialog with Imam Muhammad Al-Baaqir (the father of Al-Saadiq). The brother of Al-Baaqir, Zaid Ibn Ali, was revered for his Islamic learning. Zaid Ibn Ali revolted against the oppression of Benu Umayya government in 121H, and Abu Hanifa encouraged people to join and support Zaid’s revolt. Once the revolt was put down, the 41 year old
Abu Hanifa was put in jail because of his support of Zaid. Shortly after, Abu Hanifa escaped from jail and left for Medina to join Al-Saadiq's discourses and teachings at the Institute of Ahlul Bayt. Abu Hanifa's experience was unique at the Institute, whereby his tutoring took two years. He referred to those years saying: لهــلك النـعـمان لول الســنـتـان
“Were it not for the two years, Abu Hanifa would have gone astray,” for such was the Institute's influence on his views, Fiqh, analogy, and the manner of thinking. Abu Hanifa was a lover of Ahlul Bayt, and he supported the revolts lead by their devotees. Besides his support of the revolt by Zaid Ibn Ali against Benu Umayya (when as a result Abu Hanifa was put in jail), Abu Hanifa also supported the revolt lead by Muhammad Dhul Nafs Al-Zakiya محمـد ذو النـفــس الـزكـيهand his brother Ibrahim, against Benu Abbas during the Khilaafah of Al-Mansoor. Abu Hanifa urged people to join and participate in the revolt saying, “He who is killed fighting on the side of Muhammad Dhul Nafs Al-Zakiya will be parallel to the one who has fought in Badr Battle against the infidels.” When his writings were later discovered Abu Hanifa became a suspect in the eyes of Khalifa Al-Mansoor. At a later time, and in a move to discredit Al-Saadiq, Khalifa Al-Mansoor asked Abu Hanifa to quiz Al-Saadiq with forty Fiqh most complex queries. Though obliging to Al-Mansoor's dictates, Abu Hanifa became mesmerized by Imam Al-Saadiq's answers to the queries and he acknowledged the uniqueness of the Imam in knowledge. Consequently, Al-Mansoor’s move to discredit Al-Saadiq misfired, discrediting himself instead. Abu Hanifa had tutored 36 students to become scholars in Islam. Particularly famous among them were Ibn Al-Hudhayl, Abu Yusuf, Muhammad Al-Sheybani, and Al-Lu'lu'i. Though 3 years older than Al-Saadiq, Abu Hanifa died in 150H two years after Al-Saadiq's death. Abu Hanifa is claimed to have died in prison or soon after he was released, because of poisoning by Khalifa Al-Mansoor. It is thought that Khalifa Al-Mansoor had put the aging Abu
Hanifa in jail because of either not agreeing with Al-Mansoor's dictates, or that Al-Mansoor discovered the support Abu Hanifa gave to the revolt by Muhammad Dhul Nafs Al-Zakiya who was devotee of Ahlul Bayt. If this was true then Abu Hanifa died in support of the cause of Ahlul Bayt against oppression.
HIGHLIGHTS of Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanafi Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanafi took off after Abu Hanifa died in 150H. Of his close followers some stand out in spreading the Fiqh. The main ones are Abu Yusuf, Muhammad Sheybani, and Al-Lu'lu'i. Abu Yusuf ابو يوســفwas the Chief Justice appointed during the times of Khalifa Al-Mahdi, then Khalifa Al-Haadi, then Khalifa Al-Rasheed. The last was grateful to Abu Yusuf for he was the main influence in favor of the Al-Rasheed for the Khilaafah; therefore Abu Yusuf was elevated to be the Supreme Justice. Meanwhile Abu Yusuf, with full support of the powers of the government, appointed to the Justice Department only those who acknowledged the Hanafi Fiqh—all others had either to change their Madh'hab or lose their job. Abu Yusuf had his own interpretation of the Hanafi Fiqh, and he wrote some books about the Madh'hab. His close student was Al-Sheybani, who had not reached his twenties when Abu Hanifa died. Al-Sheybani الشــيـبانيwas a good writer, and he wrote a good many books about the teachings of Abu Hanifa, thus making the biggest contribution to the Hanafi Madh'hab. Like Abu Yusuf, Al-Sheybani had his personal views and Fiqh points, and he expressed them when he wrote the Hanafi Fiqh. Al-Sheybani also studied under Malik Ibn Anas for 3 years and was affected by his methodology, thus he introduced Malik's method of Hadith selection in the emerging Hanafi Madh'hab. The promotion of the Hanafi Fiqh by the government powers over an extended period of time popularized the Madh'hab; thus the Hanafi Madh’hab slowly became mainstream. Unlike the Ja'fari Fiqh (which was adamantly independent of the government), the Maaliki and by now the Hanafi Madh'habs were eagerly embraced and espoused by the government in a move as a counterweight to the Ja'fari Fiqh, (that of Ahlul Bayt), because these two conformed to the policies and practices of the government.
AL-MADH'HAB AL-MAALIKI: Al-Madh'hab Al-Maaliki was the product of the Fiqh (rules and regulations) as taught by Malik Ibn Anas. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Maalik's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), the halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).
FEATURES of Al-Madh'hab Al-Maaliki The Maaliki School of Thought tends to emphasize the authenticity of the Hadith , اهل الحديث the care in its selection, and the deductions there from. It also used some degree of Qiyas (Analogy) and Raa'y (Personal opinion). It does not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt. Malik Ibn Anas was supporter and a proponent of Ahlul Hadith. The Maaliki School of Thought began its popularity in the last quarter of the second century H.
MALIK IBN ANAS:
مالك بن انـس
Head of Al-Madh'hab Al-Maaliki 93-179H Born in 93H Malik Ibn Anas grew up at a time when the Fiqh of the Shari'ah was flourishing and Ahlul Bayt had a greater leeway to explain its detail since Benu Umayya's grip on power was waning. Malik Ibn Anas attended many of the discussion assemblies Imam Al-Saadiq was giving. Malik Ibn Anas was 10 years younger than Al-Saadiq, and lived to the ripe age of 86, when he died in 179H. Like Imam Al-Saadiq, Malik spent all his time in Medina. It is claimed that Malik Ibn Anas was a firm supporter of Ahlul Bayt and their cause. Malik gave full support to Muhammad Dhul Nafs Al-Zakiya when he revolted against the oppression of Benu Abbas in 144H. In 146H, because of that support (or because of some disagreement with the government) Malik Ibn Anas was arrested by the
governor of Medina and lashed 50 times. That resulted in damaging his left arm which remained crippled the rest of his life. Malik Ibn Anas lived at a time when forgeries of the Hadith were widespread. Therefore he took great care in selecting authentic Hadiths, as a result his popularity began to increase. Many people started to quote him and study at his hand. At the same time however, Khalifa Al-Mansoor was ever anxious to build forces to counteract the profound influence of the school of Ahlul Bayt. In 153H Al-Mansoor approached the 60 year old Malik Ibn Anas offering him a position to be Supreme Justice over Medina and Hijaz, but with a request for Malik to write a book in Fiqh, so that Al-Mansoor would enforce it over the whole Ummah. Al-Mansoor had one more request, however, that the book not mention even once the name of Imam Ali. Malik Ibn Anas agreed, sensing that his book, as supported by the government, would have immediate success. However, the down-side to this was not mentioning Ali, but that would be the price to be paid against the advantage of spreading his Islamic knowledge. The result was the book called Al-Mu'watta'. The Fiqh in Mu'watta' was later known as Fiqh of Malik Ibn Anas. It was spread and patronized by many rulers of Benu Abbas, and especially in Andalusia (Spain), North Africa, and some parts of Middle East. Malik Ibn Anas became the official high powered Supreme Judge for a long time. He was sponsored and patronized by Khalifa Al-Mansoor, then Khalifa AlMahdi, then Khalifa Al-Haadi, then (and especially so) by Khalifa Al-Rasheed. This support was done not due to what this Fiqh deserved but mainly as a counterweight against Ahlul Bayt and their enormous influence in the society. Many Books were published as commentaries about Al-Mu'watta' and the school of Maaliki became one of the survivors of the many Islamic Schools of Thought at the time. What was crucial to its survival (besides its dynamism) was the official support and encouragement of the Abbasi government to spread it as far as possible. Historically during this period there were many Schools of Thought of greater depth than the Maaliki, which even continued for a century or two but eventually died out because they insisted to be independent of
government influence, therefore the government did not support them, thus leading to their demise. ────══════·══════────
AL-MADH'HAB AL-SHAFI'I Al-Madh'hab Al-Shafi'i was the product of the Fiqh (rules and regulations) as taught by Ibn Idrees Al-Shafi'i. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Al-Shafi'i's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).
FEATURES of Al-Madh'hab Al-Shafi'i Al-Shafi'i School of Thought stands in-between the Maaliki and Hanafi Madh'habs in that it uses some of the ways of Al-Maaliki Madh'hab and some of the Hanafi, i.e. less in the way of Qiyas (Analogy) and Raa'y (personal opinion). It excels in the technique of Istin'baat الستنباط (deductive reasoning) for reaching a Fiqh verdict. Like other Sunni Madh'habs, Al-Shafi'i's do not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt, though all of them were supportive of Ahlul Bayt. The Al-Shafi'i School of Thought began its popularity around 190H and picked up steam in the century that followed.
IBN IDREES AL-SHAFI'I:
ابن ادريــس الشـــافـعى 150H-204H
Head of Al-Madh'hab Al-Shafi'i:
Al-Shafi'i was born in 150H, the same year in which Abu Hanifa died. He was from Quraish, a bright student with a dazzling personality. An orphan, Al-Shafi'i was cared for by his mother who brought him to Mecca when 10 years old. He joined Hudhayl tribe for 17 years (in the desert) to learn the flawless command of Arabic, literary or expression. In his late twenties by now, Al-Shafi'i settled in Mecca where Al-Shafi'i was enticed by friends to study Fiqh. Thus he joined Al-Zinji, learning at his and other scholars' hands. In his thirties Al-Shafi'i left for Medina to study at the hands of the aging Malik Ibn Anas, where he became very
close to him. Malik even took care of the living expenses of Al-Shafi'i for 4 years until Malik died. Al-Shafi'i also studied at the hands of several of Imam Al-Saadiq's disciples such as a) Ibn U'yainah, 2) Abu Ishaaq Al-Madani, 3) Al-Zuhri, and 4) Ibn Al-Silt Al-Basri. When Malik died, Al-Shafi'i had to work in Yemen to support himself financially. He was vocal against the harsh rule of the governor of Yemen. It is said that in a move to get rid of him, the governor wrote mischievous accusation about Al-Shafi'i to Khalifa Al-Rasheed. As a result, in 184H and along with 8 other people, Al-Shafi'i was taken to Baghdad chained and bound in fetters. He was closely questioned by the enraged Al-Rasheed, but Al-Shafi'i's eloquence and convincing manners were such that Al-Rasheed forgave him and set him free. The other 8 were not so lucky, for they could not defend their innocence that well, and were decapitated as per orders of the irrational Khalifa. (The Shafi'i was accused of loving Ahlul Bayt, since loving Ahlul Bayt was in opposition to the Khalifa policy or other Abbasi rulers, who posed as enemy No. 1 to Ahlul Bayt.) Al-Shafi'i stayed in Baghdad where he joined the circle discussion headed by Al-Sheybani (who was a student of Abu Yusuf and Abu Hanifa). Al-Shafi'i contested and debated with Al-Sheybani in his circle discussions, then began his own discussion assembly, giving If'taa' (Fiqh edicts). Both he and Al-Sheybani were active in writing books at the same time, though the Maaliki scholars at the time paid little attention to either of them. It is said that Al-Shafi'i studied under a total of 19 scholars. Al-Shafi'i became quite popular in Baghdad, but he visited Egypt, which was the Maaliki strong hold at the time. In 198H, the 48 year old Al-Shafi'i left Baghdad again, for good, with an endorsement from the Khalifa. He was accompanied by the new governor to Egypt, and stayed as a guest with an eminent family in Egypt, whereby he started his own circle discussion and gave If'taa'. This time he stayed in Egypt for about 6 years. Al-Shafi'i is said to have written several books, and the book of Al-Umm in 6 volumes is contributed to him, though after probing and research it was claimed to have been written by his disciples (Al-Bu'waiti and Al-Rabii). As Al-Shafi'i became popular in Egypt, his discussion assembly attracted more and more students. He differed with Al-Maaliki and Hanafi in many points, and his teachings began to
have a distinct flavor. Just as his popularity was on the increase, he was beset with a long illness. At the age of 54, there came about hotly discussed difference between him and Maaliki adherents, especially after he criticized some Maaliki doctrines or beliefs. The matter was taken to the governor. Because of that, Al-Shafi'i was brutally attacked by the discontented Maaliki adherents, and he was hit on the head with a big iron rod (iron-key). Al-Shafi'i lost consciousness as a consequence, probably from fractured skull, and he died shortly after.  Al-Shafi'i had a charming personality, a very attractive way of expression in pure Arabic, good poetry, and deep knowledge of the techniques of the various schools of thought at the time. He excelled in the criteria he put forth about Istin'baat (deductive reasoning) in reaching verdicts. Al-Shafi'i was a devotee of Ahlul Bayt to a great extent notwithstanding the government jaundiced eyes about anyone who declared any faith in them. The government took Ahlul Bayt as the enemy No. 1 solely because Ahlul Bayt rejected acknowledging the legitimacy of the rulers (Khalifa) as representing Islam. Ahlul Bayt never conformed to the policies of the rulers or their rule, thus the enmity and the collision.
HIGHLIGHTS of Shafi'i Madh'hab The popularity of Al-Shafi'i Madh'hab was mainly due to the consistent and hard work of the students of Al-Shafi'i, famous among them were Al-Bu'waiti ألبـويـطيand Al-Muzni , ألمـزنيand Ibn Abd Al-A'la . إبن عـبد ألعلىAs Al-Madh'hab Al-Shafi'i took roots, it gradually replaced the Maaliki Madh'hab in Egypt, then spread in Palestine and Syria, completely replacing that of Aw'zaa'i. It also spread in Iran and neighboring areas at the time. This Madh'hab was also endorsed by the governments of the time, especially that of Ayyubi. ────══════·══════────
DURING THE YEARS 200H-250H:
AL-MADH'HAB AL-HANBALI: Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanbali was the product of the Fiqh (rules and regulations) as taught by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal. As in other Islamic Schools of Thought Ahmad Ibn Hanbal's Fiqh deals with tawhid, elements of faith, elements of worship (pillars of Islam), halal and haram, ethics, dealing with other people (Mu'aamalat).
FEATURES of Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanbali Unlike other Sunni Madh'habs, Al-Hanbali's School of Thought has almost no use for Qiyas (Analogy) or Raa'y (personal opinion), to such an extent that they even prefer narration of weak Hadith over Qiyas or Raa'y. It emphasizes taking the Hadith literally (blindly) to such an extent that they were called As'haab Al-Hadith .اصحـــاب الحــديتAhlul Hadith were known long time before, but As'haab Al-Hadith was the result of its evolution. Also like other Sunni Madh'habs, Al-Hanbalis do not acknowledge the Imamah of Ahlul Bayt, though Ibn Hanbal was very supportive of Ahlul Bayt. Al-Hanbali School of Thought began its ascendancy with the full patronage of Khalifa Al-Mutawak'kil around 235H, but it never became widely spread.
ابن حـنـبــــل 164H-241H
Head of Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanbali:
Ibn Hanbal was born in 164H in Baghdad at the height of expansion of the Islamic sciences and the glory of its culture. He was an astute and highly intellectual person with distinguished reputation. Ibn Hanbal grew up as an orphan, began his quest for Islamic learning at the age of 15, he learned at the hands of Abu Yusuf for a while, then Al-Shafi'i. In 186H the 22 year old Ibn Hanbal traveled to Hijaz, Basrah, Kufa, and Yemen in quest of learning though he was in poor financial straits. He learned at the hands of, a) Ibn U'yainah, b) Al-Zuhri, and c) Jarir Ibn Abdul Hamid among other outstanding scholar students of Imam Al-Saadiq.
By the age of 50 Ibn Hanbal witnessed severe crushing measures by the Mu'tazila toward those who did not agree with their views that the Quran was Makhlooq (created piecemeal by Allah) according to the need of the time. As'haab Al-Hadith believed the opposite, that the Quran was whole and part and parcel of Allah. As a result, suppression by the Mu'tazila fully supported by the Khalifas (Al-Ma’Moon, Al-Mu'tasim, and Al-Waathiq) continued for about 20 years. It was a brutal suppression of any intellectual who did not agree with their view, and As'haab Al-Hadith became the culprit for decades. In 218H along with many others, Ahmad Ibn Hanbal was arrested and was to be executed by Khalifa Al-Ma'Moon because he stuck to his own conviction and did not agree with the Mu'tazila point of view. It so happened that Al-Ma’Moon died on an expedition just before he was to give the verdict for the execution of Ibn Hanbal. The following Khalifa, Al-Mu'tasim, had Ibn Hanbal in jail, interrogated him about his conviction, lashed him 38 times, but somehow he released him later from jail. The Khalifa became lenient with Ibn Hanbal since it is said that Ibn Hanbal was able to circumvent direct confrontation (though others say he was adamant in his views). As a result Ibn Hanbal's reputation skyrocketed with As'haab Al-Hadith who shared his views. He became famous later on when Khalifa Al-Mutawak'kil around 234H took up the cause of As'haab Al-Hadith against the Mu'tazila, in a move to lure the general public to his side. Ibn Hanbal became the symbol of As'haab Al-Hadith resistance to Mu'tazila orthodoxy. While Khalifa Al-Mutawak'kil was the nemesis of Mu'tazila, he included the devotees of Ahlul Bayt as archenemy too. A period of unparalleled persecution and killing began to take place, as a result of which the Mu'tazila intellectuals all but vanished. With the cooperation of As'haab Al-Hadith a new phase of bloodshed began to take shape against any members or sympathizers of Ahlul Bayt too. Al-Mutawak'kil took them as a grave threat to his rulership, and he unleashed brutal and very harsh measures to anyone suspected of being loyal to Ahlul Bayt. These measures were to such an extent, that against the Shi'a there unfolded the Naasibi, ( النواصبpeople who earned their living by making perverted stories and pernicious poems in denouncing and damning the Shi'a). Despite this, Ibn Hanbal was brave and outspoken in support of Ahlul Bayt. He was fearless and undaunted by the attitude
of the Khalifa or the people around. He even narrated more Hadiths of the Prophet (pbuh) on behalf of Ahlul Bayt than most of the Sihaah Al-Sittah, for such were his courage, virtue and nobility. And despite the fact that Al-Mutawak'kil was supporting him with 4,000 dirham every month and the auspicious attention he was giving him, Ibn Hanbal was uncomfortable of the association with the Khalifa, to the extent that he evaded and refrained from the bond. Ibn Hanbal would accept the gifts from the Khalifa but would distribute them secretly to the poor. Ibn Hanbal was a highly learned scholar in Hadith. He wrote the books of Manasik, (the major and the minor), but his distinction goes more toward the Mus'nad of Ibn Hanbal This book was not quite finished when Ibn Hanbal died at the age of 77, and the task of editing, reviewing, and completing it fell in the hands of his son Abdullah. Mus'nad Ibn Hanbal contained 40,000 Hadiths, of which 10,000 were repetitions, and a good many others were weak. It also contained many fabricated Hadiths that Ibn Hanbal did not put originally. Ibn Hanbal claimed that he selected the Hadiths from among 750,000 circulating Hadiths at his time, the overwhelming majority of which were fake. As'haab Al-Hadith took any Hadith literally [blindly] without giving due regard to the circumstances in which it was said nor its inner meaning. Unfortunately As'haab Al-Hadith abused much of the power at their hands and the destruction of life or property caused by them was instrumental in enraging the general public for a long time, becoming one of the reasons of the limited spread of this school of thought.
HIGHLIGHTS of Al-Madh'hab Al-Hanbali Under Ibn Hanbal many students learned his Fiqh and became famous later on. Chiefly they were Al-Athram, Al-Maroozi, Al-Harbi, Abdullah Ibn Hanbal, and Salih Ibn Hanbal. They were very active in teaching the Hanbali Madh'hab afterwards though this school of thought never spread extensively. ────══════·══════────
USOOL (FOUNDATION) OF FIQH The Basic Elements of each Fiqh depended in descending order of importance on the following essentials: SHI'I: JA'FARI: 1. Quran, 2. Sunnah, 3. Al-Aql (sound reasoning or perception of the Ja'fari Fiqh Specialists), 4. Ij'maa (consensus of the religious scholars, not to be exclusive of the Imams' teachings).
SUNNI: HANAFI: 1. Quran, 2. Sunnah, 3. Ij'maa (consensus of the religious scholars), 4. Qiyas (analogy of decision), through the following steps: a. Istih'san (equity), b. Urf (common knowledge), 5. Raa'y (personal opinion). MAALIKI: 1. Quran, 2. Sunnah, 3. Ij'maa (consensus of the religious scholars) 4. Qiyas (analogy), through the following steps: a. Istih'san (equity), b. Urf (common knowledge), c. Consensus of Medina U'lamaa, d. Massaa'lih Mursala (public interest), e. Sad al-Dhari'ah. SHAFI'I:
1. 2. 3. 4.
Quran, Sunnah, Ij'maa' (consensus of the religious scholars) Qiyas (analogy of decision).
HANBALI: 1. Quran, 2. Sunnah, 3. If'taa of Sahaaba (Companions), 4. Preference of weak Hadith over Qiyas (analogy), a. Qiyas (analogy of decision), through the following steps: b. Istis'haab, (association), c. Massaa'lih Mursala (public interest), d. al-Dharaa'i. ────══════·══════────
Glossary for Chapter 1
Abu Yusuf Al-Qadhi
Ahlul Hadith: Al-Aammah: Al-Ah'kaam: Al-Khaassah: Al-Mansoor: Al-Nafs Al-Zakiyah:
Student of Abu Hanifa, later appointed as Supreme Justice by Khalifas Mahdi, Haadi, and Al-Rasheed. He appointed only Justices subscribing to the emerging Hanafi school of thought. Fatima and the designated twelve Imams from Ali to Al-Mahdi, who safeguarded the teaching of Islam and conferred it to the Ummah as Muhammad (pbuh) had taught it. Those who emphasized the importance of Hadith selection and the Seerah in their jurisprudence; usually Malik's school, and probably Ahlul Bayt's. General term used to refer to the common people or the general public. The detailed rules and regulations of the Shari'ah, according to the Ij'tihaad of the Jurist. The term used for the Shi'a to mean: The Special, The Distinct, or The Elite; generally referred to the devotees of Ahlul Bayt. The second ruler (Khalifa) of Benu Abbas and the effective establisher of their rule. A great leader who revolted against the oppressive rule of Khalifa Al-Mansoor. Abu Hanifa supported his and his brother's revolts and probably for this support Abu Hanifa was imprisoned by Al-Mansoor,
and died in prison or shortly after leaving prison of poisoning. Methodology of thought more often referred to by Hanafi school of Al-Qiyas (The analogy): thought. Al-Raa'y (The Methodology of thought often referred to by Hanafi and other schools of Opinionated): thought. Like Abu Yusuf, Al-Sheybani was instrumental in establishing the Hanafi Al-Sheybani: school of thought. Those who took the Hadith blindly, then identified themselves with Ibn As'haab Al-Hadith: Hanbal's Fiqh. Baghdad: The town built by Al-Mansoor to be the capital for the Abbasi regime. Basrah: A town in Iraq used to be an intellectual center for 2-3 centuries. Descendants of Ibn Abbas (who was a highly scholarly person tutored Benu Abbas: by Imam Ali). Benu Abbas established their rule after toppling Benu Umayya. A clan in Mecca who were the adversaries of Muhammad (pbuh), then Benu Umayya: accepted Islam. Afterwards they became the rulers of the Islamic nation. They consisted of Benu Sufyan and Benu Marwan. The famous 400 basic books written by the alumni of the Institute of Books of Usool: Ahlul Bayt and were used as references afterwards. The famous person who collected the Hadiths after a high degree of Bukhari: scrutiny. His book is one of Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah. He died in the year 256H. Fiqh: Rules and regulations of Islam. The exaggerationists who falsely attributed un-Islamic attributes to Ghulaat: some Imams. Golden Chain of The narration of Hadith and other Islamic matters by the persons of Narration: Ahlul Bayt. H: Hijrah calendar. Halal: What is ritually permissible in Islam. Haram: What is Islamicly unlawful and not allowed, and is punishable. The province including Medina and Mecca, was an intellectual center for Hijaz: about two centuries. Knowledge of the ways of Muhammad (pbuh), Sunnah, Hadith, Tafseer I'lm: of the Holy Quran, Fiqh as well as the Prophet's Traditions. A fundamental component of faith in Islam according to the Imamah: Imamiyah-Shi'a. Means that Allah has safeguarded all the Prophets and the Specified Ismah: Imams who followed Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from, a) religious error, b) sin, and c) forgetfulness. Jabriah: Believers in absolute predestination. The head of Islamdom who during Benu Umayya and Benu Abbas were Khalifa: usurpers of power in the form of monarchs. Outsiders, a movement detrimental to Islam, which lasted for 4-5 Khariji: centuries. Rulership of the Islamic Ummah, supposed to be representing Muhammad (pbuh) after him. However, with the advent of Benu Khilaafah: Umayya the Khilaafah became as a mundane rulership no longer based on Taq'wa.
Kufa: Madh'hab: Ma'soom: Murji'ah: Qadariyah: Qum: Shari'ah: Shi'a: Taq'wa: Ummah: Zaid Ibn Ali: Zandeeqs:
Kufa was the new capital of the Islamic Ummah during the times of Imam Ali, and it became an intellectual center for 2-3 centuries. Fiqh School of Thought in Islam. See Ismah, a person whom Allah safeguards from religious error, sin, and forgetfulness. An ideology encouraged by Benu Umayya since it held to the notion that Benu Umayya's rule was legitimate from Shari'ah viewpoint. Believers in unlimited free will. Seat of learning in Persia, an intellectual center. Islamic Constitution in the Quran. Believers in the teachings of Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by Ahlul Bayt, and that Imamah is an indispensable part of the Islamic faith. Absolute consciousness of the creator, the perfection of execution of the Islamic injunction. Islamic society. A highly respected person who revolted against the tyranny of Benu Umayya. He was the brother of Imam Al-Baaqir. He was supported by Abu Hanifa. Agnostic or atheist.
 Ma'rifat Uloom Al-Hadith, Al-Neisaaboori, Page 55.  Al-Rowdhah, Ibn Ali Al-Neisaaboori, Page 275. Abu Al-Abbas Ibn Uq'dah. Also in Mu'tabar, by Najm Al-Deen. Also Al-Mufeed. Al-Tibrisi, in A'laam Al-Wara, Section 3. Manaaqib, Shahr Ashoob. Also Al-Saadiq and the four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 1, Page 67.  Al-Dhari'ah, Buzurg, Vol. 6 Page 301-374.  Manaaqib Abu Hanifa, Al-Makki, Vol. 2, Page 59.  Al-Tuh'fa, Al-Aaloosi, Page 8.  Manaaqib Abu Hanifa, Al-Mowaffaq, Vol. 1, Page 173.  Maqaatil Al-Talbiyyin, Abu Al-Faraj, Page 247.  Al-Intiqaa', Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Page 43-44.  Al-Imamah wal Siyasah, Vol. 2 Page 195.  Al-Intiqaa', Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Page 96.  Dhu'ha Al-Islam, Ahmad Amin, Vol. 2, Page 231.  Tawaali Al-Ta'sees, Ibn Hajar, Page 86.  Dhuhr Al-Islam, Ahmad Amin, Vol. 4, Page 8.  Tabaqat Al-Hanaabilah, Ibn Abi Ya'la, Vol. 2, Page 120.  Taareekh Ibn Katheer, Vol. 10, Page 239.  Min'haaj Al-Sunnah, Vol. 4, Page 27. Also Adhwaa' Ala Al-Sunnah Al-Muhammadiyya, Page CHAPTER #2
TREASURES OF THE MADH'HABS
Main Sources for this chapter:
Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. Mafateeh Al-Jinaan, Abbas Al-Qummi. Fiqh Al-Sunnah, Syed Saabiq. Al-Madhaa'hib Al-Khamsah, Hashim M. Al-Hassani. Seerah of the Twelve Imams, Hashim M. Al-Hassani.
THE BRANCHING OUT
As the Islamic world branched out into Shi'a and Sunni, the basic understanding of Islam continued to be identical to all schools of thought. The Shi'a adhered to Imam Ali's explanation of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh), they were named Al- Khaassah, الخــاصـهmeaning the elite, the distinctive, or the special, but such a name was generic. It was after the 12th Imam (Al-Mahdi ) المهدىwent into major occultation that the Shi'a became (specifically) known as the twelvers, Ithna Ashari , اثـنــا عـشـــرىor Ja'fari .الجـعـفـــرىThis name continues until to-day. The Zaidi and Isma'ili, branches of the generic Shi'a, appeared early and had a following in Yemen (Zaidi) زيدىand Indian subcontinent (Isma'ili) .اسماعيلىWhenever we refer to Shi'a شيعهin this book we mean Shi'a Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari). The present day Sunni used to be known as Al- Aammah, العــــامـهmeaning the common man, then Al- Jama’ah, الجـــماعـهand 150 years later as Al- Sunnah wal Jama’ah الســـنه والجــــماعهwhich 100 years later was abbreviated to Ahlul Sunnah. اهل الســــنهThey followed the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as explained by the Sahaaba and Tabi'in.
CLINGING TO THE LIGHT
The guiding force for Islam are the Holy Quran القــــرآنand Sunnah السنهof the Prophet (pbuh). The light of the Quran and Sunnah continue to invigorate and guide all Muslims. The Holy Quran and Sunnah constitute the very spirit of Islam, whatever the understanding of the Madh'hab of these two. Let us see what and how the two branches of Islam hold their belief:
1. SHI'I: A Shi'i person believes in:
a. the Quran, b. the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and c. the teachings of the 12 Imams (immediate family of the Prophet (pbuh) in explaining Islam: d. A Shi'i is a devotee of the Fiqh (Interpretation of the Islamic Law) as laid down by Ahlul Bayt. e. A Shi'i takes the Directives of the Imams as binding, f. A Shi'i recites the Du'aas composed by the Imams, g. A Shi'i follows the Imam's theological explanations and their sayings. h. A Shi'i believes in Imamah, that the 12 Imams were Divinely Commissioned, and they were specified by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). i. A Shi'i believes in Ismah — عصـــمـهthat all the Prophets and the Designated Imams are shielded by Allah from: I. Sin, II. Religious Error, and III. Forgetfulness. 2. SUNNI: A Sunni person believes in: a. b. c. d. e. f. the Quran, and the Sunnah of the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and A Sunni follows the Fiqh (Interpretation of the Islamic Law) as laid by the head of his school of thought. A Sunni also follows the rulings (Sunnah) of some Khulafaa. Though highly respectful of the Imams, a Sunni: does not believe in Imamah, but he believes in Ismah of the Prophets
The belief of a Shi'i and that of a Sunni is analogous and alike by about 9095% degree. Some technical differences do exist however, though minor they are, notwithstanding the fact that the less educated Muslim tends to exaggerate. A good many people blow these differences out of proportion deliberately, often in a move for self-exaltation and to gain (false) glory. To shed a light on the matter, the similarities and the dissimilarities between the Shi'a and Sunni will be explained in this chapter briefly. These are graphically put in table I, II, and III below:
TABLE I, IMAN (Belief)
1. Holy Quran 2. Sunnah 3. Imamah 4. Imam's Ismah 5. Imam's Directives 6. Imam's Du'aa 7. Sunnah's teachings 8. Tafseer 9. Fiqh 10. Ij'tihaad
Same Same Yes Yes Binding Yes By the Imam's (mostly) Mostly by the Imams By the 12 Imams Continues to be Open
Same Same No No No No By Sahaaba and Tabi'in By various scholars By heads of Madh'hab Closed since the 5th Century Hijrah.
Understanding Each Other: To have an understanding of the similarities and dissimilarities of the Shi'a and Sunni belief, each of the above points will be briefly explained: The Holy Quran: As always the Holy Quran has been the beacon light and will continue to be so through eternity. The Quran is the same for the Shi'i and Sunni people. The Sunnah: As always the Sunnah (Sayings and practices of the Prophet (pbuh) has been the guide to both the Shi'i and Sunni people. Imamah: Imamah is specific for the Shi'a. For them Imamah is regarded as part of the Islamic faith, though their Sunni brothers do not believe in the concept. The Sunni hold the Imams in great respect, but they do not consider their Directives as binding. The Shi'a regard the Imams (The immediate family of the Prophet (pbuh) as Divinely Commissioned. They believe that Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) had specified them, even named them as the Khalifas after him. The Shi'a feel obliged to hold to the Imams and follow their Directives as religiously binding, not so the Sunni. ────══════·══════────
Imam's Ismah: While the Sunni believe in the Ismah of the Prophets, they exclude the Ismah from the Imams. The Shi'a on the other hand believe that the
Prophets as well as the Imams are within the bounds of Ismah. To the Shi'a, Ismah comes from Ayah Tat'heer, saying:
َ إنما يريد ال ليذهب عنكم الرج ِ ّ َ ُ ِ ُ ّ ِ ُ ْ ِ َ َ ُ ُ ّ ْس ُ أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا ً ِ ْ َ ْ ُ َ ّ َ َُ ِ ْ َْ َ ْ َ
“Verily, Allah has decreed to purify you, O' Ahlul Bayt, and sanctify you in a perfect way” Ismah consists of at least the following: · That Allah has protected the person (Prophet or Imam) from sin (therefore the person with Ismah can lead the Ummah toward the high Islamic integrity. Without Ismah, the leader can sin and people would imitate his sin), · That Allah has protected the person (Prophet or Imam) from religious error (therefore the person with Ismah can lead the Ummah toward the high Islamic integrity. Without Ismah, the leader can commit religious error and people would imitate his error), · That Allah has protected the person (Prophet or Imam) from forgetfulness (otherwise the man without Ismah can contradict his own Directives, leading to inconsistency). Also this is essential, for the Imams taught the Sunnah of their grandfather the Prophet (pbuh), over a period of 12 generations, 329 years. Not being forgetful is essential for their accuracy in quoting the Prophet (pbuh) and giving pristine information of his teaching —over this 329 years. And it is Allah Almighty who had endowed this capacity to the Prophets and Imams, the Shi'a assert.
Imam's Directives: Because the Shi'a believe in the Imamah, they consider the Imam's Directives and sayings as binding, i.e., of importance only second to the Hadith of the Prophet (pbuh). Therefore, to the Shi'a, a) the instructions, b) the gems of wisdom, and c) the recommendations of the Imams hold a lofty theological position. On the other hand, though the Sunni hold the Imams with reverence and high esteem, they do not consider their Directives as binding. Imam's Du'aa: . الدعــاءBecause the Shi'a believe in the Imamah, they dearly hold to the Du'aas composed by the Imams. The Du'aas are extremely powerful, they reach out and inwardly connect the person to the Almighty in an exceptional manner. The Du'aas are extremely moving when read in their original language, Arabic. Unfortunately most of the Du'aas have not been translated to English as of yet. Outstanding among the Du'aas are:
· Du'aa Kumayl دعاء كـمـــيـلby Imam Ali, said on every Thursday evening, usually in congregation. · Du'aa Al-Husain دعاء الحســـيـنwhen he stopped on Jabal Arafat, in Mecca before leaving to Karbala in Iraq. It is recommended to be read the night before Eid al-Adha. · Du'aa Al-Thamali, دعاء ابو حــمـزه الثـــــماليcomposed by Imam Zainul Abideen, to be read after Suhoor in Ramadhan. · Risaala of Huqooq, ( رســاله الحــقـوقEpistle of Rights and Obligations) written by Imam Zainul Abideen, centuries before the Magna Charta was decided upon in England. · Al-Saheefa Al-Sajjadiya, الصحــيـفه السـجـــاديـهa treatise of Du'aas for various occasions by Imam Zainul Abideen. · Du'aa Al-Sahar- دعاء الســحرby Imam Al-Baaqir, to be read after Suhoor in َ Ramadhan. · Numerous other Du'aas by Imam Al-Saadiq and other Imams covering most occasions touching on human life.
SOURCE OF SUNNAH'S TEACHINGS
The source of reference for teaching the Prophet's Sunnah comes by two divergent ways:
The Shi'a devote themselves to explanation of the Sunnah mainly by the Imams. If the sayings or explanation of the Sahaaba and Tabi'in is confirmed by the Imams, then this is taken as authentic. If this explanation is not confirmed by the Imams, then the point remains questionable, as: a. Possibly right. b. Might be wrong. The Sunni follow the explanation of the Sunnah by the Sahaaba and Tabi'in. It is said that large part of the Sihaah Al-Sittah (some scholars estimate it as 70%) are from narrations by the students of Imam Al-Saadiq (300 scholar students).
With the plethora of Tafseer of the Holy Quran:
The Shi'a hold to the source of the Tafseers by the Imams. The best known is Tafseer Al-Tibrisi and Tafseer Al-Meezan (parts translated to English). They are voluminous (often 30 volumes), with many historical references, theological discussions, and philosophical points. A one volume Tafseer by Mir Ali in English, is highly recommended to the serious reader. The Sunni refer to the various Tafseers available, well known among them are: Tafseer Al-Tibari, Tafseer Al-Razi, Tafseer Al-Aaloosi, Tafseer Syed Qutb. They come in many volumes, many awaiting translation to English. A one volume English rendering is Yusuf Ali commentary, an outstanding one. Fiqh: Fiqh is the result of interpretation of the Shari'ah and Sunnah according to the Ij'tihaad of the head of the Madh'hab. It is like the interpretation of the constitution in the US.: which results in the law. the Shi'a follow the Fiqh by the Imams, most of which was formulated by Imam Al-Saadiq. the Sunni each follows the Fiqh of the head of the specific Madh'hab consisting at the present time of: 1. Hanafi 2. Maaliki 3. Shafi'i 4. Hanbali. It is worthy of note that the lineage of the head of Madh'hab al-Ja'fari (Shi'a) goes to the Prophet (pbuh) and each of the Imams used to say that my father narrated through his father and he through his father and so on up to the Prophet (pbuh). On the other hand, none of the heads of the Sunni Madh'habs could claim that their ancestors or their lineage went directly to the Prophet (pbuh).
Ij'tihaad: Ij'tihaad is a process for the scholars in Islam to solve intricate Fiqh problem specific to the period of time it was raised, thus Islamic matters continue to be up-to-date despite the changes in society during the march of years and centuries. Ij'tihaad was open to all Muslim and practiced by all scholars for the first 4-5 centuries Hijrah. Ij'tihaad encouraged independent scholarly thinking. Actually, each head of the Sunni Madh'habs was scholar in Ij'tihaad.
The Shi'a: The Shi'a continue to exercise Ij'tihaad because it was open since after the Prophet (pbuh), and they care not for whatever arbitrary rule the Khalifa had put forth to stop it. The Sunni: The Sunni practiced Ij'tihaad actively during the first 4-5 centuries after the Prophet (pbuh), but when the Khalifa (ruler) ruled that Ij'tihaad was to be stopped, they obliged by doing so. Thus from that time till now Ij'tihaad was stopped by the Sunni, though every once in a while there is an outcry to practice it again, since it is of such great significance to have Ij'tihaad. ────══════·══════────
TABLE II, IBADAT (Acts of Worship):
IBADAT Acts of Worship
1. Salat 2. Saum 3. Zakat 4. Haj 5. Khums 6. Jihad 7. Enjoining to the Good 8. Prohibiting Evil
THE SHI’A Ja'fari (Ithna Ashari)
THE SUNNI The 4 schools
Salat is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technique Saum is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technique Zakat is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technicality Haj is the same in principle and creed, but differs in technicality Khums is applied in daily life Jihad is a pillar of Ibadat It is a pillar of Ibadat It is a pillar of Ibadat
See left See left See left See left Khums is applied for spoils of war Jihad is not a pillar of Ibadat It is not a pillar of Ibadat It is not a pillar of Ibadat
While the Shi'a and Sunni differ in their performing-technique of Ibadat, all elements of worship (Ibadat) are of the same source and principle. The Shi'a and Sunni agree (100%) on the Quran's Directives and implementation of the Sunnah. The 5% difference (the technical performance) can be traced to the various narrations and interpretation of these narrations for the specific Fiqh and according to its methodology or format. A short comment about these items is worth mentioning, reserving a detailed account for a later chapter of this book.
1. Salat: The obvious technical difference is that the Shi'a hold their arms by their trunk (do not fold their arms) in Wuqoof during the Salat, while the Sunni fold their arms (except the Maaliki). 2. Saum: Leilatul Qadr is celebrated by the Shi'a on the 21st and 23rd of Ramadhan, while it is celebrated by the Sunni on the 27th (for the last four centuries). The Shi’a recite Du’aa Iftitah; the Sunni do Taraweeh Prayers. 3. Zakat: The Shi'a and the Sunni differ in some technical manner of Zakat distribution.
4. Haj: The Shi'a and the Sunni differ in minor technical manner of performing the Haj. 5. Khums: The Shi'a apply Khums in their daily life (Giving 20% of the left-over of their yearly income to the poor and for promotion of Islamic works), and the Sunni apply the Khums only on the spoils of war. 6. Jihad: The Shi'a regard Jihad as part and parcel of their acts of worship. The Sunni regard Jihad as an important part but not a pillar of Ibadat (acts of worship). 7. Enjoining to the Good: The Shi'a regard Enjoining to the Good as part and parcel (pillar) of their acts of worship. The Sunni regard this matter as an important part but not a pillar of Ibadat (acts of worship). 8. Prohibiting the Evil: The Shi'a regard Prohibiting the Evil as part and parcel (pillar) of their acts of worship. The Sunni regard Prohibiting the Evil as an important part but not a pillar of Ibadat (acts of worship).
Inclinations, Cultural Customs, and Practices
With the passing of time (centuries) major cultural customs evolved among the Shi'a and the Sunni. For instance, Ashuraa did evolve as a major industry, the livelihood of quite a few people depends on it (orators, organizers, and suppliers among others). It also evolved into a major social binding spirit which boosts the resolve of the Shi'a for Islam. Below are the main elements of such cultural evolvements:
TABLE III, CULTURAL CUSTOMS:
THE SHI'A Ithna Ashari
THE SUNNI (4 schools) None
Very Educational and emotional (Imam Husain's endeavor as the centerpiece) Commemorated vigorously, usually for 10 days or more, Karbala and the calamity that befell the Prophet's family at the hands of Benu Umayya is fully explained and interpreted
2. Ashuraa 10th of Muharram)
May mention Imam Husain, however they celebrate it as an event of Musa's crossing of the Red Sea and other events
THE SHI'A Ithna Ashari
THE SUNNI (4 schools) Sought mainly for the Prophet (pbuh), and some people seek Abu Hanifa Mosque and Gaylaani Mosque in Baghdad among others Celebrated vigorously Not celebrated Not celebrated Not recited
Visiting the tombs of the Prophet (pbuh) and the Imams is actively sought after as a blessing, since the Prophet and the Imams hold the highest status with the Almighty Celebrated vigorously Celebrated vigorously Celebrated vigorously Recited energetically every Thursday evening, usually in congregation
4. Birthday of Prophet 5. Birthdays & Death of Imams 6. Ghadeer Khum 6. Du'aa Kumayl
THE SHI'I AND SUNNI
Since each is to his own, the Shi'a and the Sunni can hold dearly to their school of Fiqh, and proudly so. Each school evolved over a period of time, and each has valid points. Since the Sunni schools of thought are purely Fiqh school in Islam, they differ among themselves as much if not more than the group differs with the Shi'a. The social factors may play a very large part in this matter as it had in the past, but people of wisdom and those who are steeped in Islam will shun any destructive tendencies some Muslims indulge in.
Each of the Shi'a and the Sunni schools has its particular Fiqh. The Fiqh is the summation of the rules and regulations formulated by the leader of the Madh'hab according to certain methodology (format) formulated by him. Since each Madh'hab has its particular Fiqh, the rules of one Madh'hab may differ in subtle or not so subtle ways from other Madh'habs. A Hanafi may differ from a Shafi'i and Hanbali, a Maaliki may differ from Hanafi or Shafi'i or Shi'a. The Shi'a may differ from most of the Sunni Madh'habs, or be in agreement with 3 out of 4 in some aspects. This difference therefore, is mainly about technique,
performance of rituals, rules of inheritance, marriage and other aspects that regulate a Muslim's life and similar matters. It is worth mentioning that the methodology has its points of strength and weakness, and as followers of a Madh'hab, people have to examine that methodology (format) in a critical, analytical, and questioning way.
Muslims are united (and nourished) in their belief in the Holy Quran and Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). They are also bound in their Islamic heritage, the cultural heritage, the intensity of their Taq'wa , النـقــــوىand in their resolve to be wary of the foes of Islam. It is true that Muslims nowadays are not under one banner as it used to be in the past, but even so Muslims are bound (united) in numerous ways. More to the point, Muslims, be they Shi'a or Sunni, are extremely proud of Islam and their heritage, and the two must co-exist in a most amiable way. When through education their differences are understood and acknowledged, they can respect each other fully and coexist amicably. They ought to communicate by visitation, praying together (in congregations or in each other's Masjids), breaking Ramadhan fast together, intermarrying, attending Salat of Janaaza together, and attending meeting for mutual understanding among other things.
HARMONIOUS CO-EXISTENCE: The Shi'a and the Sunni lived in amicable relationship during the first few centuries of Islam. Abu Hanifa and Malik Ibn Anas were some of the outstanding students of Imam Al-Saadiq. Imam Al-Saadiq used to say, “Abu Bakr has twice given birth to me.” since the mother and great-grandmother of Imam Al-Saadiq were of Abu Bakr's direct descendants. Many of the instructors and tutors of Al-Shafi'i, Al-Hanbali, and Bukhari, were Shi'a of the school of Al-Saadiq. The Shi'a were, a) the administrators, b) educators, c) thinkers, d) writers, e) scholars, f) merchants, and g) the bankers of the Ummah for many centuries. Why then did discord and contention develop between the Shi'a and Sunni, and when did this happen, one may ask?!
SOURCE OF ILL WILL
Because the Shi'a were and are the opposition party to any ruler (and his administration) who lacks integrity, government policies through the ages were against the Shi'a. The Shi'a were a thorn in the side of any despotic or dictatorial
ruler (or dynasty of rulers). With tremendous effort and by encouragement of the successive governments of centuries ago, people began to exaggerate any differences in Fiqh or otherwise between the Shi'a and Sunni, and the common man followed suit blindly and emotionally, whether he was Shi'a or Sunni. This tendency continued and became worse with time, and it still exists and will continue unless we, the educated, put all our effort in combating this evil. The attempts have to at least be directed toward:
Co-existing in an amiable way, fully respecting each other's belief and practices by: § Visitation of each other's Mosques, performing Salat together, especially the congregational, following the leader of the congregation. § Attending each other's Ramadhan rituals, Salat of Ramadhan (Taraweeh), Du'aa Jawshan Al-Kabir, and Leilatul Qadr rites among other things. § Befriending, intermarriage, teamwork in every day life tasks, and business endeavors. § Attending meetings of mutual interest, and discussing subjects of differences and methods to respect these differences rather than to defend our belief at the expense of the other. § Cooperate in various Islamic projects that help both the Shi'a and the Sunni alike. ────══════·══════────
Glossary for Chapter 2
Ashuraa:.. Abu Hanifa: Ahlul Bayt: Al-Aammah: Al-Ah'kaam:
Commemoration of the martyrdom of Imam Husain in Karbala to save Islam from disintegration. He sacrificed his life, the lives of his brothers, his children, nephews and other relatives. Head of the Hanafi Madh'hab, a supporter of Ahlul Bayt. Fatima and the Designated twelve Imams from Ali to Al-Mahdi, who safeguarded the teaching of Islam and conferred it to the Ummah as Muhammad (pbuh) had taught it. General term used to refer to the common people or the general public. The detailed rules and regulations of the Shari'ah, according to the Ij'tihaad of the Jurist.
The 5th Imam of Ahlul Bayt. One of the 4 Sunni Madh'habs, and supporter of Ahlul Bayt. The term used for the Shi'a to mean: The Special, The Distinct, or The Al-Khaassah: Elite; generally referred to the devotees of Ahlul Bayt Al-Saadiq: The 6th Imam of Ahlul Bayt, and the chief architect of the Shi'a Fiqh. Al-Shafi'i: One of the 4 Sunni Madh'habs, and supporter of Ahlul Bayt. Methodology of thought more often referred to by Hanafi school of Al-Qiyas: (Analogy) thought. Al-Raa'y (The Methodology of thought often referred to by Hanafi and other schools of Opinionated) thought. The first Imam, 4th Khalifa, cousin of the Prophet (pbuh) and his Ali: son-in-law, the spine of the faith. Collector of the Hadiths after a high degree of scrutiny. His book is one Bukhari: of Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah. He died in the year 256H. A moving (long) Du'aa, read during Leilatul Qadr in Ramadhan, by the Du'aa Jawshan Al-Kabir: Shi'a. Fiqh: Rules and regulations of Islam. A pious man buried in Baghdad, whose ornate shrine is frequently Gaylaani: visited by the Sunni Hanafi. H: Hijrah calendar. One of the 4 Sunni schools, and the largest of the four Sunni Hanafi school of thought: Madh’habs. A process for the scholars in Islam to solve intricate Fiqh problems Ij'tihaad: specific to the period of time in which they were raised, thus Islamic matters continue to be up-to-date. Imamah: A fundamental component of faith in Islam according to the Shi'a. Means that Allah has safeguarded all the Prophets and the Specified Ismah: Imams who followed Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) from, a) religious error, b) sin, and c) forgetfulness. The twelve Imams, the golden chain of narration, the immediate family Imams: of the Prophet (pbuh). One of the off-shoots of the generic Shi'a, most followers are in Indian Isma'ili: subcontinent. The general body of the Shi'a, the specific term was used after Imam Ithna Ashari: Al-Mahdi's major occultation. The head of Islamdom who during Benu Umayya and Benu Abbas were Khalifa: usurpers of power in the form of monarchs. Ja'fari: Another term for the Shi'a Ithna Ashari. An elevation outside Mecca, where Imam Husain delivered his famous Jabal Arafat: Du'aa, just before leaving for Karbala in Iraq. The site where forces of Benu Umayya destroyed the family of the Karbala: Prophet (pbuh), but indirectly this saved Islam from being annihilated. Leilatul Qadr: The highest night of worship during Ramadhan. Madh'hab: Fiqh of a School of Thought in Islam. See Ismah, a person whom Allah safeguards from religious error, sin, Ma'soom: and forgetfulness. Majlis: An assembly where the incidents and meaning of Karbala happening
Malik Ibn Anas: Mecca: Sahaaba: Shari'ah: Shi'a: Sihaah Al-Sittah: Suhoor:. Sunnah: Sunni: Tabi'in: Tafseer: Taq'wa: Taraweeh: Ummah: Usool: Wuqoof: Zaidi: Zainul Abideen: Ziyarat:
took place. Leader of Maaliki Madh'hab, one of the 4 Sunni Madh'habs, and supporter of Ahlul Bayt. The birth place of Islam, a town in Arabia where pilgrimage takes place. Companions of the Prophet (pbuh). Islamic Constitution in the Quran. Believers in the teachings of Muhammad (pbuh) as passed down by Ahlul Bayt, and that Imamah is an indispensable part of the Islamic faith. The six manuals of Hadith collected by Sunni authors. Eating before dawn during fast of Ramadhan. Sayings and practices (Tradition) of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). Believers in the teachings of Muhammad (pbuh) as explained by the Sahaaba and Tabi'in. The second generation after the Sahaaba (Companions of the Prophet (pbuh). Interpretation of the Holy Quran. Perfection in religion through meticulous application of the Divine commands. Congregational Salat, usually in Masjids, after Ishaa' Salat, by the Sunni. Islamic society. The format (methodology) as laid down by a particular Madh'hab to base its Fiqh upon. Standing up during Salat for recitation. An off-shoot of the generic Shi'a, mainly in Yemen. They were revolutionary in days passed. The 4th Imam. Visitation of the Shrines of the Prophet (pbuh) and Imams for the sake of heightened worship and reading Du'aa, asking Allah's favors.
 Sahih Al-Bukhari Vol 4, Page 164. Also Sahih Muslim Page 119 (Both are Sunni in school of Islamic thought). They reported that the Prophet (pbuh) mentioned the number of the Imams after him will be twelve. According to Yanabi' Al-Mawadda by Al-Qandoozi (who is Hanafi), the Prophet mentioned the twelve Imams by name.  Quran, Surah 33, Ayah 33.  Mafateeh Al-Jinaan, Abbas Al-Qummi.  Seerah of the twelve Imams, H.M. Al-Hassani, Vol. 2, Page 196.  Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar.  Seerah of the Twelve Imams, Hashim M. Al-Hassani, Vol. 2, Page 212.
Main Sources for this chapter:
1. 2. 3. 4. Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. Fiqh Al-Sunnah, Syed Saabiq. Fiqh Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq, Muhammad J. Maghniya. Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya.
Ø All sources of reference were quoted from Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. SALAT AS PERFORMED BY MADH'HABS As of 1995 statistics, of the five billions of the total world's population the Muslims constitute 1,236,000,000. Statistically speaking, of this one billion and 236 million Muslims: ►The Shi'a (Imamiyah) ............................................ 282,000,000 (282 million), ►The Sunni, divided into various Madh'habs stand at: a. Hanafi:........................................................................................380,000,00 0 (380 million), b. Maaliki:............................................................... ........................305,000,00 0 (305 million), c. Shafi'i:.........................................................................................190,000,00 0 (190 million), d. Hanbali:................................................ ........................................52,000,00 0 (52 Million) 1. Others: 27,000,000 (27 million): These include Ahmadiya, Baha'is, Kharijis, Ismailis, Zaidis, Druzes, etc.  Each Madh'hab goes by specific Ah'kaam ( احكككامrules) about the Salat according to its interpretation of the Shari'ah and Sunnah. These Ah'kaam (rules) will be briefly discussed in this chapter, since the details can be voluminous. To clarify the matter well, the subject of Salat has to be divided into 3 categories: 1. Salat preliminaries (Wudu, Athan, etc.), 2. The Salat itself, and 3. Invalidators of Salat. The focus of the discussion will be on the Shi'a Ah'kaam compared to the Sunnis. Only the major points will be discussed leaving the smaller points to be researched by the reader. It is noteworthy that the belief of a Shi'i and that of a Sunni are similar and alike by about 95% degree. Some technical differences do exist however, though minor they are, notwithstanding the fact that the less educated Muslim tends to dwell on them and exaggerate. A good many people deliberately blow these differences out of proportion,
often in a move for self-exaltation and to gain self-recognition to themselves or to others of their kind. FIQH: الفــــــقه Each of the Shi'a and the Sunni schools has its particular Fiqh. The Fiqh is the summation of the rules and regulations formulated by the leader of the Madh'hab according to certain methodology (format) formulated by that Madh'hab. Since each Madh'hab has its particular Fiqh, the rules of one Madh'hab may differ in subtle or not so subtle ways from other Madh'habs. A Hanafi may differ from a Shafi'i and Hanbali, a Maaliki may differ from Hanafi or Shafi'i or Shi'a. The Shi'a may differ from most of the Sunni Madh'habs, or be in agreement with 3 out of 4 in some aspects. In this chapter, some outstanding matter in the technique of performing the Salat are explained. EXPLAINING THE TABLES: The subject of Salat has been divided into categories, each category is put in a table. To have more detail about some points the reader is referred to the specific items that appear below that table. These items explain the rules (Ah'kaam) of different Madh'habs. Thus it is recommended that the reader pays special attention to the rules in the items and compare them with those appearing in the table itself. TABLE I, SALAT PRELIMINARIES, WUDU: Preliminaries WUDU THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari) THE SUNNI The 4 Schools.
THE FACE: Wash the face with the right Variable ways depending hand from upper forehead to on the Madh'hab. See item, the chin, with the span of the (Face), below. hand as the outer limit. THE ARMS: Wash the right arm (including the hand) from the elbow down (including hand) with the left hand; then likewise wash the left arm from the elbow down with the right hand. THE HEAD: Wipe the front of the head (toward the forehead) with the wet fingers. THE FEET: Wipe the dorsal part of the foot by the wet corresponding hand up to the cuboid elevation of the Wash the right arm (including the hand) up to the elbow with the left hand; then wash the left arm (including the hand) up to the elbow with the right hand. Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab. See item 0 (Head), below. Wash the feet, right first then the left. See item 0 (Bare Feet), below.
THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari) foot: first the right then the left foot.
THE SUNNI The 4 Schools.
The Covered Not permitted. feet The hands
Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab. See item (Covered Feet), below.
Variable ways depending Preferable to wash the hands before Wudu, once or on the Madh'hab. See item twice. It is Mus’tahab (Hands), below. (preferable). Variable ways depending A person may gargle/rinse mouth before Wudu, once or on the Madh'hab. See item twice. It is Mus’tahab (Gargling), below. (preferable). A person may sniff and blow Variable ways depending his nose before Wudu, once on the Madh'hab. See item or twice. It is Mus’tahab (Sniffing), below. (preferable). Not applicable. Not applicable. See item (Ears), below. See item (Neck), below.
The ears The neck
Face: Because of disagreement of what defines face, the following shows some conclusions: 1. Hanafi: From upper forehead to and including the chin, and from ear to ear including the ear lobe. 2. Maaliki: From upper forehead to and including the chin, not including the skin in front of the ear. 3. Shafi'i: From upper forehead to and including the chin under the chin area, and from ear to ear. 4. Hanbali: From upper forehead to and including the chin, and ear to ear. Head: The Shi'a wipe the front of the head with the wet four fingers from the center of the head to the front. But because of disagreement of what defines surface area of the head, the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows: 1. Hanafi: With new water, to wipe a quarter of the head (others say a third of the head). 2. Maaliki: With new water, to wipe the whole head (others say a third or two thirds of the head), without the ears. 3. Shafi'i: Similar to the Shi'a, but with new water. 4. Hanbali: With new water, to wipe the whole head including the ears.
Bare Feet: The Shi'a wipe the dorsal part of the feet up to the cubicle (height of foot), with the wet corresponding hand, first the right then the left. But because of disagreement of the interpretation of the Ayah of Wudu (in Surah Al-Maa'ida) the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows: The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: To wash the whole foot, up to the ankle. Some do it once, others twice or even three times. Each side has its valid reasons and way of interpretation, and each claims it is the correct way. Covered Feet: The Shi'a prohibit wiping over the dorsal part of the covered feet, whether covered with socks of any kind, or light shoes. But because of disagreement of the interpretation of some traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) the Fiqh of the Sunni concluded as follows: The Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do allow wiping over socks or light shoes, however, the rules in this regard are divergent. Also to thus wipe only when traveling for a period of 3 days without taking off the cover of the feet, or being at home for a period (usually one day) and doing so, led to many arguments. Hands: It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to wash the hands before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. The differences were about the number of times the hands are to be washed. The Hanbali differed from others in regarding washing the hands before Wudu as a Must (Wajib). Gargling and/or Mouth-rinsing: It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to gargle and/or to rinse the mouth before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. The differences were about the number of times gargling and/or rinsing are to take place. The Hanbali differed from others in that they regard gargling and/or rinsing the mouth before Wudu as a Must (Wajib). Sniffing: It is preferable (Mus’tahab) to clean the nose by sniffing then blowing it, before Wudu, not only with the Shi'a but also with the Sunni. The differences are about the number of times to do the procedure and the technique of doing it. Ears: While the Shi'a prohibit including the ears in the Wudu, the other Madh'habs differed as to whether the ears are part of the head and therefore are to be cleaned, and if so how to be cleaned, and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or not: 1. Hanafi: wiping the ears as Sunnah, to be done along with wiping the head. 2. Maaliki: Wiping the ears as part of the head as preferable (Mus’tahab). 3. Shafi'i: Wiping the ears with new water as Sunnah. 4. Hanbali: Wiping the ears as a Must (Wajib), to be done along with wiping the head. Neck (Tat'weeq): While the Shi'a prohibit including the neck in the Wudu, the other Madh'habs differed whether to include it and whether this is Mus'tahab (preferable) or as a sign of reverence, or even Mak'rooh to do so. However, some of the Hanafi and Shafi'i seem to allow it. TABLE II, SALAT PRELIMINARIES, TAYAMMUM:
TAYAMMUM STEP ONE:
THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari)
THE SUNNI The 4 schools.
Strike the palms of both hands on dusty area, pure earth, sand, or stone. Wipe the forehead with the palms of the hands and go down the front Variable ways part of the nose to its tip. depending on the STEP TWO: Strike the palms of both hands on Madh'hab. See pure earth, sand, dust, or stone item once more. (Tayammum), Starting from the wrist, wipe the below. back of the right hand with the palm of left hand. Starting from the wrist, wipe the back of the left hand with the palm of right hand. Tayammum: التـيــــمـمThe medium to strike the hands on is variable, for example, for the Shi'a and the Hanafi you can strike on dust, earth, sand, or rock, while with Shafi'i it is only earth or sand, Maaliki it is earth, sand or rocks, metal or many other media. As to the Hanbali, only the earth is allowed as the medium. 1. Hanafi: Strike the palms of both hands, then shake them, then wipe the whole face, then strike the palms of both hands again, shake them, then wipe the back of the hand up to the elbow. 2. Maaliki and Shafi'i: Strike the palms of both hands once then wipe the whole face, then strike the palms of both hands again, then wipe the back of the hand up to the elbow (others say to the wrist). 3. Hanbali: Strike the palms of both hands once then wipe the whole face including the total beard, then wipe the back of the hand up to the wrist, first the right then the left.
TABLE III, SALAT PRELIMINARIES, ATHAN: Preliminaries ATHAN ALLAAHU AKBAR To be said 4 times. (Allah is the Greatest) THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari THE SUNNI The 4 schools. Variable numbers depending on the Madh'hab. See item 0 (Takbiraat), below.
Preliminaries ATHAN ASH'HADU ANN LAA ILAAHA ILLA ALLAH (I declare there is no Deity except Allah)
THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari
THE SUNNI The 4 schools.
To be said 2 times.
To be said 2 times.
ASH'HADU ANNA MUHAMMADAN RASOOLUL-LLAAH (I declare that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah) ASH'HADU ANNA ALIYYAN WALIYU-LLAAH
To be said 2 times.
To be said 2 times.
To be said 2 times. (I declare that Ali is the Devotee of Allah) (This is Mus’tahab (an option or preferable) HAYYA ALA SALAAH To be said 2 times. (Hasten for Salat) HAYYA ALA FALAAH To be said 2 times. (Hasten toward eternal bliss) HAYYA ALA KHAYR ALAMAL To be said 2 times. (Hasten for the best of deeds) ALLAAHU AKBAR To be said 2 times. Allah is the Greatest LAA ILAAHA ILLA ALLAH (There is no Deity except Allah) To be said 2 times. To be said once. To be said 2 times. Not said. See item (Khayr AlAmal), below. To be said 2 times. To be said 2 times. See item (Wali), below. Not said.
Preliminaries ATHAN AL-SALATU KHAYRUN MINA NAWM (Salat is better than sleep)
THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari Not said.
THE SUNNI The 4 schools. To be said 2 times. See item (Nawm), below.
Athan, a must or otherwise: ٍ الذانShi'a, Hanafi, Maaliki, and Shafi'i say Athan is a Sunnah , سنهnear Wajib (a Must). Al-Hanbali on the other hand regards Athan as Fardh (a must) ,واجــبwhile many of its followers regard it as Sunnah. Takbiraat: التــكبـــيـراتAll say Takbiraat 4 times except the Maaliki who say it 2 times.
Wali: وليAs an option (even Mus’tahab) the Shi'a say Ali is the devotee of Allah twice. None of the Sunni Madh'habs say it. Many Shi'a do not say it either.
Khayr Al-Amal: حي على خـــيـر العــمــــلTo say Hayya Ala Khayr Al-Amal is a must (Wajib) for the Shi'a, since this was said by the Prophet (pbuh), Abu Bakr, and early days of Omar's Khilaafah, as well as continued by Ibn Omar, Ali ibn Al-Husain, Zayd ibn Arqam, Imam Ali and numerous others all through. This was stopped by order of Khalifa Omar (r) since according to his Ij'tihaad he was afraid that saying it in Athan or Iqaama would discourage Muslims from emphasizing Jihad. None of the Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, or Hanbali says it.
Nawm: خـير من النـومBecause this was not said at the time of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) the Shi'a do not say it in their Athan or Iqaama. The phrase of (Salat is better than sleeping) was introduced by Khalifa Omar (r). This became a routine afterwards by Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali. Imam Ali said not to increase in the Athan what was not intended in it. Shafi'i: It is Mak'rooh (detestable) to say the phrase.
Iqaama القــــامهWhile the Shi'a utter the Iqaama like their Athan but with every phrase twice said, and the last phrase once, the Sunni Madh'habs have differed remarkably in the number of times the phrases (be they Takbiraat or others) are said.
TABLE IV, SALAT PROPER: SALAT ITSELF INTENTION, TAKBIR, (WUQOOF). ARMS' POSITION (BAS'MALAH): Bismillah Al-Rahman AlRahim. THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari) Takbir Iftitah: a Must (Rukn) . ركن THE SUNNI The 4 schools. Variable depending on the Madh'hab. See item (Takbir Iftitah) below. Arms to be folded. See item (Arms) below. Variable ways depending on the Madh'hab. See item (Bas'malah) below.
Arms not to be folded. Bas'malah has to be said before Fatiha or any other Surah, preferably loudly.
AMEN COMPLETE SURAH AFTER AL-FATIHA 3rd & 4th RAK'A
Not to be said after Surah Al-Fatiha while in Salat Reading no less than a complete Surah after Fatiha.
To be said after Fatiha in Salat. See item, (Amen) below. May read part of Surah after Fatiha. See item (Surah) below.
Reading Al-Fatiha or saying Saying Surah Al-Fatiha. 3 times: Subhaana Allah wal Hamdu Lillaah, wa la Ilaaha Illa Allah wa Allah Akbar
RUKOO SUJOOD QUNOOT
To say: Subhaana Rabbiya Subhaana Rabbiya Al-Adheem. Al-Adheemi wa Bi-Hamdih. To say: Subhaana Rabbiya Subhaana Rabbiya Al-A'la. Al-A'la wa Bi-Hamdih. Highly preferable (valued); Qunoot is done before Rukoo of the second Rak'a Qunoot is done in Salat of Witr and others. See item (Qunoot) below.
(Usually a Du'aa from the Quran). JULOOS (Forefinger) During Tashah'hud no pointing with the forefinger or moving it in circles. To point with the forefinger or move it in circles. See item (forefinger) below.
JULOOS (Feet position) TASHAH'HUD
Sitting comfortably on the bent feet.
Sitting on folded left foot, big toe of right foot to touch the ground. See item (Toe) below.
Wording of Tashah'hud are Wording of Tashah'hud as taught specific as Ahlul Bayt by Ibn Abbas, Ibn Mas'ood, or Ibn quoted the Prophet (pbuh). Omar quoting the Prophet (pbuh). See item (Tashah'hud) below. Wording of Tasleem are specific as Ahlul Bayt quoted the Prophet (pbuh). Wording of Tasleem are specific to various Madh'habs. See item (Tasleem) below.
Takbir Iftitah: التـكبـــــيـر To say Allaahu Akbar after the intention to pray is Wajib (a Must) with the Shi'a, Maaliki, and Hanbali. 1. The Hanafi may say any of the wordings of Al-Asmaa Al-Husna, yet Abu Yusuf of the Hanafi Madh’hab prefers the Shi'a ruling. 2. The Shafi'i may say Allah Al-Akbar. (they have added Al, meaning the). Folding Arms: التـكـتــــــف
The Shi'a, along with the Maaliki do not fold their arms while in Wuqoof, though it is allowed if believed as an option of reverence on the part of the person praying. Some Shi'a authorities even regard it as an invalidator of the Salat (if done thinking this is the correct way). It is said that folding the arms was started after the Prophet (pbuh). 1. Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: Regard folding the arms as preferable (Mus’tahab) as a sign of reverence, therefore, they subscribe to folding the arms during Wuqoof, however they differ in the manner the right arm is to be put on the left, whether on lower chest or its upper, in a female different from a male. 2. Maaliki regards folding the arms, if done, as allowed, but not a Sunnah.
While the Shi'a start the Surahs by saying Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim (Bas'malah), as part of the Surah, they are to say it loud enough to be heard. The Prophet (pbuh) used to start Al-Fatiha with Bas'malah but Mu'awiya was the culprit in deleting it. 1. Hanafi, and Maaliki: They regard Bas'malah as not part of Surah Fatiha, so they read Surah Al-Fatiha without it, though they have the option to say it. However, they say Bas'malah with the subsequent Surahs. Also, the Hanafi and Hanbali can read it without being heard. Maaliki would not read at all. 2. Shafi'i and Hanbali: Regard Bas'malah as part and parcel of Al-Fatiha, and has to be said loudly. Amen آمـيـن Because Amen is a Hebrew word, the Shi'a's Fiqh prohibits saying it during Salat, otherwise their Salat becomes invalid. However they can say “Amen” when not in Salat. Instead of Amen, the Shi'a say Al-Hamdu Lillaah. 1. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali: As Mus’tahab (preferable) they say Amen after reading of the Fatiha during Salat. They follow what Abu Hurairah once recommended to utter “Amen” after Al-Fatiha, but the Shi'a claim that that specific narration was not credible. Complete Surah: ســــوره كامــــــلـه While with the Shi'a a complete (not partial) Surah has to be said following AlFatiha during Salat, and without this rule the Salat is invalidated. Other Madh'habs are divided about this point, for instance, with the Hanafi portion of a Surah is sufficient, even one Ayah. Qunoot: القـنـــــوت
Qunoot is saying a Du'aa, usually a passage from the Holy Quran. Qunoot is highly recommended (preferable) with the Shi'a, since the Prophet (pbuh) used to do so. Qunoot is not practiced regularly in the other Madh'habs during regular Salat, even though the Prophet (pbuh) used to practice it. It was Mu'awiya who stopped it. As it evolved, Qunoot is now said during Subh Salat (morning prayer) by the Maaliki and Shafi'i. As to the Hanafi and Hanbali, they say Qunoot during Witr Salat in various manners. Forefinger: اصـبــــع الســــــبابـه
The Shi'a do not point with the forefinger while in Tashah'hud. The Hanafi and Shafi'i do point with the forefinger and even move it in a circular manner, as a preferable (Mus'tahab) procedure. Toe: اصـبـــع القـــــدم While the Shi'a are to sit comfortably on the folded feet during Tashah'hud, the Hanafi are to sit on the twisted left foot while the big toe of the right foot is touching the floor. Tashah'hud: التـشــــــهــد The Shi'a follow the version of Tashah'hud as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh). 1. The Hanafi follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Mas'ood, quoting the Prophet (pbuh). 2. The Maaliki follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Omar, quoting the Prophet (pbuh). 3. While the Shafi'i and Hanbali follow the Tashah'hud taught by Ibn Abbas, quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Tasleem: التـســــــلـيـم The Shi'a follow the version of Tasleem as taught by Ahlul Bayt quoting the Prophet (pbuh). Tasleem is a Must (Wajib). The Hanafi, Shafi'i, and Hanbali do Tasleem in various forms as appears in Sahih Bukhari and Muslim. It is regarded as Wajib (a Must) by the Maaliki, Shafi'i and Hanbali; and as Sunnah by the Hanafi.
OTHER SALATS: Salat Al-Janaaza: صـــله الجـــــنـازهWhile the Shi'a say 5 Takbiraat with Al-Fatiha not as a Must (not Wajib), the other Madh'habs differed whether Fatiha is a Must (Wajib) or not. The Sunni Madh'habs say 4 Takbiraats, with Hanafi and Maaliki not requiring Al-Fatiha as a Must; while the Shafi'i and Hanbali claim Al-Fatiha as a Must reading. Salat Al-Jumu'ah: صـــله الجـمــعهThe Shi'a do Qunoot (Du'aa) before Rukoo in the first Rak'a and optionally a Qunoot after Rukoo in the second Rak'a. The minimum number of attendants is to be 5. The Sunni do not perform Qunoot during Salat al-Jumu’ah, and minimum number of attendants with Hanafi is 5 (others say 7), Maaliki 12, Shafi'i and Hanbali 40.
Salat Al-Eid: صـله العـــــيـدThe Shi'a along with Shafi'i can perform Salat Eid individually as well as in congregation, while Hanafi, Maaliki, and Hanbali it has to be only in congregation. The Shi'a do Qunoot with a poetic Du'aa after each of 5 Takbirs in the first Rak'a, and 4 Takbirs of the 2nd Rak'a. Other Madh'habs have various number of Takbiraat without Qunoot. Salat of Nafal (Sunnah): صـله نافــــله او صـله ألســــــنـهVariable number of Rak’as and order before or after the obligatory Salat from each Madh'hab to the other. Other Salats: For other Salats such as for earthquake, Kusoof and Khusoof, the details are more than this chapter is intended for.
TABLE V, SALAT PARAMETERS: SALAT PARAMETERS TIMING SUJOOD REQUIREMENTS THE SHI'A: Ithna Ashari (Ja'fari) Five times a day on time. Have the option to pray Dhuhr to be followed by Asr, also Maghrib then Ishaa' in the specified time. Forehead to be on pure earth or non edibles. No Sujood on fabric, metal, etc. THE SUNNI The 4 schools. Emphasis on the specific times with options. See item (Time) below. Sujood media is variable. See item (Sujood medium), below.
PLACE REQUIREMENTS MEN'S CLOTHING REQUIREMENTS WOMEN'S CLOTHING REQUIREMENTS
Should be Halal, not confiscated or Similar to the Shi'a forcefully taken from others. with minor variations. No silk or gold. Minimally Ow'ra has to be covered, preferably covered with a garb. Silk or gold OK. Cover from head to ankles. Face, hands, and feet to show. Similar to the Shi'a with minor variations in defining Ow'ra. Cover definition variable, see item (Cover) below.
Time of Salat: أوقــــات الصـــــلهBoth the Shi'a and the Sunni emphasize performing the Salats at their specific times. However, they also give options (as a second best) for performing the Salat at more convenient times. Each Madh'hab has its sources of Hadith and Tradition to fall upon. The Fiqh of the Shi'a allows praying Dhuhr Salat to be followed by Asr, (in this order), from Zawal (mid-day) till before sun-set. It also allows
praying Maghrib Salat to be followed by Ishaa', (in this order), from after sun-set Ghuroob) till mid-night. Since this makes it convenient for them, with less chance of missing Salats and less interruption of work, many Shi'a choose this option though it is less meritorious than performing Salat strictly on the appointed times. They refer to many Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) whereby the Prophet (pbuh) prayed Dhuhr followed by Asr (and Maghrib followed by Ishaa') at times of no travel, fear, or rain. 1. Hanafi: Perform according to the specified time, but differed about defining those times. 2. Maaliki, and Hanbali make available two options, one of choice and one of necessity. The Shafi'i do likewise but with other specifications. 3. The four Madh'habs do combine the Salats (Dhuhr and Asr) or (Maghrib and Ishaa') at times of travel, fear, and/or rain, but they differ about many points in that regard too. Sujood Medium: موضـــع الســـــجـودFor Sujood, Fiqh of the Shi'a emphasizes putting the forehead on pure earth, paper, non edibles or non wearable. No Sujood can be done on fabric, rugs, metal, etc. Most Shi'a do Sujood on Turbah ( تـربــــهA clay kept clean for Sujood, and no one is allowed to trample on it or make it dirty, otherwise it is to be replaced. Also, while in Sujood, the Shi'a exclude the tip of the nose to touch the ground. 1. Hanafi, Maaliki, Shafi'i, and Hanbali allow Sujood on variable media, including rugs, cloths, metal, and earth. Some require the tip of the nose to touch the ground as part of Sujood, along with some specifics about that.
: العــــــورهCover (Ow'ra)Ow'ra is the part of the body to be covered, especially during Salat. For men the Shi'a subscribe to covering the pelvic part, better still from the umbilicus to the knees (covering them). The Sunni Madh'habs have minor variations from the Shi'a. As to women, they should cover everything except the face, hands, and the feet. Some Sunnis include the feet as Ow'ra. Besides the above invalidators of Wudu and Salat, which is more or less agreed upon by all Madh'habs, other factors do exist. If these factors do take place on purpose or unwillingly, (even before last words of Salat), they will invalidate it. Other outstanding points in the Shi'a Fiqh are listed below:
Invalidators during Salat (according to the Shi'a): 1. Turning: To turn left, right or to the back while in Salat will invalidate the Salat. 2. Talking: No talking, even to utter two letters (other than the Salat itself).
3. Laughing: No laughing, whether loud or not loud. 4. Crying: Any form of crying is unacceptable except crying out of Awe to the Almighty. 5. Eating: No eating or drinking while in Salat. 6. Walking: No walking during Salat. Invalidators during Salat (according to the Sunni): In addition to the invalidators specified by the Shi'a, the Sunni add: 1. Hanafi add clearing the throat, whining, reading of the Mus'haf or performing Sujood on unclean spot, among other things. 2. Maaliki add “not-saying the intention”, blowing, or making noise among other points. 3. Shafi'i and Hanbali add whining if two letters are recognized in it, in addition to many other complex conditions.
TABLE VI, WUDU AND SALAT INVALIDATORS: SALAT INVALIDATORS THE SHI'A Ithna Ashari DISCHARGES OTHER DISCHARGES THE SUNNI (4 schools)
Going to the bathroom (urinating, having a bowel movement, passing gas). The flow of blood or pus from any part of the body, including the monthly periods of the female and the sexual discharge of the male. Vomiting. Falling asleep. Losing one's reason whatever the cause.
VOMITING SLEEP CONSCIOUSNESS
GLOSSARY FOR CHAPTER #3
Abu Bakr: Abu Yusuf: Ah'kaam:
First Khalifa after the Prophet (pbuh). Student of Abu Hanifa, had his own Fiqh conclusions, he was politically involved in Abbasi government. The detailed rules and regulations of the Shari'ah, according to the Ij'tihaad of the Jurist.
Fatima and the Designated twelve Imams from Ali to Al-Mahdi, who safeguarded the teaching of Islam and Ahlul Bayt: conferred it to the Ummah as Muhammad (pbuh) had taught it. A movement originated in Pakistan who believe in Ahmadiya: continuation of Prophethood through time. Al-Asmaa Al-Husna: The ninety nine sublime attributes of the Almighty. Ali ibn Al-Husain: The fourth Designated Imam, (Zainul Abideen). A movement originated in Iran as a corrupted format of the Baha'is: Shi'a, politically minded. Bas'malah: Saying Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. A movement originated in Syria as a corrupted format of Druze: Islam. Fiqh: Rules and regulations of Islam. Ghuroob: Time of sunset. Hanafi: A Sunni School of Thought. Hanbali: A Sunni School of Thought. Ibn Abbas: A Sahaabi, well versed in Islam, tutored by Imam Ali. Ibn Mas'ood: A Sahaabi, highly respected. Ibn Omar: A Sahaabi, highly respected. A process for the scholars in Islam to solve intricate Fiqh Ij'tihaad: problems specific to the period of time in which they were presented. Cousin of the Prophet (pbuh), raised by him, married his Imam Ali: daughter Fatima, extremely strict about teachings of the Sunnah. His teachings are followed by the Shi'a. One of the off-shoots of the generic Shi'a, most followers Ismailis: are in Indian subcontinent. Kharijis: Rebels against authority in the name of Islam. Khilaafah: Process of rule after the Prophet (pbuh) passed away. Maaliki: A Sunni School of Thought. Madh'hab: Fiqh of a School of Thought in Islam. First of Benu Umayya to become Khalifa, instituted many Mu'awiya: un-Islamic practices such as monarchy. Mus'tahab: Preferable. Must (Wajib): Has to be done from Islamic point of view. The second great Khalifa after the Prophet (pbuh), was sonOmar: in-law of Ali. Salat of Janaaza: Special Salat for the deceased. Shafi'i: A Sunni School of Thought.
Shari'ah: Shi'a: Sunnah: Sunni: Surah: Takbiraat: Tat'weeq: Turbah: Witr Salat: Zaidis: Zawal: Zayd ibn Arqam:
The Divine Constitution of Islam. Followers of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh) as taught by the Prophet's family (Ahlul Bayt). Tradition of the Prophet (pbuh). Followers of the Sahaaba and Tabi'in's teaching of the Sunnah of the Prophet (pbuh). Chapter of the Quran. Saying Allaahu Akbar. Wetting the neck during Wudu by one of the Madh'habs. A clean piece of clay kept for Sujood of the Shi'a. A special Salat besides the five daily Salats. A branch of the generic Shi'a believing in 5 Imams. Mid-day time when the sun is usually at its height. A great Sahaabi.
 As reported by Youssef M'roueh in the convention of the Assembly of Ahlul Bayt held at the IEC, Potomac, Nov. 17, 1996. Youssef M'roueh is a Muslim scholar, author and historian of science, and radiation control physicist).  Al-Mun'taqa, Shar'h Mu'watta, Vol. 1, Page 35. Also, Bidayat Al-Muj'tahid, Vol. 1, Page 10. Also Al-Rowdh Al-Nadi, Page 35.  Shar'h Sahih Muslim, Al-Nawawi, Vol. 4, Page 107. Also Al-Mabsoot, Al-Sarkhasi, Vol. 1, Page 65. Also Ghaayat Al-Mun'taha, Page 31.  Tafseer Al-Razi, Vol. 3, Page 371. Bidayat Al-Muj'tahid, Vol. 1, Page 17.  Al-Hidaya, Vol. 1, Page 4. Also Umdat Al-Fiqh according to Ahmad, Vol. 1, Page 13.  Al-Mun'ia, Page 11. Also Fataawa Ibn Taymiya, 1, Page 47, and Shir'at Al-Islam, Page 92.  Al-Mabsoot, Vol. 1, Page 106. Also Al-Muntaqa, Vol. 1, Page 114. Also Al-Mughni, Vol. 1, Page 255.  Al-Bahr Al-Zaakhir, Vol. 1, Page 192. Also Al-Muhalla, Vol. 3, Page 160.  Mu'watta Malik, in Masabih Al-Sunnah, Al-Baghwi, Vol. 1, Page 37.  Shar'h Al-Mu'watta, Al-Baji, Vol. 1, Page 142. Also Al-Mughni, Ibn Qidaamah, Vol.  Al-Maj'moo', Vol. 1, Page 312.
 Al-Umm, Al-Shafi'i, Vol. 1, Page 108.
 Al-Uddah, Vol. 2, Box 410. Also Al-Mun'taqa, Vol. 1, Page 151.
 Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Vol. 3, Page 331. Also Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, by Muhammad J. Maghniya, Page 111.
 Bukhari, Section Salat. Also Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya, Page 111.  Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 3.  Kashf Al-Ghumma, Al-Sha'rani, Vol. 2, Page 220. Also Mus'nad Ahmad, Vol. 2, Page 162.  Ma'ani Al-Athar, Vol. 1, Page 288. Mus'nad Ahmad, Vol. 1, Page 221 and 251. Shar'h Mu'watta, Al-Zarqani Vol. 1, Page 263. Mu'watta, Malik, Hadith of combining Salats. Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya. Also Al-Saadiq and the four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 3, Page 272. Al-Hidaya, Vol. 1, Page 24. Al-Mukh'tasar, Ibn Ishaaq, Page 15. Also Al-Muhadh'dhab, Shirazi, Vol. 1, Page 52. Al-Nawawi, Shar'h Muslim, Vol. 4, Page 208. Fiqh according to the five Madh'habs, Muhammad J. Maghniya, Page 92.
AN OVERVIEW OF HADITH
Main Sources for this chapter:
Sources of Hadith, Muhammad Al-Jalali. Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar. Nahjul Balaaghah, English Translation of certain selections, Farouk Ebeid. Introduction to Hadith, A. Rahman Doi. Mish'kaat Al-Masabeeh, Translation by Fazlul Karim.
WHAT IS HADITH? الحــــــديـث The Hadith is the record of the sayings of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh). The sayings and conduct of Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) constitute the Sunnah. The Hadith has come to supplement the Holy Quran as a source of the Islamic religious law. The Hadith is the second pillar after the Quran upon which every Muslim rests his faith. Hadith consists of Mat'n متنand Isnad . اسنادMat'n means the text of the Hadith, while Isnad means the chain of transmitters to that Hadith. The scholars of the Hadith literature divided the Traditions of the Prophet (pbuh) into categories according to the degree of authenticity and reliability, each category had to meet certain criteria. The categories are as follows: 1. Sahih: صحـيـحThe genuine Traditions, the authentic ones. 2. Moothaq: موثـقAlmost like the Sahih but the narration is not as strong as those of the Sahih. 3. Hasan: حـسـنThe fair Traditions although inferior in matter of authenticity. 4. Dha'eef: ضـعيـفThe weak Traditions which are not so reliable. In the Shari'ah (Islamic Constitution) deeds and actions are divided into five classes: 1. Fardh or Wajib: فرض او واجـبAn obligatory duty the omission of which is Islamicly punishable. 2. Mus'tahab: مسـتـحبAn action which is rewarded, but whose omission is not punishable. 3. Mu'baah:: مـباحAn action which is permitted but legally is indifferent. 4. Mak'rooh: مكـروهAn action which is disapproved by the Shari'ah but is not under any penalty. 5. Haram: An action which is forbidden, and Islamicly punishable. THE FABRICATED HADITHS: الحـــاديـت المــخـتلـــقه History of Fabrication: During Benu Umayya's Rule: Bringing forth a Counterfeit Hadith was widespread throughout this period. During Benu Abbas' Rule, producing and circulating counterfeit Hadiths was widespread, in particular with the advent of the schools of thought in Islam. By the year 200 H.: Total of 600,000 Hadiths were in existence, out of which 408,324 Hadith were fabricated (counterfeit) Hadiths by 620 forgers, whose names and identity are known. Most Notorious Forgers: Ibn Jundub, Abu Bukhtari, Ibn Basheer, Abdullah AlAnsaari, Al-Sindi. One of them, Ibn Au'jaa, professed before he was hanged (for his heresy) that he alone had forged 4,000 Hadiths.
Reason to Fabricate (To do Hadith forgery): 1. Financial incentive by the Khalifas, for example Mu'awiya awarded Ibn Jundub and others hundreds of thousands of Dinars for coming forth with Hadiths that suited him. 2. As a means of self-promotion in the government. 3. In a drive to enhance a particular school of thought. 4. Fanaticism for a school of thought at the expense of others. 5. Al-Qassassoon (The story-tellers): القصــاصــونTheir operation and major role in the public.
SUNNI COLLECTION OF AL-HADITH
DURING THE 1ST CENTURY H. a. The administration of the early Khalifas discouraged putting the Hadith in writing, instead, they encouraged committing the Hadith to memory. The general public went along but soon it was discovered that confusion about the authenticity of the Hadith was taking place. For one thing many of the Sahaaba had died, and for another, that committing to memory was not reliable at large, especially if you want the Hadith verbatim as the Prophet (pbuh) had said it at the circumstance it was said. b. Al-Zuhri, Al-Hazm were both commissioned by Khalifa Omar Ibn Abdul Aziz to collect the Hadith but the work was probably not done, due to early death of the Khalifa in 101 H. No record of their work exists. DURING THE 2ND CENTURY H.: a. Collection of Hadith was mainly by: a) Ibn Jarih, b) Al-Thawri, c) Ibn Basheer, and d) Malik Ibn Anas in his Mu'watta. b. The necessity of I'lm Al-Rijaal, ( علجججم الرججججالScience of men of Hadith Transmitters): The Background, Intelligence, Authenticity, Reliability, Capacity to Memorize, Manner of living, Reputation, Criticism, were all considered before reliability of the narrator could be established. This was necessary because of the numerous counterfeit Hadiths circulated at the time. c. Compiling books about forged (counterfeit) Hadiths: This was necessary to warn the Scholars as well as the public about the plethora of the forged Hadiths at that time. DURING THE 3RD CENTURY H.: The Hadith was collected and categorized in the later part of the third century of Hijrah resulting in six canonical collections called (Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah): 1. Sahih of Al-Bukhari, d.256 A.H: صـحيـح بخارىSelected 7275 (2712 Nonduplicated) out of 600,000 available Hadiths he was aware of. 2. Sahih of Muslim, d.261 A.H: صـحيـح مسـلمSelected 9200 (4,000 Nonduplicated) out of 300,000 available Hadiths he was aware of. 3. Sunan of Abu Dawood, d.276 A.H. سنن ابو داود Selected 4,800 of 500,000 available Hadiths he was aware of.. 4. Sunan of Ibn Maajeh: d.273 A.H. ســــنن ابن ماجه 5. Jami' of Tirmidhi, d.279 A.H. جـــامع التــــرمـذى
6. Sunan of al-Nisaa'i, d.303 A.H. ســـــنن النـــــسـائي It is worthy of note that the number of the Shi'a transmitters of Hadith whose quotes appear in the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah is over 300. Al-Bukhari, —of Sahih Bukhari, 194-256H: البخـــــاري Al-Bukhari's mother tongue was Persian for he was born in Bukhara. Part of Persia in those days. He collected the Hadith over a period of many years, having established certain strict criteria. Political times during Bukhari’s lifetime were very troublesome especially against Ahlul Bayt (led by the weird ruler Al-Mutawak'kil .) المتوكججججلAs a consequence Bukhari was cautious and circumspect, having mentioned less about Ahlul Bayt's narrations than any of the Al-Sihaah Al-Sittah. Of the 2210 Hadiths claimed to have been narrated by Abu Hurairah quoting A'isha, by using their criteria Bukhari and Muslim accepted only 174 Hadiths as worthy and valid. Therefore, the remaining 2,036 Hadiths produced forth by Abu Hurairah were flatly rejected by them simply as unacceptable. Bukhari was born to a slave family of Bukhara in 194H. His father died while Bukhari was a child, leaving him a considerable fortune. Bukhari was of weak physique, but with strong intellect, sharp retentive memory, great capacity for hard work, he was methodical. He began to study Hadith at the early age of eleven and gathered all the Traditions within six years. Then he went to Mecca for pilgrimage from where he took a journey for the collection of Hadith. He traveled nearly forty years in quest of knowledge throughout the Muslim world. He then returned to Nishapoor in Iran but he had to leave as he could not yield to the wishes of the Governor. Bukhari settled afterwards in a village at Samarkand where he died at the age of 62 years in 256H. It has been said by some that he died in Baghdad.ج Throughout his life Bukhari was pious, and the Prophet's Tradition was his hobby while archery was his pastime. He selected 2712 non-duplicated Hadiths which became 7,275 when duplicated by many narrators. These Hadiths were selected out of 600,000 Traditions available to him at the time. It can be said that Bukhari found the remaining 592,725 Hadiths of unworthy basis and were to be ignored. The fact is that if one Hadith was narrated by six narrators, then this Hadith was reported as 6 Hadiths though with minor variation in expression of the Hadith in question. Thus the number of Hadiths would increase depending on how many narrators report it. Muslim, —of Sahih Muslim, 204-261H: مـســـــــلم It is said Muslim was a student of Al-Bukhari and 8 years younger. He differed from Bukhari in his methodology and criteria. He collected the Hadith over a number of years, having established his own criteria. Political times then were less troublesome against Ahlul Bayt, (since Al-Mutawak'kil was killed by his own son), therefore Muslim narrated a large number of Hadiths about Ahlul Bayt
(far more than Bukhari), now that the political atmosphere had become less charged and the circumstance more favorable. Muslim al-Nishaapori was born in a distinguished family of Arab Muslims in Khurasan, Iran in 204H, and his mother tongue was Persian for he was born in Nishapoor of Persia. His forefathers occupied prominent positions during the time of four Khalifas; and Muslim himself inherited a large fortune from his father who was also a Traditionist of some repute. Muslim traveled to many places for learning Hadith, and after finishing off his studies he settled down at Nishapoor, spending the remainder of his life in sermonizing the Hadiths. He died in the year 261H. Sahih of Muslim is considered as next to Bukhari in authenticity. It is somewhat superior to Bukhari's work in the details of arrangement of Traditions. The commentary of this book can be found in Ibn Khalikan's work Vol. II, Page 91, and in Fehrist (page 231). Sahih Muslim contains 4,000 non-duplicate Hadiths becoming 9,200 when duplicates are registered. These Hadiths were selected out of 300,000 circulating Hadiths he was aware of. Abu Dawood—of Sunan Abu Dawood 203-276H ابو داود Abu Dawood received his education in Tradition at Khurasan, in Iran. He traveled to all the important centers of Hadith, learned and collected them wherever they were found. He was so respected by the general body of the Muslims that after the city was sacked and depopulated on account of the invasion of the Zinjies, he was requested by al-Muaffiq (the Commander-in-Chief of the Khalifa al-Mu'tadhid) to settle there in order that the people and the students might be attracted to that town by his presence. He acceded to the request, but refused to teach the Commander's son in private. He said to the Abbasi General (and the founder of the Suffari dynasty) that he was unable to degrade knowledge by making difference between the princes and the poor students. Abu Dawood wrote many books on Tradition and Islamic laws of which his “Sunan” is the most important. The Sunan contains 4,800 Traditions which were sifted from 500,000 Hadiths he was aware of. This work took him nearly 20 years. al-Tirmidhi: —of Jami'i al-Tirmidhi : 209-279H الترمــــذى This is another standard work on Hadith and is considered by the Sunni Muslim jurists as one of the six authentic Traditions works. Tirmidhi was the first man to determine the identity of the names, surnames, and titles of the narrators of Traditions. al-Nisaa'i —of Sunan al-Nisaa'i: 215-303H: النسائي Al-Nisaa'i made a good Hadith collection, quite credible. He wrote AlKhasa'is book, about the eminence of Imam Ali and Ahlul Bayt and the Hadiths on their behalf. Al-Nisaa'i was 88 years old when in Damascus he expressed his views about Mu'awiya by saying, “All I know is that the Prophet (pbuh) had said
about Mu'awiya, `May Allah make a glutton out of him to eat and not feel full'.” This infuriated Mu'awiya's sympathizers, they attacked al-Nisaa'i, trampled upon him, crushed his testicles, after which the infirm Nisaa'i was taken to Mecca where he died. He was buried between Safa and Marwa.  Sunan of al-Nisaa'i work on Tradition has been recognized as the best Tradition work of his time, and his smaller work is now considered as one of the Sihaah Sittah. He was the foremost Traditionist of his age and spared no pains in having Hadith recorded in his Sunan. He admitted that in his work there are many weak and doubtful Hadiths (Traditions). Ibn Maajeh —of Sunan Ibn Maajeh, 209-295H: ابن ماجـــــه In search of Hadith Ibn Maajeh traveled to Baghdad, Basrah, Kufa, Syria, and Egypt. Some reject his work in favor of al-Mu'watta of Malik. Imam Ahmad —of Mus'nad Ahmad, 164-241H: امام احمـــــد ِ ٍ Imam Ahmad was born in Baghdad, and his was the most important and exhaustive of all Mus'nad works. His pious and selfless life created a halo of sanctity around his great collection of Traditions and in spite of its great bulk, it survived the vicissitude of time and revolution of empires. His Mus'nad contains 30,000 Traditions on various subjects, reported by as many as 700 companions of the Prophet. He died before he gave it a final shape and his son Abdullah completed it in the course of 13 years. This book occupied a very important position in Hadith literature and served for a long time as the chief source of Hadith. It was read up to the 12th century. Afterwards it fell into relative disfavor owing to other better works.
SHI'A COLLECTION OF AL-HADITH
It was during the Khilaafah of Abu Bakr and early Khilaafah of Omar that Imam Ali (a.s.) set to the task of registering the Hadiths. Imam Ali was incomparably strict about Islam, and could foresee the need to render the Hadith in written form to be the source for future generations. Ali was fanatic about the accuracy of his writing, and in an agonizingly methodical manner he accomplished the following: During Abu Bakr's Khilaafah: Ali rendered in writing the following: 1. Holy Quran: Chronological order of the Quran's revelations called القـــرآن حســـب ترتيــب النـــزول 2. Tafseer of the Holy Quran, 3 volumes: called: Mus'haf Fatima. مصــحف فاطـــمه During Omar's Khilaafah: Ali rendered the following: 1. Hadith of the Prophet (pbuh): Voluminous, called: Saheefa of Ali. صحيـــفه علي 2. Fiqh: Al-Ah'kaam and Mu'aamalat, the Halal and Haram called الحــكام والمعاملت During Uthman's Khilaafah: Ali rendered the following:
1. History of the various Prophets as he learned from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), called: The White Al-Jafr. . الجـــفر البيـــض 2. Islamic rules and directives of Wars, called The Red Al-Jafr. الجـــفر الحـــمر As rendered the books of Ali were called Al-Jami'ah ( ألجـامــــعــــهthe Encyclopedia) and they were left with the Imams of Ahlul Bayt, each new Imam receiving them from the dying predecessor Imam. The Imams referred to these Hadiths and books over a period of about three centuries. Notable among them is Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq, who was the teacher of Imam Abu Hanifa and AlMaaliki, and as many as 4000 scholars who graduated from his school. As many as 400 religious books were written by Al-Saadiq’s students, referred to as the 400 Usool (the 400 books of basics in Islam) . الصـول الربعمـائه THE CORPUS OF ISLAMIC KNOWLEDGE 1. The Holy Quran in chronological order, 2. The Tafseer of the Holy Quran consisting of three large volumes, called Mus'haf Fatima, 3. The books of Hadith as Imam Ali had recorded them, called Saheefa of Ali, 4. The books about Al-Ah'kaam, detailing the rule and regulations of the Shari'ah, and 5. The books of the Jafr: a. The White Jafr about knowledge of the Prophets, life happenings, and other special (mystic) matters b. The Red Jafr comprised of rules and matters about and involving wars.
Because of the source and chain of narration of the Hadith, the Shi'a (Ja'fari) rely only on the Hadiths as narrated by Ahlul Bayt or those Hadiths in the AlSihaah Al-Sittah (Bukhari, Muslim and others) that are similar to what Ahlul Bayt had quoted. ────══════·══════──── JA'FARI (SHI'A) SOURCE OF HADITH The original books of Hadith as written by Imam Ali are not available, but the sources of Hadith of Ahlul Bayt were best registered by: 1. Al-Kulaini (d.329AH/940AD) in the book of Al-Kaafi which registers 16,199 Hadiths. 2. Al-Siddooq in the book of Man La Yah'dharhu al-Faqeeh. 3. Toosi in the book of Al-Tah'dheeb, and the book of Istibsaar.
BRIEF PERSONAL PERSPECTIVE: Ø Al-Kulaini 1. Life: Great scholar, taught in Baghdad, wrote many books. 2. Hadith Works: Al-Kaafi took 20 years to write, 34 sections with 326 chapters. Registered 16,199 Hadith or sayings through Ahlul Bayt, 2577 Sahih, 1118 Moothaq, 302 Qawiy, 144 Hasan, and 9380 Weak. Ø Al-Qummi, Al-Siddooq 1. Life: Scholar of exceptional caliber, from Qum. Wrote numerous books and resided in Baghdad, teaching for a while. 2. Hadith Works: Mun Laa Yah'dharhu Al-Faqeeh, 5,973 Hadiths in 446 sections. Ø Muhammad Al-Toosi 1. Life: Leader and scholar of great repute; taught in Baghdad both Shi'a and Sunni. During disturbance between Shi'a and Sunni which the government enticed, Al-Toosi's library was burned, his house attacked, and he left Baghdad to Najaf where he established the Howza Ilmiyyah (Islamic Seminary). 2. Hadith Works: 3. Tah'dheeb Al-Ah'kaam, 12,590 Hadiths, in 390 sections. 4. Al-Istibsaar 5,521 Hadiths. ────══════·══════────
SHI'A COLLECTION OF AL-HADITH, HIGHLIGHTS HADITH IN THE FIRST CENTURY: Collected by
Imam Ali Zainul Abideen Abi Rafi' Jabir Al-Ansaari
Saheefa of Ali Risalat Al-Huqooq Al-Saheefa Al-Sajjadiya Sunan and Ah'kaam Mansak
Referenced by Shi'i and Sunni scholars Written by the Imam or Dictated to his companions Servant of the Prophet, close to Ali, d 30H Companion of the Prophet, d 78H
HADITH IN THE SECOND CENTURY: Collected by
Imam Al-Baaqir Zaid Ibn Ali Imam Al-Saadiq
Tafseer Al-Quran Mus'nad Al-Tawhid
Having references to Hadith Hadith and Fiqh Most of the writing by his Companions All referencing to Imam Ja'far Al-Saadiq. They were completed over 90-100 years (by the time of Al-Hasan AlAskari).
The 400 Usool (400 books) Elaboration and expansion on Hadith
HADITH IN THE THIRD CENTURY: Depending on the 400 Usool (the 400 Books) three massive works of collecting the Hadith through Ahlul Bayt, well categorized and indexed, were done. It became a reference for about two centuries. They are: 1. The Collection (AL-Jami') by Al-Warraq Al-Hadhrami 2. The Collection (AL-Jami') by Muhammad ibn Ahmad Al-Ash’ari 3. The Collection (AL-Jami') by Muhammad ibn Al-Hasan ibin Al-Waleed HADITH IN THE FOURTH CENTURY TILL NOW: Collected by
16,199 Hadiths, about half
are Sahih, Hasan, or Moothaq Al-Siddooq Al-Toosi Al-Toosi Mun Laa Yah'dharhu AlFaqeeh Tah'dheeb Al-Ah'kaam Al-Istibsaar 5,973 Hadiths, with 3913 References 12,590 Hadiths, in 93 chapters 5,521 Hadiths
Hadiths (See Sources of the Hadith to the Ja'fari (Shi'a) by Muhammad Husain Al-Jalali.)
The Golden Chain of Narration: السلسله الذهبيه Because of being the trusted Prophet's family and the most learned, the narrations of Ahlul Bayt were often referred to as the Golden Chain of Narration. Ahlul Bayt's care in transmitting, and their meticulousness, and righteousness made people flock to them for quotes of Hadith, taking them as examples, and writing numerous books about Hadith, Fiqh, Ah'kaam, Halal and Haram among other subjects. The Shi'a believe that the Imams were Divinely Commissioned, therefore they were Ma'soom, معـصـــومونmeaning safeguarded by Allah from: 1. Religious error, 2. Sin, and 3. Forgetfulness. Therefore, to the Shi'a the narration of the Imams was binding, their teaching binding, and the Hadith they narrated was the only one acceptable to them. If the Hadith in the Sihaah Al-Sittah (Sunni) is confirmed by the Hadith from one of the Imams, then that Hadith is acceptable, otherwise it would be questionable. Each Imam used to say: “My Hadith is the Hadith of my father, and his is the Hadith of his father, up to Ali, who directly narrated the Hadith from Prophet Muhammad (pbuh).” Al-Kulaini Al-Baghdadi, died 329H: الكـلـــــيـنـي Al-Kulaini Al-Baghdadi belonged to a noble family of Kulain which has produced a group of outstanding scholars in Islamic Jurisprudence and Hadith. At Baghdad Al-Kulaini was the outstanding Shi'i scholar in Islamic Jurisprudence during the reign of Khalifa al-Muq'tadir. The unique qualification of al-Kulaini, the compiler of al-Kaafi , الكـافيis that among all other compilers of Hadith, he alone was the contemporary of all four successive deputies (or ambassadors) of Imam al-Mahdi — المـهـديthe twelfth Imam. Hence he had all the facilities of collecting traditions from the requisite sources. Therefore, al-Kaafi is rightly regarded as a unique collection and compilation during the life time of all the four successive deputies of Imam al-Mahdi. Al-Kulaini compiled this book on the request of the prominent Shi'i scholars who wanted to have a comprehensive book containing all information of Islamic literature which would be sufficient for them. Al-Kulaini's court was the rendezvous of the great scholars in Islamic studies who used to go in search of knowledge to different places. The great scholars of
the time used to present themselves in Al-Kulaini's court to discuss, to exchange notes, to confer with him, and to acquire full understanding of Islamic problems. Al-Kulaini was a great scholar, a reliable Traditionist and a man of great learning. He was the most outstanding jurist and authority in Traditions' Science. He was the dominant chief of the Islamic jurists and a superb scholar of Islamic literature. He was a man of great temperance, piety, integrity and holiness. Al-Kulaini's book, al-Kaafi, is no doubt an outstanding collection of Traditions in the largest measure. It is a treasure of Islamic literature, Shari'ah (code), divine commandments inclusive of imperatives, prohibitions, reprimands and Sunan — the sayings and doings of the Holy Prophet (pbuh) and the twelve Imams. It is a collection about Islamic education and culture. It contains the record of the sayings and doings of the Holy Prophet and the twelve Imams. Al-Kulaini has himself written preface of his book al-Kaafi and has also added some needed explanatory notes on some of the chapters which are indicative of his high skill and proficiency in the art of writing and in his knowledge of Arabic literature, its depth and its hidden wisdom. It also indicates his convincing presentation, his fluency, his eloquence and also his high place in the art of Arabic composition. Kulaini taught at the university in Baghdad, and he was an expert historian, was well versed in categorizing the narrators of Hadith and the Traditionists. He is also an author of many books, among which is a book in the art and science of Traditions (Hadith). He was expert in scrutinizing the narrators. Of all the books he had written however, Al-Kaafi stands out in value and popularity. Al-Kaafi consists of two volumes about Usool ( اصــولFundamentals of Faith), and 6 volumes of Furoo'( فروعIslamic Rituals and Dealings). Book Al-Kaafi took 20 years to be written, consisting of 34 sections with 326 chapters. It registered 16,199 Hadiths or sayings, 2577 Sahih or authentic, 1118 Moothaq or reliable enough, 302 Qawiy or strong enough, 144 Hasan or fairly credible, and 9380 Dha'eef meaning Weak. al-Siddooq al-Qummi, 306-381H: الصــــدوق Author of Mun Laa Yah'dharhu Al-Faqeeh, 5,973 Hadiths, with 3913 References Muhammad al-Qummi ibn Babawaih al-Siddooq (c. 306-381), lived in Ray [Iran] where he died and was buried. His tomb is still there, and visited by crowds of people, in what is known as the “Ibn Babawaih Cemetery” in a southern suburb of Tehran. Numerous scholars said of him: “As a scholar, al-Siddooq was of the first rank, had a good memory, was knowledgeable in Fiqh and had memorized Hadith. He was our leader, our jurist and the symbol of our sect in Khurasan (and the East). He came to Baghdad in 355H, and the leading scholars of the sect heard (Traditions) from him. If he is compared with those who heard Traditions from him, they were older than he, had been hearing Traditions before he had, and had precedence over him in the order of chains of transmission. He wrote about three hundred (300) works.”
Al-Siddooq grew up in Qum, the famous Iranian city which was built after Islam. Qum has been distinguished since its foundation by its loyalty towards Ahlul Bayt [the family of Muhammad (pbuh)] embracing their tutoring and enlightenment, and it is a place of learning in their sciences. Since the dawn of the third Hijrah century (8th AD) Qum has become one of those Shi'i sites acting as a center for the sciences of the Ahlul Bayt in general, and their traditions (Hadiths) and jurisprudence (fiqh) in particular. At present, Shi'a scholarship and learning have been revived in Qum after a certain lapse, and it is now considered as one of the most famous cities of learning in Shi'a branch of Islam. Al-Siddooq (Al-Qummi) was born in a well-known scholarly family known through several generations as famous in the field of Hadith and its sciences. AlQummi's father, his brother, his nephews and their grandsons are counted as transmitters of Hadith and students of its science. This scholarly activity was uninterrupted in the family for about 300 years, starting from the fourth century H., and continuing until the seventh century H. Though the hometown of the family was Qum, the family moved to the city of Ray, one of the largest cities in Iran in those days, a city boasting many outstanding Muslim scholars. Ray was completely destroyed some years later by the Mongol savage invasion, and the city of Tehran, which was originally a village near Ray, was built nearby at a later date. Al-Siddooq al-Qummi is particularly famous for the long journeys he undertook for learning and teachings. He visited most parts of what were the eastern lands of Islam in those days. He traveled in Khurasan and Transoxania in the northeast, as well as in the central Islamic lands like Iraq and the Hijaz. He visited most of the towns and centers of learning in these places studying and transmitting Hadiths (Traditions), learning and teaching, giving and taking. In the beginning it was he who profited more, but in the end it was others who profited more from him, and this was because he himself narrated from so many sheikhs, whose names totaled more than 250 in those of his books we still have. Of the 300 books and/or treatises al-Siddooq wrote, however, we now have only eighteen books and treatises, which represents a small portion of his works. Moreover, his largest work on Haf'th Madinatul I'lm (The City of Knowledge) does not exist any more. If we had all of as-Siddooq's numerous writings, and the inventories of the names of those he met and transmitted from (mashyakhah) and other references, the real number would probably be many times greater. The most important references for the study of al-Siddooq's works are: an-Najashi, al-Fihrist, pp. 302--306; at-Toosi, al-Fihrist, pp. 184--186; Majma'u al-Rijaal, vol. 5, pp. 269 - 273; and an-Nur; among others. l-Toosi, 385-460H: ألطــــــوسـي Sheikh al-Ta'ifa (the Grandmaster of the community) al-Toosi was born in 385H. His career marks the climax of a very great period in Shi'a Islamic scholarship and learning. It was during this period that Shi'a scholars were without rivals in the Islamic world.
In 408H. al-Toosi studied in Baghdad under al-Sheikh al-Mufeed, who died in 413H. whereby leadership of the Shi'a scholars fell to al-Shareef al-Murtadha until his death in 436H. During this time al-Toosi was closely associated with al-Shareef al-Murtadha. Al-Toosi's vast scholarship and learning made him a natural successor of al-Shareef al-Murtadha as the leading spokesman of Shi'a branch of Islam. So impressive was his learning that the Abbasi Khalifa, al-Qaadir bi-'llaah, attended his lectures and sought to honor him. In the closing years of al-Toosi's life the political situation in Baghdad and the domains of the Abbasi caliphate was in political turbulence and turmoil. The Turkic Saljuqs ( السـلجـقـهwho were fiercely anti-Shi'a), were gaining commanding power in the center of the Islamic empire at the expense of the contemporary rulers (the Buwayhis) . البـويـهيـنIn 447H Tughril-Beg the leaders of the Saljuqs invaded Baghdad. At this time, and due to disturbances, many of the Islamic scholars (U'lamaa) in Baghdad, both Sunni and Shi'a were killed. The house of al-Toosi was burned down, as were his books and the works he had written while in Baghdad. In addition, in a fit of vindictiveness, important libraries of Shi'a books, as precious as they are, were burned. This was done along with aggressively plundering the houses and burning many of them. These houses belonged to the elite Shi'a, the cream of the society, they were the bankers, administrators, engineers, writers, merchants, and philosophers, among other professionals. All in all, 30,000 people were put to the sword! Seeing the grave danger of remaining in Baghdad, al-Toosi left it with a heavy heart to go to al-Najaf. Al-Najaf, the city where Imam Ali had been buried, was already a very important city in the hearts of Shi'a Muslims. However, it was al-Sheikh al-Toosi's arrival which was to give that city the impetus to become the leading center of Shi'a scholarship. There he established the Howza الحـــوزه , العـلـمـيــهa university-like institute to study Tafseer, Fiqh, Ah'kaam, theological logic, I'lm al-Rijaal, besides many other branches of science. The Howza has boasted as many as 15,000 students, the scholars graduating served all over the Ummah. This role has been maintained down to the present day. Al-Toosi died in al-Najaf in 460 A.H. His body was buried in a house there, which was made into a mosque as he had enjoined in his will. Even today his grave is a place of visitation in al-Najaf. Al-Toosi was succeeded by his son al-Hasan, who was known as al-Mufeed al-Thani, and was himself an outstanding scholar. Al-Toosi was a learned Traditionist, whose two compilations will be discussed below; but he was not only a Traditionist, he was also an authoritative jurist, who could interpret Traditions to meet the needs of jurisprudence, and many of his works on jurisprudence and the principles of jurisprudence still survive, in particular al-Mabsut and al-Nihaya. In addition, he was the leading Shi'a theologian of his time. As well as writing works of a general theological nature, he also wrote specific works on individual topics. On the Imamah, he wrote Talkhis al-Shafi , تلخــيص الشــافيwhich was based on al-Murtadha's al-Shafi fil-Imamah. He wrote a work on al-Ghayba ( الغيــــبهthe occultation of Al-Mahdi, the 12th Imam). As a Traditionist, al-Toosi naturally had an interest in the men
who related Traditions, in his Kitab al-Rijaal , الرجـــالhe tries to list most of the important Shi'as up to his time. His (Fihrist) فهرســتis an important work of Shi'a bibliography. In it he lists many of the works of early Shi'a writers and sometimes gives an account of their writers and the contents of the works. This work may to some extent reflect al-Toosi's own library before it was so tragically destroyed. One of the remarkable features of this work is that despite the great number of Traditions, which had become known to al-Toosi since the time of al-Kulaini and al-Siddooq, al-Toosi's interpretation of what are the correct Traditions, preserves Shi'a law in a very similar position to that of al-Kulaini and al-Siddooq. The reason for the great spread of diverse Traditions during the period from al-Kulaini's death to al-Toosi's (328 to 460H) may have been the fact that this was a period in which the rulers [the Buwayhis] البويهـــيونheld sway in Baghdad; they were very sympathetic towards the Shi'a. Thus, this was a period in which the Shi'a could explain their beliefs openly notwithstanding reprisals. In such circumstances, there was much more opportunity for outsiders to bring extraneous Traditions into the Shi'a corpus. However al-Toosi had available to him many of the early works of Usool ( )ألصـول ألربـعـمـائهwhich had been available to the earlier Shi'a compilers of collections of Traditions. Al-Toosi says about this work: "When our companions looked at the Akhbaar (Traditions) connected with what is permitted and forbidden (al-Halal wal Haram) which we had collected in it, they saw that they included most of what the sections of laws connected with jurisprudence. In all its sections and its chapters, only very little of the Traditions of our companions, their books, (the 400 Usool) and compilations has escaped. Al-Istibsaar: السـتـبـــــصـار Al-Istibsaar is the fourth and last of the major works of Shi'a Islamic Traditions. It covers the same field as (Tah'dheeb al-Ah'kaam) but is considerably smaller. Al-Toosi mentions that his colleagues, after seeing the size of Tah'dheeb al-Ah'kaam considered: "...... It would be useful that there should be a reference (madhkur) book which a beginner could use in his study of jurisprudence, or one who has finished, but to remind himself, or the intermediate (student), to study more deeply. By so doing all could obtain what they need and reach their soul's desire, what is connected with different Traditions would be set in an abridged way . . . Therefore they asked me to summarize (Tah'dheeb al-Ah'kaam) and devote care to its compilation and abridgement, and to begin each section with an introduction about what I relied on for the legal decisions and Traditions in it; then I should follow with those Traditions which disagree and explain the reconciliation between the two without leaving out anything which was influential. I would follow my practice in my big book mentioned earlier (i.e. Tah'dheeb al-Ah’kaam) and at the beginning of the book, I would explain briefly how Traditions are weighed against each other, and how the practice of something was possible through (the authority) of (some of) them to the exclusion of the rest” Al-Toosi, then, follows this statement with a brief but comprehensive and clear outline of the principles of jurisprudence.
From al-Toosi's own introduction, al-Istibsaar is essentially a summary of Tah'dheeb al-Ah'kaam. Its methods are similar but briefer; there are not so many Traditions used in the work and the explanations are more concise. In many ways it is closer to Man la Yah'dharhu al-Faqeeh, although unlike the latter it gives full Isnad (referencing) for the Traditions quoted. However it is possible to say that al-Kaafi and Tah'dheeb al-Ah'kaam represent comprehensive collections of Traditions, while Man la Yah'dharhu al-Faqeeh and al-Istibsaar are books intended to be used as ready reference works for students and scholars. The collections and commentaries of Shi'a Traditions did not end with al-Toosi but his works mark the high point in this process. It had begun with al-Kulaini, whose al-Kaafi, while not the first collection, and was certainly the first major collection based on the early works of Usool. The process had been continued by al-Siddooq; in his introduction to Man la Yah'dharhu al-Faqeeh he makes it clear that he had also used these Usool. Al-Toosi, the author of the other two major works of Shi'a Traditions also admits his dependence on these early works. As has already been pointed out, these three authors and their four major works of Tradition present a generally consistent picture of Shi'a Islamic legal thinking. It is a remarkable picture of Tradition and shows that, whatever the vagaries of individuals may have been, leading Shi'a scholars had a clear and consistent view of their Traditions.
Manner of Collection of al-Hadith
Al-Sihah Al-Sittah (Sunni) Registered by highly Qualified scholars in Islam Quoting various people whose narration went back to the Prophet’s companions, then to Muhammad (pbuh) himself. Narration of Ahlul Bayt (Shi'a) Registered by highly Qualified scholars in Islam Quoted from the Twelve Imams (Ahlul Bayt). Narration was straight through to Muhammad (pbuh) by way of Ali’s registration of Hadiths.
 Introduction to the Hadith, A. Rahman Doe, Page 34.  Al-Ghadeer, Al-Amini, Vol. 5, Page 245.  Mish'kaat Al-Masabeeh, Translation by Fazlul Karim, Vol. 1, Page 17-20.  Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol 1, Page 218  Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol 1, Page 264-268.  Introduction to Hadith, A. Rahman Doi, Vol. 1, Page 34-35.  Introduction to Hadith, A. Rahman Doi, Vol. 1, Page 38-40.  Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 1, Page 619.
 (See Mish'kaat Al-Masabeeh, Translation by Fazlul Karim, Vol. 1, Page 63.)  See Al-Shatharaat, Vol. 2, Page 240. Also Al-Saadiq and the Four Madh'habs, Asad Haidar, Vol. 1 Page 560.
THE HOLY QURAN SPEAKS ABOUT Ahlul Bayt
Sources for this chapter:
The Holy Quran, English Commentary, Yusuf Ali. The Holy Quran, English Commentary, Mir Ahmad Ali. Al-Ghadeer, Al-Amini. Al-Muraja'at, S. Sharafud'din.
References: Virtually all references in this chapter are taken from authors of Hanafi, Shafi'i, Maaliki or Hanbali persuasion: Al-Qandoozi, Ibn
Khallikan, Al-Tha'labi, Al-Tibari, Al-Razi, Al-Neisapoori, Al-Haakim, Al-Haskani, Ibn Hajar, Al-Zamakh'shari, Ibn Sa'ad, Bukhari, Muslim, Tirmidhi, Ibn Hanbal, Al-Sayooti, Al-Baydhawi, Ibn Katheer, Al-Tibrani, Al-Wahidi, and Ibn Marduwayh.
Ahlul Bayt have been delineated in the Quran (Surah 33, Ayah 33) and purified by Allah (Most High) from sin, religious error, or forgetfulness (Ismah). Ahlul Bayt consist of Muhammad (pbuh), his daughter Fatima, his son-in-law and cousin Ali, and his two grandchildren Al-Hasan and Al-Husain. And of the progeny of Al-Husain are the nine designated Imams: Zainul Abideen, Al-Baaqir, Al-Saadiq, Al-Kadhim, Al-Ridha, AlTaqi, Al-Haadi, Al-Askari, and Al-Mahdi —may peace be with them all. ────══════·══════────
THE HOLY QURAN SPEAKS ABOUT AHLUL BAYT None of the Sahaaba had ever received the recognition or was ever referred to in the Quran as much as Ahlul Bayt were, in particular Ali. To delve in the Quran in search of the referrals to Ahlul Bayt, the researcher finds three different types; some are specific by designation, others are specific by alluding, yet others are non-specific but understood (hints). Thus the referrals can roughly be categorized in the following fashion: SPECIFIC BY DESIGNATION: 1. Ayah of Tat'heer: Al-Ahzaab: Surah 33, Ayah 33. 2. Ayah of Mubaahala: Al-Maa'ida: Surah 5, Ayah 55. 3. Ayah of Wilaayah: Aali Imraan: Surah 3, Ayah 61. SPECIFIC BY ALLUDING: 1. Ayah Commanding Obedience: Al-Nisaa': Surah 4, Ayah 59. 2. About Ahlul Dhikr (Folks of the Quran): Al-Nah'l: Surah 16, Ayah 43. 3. About Al-Rasikhoon fil I'lm (The erudite in knowledge of the Divine): Aali Imraan: Surah 3, Ayah 7. 4. Ayah of Endearing, for being charitable [exclusively] for Allah's sake: Al-Dah'r, Surah 76, Ayah 5-13. NON-SPECIFIC BUT UNDERSTOOD: 1. Ayah about Al-Saadiqoon (the Truthful Ones): Al-Taubah: Surah 9, Ayah 119. 2. Ayah commanding love of the Prophet's kin (Ahlul Bayt): Al-Shoora: Surah 42, Ayah 23. 3. Ayah about status of the Prophet's kin (Ahlul Bayt): Al-Anfaal: Surah 8, Ayah 75. 4. Ayah about Ahlul Bayt's distinguished rank [in heaven]: Al-Waaqi'a: Surah 56, Ayah 10..... 5. Allah sends salutation to Aali Yassin (Ahlul Bayt): Al-Saffaat: Surah 37, Ayah 130. 6. Blessings to Muhammad are finalized by blessings for Ahlul Bayt: Al-Ahzaab: Surah 33, Ayah 56.
7. This chapter is the first in the series referring to Ahlul Bayt. Subsequent chapters will deal with referrals to Ahlul Bayt in, a) the Hadith, b) Nahjul Balaaghah, c) by Ahlul Bayt themselves, and d) by the scholars in Islam. ────══════·══════──── QURAN PURIFIES AHLUL BAYT: التطهير Al-Ahzaab, Surah 33, Ayah 33. َ ّ ُ ُ َ َ ِ ْ ُِ ّ ُ ِ ُ َ ِّ إنما يريد ال ليذهب عنكم الرجْس ُ أهل البيت ويطهركم تطهيرا ً ِ ْ َ ْ ُ َ ّ َ َُ ِ ْ َْ َ ْ َ “Verily, Allah has decreed to purify you, O' Ahlul Bayt, and sanctify you in a perfect way” According to A'isha, Ayah of Tat'heer (Purification) was revealed on behalf of Fatima, Ali, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain.
The term Ahlul Bayt was endearingly used by the Prophet (pbuh) when he was in his wife's house, Umm Salama. While busy with her chores, Umm-Salama heard the Prophet say, “Bring them to me, bring them to me.” He wanted to immediately see Fatima, Ali and their two sons, Al-Hasan and Al-Husain. Muhammad (pbuh) asked Al-Hasan, Al-Husain, and their mother Fatima to partially cover themselves with his mantle, then he asked Ali to do likewise. He thereupon did the same. The mantle became a uniting cover shared by all five, partly covering every one of them, thus becoming a visible uniting bond, binding all five. Then the Prophet raised his hands in supplication before the inquisitive audience, and said: “Dear Lord! this is my Ahlul Bayt, I implore Thee to sanctifying them, and remove from them all impurities.” Then Muhammad (pbuh) explained that Jubra'eel (Gabriel) had just revealed to him a unique Ayah, an Ayah in which Allah had decreed to specifically purify and sanctify them, calling them Ahlul Bayt. Umm-Salama then asked, “How about me? Can I come under the mantle?” Muhammad (pbuh) replied, “No, you stay where you are, worry not, you are in a fine state.” The five (Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain) came to be endearingly known as “The five under the mantle” . خمسه تحت الكساءIt is narrated through Anas Ibn Malik that for six months following this Ayah's revelation, every morning (while going for fajr salat), the Prophet used to knock at the door of Fatima's house and loudly recite Ayah of Tat'heer. Other sources say the Prophet (pbuh) did so for 9 months rather than 6.
Some commentators claim that this Ayah was revealed at A'isha's house, others claim it was revealed at Fatima's house (as narrated by the renowned Sahaabi Jabir Al-Ansaari). Yet others claim that this Ayah was apparently revealed more than once, i.e., once in Umm Salama's house, once in A'isha's house, and once in Fatima's house. Meaning of Ayah of Tat'heer When Ayah of Tat'heer was revealed Muhammad (pbuh) was informed by Jubra'eel about who constituted Ahlul Bayt; they were to be the Prophet himself, Fatima, Ali, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain. At this time Al-Hasan and Al-Husain were young children and their future-contribution to Islam was known only to Allah. Allah knew the pivotal roll Ali, Fatima, Al-Hasan, and Al-Husain would play for Islam, thus He specified them for this honor. Neither Zainab, nor Umm Kulthoom, the daughters of Ali, were included, nor were any of the wives of the Prophet, (neither Umm Salama, nor A'isha, or others). The Ayah indicates that Allah Himself has honored Ahlul Bayt so specifically, and He promised to keep them “pure, spotless, and sanctified”. Allah had taken it upon Himself to safeguard Ahlul Bayt, to keep them unblemished, untainted, upright, virtuous, and chaste. This is the source and basis of the Ismah [meaning Allah has safeguarded them from: a) sin, b) religious error, and c) forgetfulness.] As events unfolded through the ensuing 329 years (following the Hijrah), the contributions Ahlul Bayt made to Islam has, without doubt, verified the very essence of this Ayah and confirmed what Allah promised. Ahlul Bayt sacrificed everything at hand for the sake of teaching Islam in its pristine form. They jeopardized, if not sacrificed their own lives and even the lives of their children for the purpose! Ahlul Bayt stood for the righteous and the upright, and for the ideals of Islam, and because of that they suffered dearly at the hands of tyrants and detractors. ────══════·══════────
QURAN SPECIFIES WILAAYAH (AUTHORITY) OF ALI: الوليه Surah 5 (Maa'ida), Ayah 55. ُ ُ ُ َ َ ّ ُ ُ ّ َِ َ ّ ِ إنما وليكم ال ورسوله َ ُ ِ َ ْ ُ َ َ َ ّ َ ُْ َُ َ َ ّ َ ُ ِ ُ َ ِ ّ ْ َُ َ ِ ّ َ والذين آمنوا الذين يقيمون الصلة ويؤتون الزكاة وهم راكعون Verily, verily, Allah is your Wali (Overlord), and so is His Messenger, and those who believe and establish prayer, and give the poor-rate while in State of Rukoo' [state of bowing down].
Commentators unanimously hold that this verse refers to Ali when he gave his ring to a beggar while bowing in Rukoo' (in the course of his prayer). 
Abu Dhar Al-Ghifari, a highly regarded Sahaabi, was quoted to have said that he heard the Holy Prophet saying, “Ali is the beacon of the righteous and the destroyer of the infidels. He who helps him is victorious and he who abandons him is vanquished.” Abu Dhar continued, “One day while I was saying my prayers in the company of the Prophet, a beggar came to the Masjid asking for alms, but nobody gave him anything. Ali, while in a state of Rukoo' in the prayer, pointed out his ring-finger to the beggar. The beggar approached Ali and removed the ring from his finger. At this occasion, the Holy Prophet prayed to Allah to delight his heart and make his task less arduous by appointing from among his kinsmen, Ali, as his Wazir (representative and helper). This was to reinforce and strengthen his endeavor, just as Allah has done so with Prophet Musa by appointing Haroon to strengthen him. Abu Dhar continued, “By Allah, the Prophet had not yet finished his supplication when the trustworthy Jibreel descended to him with the verse saying: Verily, verily, Allah is your Wali (Overlord), and so is His Messenger, and those who believe and establish prayer, and give the poor-rate while in state of Rukoo' [state of bowing down].
In this Ayah the word Wali means the one vested with authority over others (the Master). Allah is the One with absolute authority (the Overlord), so we must obey Him. In addition the Prophet (pbuh) is to be obeyed too, for he was assigned with absolute authority in this Ayah. Then Ali is to be obeyed too, for he also was assigned with authority, because he was the only charitable person during Rukoo' that the Quran had thus specified. (Al-Tha'labi in Tafseer al-Kabir). At other occasions the same term was used by the Prophet (pbuh) in reference to Ali. As one example, the Prophet declared, “After me, O' Ali! You are the Wali (of supreme authority) over all faithful”. Zamakh'shari, (Tafseer Al-Kash'shaf), says, “If you inquire how this plural word is applicable to Ali, I shall say that though this verse is about Ali —an individual— the plural form is used in order to persuade others to act similarly and give alms as readily as Ali did.” The Imams among Ahlul Bayt have frequently referred to this verse as a testimony of their rightful Imamah and have assigned the same meaning to the word Wali as appears above. ────══════·══════────
QURAN AND MUBAAHALA: المبككككاهكله Surah 3 (Aali-Imraan), Ayah 61: Muhammad (pbuh) chooses Ahlul Bayt. ْ َُ ِ ِْ ْ َ ِ َ َ َ ِ ْ َ ِ ِ ِ َ ّ َ ْ َ َ فمن حآجك فيه من بعد ما جاءك من العلم فقل ْ ُ َ َ َ ْ ْ َ ْ ُ َ ْ َ َ ََ ْ َ ُ ْ َ ِ َ َ َ ِ َ ُ ْ ََ ُ َ َ َ ُس تعالوا ندع أبناءنا وأبناءكم ونساءنا ونساءكم وأنفسنا وأنف َكم َ ِ ِ َ ْ ََ ّ ُ َ ْ ّ َ ْ َ َ ْ ِ َ ْ َ ّ ُ ثم نبتهل فنجعل لعنة ال على الكاذبين “....then reply [O' Muhammad]: Let us call upon our children and your children, our ladies and your ladies, ourselves and yourselves, then we pray so that Allah's wrath be upon those who are false.”
In response to the Prophet's message calling on Christians to Islam, (in the 9th year of Hijrah), a deputation consisting of a Patriarch with 20 Christian dignitaries, from a place 1200 miles south, set out as a fact-finding mission about Islam. Once in Medina they met with Prophet Muhammad (pbuh), and as expected, most of their questions were about the Messiah Jesus (a.s.), his birth, his mother, and whether he was crucified or resurrected. The answers of the Prophet were directly from the Holy Quran. The Christians were baffled and amazed, even bewildered. They were impressed with the sincerity of the Prophet and his answers; and his fine qualities gained their trust. Since an Ayah for Mubaahala, i.e., a challenge with a Du'aa, had been revealed to the Prophet (pbuh), he suggested doing so in case they did not believe him. A Mubaahala is a spiritual contest, it means that each of the two groups would pray to the Almighty asking for His damnation on those who are false (telling lies). If Mubaahala were done, and Prophet Muhammad was saying the truth, then Allah would doom the Christian group and whatever Allah chooses to do to them would come to be! The Patriarch agreed to the Mubaahala, and it was to be done at a certain place and time. A large crowd gathered for the occasion on the specified day. Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) with the 6 year old Al-Hasan and the 5 year old Al-Husain, each holding one of his hands, and Ali and his wife Fatima following, proceeded to the place for Mubaahala. These four were the dearest and closest to the heart of the Prophet (pbuh). No, the Prophet (pbuh) did not choose a wife of his, an aunt, an uncle, a Sahaabi or anyone else, instead he chose Ahlul Bayt. Muhammad (pbuh) took them because they represented to him the very essence, the very ones, the highest in honor.
▪ The Ayah said: Our children —and Muhammad took Al-Hasan and Al-Husain; ▪ The Ayah said: Our ladies —and Muhammad took his daughter Fatima; ▪ The Ayah said: Our selves —and Muhammad took Ali as if Ali was the self of the Prophet. Upon seeing this group the Patriarch became startled, even frightened! Taken aback he hurriedly consulted with his group. It became unquestionably obvious that Muhammad was saying only the truth, otherwise he would have brought other than the closest people to him. Thus, they reasoned that for Muhammad to call upon Allah for a curse would certainly bring the damnation and ruin on these Christians. They knew Allah would respond to a Prophet, and by conducting the Mubaahala their lot would be ruin! Having thus debated the matter, the Patriarch came forth with a look of relief. He acknowledged to Muhammad and opted for immediate withdrawal from the Mubaahala! The Patriarch also said: “If it weren't for my obligations with the Emperor I would have right away changed to Islam!”
The Term Ourselves in Mubaahala
For the Mubaahala the Holy Quran asked Muhammad (pbuh) to bring forth persons (in the plural) who would be the replica of himself. The Prophet (pbuh) chose Ali (a.s.), since no one else would do, Ali was the replica, the mirror image, the very one! This implies that Ali had the identity in reflection of thought, spirituality, action, and motivations to such an extent that at any time one would represent the other. Ali then is the replica of the self of the Prophet (pbuh), the true representation of him. Ali was in the Prophet’s eyes: the figurative brother, supporter, deputy and defender. Ali's idealism, thinking, and spiritual make-up were a mirror image to those of the Prophet (pbuh). Many Muslim scholars, commentators and Traditionists whom the Ummah acclaims with one voice, have given the details of this event with following conclusions: ▪ The seriousness of the occasion demanded absolute purity, physical as well as spiritual, to take part in the fateful event. ▪ Only the best of Allah's creations [Ahlul Bayt] were selected by the Holy Prophet under Allah's guidance. ▪ It, beyond all doubts, established the purity, the truthfulness, and the sublime position of the Ahlul Bayt. ▪ It also unquestionably confirmed as to who were the members of the family of the Holy Prophet. ────══════·══════────
QURAN, THE COMMAND TO OBEY: الطاعه Surah 4 (Nisaa'), Ayah 59 commands us to obey the Wali, (the one vested with authority) ِ ُّ َ يا أيها الذين آمنوا أطيعوا ال وأطيعوا الرسول وأولي المر منكم فإن …تنازعتم في شيء فردو ُ إلى الِ والرسول َِ َ َ َ ْ ُ ْ ِ َ ْ ٍ َ ُ ّ ه َِ ْ ُ ِ ِ ْ َ ِْ َُ َ ُ ّ ْ ُ ِ ََ ّ ْ ُ ِ َ ْ ُ َ َ ِ ّ َ ّ َ َ O' Men of faith! Obey Allah, and obey the Messenger and those vested with authority over you [from] among you; and then if you quarrel about something, refer it to Allah and the Messenger.....
Among the many Ayahs in reference to Ali, this Ayah grabs the attention. This Ayah necessitates our obedience to Allah, the Prophet, and those vested with authority over us, meaning Ali as the Wali, the one in charge of us, the one with the authority over us. We are ordered to obey the Wali, since he should be the knowledgeable in one’s Divine knowledge, who leads us in the true path, (as do the rest of the Imams). This is attested to by many Hadiths, outstanding among them is when the Prophet had declared, “I am the locality of knowledge and Ali is its gateway”. Therefore, for the faithful to have an inmost understanding of pristine Islam, they can refer to Ali and his Ahlul Bayt, who alone know of the Divine knowledge. ────══════·══════────
QURAN AND FOLKS OF DHIK'R: اهـل الذكـــر Surah 16 (Nah'l), Ayah 43 commands us to seek answers from the knowledgeable in the Quran. ْ ِ ْ َِ ِ ّ ً َ ِ ّ ِ َ ِْ َ ِ َ ْ َ ْ َ َ َ وما أرسلنا من قبلك إل رجال نوحي إليهم َ ُ َ ْ َُ ْ َ ْ َ ّ ْ ِ ِ ُ ُ ْ َ َ ْل فاسألوا أهل الذكر إن كنتم ل تعَمون And before Thy time [O' Muhammad], We have sent men to whom We have revealed; —[O people] refer to the Folk of Dhik'r when you do not know.
Al-Dhik'r refers to the Holy Quran itself; and it is also one of the names of the Holy Prophet. Since they are the seas of knowledge in Islam, Ahlul Bayt are regarded as the Ahlul Dhik'r, as Imam Al-Saadiq and others have affirmed. [Dhik'r ] ألكذكككرliterally means to call back to memory, or in other words to have something in the conscious mind]. Dhik'r has been used figuratively for a stimulus which brings an object into the focus of
consciousness. To be conscious of Allah, the Quran, the other scriptures, and the Holy Prophet have been described as Dhik’r. Dhik'r means to be perpetually conscious of Allah, and Ahl refers to the persons always conscious of Allah. Therefore, Ahlul Dhik'r refers to the few who are constantly in consciousness of the Divine, whose characters are immaculate, who have been purified by the Almighty Himself, i.e., Ahlul Bayt. The Quran also attests that Ahlul Bayt are the folk of the Quran; who should be referred to when men are after the Quran's meaning and interpretation. Ahlul Bayt know the inmost meaning of the Quran as no one else. The Quran attests to them as the ones with deep and encyclopedic knowledge. The Divine mercy guides the sincere seekers of the truth to turn to Ahlul Dhik'r, (the Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt) for knowledge of the Divine. It says, “Refer to the Folk of Dhik'r when you do not know,” meaning to find answers from them. ────══════·══════────
QURAN AND THE SEAS OF KNOWLEDGE: الراسكككخكون في العككككلم Surah 3 (Aali-Imraan), Ayah 7 designates Ahlul Bayt as the erudite (deeply rooted) in knowledge of the Divine. ٌ َ ِ َ َ ُ ُ َ َُ ِ َ ِ ْ ُ َ ّ ِ َ َ َ َ ََ ْ َ ْ ِ َ َ ِ ْ ُ َ ٌ ّ ْ َ َ ٌ ُ ّ ُم هو الذي أنزل عليك الكتاب منه آيات محكمات هن أ ّ الكتاب وأخر متشابهات ِ ِ ِ ْ َ َ ِ ْ َ ِ َ ْ ِ ْ َ ِ ْ ُ ْ ِ َ َ َ َ َ َ ُ ِ ّ َ َ ٌ ْ َ ْ ِ ِ ُُ َ ِ ّ ّ ََ فأما الذين في قلوبهم زيغ فيتبعون ما تشابه منه ابتغاء الفتنة وابتغاء تأويله ِ ْ ِ ْ ِ َ ُ ِ ّ َ ّ ّ ِ ُ َ ِ ْ َ ُ َْ َ َ َ وما يعلم تأويله إل ال والراسخون في العلم ِ َ ْ ْ ُْ ُ ّ ِ ُ ّ ّ َ َ َ َ ّ َ ِ ِ ْ ّ ّ ُ ِ ِ ّ َ َ ُ ُ َ يقولون آمنا به كل من عند ربنا وما يذكر إل أولوا اللباب It is Allah who sent to you [O' Muhammad] the Book [Quran], wherein are some decisive verses —they are the basis of the Book— and others having variable meanings. Men with perversity in their hearts emphasize the unclear therein (seeking to mislead); while none knows the Quran's hidden meaning except Allah and the erudite (firmly rooted) in knowledge; who say We believe in it, all is from our Lord.” Nevertheless, none heeds this save those endowed with wisdom.
The Holy Quran confirms that Ahlul Bayt are the seas of knowledge الراسـخـون في الـعـلــمwho knew the inmost meaning of the Quran as no one else. The Quran attests to them as the ones with deep and encyclopedic knowledge. The Quran was revealed to the Prophet (pbuh) and he knew the true meaning of every verse; which he taught to Ali. after the Prophet
it was Ali who claimed that he knew the: when, why and for whom every Ayah of the Quran was revealed. Most of the verses of the Quran are clear and decisive. There is no ambiguity in them. They are known as the muhkamat الـمـحـكـمـاتThey relate to the fundamentals of the faith, such as the oneness of Allah, the directions pertaining to the practice of the faith and the laws governing the day-to-day life of the faithful. They can neither be changed nor modified. Any man of average intelligence can understand them and follow them. The mutashabihat الـمتـشـابـهـــاتare the verses which have been composed in subtle yet profound diction and style. They carry implications other than the literal meanings, and therefore, are capable of giving different interpretations, like “The hand of Allah is above their hands” in Ayah 10 of Surah Al-Fat'h. How the complex verses can be interpreted is not mentioned in this verse, nor anywhere in the Quran, but it is clearly disclosed that besides Allah only those endowed with knowledge of the Divine, know the true meanings of the mutashabihat. The firmly rooted in knowledge (Al-Rasikhoon fil I'lm) are the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt, for they were guided and thoroughly purified by Allah. In reply to Anas Ibn Malik's inquiry about Al-Rasikhoon fil I'lm the Holy Prophet replied, “Al-Rasikhoon fil I'lm are: ▪ those whose hands do only what is just, righteous, and good, ▪ those whose tongues utter only the true; ▪ those whose hearts and minds are enlightened and rational; and ▪ those whose stomachs are free from that which is forbidden.” ────══════·══════────
QURAN HONORS AHLUL BAYT: Surah 76 (Al-Dah'r), Ayahs 5-22 honor Ahlul Bayt's quality. إن الَبرار يشربون من كأس كان مزا ُها كافورا ً ُ َ َ ِ ّ ْ َ َ َ ْ َُ َ ِ َ ْ ٍ َ َ ِ َ ج عينا يشرب بها عباد ال يفجرونها تفجيرا ً ِ ْ َ َ َ ُ ّ َ ُ ّ ُ َِ َ ِ ُ َ ْ َ ًْ َ ِ يوفون بالنذر ويخافون يوما كان شره مستطيرا ً ِ َْ ُ ُ ّ َ َ َ ً ْ َ َ ُ َ ََ ِ ْ ّ ِ َ ُ ُ ويطعمون الطعام على حبه مسكينا ويتيما وأسيرا ً ِ ََ ً ِ َ َ ً ِ ْ ِ ِ ُّ ََ َ َ ّ َ ُ ِ ْ ُ َ Verily the Righteous [about Ahlul Bayt] shall drink from a cup tempered with Kafoor; from a well-spring the servants of Allah shall drink, flowing in abundance; they fulfill their vows, and fear the Day whose evil shall spread far and wide; And (in spite of their need), they give food to the poor, the orphans, and the captives, out of love for Allah, ....
It was not the month of Ramadhan but Ali and Fatima were fasting (Fast of Vow .) النذرThey were at home and Fatima (a.s.) was preparing the food to break the fast. As Ali and Fatima sat to break their fast they heard a knock on the door. They saw a man in ragged clothes standing, his hands shaking, and his face pale. He asked if he could be helped and fed. The man was invited in and offered the food available. The man took the food, thanked them, and then left. Both Ali and Fatima were left with nothing to eat and little to cook for Suhoor. Ali and Fatima fasted the following day, and when time for breaking the fast was due, once more a knock on the door was heard. This time someone claiming to be an orphan was asking for help. He too was offered the available food, and with thanks, he took the food then left. On the third day, both Ali and Fatima were once again fasting, and when time for breaking the fast was due they were weak, shaky, and dizzy for lack of nourishment, even difficult to hold themselves steady. Once more at this time a knock was heard! This time a destitute man was in need of food. Ali and Fatima couldn't help but again offer him their food. Thus Ali and Fatima underwent three days of fasting, hardly having anything to eat. This was done as a duty, since this was for the love of the Almighty; they would rather help the others than themselves. For this occasion a remarkable Revelation [of 18 verses] was sent down to Muhammad in honor of these two, Fatima and Ali. The Revelation specified them in terms of: Out of love for Allah, they feed the poor, the orphan, and the destitute. And the revelations continued to describe their lofty station with Allah —in the Garden of Bliss [Paradise]. It described a world tantalizing with delights and enchanting existence waiting for their arrival, for Allah has so rewarded them for their earnestness in His service, dedication to His cause, and their intense love for Him. ────══════·══════────
QURAN CALLS AHLUL BAYT THE TRUTHFUL ONES Surah 9 (Taubah), Ayah 119 specifies Ahlul Bayt as the Truthful Ones. َ ِ ِ ّ َ َ ْ ُ ُ َ ّ ْ ُ ّ ْ َُ َ ِ ّ َ َّ َ يا أيها الذين آمنوا اتقوا ال وكونوا مع الصادقين O' Men of Faith! Safeguard yourselves against evil [be Muttaqi] and associates yourselves with the Truthful Ones.
The Holy Quran commands the faithful to associate with Al-Saadiqeen ( الصـادقـيـــنthe Truthful Ones), which means: the Holy Prophet and his Ahlul Bayt. The authentic books concur in reporting that this verse refers to Ahlul Bayt.  Polytheism (plural deity or Ghayr-Allah) is the worst falsehood. Ali had never worshipped (Ghayr-Allah), he worshipped none but Allah all the way through. And only Ali is known as the كرم ال وجههKarramallaahu wajhahu, the genuine truthful —and so are the Imams among the purified Ahlul Bayt of the Prophet (pbuh). No one, therefore, except those mentioned in Ahzaab: 33 and Aali Imraan: 61, are meant to be Al-Saadiqeen (the truthful). Thus this Ayah is explicit (though indirectly), in that Al-Saadiqeen are Ahlul Bayt themselves. Thus we are enjoined to associate ourselves with their cause. ────══════·══════────
QURAN ABOUT LOVE OF AHLUL BAYT: المككوده في القككربى Surah 42 (Shoora), Ayah 23 demands the love of Ahlul Bayt. قل ل أسألكم عليه أجرا إل المودة في القربى َ ْ ُ ْ ِ َ ّ َ َ ْ ِ ً ْ َ ِ ْ ََ ْ ُ َُ ْ َ ُ ومن يقترف حسنة نزد له فيها ُسنا ًْ َ َ َ َْ ِ ْ َ ََ ً ّ ِ ْ َ ُ ِ َ ح ٌ ُ َ ٌ َُ ّ ّ ِ إن ال غفور شكور َ Declare [O' Muhammad]: “I ask you of no recompense for my toil except the love for my kin (family).” And the one who earns good, We shall expand it for him. Verily Allah is oft-forgiving and appreciates good works.
You reap as you sow, for those who believe and do good (to please Allah) are blessed in this life and especially in the Hereafter. To know that Ali, Fatima, Al-Hasan and Al-Husain and their children are the closest kin “near relatives” of the Prophet (pbuh) is well known.  This verse commands the Muslims to love Ahlul Bayt if they want to repay the Prophet (pbuh) for his toils of Prophethood, thus the Ayah commands (and indirectly demands from) us to follow Ahlul Bayt in word and deed: ▪ because Ahlul Bayt have been wholly purified by Allah Almighty, ▪ because Ahlul Bayt are the truthful ones (Al-Saadiqeen), ▪ because Ahlul Bayt are the custodians of the Word of the Almighty, and
▪ because Ahlul Bayt are the ones who know the inmost interpretation of the Quran (the Guidance sent for all mankind). History shows that from the beginning to the end of their lives, every member of the Ahlul Bayt had presented an ideal Islamic pattern of life, not equaled by any among the followers of the Prophet (pbuh), therefore love and devotion to them was commanded by the Quran to provide the highest form of guidance to mankind. Love implies sincere attachment which must manifest in every thought and deed. Imam Al-Saadiq once stated, “He who obeys Allah's Commands is our devotee; and he who disobeys Allah's Commands is our enemy.” [Qurba قربىmeans nearness. Fil qurba في الـقــــربىmeans for the sake of nearness]. The structure of the verse proves that the Prophet (pbuh) has been commanded to demand recompense, as an exception, not from every one, but from those believers mentioned in Surah Furqan, Ayah 57--those who take the way to their Lord. The recompense is in the interest of the believers themselves, not in any way profitable to the Prophet (pbuh) in his personal life. Qurba (nearness) has been used to show that not only relationship but also nearness in character and accomplishment is taken into consideration as the important quality. So, on the basis of this verse, love of the Ahlul Bayt has become an obligatory function of the faith, a fundamental condition for the devotion to Allah and good deeds.] ────══════·══════────
QURAN ABOUT THE KIN أولكوا الرحككككام Surah 8 (Al-Anfaal), Ayah 75 signifies the blood relations. ّ ِ َ ِ ِ ٍ ْ َ ِ َْ َ ْ ُ ُ ْ َ ِ َ ْ َ ْ ُْ َُ …وأولوا الرحام بعضهم أولى ببعض في كتاب ال ٌ َِ ٍ ْ َ ّ ُ ِ ّ ّ ِ إن ال بكل شيء عليم ... and the blood relations are nearer to one another in the Book of Allah. Certainly Allah knows all.
In Al-Nusoos, Al-Siddooq quotes Imam Al-Husain who said when Allah sent down this Ayah —the blood relations are nearer one to another in the Book of Allah— Husain asked his grandfather (the Prophet) for explanation. The Prophet (pbuh) answered, “Grandson, when I die, your father, Ali, who is nearest to me, has the Supreme Title over anybody else for succeeding me. When your father passes away then your brother Al-Hasan has the Supreme Title over others, and when Al-Hasan passes away, you have the Supreme Title for succeeding him.”
────══════·══════──── QURAN HONORS AHLUL BAYT FURTHER: السكابكقكككون Surah 56 (Al-Waaqi'a), Ayah 10 honors Ahlul Bayt even more. َ ُِ ّ َ ُِ ّ َ والسابقون السابقون َ ُ ّ َ ُ ْ َ ِ َْ ُ أولئك المقربون ِ ِ ّ ِ َّ ِ في جنات النعيم َ ِّ َ ّ ٌ ُّ ثلة من الَولين َ ِ ِ َ ّ ٌ َِ َ وقليل من الخرين ٍ َ ُ ْ ّ ٍ ُ ُ ََ على سرر موضونة … متكئين عليها متقابلين َ ِِ َ َ ُ َ ْ ََ َ ِ ِ ّ ُ And the foremost in faith will be foremost [in receiving Allah's rewards]. They will be brought nearest [to Allah]: in gardens of bliss; they are a multitude from the early people [in Islam], and a few from the later ones [in Islam].
As the foremost in faith, the first male to embrace Islam was the 10 year old Ali, who had never bowed to an idol. The very first to embrace Islam was a woman, the beloved wife of the Prophet (pbuh), Khadija. Therefore, Ali and Khadija were the initial (first of) Saabiqeen. According to Sahih Bukhari, the Prophet (pbuh) stated that “He who does not recognize the Imam of his age, he leaves this world dying in the manner of al-Jahiliya ( الجاهـلـيـهas a heretic)”. The well-known commentator, Tha'labi, reports on the authority of Ibn Abbas that Ali had said: “I am the servant of Allah, the brother of the Prophet (pbuh), the Siddique Al-Akbar, and the noble testifier (of the Prophet). Any other who claims this title [other than I] is in falsity.” Thus, Ali is the prototype of the term foremost al-Saabiqeen. There are many other Saabiqeen, and in accordance to their degree they are handsomely rewarded by the Almighty, but Ali stands out, since he was the foremost. ────══════·══════────
QURAN SALUTES AHLUL BAYT آل ياسككككين ِ Surah 37 (Al-Saffaat), Ayah 130 sends salutations to Ahlul Bayt: َ ِ َ َ ََ ٌ َ سلام علىٌآل ياسين ْ Peace unto Aali Yassin. Verily, thus We recompense those who do good.
Allah sends salutation to Aali Yassin. “Aali Yassin” means Aali Muhammad., in other words Ahlul Bayt.  Al-Razi writes in Tafseer Al-Kabir التـفـســـــير الكـــــبير للــرازيthat Ahlul Bayt share with the Prophet (pbuh) five honors as follows: 1. In salutation, for Allah said: “Peace be to you, O' Prophet” and He also said: “Peace be to Aali Yassin.” 2. In invoking the blessings of Allah during prayers, after each Tashah'hud. 3. In their purity, for Allah revealed the verse of purification (Surah Al-Ahzaab: 33) for the Ahlul Bayt. 4. In the Sadaqah (alms) being forbidden for them. 5. In love, for Allah said, “Declare [O' Muhammad]: I ask of you no recompense except loving my kindred.” ────══════·══════────
QURAN AND SALAWAAT : Surah 33 (Al-Ahzaab), Ayah 56 sends blessings to the Prophet (pbuh)
ّ ِ ّ ََ َ َّ ُ ُ َ َ ِ َ َ إن ال وملائكته يصلون على النبي ِّ يا أيها الذين آمنوا صلوا عليه وسلموا تسْليما ً ِ َ ُ َّ َ ِ ْ ََ َّ َُ َ ِ ّ َ َّ َ
Verily Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet. O you who believe! send blessings on him [Muhammad] and greet him with the fitting salutation.
Allah sends His blessings “salawaat” صلواتon the Prophet (pbuh), and the angels implore Allah to send His blessings on him [the Prophet]. The believers are also commanded to invoke Allah to send His blessings on him too. The Muslims asked the Prophet (pbuh): “How are we to seek blessings on you?” The Prophet (pbuh) answered, “Say: 'O Allah, send blessings on Muhammad and upon Aali Muhammad,” thus he included Ahlul Bayt within the Salawaat for him. Bukhari, Vol. 3, Page 127, quotes Muhammad (pbuh) prohibiting to say an incomplete Salawaat. When asked, the Prophet replied, “Do not just say: `O' Allah! Send blessings on Muhammad' and stop there, instead say, `Allahumma Salli ala Muhammad wa Aali Muhammad'” meaning always to include Aali Muhammad with the Salawaat.
Ibn Hajar, (Al-Sawaa'iq, Page 88) quotes the well-known poem composed by Al-Shafi'i (head of Shafi'i Madh'hab), and so does Sayooti, in his interpretation of Ayah of Tat'heer, as follows:
فرض من ال في القرآن أنزله من لم يصلي عليكم ل صله له
Roughly translated Al-Shafi'i says:
يا آل بيت رسول ال حبكم كفاكم من عظيم الشأن انكم
Oh loving you Ahlul Bayt is such That it is a duty the Quran had established Suffice it that so privileged your distinction is That Salat becomes invalid if Salawaat is not invoked for you. ────══════·══════────
 (See Yanabi Al-Mawadda, Al-Qandoozi, Page 87). (See Sahih Tirmidhi, Vol. 13, Pages 200. Also Al-Nisaa'i, Khasa'is, page 4. Also Tafseer of Al-Tibari, Vol. 22, Page 5. Also Al Mujam Al Saghir, Al Tibrani, Page 34, 75. Also Asbaab al-Nuzool, Al-Wahidi, Pages 266-267.)  (See Nisaa'i in his Sahih. Also Tha'labi in Tafseer Kabir. Also Ibn Hanbal's Mus'nad, Vol. 5, Page 38. Also Al-Wahidi's Asbaab al Nuzool (the circumstances of revelations). Also Ibn Marduwayh in his Mus'nad. Also Kanz Al-Ummal, Vol. 6, Page 391, Tradition #5991.)  (See Ibn Khallikan commenting about Al-Tha'labi Tafseer Al-Kabir. Also Al-Tibari, Tafseer, Vol. 6, Page 165. Also Al-Razi, Tafseer, Vol. 3, Page 431. Also Al-Neisapoori, Tafseer, Vol. 3, Page 461.) (See Haakim, Mustadrak, Vol. 3, Page 134. Also Nisaa'i, Khasa'is Al-Alawiyah Page 6. Also Ahmad, in Mus'nad, Vol. 1, Page 331.) Also Al-Razi, Tafseer Kabir. Also Al-Sayooti, Tafseer Durr Al-Manthur. Also Tafseer Al-Baydhawi. Also Tafseer Ibn Katheer. Also Sahih Muslim and Sahih Tirmidhi.)  (See Al-Haakim Al-Haskani in Shawaahid Al-Tanzeel, Vol. 1, Page 337.)  (See Surah 76: Ayah 5-22).  (See Ibn Hajar, Al-Sawaa'iq Al-Muhriqa, Chapter 11, Page 90. Also Al-Razi, Tafseer Kabir, Vol. 16, Page 220 and 221.)  (See Ibn Hijr, Sawaa'iq, Chapter 11, Page 160. Also Ibn Sa'ad, Tabaqat, who affirms that Ahlul Bayt are the near relatives of the Holy Prophet. Also, Sahih Muslim, Mus'nad ibn Hanbal and Tafseer Durr Al-Manthur.)  (See Ibn Hajar in Sawaa'iq, chapter 11, quoting Ibn Abbas).