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Subject:

Design Basis Report for


Civil and Architectural Engineering

Note:
This document presents the Design Basis Report for Civil and Architectural
Engineering for 400 kV Switchyard
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Index
S. No. Description Page Number

1.0 PREFACE .............................................................................................................................. 4


2.0 SITE ASSUMPTIONS FOR CIVIL WORK DESIGN .............................................................. 4
3.0 MATERIAL PROPERTIES .................................................................................................... 5
3.1 STRUCTURAL CONCRETE ...................................................................................................... 5
3.2 FILL CONCRETE ................................................................................................................... 5
3.3 GROUT ............................................................................................................................... 5
3.4 REINFORCING STEEL ........................................................................................................... 5
3.5 UNIT WEIGHTS OF STRUCTURAL MATERIALS ......................................................................... 5
4.0 LOAD DATA .......................................................................................................................... 6
4.1 GANTRY TOWER LOADS ....................................................................................................... 6
4.2 EQUIPMENT LOADS............................................................................................................... 6
4.3 EARTH PRESSURE ................................................................................................................ 6
4.4 HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE ..................................................................................................... 6
5.0 LOADING CONDITIONS AND LOAD COMBINATIONS ....................................................... 6
6.0 STABILITY OF TOWER & EQUIPMENT FOUNDATION....................................................... 7
6.1 SLIDING AND OVERTURNING................................................................................................. 7
7.0 DRAINAGE AND ROAD ........................................................................................................ 7
7.1 DRAINAGE............................................................................................................................ 7
7.2 ROADWAYS .......................................................................................................................... 8
8.0 CONCRETE COVER.............................................................................................................. 9
9.0 CODES OF PRACTICE, STANDARDS AND REFERENCES................................................ 9
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1.0 Preface

Design Criteria for Civil and Architectural Engineering represent the principal design regulations
and design procedure to be followed .
The General design data, assumptions in the design procedure, guideline, steps and codes which
shall be followed for the design of various foundations are listed and explained. The Foundation
shall be designed separately from basic foundation design concept with loads from the
superstructure, Equipment and all possible combinations as explained in 4.0, 5.0. The design of
the foundation shall satisfy the provisions of ACI 318.
The design criteria shall be a ready reference and design guide for the Civil and Architectural
design.
• The design data and Site Assumptions for Civil Work Design which shall be used are
listed in 2.0.
• The design data for the Material properties for Civil Work Design required and the values
required for defining the material constants in the analysis and design software are listed
in 3.0.
• In designing the foundations the Global stability concept shall be checked as explained in
6.0. The Foundation shall be designed separately and applied with loads from the
superstructure, Equipment and all possible combinations as explained in 4.0, 5.0. The
design of the foundation shall satisfy the provisions of ACI 318/ASCE 10-97.
• The final design output drawings shall be reviewed in light of quality management
procedures .
• All the relevant codes which shall be used in designing various Civil and Architectural
elements are listed in 8.0.

2.0 Site Assumptions for Civil Work Design

Identification of Site Conditions and Site Assumptions for Civil Work Design

Description Design Conditions

1 Site Location Place Elevation 1013 m


2 Temperature Ambient Outdoor Temperature From – 10° C to 50.0°C
Mean Annual Temperature 20.0°C

3 Average Annual The design rainfall intensity is 162 mm/hour/10year,


Rainfall

4 Snow Load Not Applicable


6 Wind Load As per Technical Specification
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7 Seismic Conditions Seismic acceleration, 0.1g shall be taken for Gantry & Equipment structure only.
8 Soil Data As per Geotechnical Investigation Report

Table 1: Site Assumptions for Civil Work Design

3.0 Material Properties

3.1 Structural Concrete


The compressive strength will be determined according to ACI 318.
Grade (minimum) 30 N/mm2 or equivalent (for foundations, walls etc.)
(min. compressive cylindrical): fck, after 28 days

All exposed edges shall be chamfered 25 mm UNO

3.2 Fill Concrete


For filling purposes and as lean concrete layer underneath foundations concrete 20 N/mm2
(cylindrical strength) shall be used.
Minimum thickness of the fill concrete shall be 75 mm and shall extend 50 mm all around beyond
reinforced concrete outline plan area UNO.

3.3 Grout
Non shrink Grout shall be of min. compressive strength 35 N/mm2 as per approved standard.
3.4 Reinforcing Steel
Reinforcement steel shall be of grade 60 deformed conforming to ASTM A615 with the following
mechanical properties shall be used:
Yield strength fyk = 60ksi (413.7 N/mm2 )
Minimum clear cover for various elements shall be as follows:-

Faces in contact with earth (foundation bottom, side face) : 75 mm


Trench wall/ Manhole wall : 50 mm
Minimum Development length UNO shall be as per ACI 318 but not less than 50d
Minimum Lap length UNO shall be as per ACI 318 but not less than 50d
50% staggering shall be done for lap splices.

3.5 Unit Weights of Structural Materials


Steel 7.85 T/m3 Reinforced Concrete 2.5T/m3
Mortar 2.0 T/m3 Plain Concrete 2.4T/m3
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Further material data will be determined by the Structural Engineer within the structural analysis.

4.0 Load Data

4.1 Gantry Tower Loads


Tower foundation loads for various load combinations shall be provided after its approval.

4.2 Equipment Loads


Equipment foundation loads for various load combinations shall be provided after approval of the
supporting superstructure.

4.3 Earth Pressure


Earth pressure for all underground structures shall be calculated using "coefficient of earth
pressure at rest". Additional uniform surcharge loading of 20 kN / m2 shall also be considered for
the design of all underground structures to account for the possible truck movement and other
loads during construction.

4.4 Hydrostatic pressure

For any underground structures if hydrostatic force is experienced during construction stage,
computation shall be based on the buoyant unit weight of the soil plus full hydrostatic pressure.
The full upward pressure of water below raft shall be taken over entire area.

5.0 Loading Conditions and Load Combinations

Load Combinations Using Allowable Strength Design are as follows –

Basic Load Cases -

SW = Self Weight
WLT = Wind load on Column
WLG = Wind load on Gantry Beam
NC = Normal Condition
BWC = Broken Wire Condition
EC = Earthquake conditions

Now following load combinations shall be used for both directions for the analysis -

SW +NC+WLT+WLG

SW+BWC+WLT+WLG

SW+EQ+WLT+WLG
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6.0 Stability of Tower & Equipment Foundation

6.1 Sliding and Overturning


Structures subjected to any load combination shall be designed so that the design satisfies
international standard requirements due to global stability, when necessary. Procedure and
safety factors are listed below:

Load Type 1: Dead Loads and Loads due to Normal Condition


Load Type 2: In addition to loads of type 1, simultaneous but not regularly occurring Broken Wire
Condition
Load Type 3: In addition to loads of type 1, simultaneous, possibly unforeseen loads like Short
Circuit Load

Safety factors must be at least:

Safety against Load Type


1 2 3
1 Sliding 2.0 1.25 1.25
2 Uplift 2.0 1.25 1.25
3 Overturning 2.0 1.25 1.25

7.0 Drainage and Road

7.1 Drainage
Rainwater drainage system within the switchyard fencing shall be made so as to connect it at
outfall points located outside the switchyard boundary. In drainage system design following
points have been considered:

a) The surface of the switchyard shall be sloped to prevent accumulation of water.

b) Open surface trapezoidal drains having 500mm bottom width and sides having
slope of 1 horizontal : 2 vertical shall be provided.

c) Longitudinal slope shall not be less than 1 : 1000.

d) Open surface drain shall be constructed with a 100 mm thick plain cement
concrete bed of 1:2:4. Drain surface shall be filled up with coarse filter materials
of suitable size on the PCC bed. The top layer of the surface shall be filled up
with fine grained filter material of 150 mm thickness.

e) RCC pipe drain shall be used on the road crossing.


Manholes shall be constructed along the drain route at certain intervals and it
shall be connected through 200 mm diameter perforated drainflex pipe.
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f) The maximum velocity for pipe drains and open drains shall be limited to
2.4m/sec and 1.8m/sec respectively.

g) For the design of storm water drains following Method shall be adopted:
Total discharge coming out from an area is given as Q = 10CIA

Where Q = Peak Flow Rate (m3/sec)

A = area of the collection surface (hectare). C = runoff coefficient


I = Maximum intensity of rainfall, in mm/ hr
Runoff coefficient for road and gravel area shall be taken as 0.95 and 0.5
respectively.

Using Manning’s formula, velocity of flow shall be calculated as

V = (0.3968 * 1 / n) * D 2 / 3 S 1 / 2
Where,
V = flow velocity (m/sec)
n = Manning coefficient, dimensionless
D = Diameter of pipe (m)
A = cross-sectional area of flow, m2
S = Slope of the energy grade line

7.2 Roadways
Bituminous paved access roads of 5 m and 3 m wide shall be provided inside the fence
perimterfor heavy equipments. Crown slope shall be 2 %. For design of road, wheel
load SLW 30 shall be considered. Road shall be designed as per AASHTO Standards for
pavment design. All roads within the fence shall be single lane. Adequate turning space for
vehicles shall be provided and bend radii shall be set accordingly.
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8.0 Concrete cover

In design of concrete structures following covers have been envisaged:

a) Concrete exposed to earth : 75 mm

b) Concrete exposed to weather : 50 mm, for bar dia 16 to 40 mm

c) Concrete exposed to weather : 40 mm, for bar dia smaller than 16 mm

9.0 Codes of Practice, Standards and References

The design Codes and Standards used here are as follows

ACI 318M – 99 : Building Code requirement for Structural Concrete

ASD : Allowable stress design for steel structure

ASCE 10 – 97 : Design of latticed steel Transmission Structures

AASHTO – M145 : For design of Roads

UBC 1997 : Uniform Building Code

IBC 2002 : International Building Code