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Introduction to Bits for Oil Well Drilling

Introduction to diamond bits (Take Kingdream diamond bits as examples)


1. Type number indication
Examples of Designation of Diamond Bit:

“8 1/2BH461ST-1”

It indicates the bit diameter is 8 1/ 2", a force balanced PDC bit with class 4 cutter density,

nominal cutter size is 1/ 2”, and the bit profile is short round. It is a sidetracking bit that was

redesigned on the basis of the basic model.

2. Introduction of diamond bit series

1) Standard PDC bit (B)

 B series PDC bit uses synthetic polycrystalline diamond compacts as cutters. The

compacts are made by thin layers of synthetic diamond pressed to WC substrate

under high temperature and high pressure, which are then firmly brazed onto the

erosion and wear resistant WC matrix. The cutter sizes include 3/8", 1/2", 3/4",

1"and 1-1/4". This kind of compacts can engage the formation under relatively low

WOB; breaking rocks with shear actions and obtaining high ROP.

 There are three types of crown profile-parabolic, round and tapered.

 B series PDC bit uses integral threaded exchangeable nozzle, which is easy for

field hydraulic design and can meet different drilling hydraulic requirements. They

are safe and reliable.

 Anti-whirl PDC bit is a new product that was developed with patented designing

technology. During drilling, the side forces generated on cutters under the action of

WOB. And torque are directed to the smooth and low frictional gage pads which

always keep sliding contact with the bore-hole wall, so that the side forces of the

bit being counteracted, making the bit rotates around its centerline without any off-

center rotation. And the bit can drill steadily by overcoming the whirl action. Both

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the service life and the ability of the bit to drill through formation with stringers are

improved, and the application range of the bit extended.

 Force balanced PDC bit is designed according to the force balance principle.

Load of the cutters is analyzed with the special program during designing process

so that the resultant forces of the bit when drilling tend to be balanced. Unequal

space blades and higher blade designs are utilized to reduce the tendency of

whirling of the bit and make it drilling more smoothly. Force balanced PDC bit can

achieve higher rate of penetration when drilling in upper soft formation, and can

have the cutters getting good cooling and cleaning in lower formation.

Consequently, service life of the bit improved.

2) TSP diamond bit (P)

 P series TSP bit uses self-sharpening synthetic thermal stable polycrystalline

diamond as cutting elements, which directly sintered into the erosion and wear

resistant WC matrix.

 Apart from some main features of PDC bit, the P series diamond bit also has good

thermal stability, TSP cutters can sustain the high temperature up to 1200 ℃, thus

suitable for using on high speed down-hole power drilling tools.

 In order to meet application requirements in different formations, the P series

diamond bits can also be designed into different cutter density, cutter layout and

different crown shapes (parabolic, round or cone). Specific flow area can be

designed based on customers’ request.

3) Natural diamond bit (D)

 D series natural diamond bit utilizes selected premium natural diamond as its

cutting elements, which are cemented in erosion and wear resistant WC matrix by

sintering. The diamond breaks rocks with shearing or grinding action in different

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formations. The natural diamond bits are designed with different crown profiles as

parabolic, round or cone, utilize different diamond sizes, density, placement and

different hydraulic designs, for using in medium to hard formations with high

abrasiveness.

4) Diamond core bit (BC PC DC)

 The main products of diamond core bits include BC, PC and DC series bits, which

made of erosion resistant WC matrix and the inner and outer gages are protected by

natural diamond. The bit profiles include round, parabolic and cone shapes, with

the advantages of high ROP and high rate of core recovery as well as long bit life,

etc.

3. Special diamond bits

1) Diamond bits for horizontal or directional drilling (HZ)

 Diamond bits for horizontal/directional drilling feature impact pad along with

special gage protection, increased the steer ability and directional ability of the bit

in high angle and horizontal wells.

 B461HZ/M232: Short round crown; Overall length of the bit is shorter for easy

directional control; Cutters placed in the gage bevel can take up-drilling function,

thus the bit can deal with special down-hole conditions; The impact pad on bit face

can effectively control cutting depth of the cutters, reducing impact damages to

cutters due to changes in formation and WOB, Keeping the bit working smoothly;

Suitable for sidetracking and horizontal drilling in soft to medium hard formations.

2) Diamond bits for sidetracking (ST)

 Diamond bits for sidetracking feature the flat crown profile, short gage, premium

hydraulic design, and high-density cutter placement in shoulder area, therefore the

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load capacity in directional drilling can be ensured and hole diameter is maintained.

The bit can be used for sidetracking and angle building effectively in well bores of

different azimuth.

 D651ST: Near flat crown and short gage, advantageous to fast angle building;

Combined diamond cutter placement can maximize performance while reducing

the torque; gage cutters on the ridge can reduce breakage of the diamond and

improve service life; Alternatively arranged slot ports and cross pad water way

allow the drilling fluid across the bit with large flow rate and low pressure drop ;

Suitable for formation: shale, limestone, dolomite, anhydrite and high abrasive

formations.

3) BI-center/off-center diamond bit (B)

 Bi-center and off-center diamond bits can meet special drilling requirements. They

can be used to flowing salt, and can also be used second time completion, increase

casing annular, and improve cementing quality.

4. Development of designing technology

 Compensating cutting structure: The cutting structure includes the major and the

subsidiary structure, the major structure can rapidly cut rocks, while subsidiary

structure provides progressive compensation and also hold the impact load.

 Mechanical balance: the computer analyzes the force balance of the cutting

structure; the crux of the bit is given the balance cutting structure design to retain

the stable drilling operation.

 Low—friction gage: Adopt ND, TSP, TCI flat pad complex gage, and the

mechanical dynamic pressure lubricating theory is used in the design of bit gage,

ensures the full cooling and lubricating of the mud to the gage bore-hole wall.

 Full release fluid course/exchangeable nozzle hydraulic structure: Improve the fluid

condition of the bit; increase the ability of lifting detritus.

 Computer aided design and manufacture: Applying CAD\CAM technology, insures

the manufacturing precision and quality of products, and greatly increases the

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design and manufacture speed of new products.

 New material and new technology: The new gradient of tungsten carbide is used,

further increase the structure strength and wear-resistant capability, the complex die

NC technology plays a very important role in increasing the quality of the bit.

5. Development of PDC cutter

 Bevel PDC cutters: The bevel of diamond layer is also rounded except the

improvement is made in the interior of the cutters, thus increase PDC structure

strength and anti-erosion ability.

 Super small particles PDC cutters: Compare with the conventional PDC cutters, the

impact resistance, wears resistance and self-sharpening ability is greatly improved.

 Multi-layers PDC cutters: The newest diamond compacting technology is

employed, the cutting capability are greatly improved except the good impact

resistance. The infinitely gradient blade sharpening maintains the sharp blade and

rapid drilling.

 Large size PDC cutters: Large size PDC cutters can greatly increase the cutting

efficiency of the bit.

 PDC cutters with trenches: The cutter has high impact resistance, because its

diamond layer meshes with the tungsten carbide interface.

6. Diamond bit selection guide

1) Factors in selecting bit

 The purpose of drilling operation

 The features of the formations

 The equipment & technology factors

 Other limited factors.

2) The procedures of selecting bits

 Collect and analysis offset formation information

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 Collect and analysis offset bit application information. (Including dull bit analysis)

 Bit product samples

 Bit technology instruction information

 Composite consideration, correct selection

 If there are other requirements, please contact with the manufactures for special

design and manufacture.

7. Diamond bit application

When do you use diamond bit?


 Bit is needed to run long time.

 Oil based mud is used (preferable)

 Water based mud is used in non-hydrated formations.

 Penetrate at high rotary speed (turbine or down-hole power)

 High bottom hole temperature.

 Slope section should be controlled under low bit weight.

 Penetrating at over balance pressure.

What formations need diamond bit?


Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Bit (PDC bit)

 Very soft, brittle and shallow sedimentary formations. (Such as sand, siltstone and clay)

 Low strength, brittle, non-consolidated and non-abrasive fragmental formations. (Such as

halite, anhydrite and marl)

 Medium strength, moderate abrasive and brittle, hardened fragmental and sedimentary rocks

in medium deep formations (such as siliceous shale, silt clay, and anhydrite)

Natural Diamond/Thermally Stable Polycrystalline (TSP) Bit

 Medium strength, moderate abrasive and brittle, hardened fragmental and sedimentary rocks

(such as carbonated, anhydrite and silt clay)

 Comparatively high strength and abrasive and hard rocks (such as sandy shale, calcite sand

limestone).

 High strength and high abrasive, hard and ductile formations (such as hard sand and

bromide).

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Which formations do not need Diamond Bit?
Polycrystalline Diamond Compact(PDC)Bit:

 Hard and cemented abrasive sand (such as quartz)

 Hard dolomite

 Ferruginous rock

 Flint, granite and basalt.

Natural Diamond/Thermally Stable Polycrystalline Bit:

 Hard and very brittle abrasive cemented quartz sand stone.

What information is needed to decide which diamond bit to be used?


 Bit record in drilling adjacent well:

 What type of bit is used in different section?

 Bit grade information for each section.

 Economic analysis

 Associated data:

 Well Log

 Geologic information

How to use diamond bit?

Before running diamond bit:

 Running one salvage tool on the last drilling bit.

 Check the wear condition on OD and other area on the last bit

 If the last bit working normally, diamond bit then can be running into the well.

 Check “O” rings and nozzles in the diamond bit to be running.

 Carefully check the cutters for damage

 Check the bit gage and make sure the bit is clean and nozzle is open.

 Sand cleaner is recommended.

Bit running (rotary drilling):

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 Carefully handle of diamond bit, when putting on the floor rubber or wood pad should be

placed under diamond bit.

 Bit connection should be tight with break plate to the required torque.

 Bit should be rotating and care should be taken when bit is running through the known

contract well bore, or bit will be damaged.

 Normally diamond bit can not ream the well, but if needed, Kelly should be used and use

possible large circulation, the rotary speed should be lower than 60 RPM and cycle should be

less than 2 hours.

 Before reached the well bottom, at least three single pipes should be run with large

circulation and 40 to 60 RPM to avoid clogging orifices.

 Rotary torque indicator and weight indicator can indicate if bit has reached the well bottom.

If torque increased the bit reached.

 Once the bit reached the well bottom, it should be raised away from the bottom and circulate

with large displacement and slowly run the rotary table for 5 to 10 minutes.

 Then lower the bit for making bottom hole pattern.

 At least 0.50 meter is finished using the way above before using the best bit weight and

rotary speed.

 For best penetration rate, parameters should be calculated using the formula of “try and error

methods for best bit weight”.

Bit running (bottom hole motor & turbine drilling):

 Turn on pump when bit reaches hole bottom and gradually increase to the desired

displacement.

 After cleaning the bottom in a short time, reach bottom with low pressure then increase bit

weight slowly.

 When bit weight increased, pump pressure should be increased accordingly. The changes of

pressure and bit weight should be controlled within the associated specifications.

 Pipe should be running slowly to prevent from sticking.

 Normal operation procedures should be followed.

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When pull out bit?

 When there is no penetration.

 It is no worthy drilling by calculating of cost per foot.

 Torque is increased when weight of bit is low, and penetrates slowly.

 Penetration rate is decreased and no way to correct

 Pressure changed in vertical tube

 Increased pressure indicates that the cutting structure is failure

 Decreased pressure indicates that the nozzle loss of wash off.