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IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY, VOL. 16, NO. 4, OCTOBER 2001

Bibliography of Relay Literature, 1999 IEEE Committee Report
T. S. Sidhu, Chairman, M. Bajpai, J. Burnworth, P. Crossley, A. Darlington, W. Marsh, J. McElray, M. S. Sachdev, J. E. Stephens, M. Swanson, S. S. Venkata, and P. B. Winston

Abstract—The latest of a series of classified lists of power system relaying references, begun in 1927, is presented. This bibliography is in continuation to the bibliographies of relay literature, which were published previously and are contained in the following volumes of the IEEE Transactions:

for 1927–1939 1940–1943 1944–1946 1947–1949 1950–1952 1953–1954 1955–1956 1957–1958 1959–1960 1961–1964 1965–1966 1967–1969 1970–1971 1972–1973 1974–1975 1976–1977 1978–1979 1980–1981 1982–1983 1984–1985 1986–1987 1988–1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998—Paper

Volume

No.

Year

60 1941 63 1944 67 pt. I 1948 70 pt. I 1951 74 pt. III 1955 76 pt. III 1957 78 pt. III 1959 79 pt. III 1960 81 pt. III 1962 PAS-85 10 1966 PAS-88 3 1969 PAS-90 5 1971 PAS-92 3 1973 PAS-94 6 1975 PAS-97 3 1978 PAS-99 1 1980 PAS-100 5 1981 PAS-102 4 1983 PAS-104 5 1985 PWRD-2 2 1987 PWRD-4 3 1989 PWRD-6 4 1991 PWRD-7 1 1992 PWRD-8 3 1993 PWRD-10 1 1995 PWRD-10 2 1995 PWRD-11 3 1996 PWRD-12 2 1997 PWRD-13 1 1998 PWRD-14 1 1999 PE-020PRD (10-99)

Page# from 1435 705 24 247 45 126 78 39 109 1044 244 1982 1132 2033 789 99 2407 1014 1189 349 1649 1409 173 955 142 684 1251 650 85 831

to 1447 709 27 250 48 129 81 42 112 1053 250 1988 1140 2041 801 107 2415 1024 1197 358 1658 1422 181 961 152 696 1262 659 95 850

field of relaying. Only the more readily available foreign publications are included. Each reference includes the title, author, publication information, and a very brief summary of the subject matter. The listing of the titles is subdivided into ten sections, depending upon the general substance of each article. The section titles are as follows: 3150 RELAYING ALGORITHMS 3151 DISTRIBUTION AND NETWORK PROTECTION 3151.1 Industrial and Power Station Auxiliaries 3151.2 Primary Distribution Systems 3152 TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION 3152.1 Distance and Ground Relaying 3152.2 Relay Communications 3152.3 Relay Systems 3153 RELAY INPUT SOURCES 3154 ROTATING MACHINERY PROTECTION 3155 OTHER PROTECTION 3155.1 Transformer and Reactor Protection 3155.2 Capacitor Bank and Static Var Protection 3155.3 Other Protection 3156 FAULT AND SYSTEM CALCULATIONS 3157 MAINTENANCE, TESTING, ANALYSIS, AND MODELING 3158 STABILITY, OUT OF STEP, RESTORATION 3159 SURGE PHENOMENA The entries in each section are listed in alphabetical order by the name of the first author. Each title is listed in only one section even if it covers material that belongs to several sections. A list of the periodicals, which have been cited, and the addresses of their publishers follows the bibliography. The abstracts of many articles reported in this paper are available in the Science Abstracts—Section B, the Engineering Index and other digesting and/or indexing periodicals. ADDITIONAL REFERENCES Electrical and Electronics Abstracts, are published monthly by the Institution of Electrical Engineers (U.K.) and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. (USA). Papers and journals published in several countries are covered. 3150 RELAYING ALGORITHMS A Novel Fault Classification Technique for Double-Circuit Lines Based on a Combined Unsupervised/Supervised Neural Network, R. K. Aggarwal, Q. Y. Xuan, R. W. Dunn, A. T. Johns, A. Bennet, IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery, Vol. 14, no. 4,

The papers listed include references to the subjects of service restoration, testing and methods of calculation, as well as to the
Manuscript received April 3, 2000. The authors are with the Bibliography and Publicity Working Group of the IEEE Power System Relaying Committee. Publisher Item Identifier S 0885-8977(01)08531-4.

0885–8977/01$10.00 © 2001 IEEE

Wang. The proposed technique is implemented using a DSP-based board and has been extensively tested. pp. Witte. and arc voltage are estimated. no.SIDHU et al. The method presented provides an ability to recognize a fault within one-quarter cycle or 5 ms in 60 Hz systems. on Industry Applications. An ANN trained with the shape of various impedance loci can predict the fault distance before calculated resistance and reactance values converge to the fault distance. Some results are presented. 1999 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT 505 Oct. pp. This paper introduces a new standard of the same title that provides an analytic representation of typical electro-mechanical relays operating characteristic curve shapes in order to facilitate coordination when using microprocessor-type relays. This is phase one of a series of papers and tutorials relating to the selection and application of MCCBs. 1999. Pagola. Vol. M. Superimposed Quantities: Their True Nature and Application in Relays. pp. This paper addresses problems encountered by using conventional techniques in fault type classification due to mutual coupling on transmission lines and presents a neural network that provides an ability to accurately classify the fault type by identifying different patterns in the fault voltages and currents. 1999. 48. 3151 DISTRIBUTION AND NETWORK PROTECTION 3151. a low-pass filter is required. This paper describes the design. no. Y. 14. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. no. S. Jan. New Insight into the Detection of High-Impedance Arcing Faults on DC Trolley Systems. Oct. Terzija. 1250–1256. Poeltl and K. 14. Vol. 1999. 1999. the power system is constantly changing and may inadvertently result in overall protection scheme characteristics that may not be desirable. no. S. which takes advantage of the signal that causes the inaccuracies of the standard CCF. Devotta. 4. Jan. 1. Li. D. 4. Benmouyal. Jan. Vol. IEEE Trans. This paper is intended to be a tutorial presentation that attempts to resolve issues that have been raised in a number of recent IEEE papers. 14. pp. pp. no. Roberts. 3. Simulation results show that reliability and accuracy are improved. Vol. J. S. R. on Power Delivery. on Power Delivery. S. A. IEEE Trans. L. IEEE Trans. H. Vol. pp. July 1999. 349–357. on Power Delivery. 1999. An ANN Based Approach to Improve the Speed of a Differential Equation Based Distance Relaying Algorithm. J. and implementation of a digital signal processing technique for measuring the operating frequency of power system. Fast Harmonic Computation for Digital Relaying. IEEE Trans. on Instrumentation and Measurement. V. 868–872. 26–28. K. This paper describes a nonrecursive algorithm with comparative results to other nonrecursive methods applied to digital relaying using a common case to compute harmonics. 1999. pp. Kim. P. Accurate Measurement of Power System Frequency Using a Digital Signal Processing Technique. R. Vol. 60–67. Frohlich. M. Kohler. 75–81. Jie. Z. V. X. Djuric. introducing a new mathematical model of arc voltage. K. Gregory. L. pp.: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELAY LITERATURE. 126–131. pp. Cho. C. H. M. T. no. Mar. S. G. Jan. 35. Two New Methods for Very Fast Fault Type Detection by Means of Parameter Fitting and Artificial Neural Networks. 35. on Power Delivery. no. A. Time Domain Solution of Fault Distance Estimation and Arcing Fault Detection on Overhead Lines. Frequency Responses of Phasor-Based Microprocessor Relaying Algorithms. J. pp. S. IEEE Standard Inverse-Time Characteristic Equations for Overcurrent Relays. 32–37. 1999./Apr. Jan. Oct. Short-Circuit Ratings and Application Guidelines for Molded-Case Circuit Breakers. 14. W. Bishop. J. Line resistance and reactance. B. Vol. Elangovan. Adaptive Traveling Wave Protection Algorithm Using Two Correlation Functions. IEEE Trans. as well as determine solutions to the problem. 1. Fernandez. 1269–1275. 1999. IEEE Trans. Vol. Kim. 2. As the differential equation used for transmission line protection is valid only at low frequencies. no. IEEE Trans. B. pp. IEEE Trans. An auxiliary cross-correlation function (CCF) is proposed to act as its complement. Total Least Squares and Discrete-Time Line Models in HV Distance Protection. 14. Vol. Gomez Exposito and J. Oct. 74–79. This paper presents a new method for the detection of various types of faults in generation and transmission systems. 1999. IEEE/PSRC Working Group Report. no. Apr. A Rosendo Macias. IEEE Trans. on Power Delivery. 1999. Vol. IEEE Trans. Vol. The reason for the inaccuracies of the correlation function-based traveling wave protection algorithm for high resistance faults is revealed by the lattice diagram. no.1 Industrial and Power Station Auxiliaries Device Miscoordination Affects Plant Reliability. This causes time delay in the components for relaying. computational aspects. IEEE Trans. This paper presents an algorithm for arcing fault detectors and distance estimation. M. The procedure provides precise results in shorter time than other procedures with improved dependability and security. The paper . K. This paper discusses such coordination problems and the solution proposed. Sept. on Industry Applications. 98–109. 1999. This paper clarifies and then investigates the magnitude responses of nonlinear relaying algorithms and Kalman filter relay algorithms. The purpose of this paper is to show that linear circuit theory and conventional parameter techniques can fully characterize the performance of directional elements based on time varying waveforms or their phasors. C. 1169–1173./Oct. 5. on Power Delivery. Kang. L. on Power Delivery. The paper presents plausible techniques that would discriminate between high-impedance arcing faults and legitimate load currents on the dc trolley system. 1999. 1. A coordination study of an entire plant power system may be necessary to uncover these unintended coordination issues. J. Sidhu./Feb. 1263–1268. Mendis. no. 14. This paper discusses the applicability of the Total Least Squares procedure for faulted line parameter estimation. 135–143. Park. 14. 1. 14. 1999. F. on Power Delivery. Two algorithms provide adaptive behavior. L. pp. Myers. Radojevic. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. The magnitude and phase estimate algorithms in microprocessor relaying are nonlinear. F. J. pp. Feb. In most industrial situations. G. T. Hall. 1. 1. fault resistance. Kang.

The source of the information presented is the introduction section of the “Guide for the Protection of AC Transmission Lines. Vol. accurate distance measurement. Apr. no. 1999. Jan. L. pp. Vol. P. Protection Coordination When Coordinating CurrentLimiting Fuses With Reclosers. J. V. M. S. pp. 1999. Vol. based on one terminal data and derived in the time domain. This paper presents an innovative method for sub-cycle overcurrent protection for self-clearing faults that occur in cables due to insulation breakdown. 1999. pp. protection algorithm. May 5–7. This paper presents a numerical algorithm for multipurpose overhead line protection. fault resistance. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. The paper presents four distinct features not previously combined into a new approach to detect high impedance fault (HIF) by achieving one-hundred percent accuracy on distribution faults that are greater than five amps. C. Kojovic. power system frequency. S. C. Givelberg. Terzija. Mar. Fuzzy Detection of High Impedance Faults in Radial Distribution Feeders. Y. Electric Power Systems Research. Radojevic. S. 1999. Fundamentals of Transmission Line Relaying Selection. Sui. Sufana. IEEE Trans. good phase selection. F. . no. Electric Power Systems Research. This paper compares the effectiveness in preventing unnecessary recloser operation during current-limiting fuse and expulsion fuse operations. The technique consists of making comparative analysis of the responses of the feeder to pulses injected at the feeder inlet for different configurations. OCTOBER 2001 focuses on the frequency characteristics of the arc current. distance. and J. A. R. 29–31. N. Djuric. no.506 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Kleem. 29–31. no. V. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. on Power Delivery. This paper presents a methodology for the detection of high impedance faults in radial distribution feeders. Ward. Oct. W. S. 53rd Annual Ga. Finally. experimental results accomplished in a real feeder are presented. and fast operation. Lojovic. Vol. S. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. This paper describes a new digital distance relaying algorithm using a recursive least-squares computational method. 3. 14. 4. This paper presents one utility’s experiences in the application of downed conductor protection on a wide scale basis. Tholomier. Jota. Oct. The following topics are discussed: fuse operation theory. Williams. B. NO. R. Oct. Dec. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. 14. T. The results of testing the algorithm using numerical simulation are presented. This paper presents a new methodology for using linear programming providing optimal coordination of directional overcurrent. pp. G. 169–174. no.1 Distance and Ground Relaying A Recursive Least-Squares Digital Distance Relaying Algorithm. Vol. Mar. A new method to improve the selectivity is proposed. 1999. it has larger coverage for fault resistance. Sub-Cycle Overcurrent Protection for Self-Clearing Faults Due to Insulation Breakdown. pp. Vol. Jota. higher-order harmonics. fuse-hydraulic recloser protection coordination. 4. network topology and line parameters on its performance. K. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. and compares the experimental observations and mathematical predictions. Energy Variance Criterion and Threshold Tuning Scheme for High Impedance Fault Detection. AlFuhaid and M. Some basic information on superimposed component concepts is given. A. Sept. R. Apostolov. and the scheme testing. VOL. G. Combined with an additional mho element for directionality. R. A. 29–31. on Power Delivery. 146. 217–222. S. Tech Protective Relay Conference. Oct. Liao. 26–28. The paper discusses setting issues as well as hardware issues as it related to their installations. Hassler. Perez. M. Urdaneta. IEEE Trans. 14. 1999. Challenges in Applying Wide Spread Applications of Downed Conductor Technology to Distribution Systems.” Comparison of Quadrilateral and Mho Distance Characteristics. on Power Delivery. It also presents the algorithm testing through computer simulation and investigates the influence of remote infeed. The self-clearing fault phenomenon is discussed along with the relay architecture. Shen. IEEE Trans. Mar. S. M. 1999. This paper discusses the development of directional detection methods based on transient phenomena in the power system when a fault occurs known as the transient energy method. 810–817. 142–148. L. L. D. This paper discusses various aspects of the zero sequence compensation factor. 29–31. This paper presents a comparison of the performance of a numerical distance relay with the basic mho characteristic and the same relay with the bullet characteristic. 1999. pp. Zero Sequence Compensation Factors for Ground Distance Relaying. Mar. 1999. C. S. 1999. M. It stresses that the importance of the relay engineer finding the best compromises considering all system conditions and the effect of compensation factors on fault location. Taylor. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. Zhu. 14. Li. El-Sayed. P. July 1999. 1257–1262. 1999. Chen. Adaptive Bowl Impedance Relay. 1999. 1. Advanced Methods for Faulted Phase Selection and Directional Detection in Numerical Distance Relays.2 Primary Distribution Systems Zero Sequence Directional Earth-Fault Protection With Improved Characteristics for Compensated Distribution Networks. IEEE Trans. This paper deals with the fundamentals of transmission line protective relays. Lin. A. 3152 TRANSMISSION LINE PROTECTION 3152. on Power Delivery. Williams. A. 5. A. J. C. 1999. and fuse-microprocessor-controlled recloser protection coordination. 52. 1276–1284. Zelichonok. Lien. Lysenko. pp. E. along with the transient method of detection and the implementation and testing of the concept. 4. Duffy. 26–28. Vol. L. F. G. and breaker failure protective relays. 441–445. 49. Multipurpose Overhead Lines Protection Algorithm. Z. 3151. T. Selectivity of directional active power relays for zero sequence earth-fault protection of compensated medium voltage distribution networks is analyzed. Y Guo. 16. IEE Proceedings—C. J. Optimal Coordination of Directional Overcurrent Relays Considering Definite Time Backup Relaying. A bowl characteristic is obtained by portions of reactance and mho characteristics.

This paper describes the design of largely self-calibratable voltage transformer testing set in which the only components that have a first-order bearing on the instrument’s errors are transformer devices working at zero burden. SanayePasand and O. Vol. Enhancing DC Power for Protective Relays. 1999. This paper explores one manufacturer’s requirements. A. The application of cts for protective relaying without considering the ct requirements can cause failure or misoperation of the relay system. Alexander. P. 1999. Vol. The “phaselets” approach allows the system to adapt its operating characteristics based on measured current values. With communication becoming the backbone of protective relays. 3. Hansom. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. M. J. Fiber optic communication channels can drastically increase the reliability of pilot protective relaying while offering the user other advantages over other types of pilot channels. 26–28. System Reliability Improvements Through Fiber Optic Systems. P. W. This paper proposes a standard way of measuring these characteristics and also analyzes their effects on overall network performance. 906–908. O. S. Aggarwal. 14. Adamiak. M. Florence. Baghurst. M. This paper covers the principles of combined sequence-current differential relays. This paper examines the communication issues in the Independent System Operator (ISO) environment including inter ISO communication of status data. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. Mar. Websper. Implementation & Laboratory Test Results of an Elman Network-Based Transmission Line Directional Relay. 115. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. July 1999. Short. This paper discusses a unique new approach to numerical current differential line protection that offers improved performance over the conventional percentage restraint approach. 1999. 1. 1999. Oct. 3152. Oct. IEEE Trans.110.2 Relay Communications The Role of Utility Communications in a Deregulated Environment. The effects of ct saturation and the requirements to avoid saturation are discussed. 29–31. III. E. D. This paper concentrates on how the use of fiber has helped the Protection and Communication Engineers by increasing the reliability of their protection and SCADA systems. Wang. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. 1999 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT 507 A number of different applications are discussed as well as the results being derived from theoretical studies and verified by EMTP tests and real time test on the model power system. pp. IEE Proceedings—C. no. The paper also covers the message used to transfer data among the terminals involved. Oct. T. R. benefits and the new applications of a relay whose aim is to provide a common tool for protection. A. Mar. 1999. 1999. on Power Delivery. T. 14.: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELAY LITERATURE. This outline compares the battery technology characteristics of aging. Betts. Bennett. no. no. pp. no.110 Guide for Application of Current Transformers Used for Protective Relaying Purposes. pp. Italy. Meeting the Challenges of the New Millennium: The Universal Relay. McCartha.3 Relay Systems A New Approach to Current Differential Protection for Transmission Lines. Johns. M. especially near generating stations. on Power Delivery. Oct. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. A. Dunn. D. IEEE Trans. G. L. performance. S. 146. Feature Extraction Methods For Neural Network-Based Transmission Line Fault Discrimination. Paper no. E. This paper describes an alternative approach to nonunit protection of transmission lines using artificial neural networks (ANNs). Tech Protective Relay Conference. May 5–7. This paper is a short summary of information in the Guide C37. W. 1999. Premerlani. 1999. A. Exponentially Changed Transients and Relaying Application Consideration. Schweitzer. IEEE Trans. This paper describes a transmission line fault direction identification module based on an Elman recurrent network algorithm that has been implemented on a DSP board and its behavior is investigated on a physical power system model. 26–28. 26–28. 26–28. 1999. Malik. This paper discusses the make and interrupt process of metallic contacts and proposes solutions to some common but misunderstood problems. and temperature tolerance. 1999. 782–788. Implementation of Microprocessor Relays for Transmission Modernization. Communication Measurements for IEDs. M. 1999. Cho. Oct. pp. G. Mar. Vol. Hedding. reliability. May 1999. Pozzuoli. on Instrumentation and Measurement. the overall goals of the communications architecture chosen and relative measurements from IEDs are important. Oct.SIDHU et al. Lee. May 5–7. J. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. This paper discusses the reasons for and the benefits of implementing a transmission relaying modernization program from one utility’s perspective. Stinson. 48. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. It also discusses next generation protection communications that will be available shortly and its effect on next generation SCADA. 53rd Annual Ga. 29–31. R. The paper also describes different communication channels as applied to current differential relays. . S. Vol. The remainder emphasizes the importance of properly using decrement curves in overcurrent relay coordination. R. K. S. 53rd Annual Ga. architecture. P. A. H. accounting issues and power system control. 29–31. Tech Protective Relay Conference. metering. IEEE/PSRC Working Group. Jan. SC34. C37. This paper emphasizes the need for control circuit designers and relay technicians to understand DC transients in trip circuits to ensure proper operation and appropriate sizing of components. Dunahoo. P. 94–97. Measuring and Improving the Switching Capacity of Metallic Contacts. Benckenstein. This paper outlines the commercially available stand-by battery technologies for utility and industrial protective relay operations. monitoring and control across the entire power system and serve as the engine for substation automation. 1999. Kunsman. S. maintenance. Premerlani. 3153 RELAY INPUT SOURCES Self-Calibratable Voltage Transformer Testing Set. 209–216. 5. 3. Adamiak. J. Line Current Differential Relaying. W. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 3152.

III. Szafran. 1999. IEEE/PSRC Working Group Report. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. IEEE Trans. 1999. Connections. A. July 1999. Fundamental to the application of protective schemes is the proper connection of vt and ct inputs. Effective Negative Sequence Relaying for Motor Protection. including operation. Vol. G. IEEE Trans. Mozina. M. 146. 1999. E. 1999. 14. J. Vol. pp. Jan. Bennouzid. OCTOBER 2001 Low Power Voltage and Current Transducers for Protecting and Measuring Medium and High Voltage Systems. J. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. IEEE Trans. VOL. Oct. CT and VT Connections—A Primer. 1999. This paper reviews the definitions. IEEE Trans. An Artificial Neural Network Based Digital Differential Protection Scheme for Synchronous Generator Stator Winding Protection. Paterson. M. Jan. J. This paper provides discussion of the options available and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses or limitations of each. E. Darwish. 16. Haslam. no. protection. or external fault). pp. Fundamental to the application of protective schemes is the proper connection of vt and ct inputs. 86–93. An adaptive algorithm for estimation of wide-range frequency changes is presented. D. on Power Delivery. 3. pp. July 1999. 29–31. Vol. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. W. Haslam. Included is guidance in selecting which functions should or should not initiate sequential tripping. 1. O. 1999. Taylor. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. Taylor. T. pp. no. Mar. Michalik. on Energy Conversion. Vol. A. no. 1999. 26–28. 1999. P.508 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. 818–823. pp. 2. pp. The fault detector uniquely responds to generator winding earth and phase faults with remarkably high sensitivity using three trained ANNs having a six-dimensional input vector. Application of Multifunction Generator Protection Systems. no. Fast and reliable results are shown. 3154 ROTATING MACHINERY PROTECTION Induction Motor Asymmetrical Faults Detection Using Advanced Signal Processing Techniques. A. D. Watson. This paper describes the design and field testing of a wind farm protection relay suitable for the protecting of wind farms with fixed-speed induction generators. pp. J. Schweitzer. The scheme uses one ANN for fault detection and one for fault classification. Malik. The practice of tripping the generator breakers immediately following a boiler/turbine trip exposes the generator to potentially damaging overspeed. 37–44. M. pp. The paper presents the motor signature current analysis and utilizes spectral analysis of the stator current for detection of abnormal electrical and mechanical conditions. Design and Evaluation of a Wind Farm Protection Relay. These new sensors offer superior transient performance for diagnostic purposes and remove application restrictions imposed by past technologies. N. implementation in a processor-based relay and testing using a wind farm simulator and relay test set are discussed. 1. Vieira. Lerley. A. Design of operating characteristic for protection. Beguenane. on Power Delivery. 14. This paper describes the design and evaluation of a protection relay for wind farms with fixed-speed induction generators. 655–660. Oct. I. Rebizant. N. R. 1285–1294. I. A. and safety. Kawady. R. on Power Delivery. calculation methods and standards of supply unbalance and compare the response of the corresponding detection techniques for various system configurations. Jan. is also discussed. 31–36. May 5–7. This paper describes the use of the sequential trip mode as a means of minimizing the exposure to possible unit damage. IEEE Trans. I. 4. Relay performance when installed at the Cemmaes wind farm in Wales for a 12-month site trial. 14. 824–830. P. It also uses the presence of fundamental or 2nd harmonics in the field current to differentiate between generator states (normal. C. J. 147–152. The Use of Finite Element Methods to Improve Techniques for the Early Detection of Faults in 3-Phase Induction Motors. 146. Oct. leading to a better interpretation of the motor current spectra. C. 1999. M. R. R. 14. 1999. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. This paper discusses the protection requirements for connecting IPPs to utility systems as well as the reconnect methods. Crossley. Adaptive Estimation of Wide Range Frequency Changes for Power Generator Protection and Control Purposes. This paper describes how commercial Finite Element packages may . Jan. Evaluation of Protection Systems for Distributed Generation. Oct. 26–28. H. This paper discusses various aspects of generation connected to radial distribution circuits. Vol. IEE Proceedings—C. 1. 3. 14. Jenkins. IEEE/PSRC Working Group Report. Mar. 2. Vol. 1999. 14. 4. P. NO. IEE Proceedings—C. Tech Protective Relay Conference. S. IEEE Trans. on Energy Conversion. Sept. 14. Vol. no. ANN-Based Novel Fault Detector for Generator Windings Protection. Jenkins. 53rd Annual Ga. Nejjari. Vol. This paper describes generator protective relaying technological advancement advantages with digital relays for nonutility and utility generator installations. pp. Also discussed are the limitations of present-day interconnection protection methods in addressing issues such as system generation support during major utility system disturbances. This paper presents an ANN based internal fault detector algorithm for generator protection. No. Bradley. N. 132–141. 1999. The paper also investigates the frequency signature of some asymmetrical motor faults using Fast Fourier Transform. no. internal fault. Taalab. Megahed. It also points out limitations of voltage unbalance measurement under certain open phase and load configurations. Dorrell. Vol. H. Sequential Tripping of Steam Turbine Generators. IEEE Trans. F. 1. A. Simulation results are presented for investigating the frequency estimation in the presence of standard noise level in the input signal and frequency tracking properties of the algorithm at relatively high frequency-changing rates. no. no. P. 29–31. Interconnect Protection of IPP Generators Using Digital Technology. H. 26–28. This paper introduces a new generation of instrumentation transducer systems suitable for the substation environment. Crossley. on Power Delivery. Minkner. O. Design and Field Testing of a Source Based Protection Relay for Wind Farms. June 1999. This paper provides a discussion of the options available and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses or limitation of each. S. on Power Delivery.

Aabø. SC34. pp. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. M. Florence. Control and Monitoring Functions—Experiences and Future Requirements From a Utility Point of View. This paper summarizes a special publication TP-126-0 encompassing the protection and control philosophies of capacitor banks used on series-compensated transmission lines.g. 183–189. new ways of operation. L. S. Vol. 1999. B. A. Oct. testing and maintenance and new solutions implemented by the Norwegian utility. IEEE/PSRC Working Group Report. Petterteig. pp. Oct. N. Dupuis. 1999. J. BBK. Kulidjian. 53rd Annual Ga. 3155. from a utility point of view. 1999. S. no. 53rd Annual Ga. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 35. This paper presents the analysis on the influence of the load of the unit connected generator on the operating conditions of the ground-fault protection of the stator windings of the generator. Zielichowski. 146. 1999. May 5–7. Al-Umair. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Oct. IEEE Trans. The concept of three phase and differential unbalance protection are discussed in this paper. Some results of the simulation are presented. This paper describes a digital technique for detecting internal and external faults for power transformers operating in loaded or unloaded conditions. Summary of the IEEE Special Publication on Series Capacitor Bank Protection TP-126-0. The paper also discusses the large discrepancies between actual life and computed life. Fulczyk. 857–862. Dhillon. K. Juan. L. C. R. A. no. Taylor. Allen. pp. 1999. 105. limitations of the methods. The algorithm considers a ratio between the phasors of the second and the fundamental frequency components of the differential signal. 3155.and negative-sequence models of the power system in a faultdetection algorithm. 1999. 4. 1999. M. This paper presents a new inrush restraint algorithm for the protection of power transformers.: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELAY LITERATURE. Sidhu. 14. Mar. 1.SIDHU et al. The technique uses positive. The algorithm is presented in detail and its analytical justification is supported by the results of numerical analysis. 29–31. on Power Delivery. 3. A impedance based unbalance methodology is detailed which addresses some of the concerns of the other methods. It then discusses the protection of shunt capacitor banks and presents techniques for fuseless capacitor bank protection using digital relays. S. Kobet. Vandiver. 1295–1297. and potential improvements. R. pp.1 Transformer and Reactor Protection Automatic Testing of Multifunctional Transformer Protection Relays. 798–804. M.V. The paper outlines a method of detecting single-phase conditions caused by blown fuses on the primary of a delta-wye substation power transformer.2 Capacitor Bank and Static Var Protection Protection of Fuseless Capacitor Banks Using Digital Relays. IEEE Trans. no. Jan. 1999 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT 509 be used to simulate rotor faults and hence enhance the capability of practical condition monitoring schemes. A. H. Paper no. Chen. 241–248. May 5–7. no. Apostolov. Tech Protective Relay Conference. Italy. IEEE Trans. McCall. A Power Transformer Protection Technique With Stability During Current Transformer Saturation and Ratio-Mismatch Conditions. May 1999. July 1999. 26–28. Tziouvaras. 14. support. Vol. 26–28. T. The paper also summarizes a method of isolating customer loads from the substation bus to prevent damage to customer appliances. pp./Feb. This paper discusses how to utilize the integrated numerical devices for protection and control. This paper reviews existing shunt capacitor bank technologies and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of the different capacitor technologies. on Power Delivery. Beaulieu. Lu. Negative-Sequence Relay Protection for Blown High-Side Transformer Fuse Detection. A Two-Relay Differential Protective Scheme for Le-Blanc Transformers. J. Florence. The paper discusses how EMTP was used to confirm the experiences from the field. G. New Constraints on Relay Applications Due to Developments on Substation Equipment. M. This paper describes the impact of new development leading to reduction in design cost and size of H. no. Tech Protective Relay Conference. An Improved Transformer Inrush Restraint Algorithm Increases Security While Maintaining Fault Response Performance. excited by the ratio of the third harmonic voltage in the generator neutral and at the generator terminals to ground. 110. Transformer . Oct. Newton. using negative-sequence relay technology. This paper describes an electrical railway protection scheme with two electro-mechanical differential relays utilizing a phasor combination connection that combines the primary line current to match the secondary line current phases for Le-Blanc transformers.. July 1999. R. Day. Kasztenny. A. H. This paper discusses an automatic object-oriented approach to the testing of such devices which should result in significant improvement in the efficiency and accuracy of the test process. 1999. 1999. Y. B. Transformer Loss of Life. GIS. 14.3 Other Protection Integration of Protection. on Power Delivery. Sachdev. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. Italy. 3. This paper describes one utility’s experiences with ferroresonance when serving load from the delta tertiaries of transformers. IEE Proceedings—C. T. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. Paper no. A. Influence of Load on Operating Conditions of Third Harmonic Ground-Fault Protection System of Unit Connected Generators. R. Oct. S. Vol. T. 3155 OTHER PROTECTION 3155. equipment (e. Testing of modern multifunctional transformer protection devices using conventional methods and test equipment is a very time consuming and in many cases incomplete process. This paper discusses the methods used to determine the transformer insulation’s loss of life. Vol. Oct. E. Wu. It also presents the benefits of new numerical technology. New Techniques for Capacitor Bank Protection and Control. on Industry Applications. 26–28. 3. IEEE Trans. S. A. D. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. 1999. M. Anderson. An Investigation of Ferroresonance on Transformer 13-kV Ungrounded Tertiaries Using the Electromagnetic Transients Program. Gill. SC34. Hannah. S. Vol.

This paper presents some recent experience of CONEL Sibiu in application of a Primary Equipment Monitoring System (PEMS) in high voltage substations. 113. Oct. maintenance. 1999. SCADA and Maintenance. metering. The newer relays with settable directionality make such a scheme feasible. 1999. which reduces the wiring complexity and associated capital costs. thus reducing the number of separate hardware units. Witte. This paper discusses the experience gathered from the recent projects for integration of a large number of protection and control functions in the substation central unit. Methods and Application. Improved Relay Coordination and Fault Detection by Integrating the Relay Functions. VOL. L. Bus Protective Relaying. Italy. Oct.) on protection systems. Static Relays Permit Enhanced Protection. Paper no. This paper describes the application of a multi-functional relay unit that satisfies the minimum requirements of each of the embedded functions in view of performance. Several methods of protection are described and compared. Expanding the Scope of Protective Relays Across Traditional Boundaries. A. Trend of High Voltage Substation Automation Systems: Embedded Functions. Humphreys. J. SC34. M. This paper describes the application of hardware and software based platforms for grouping control and protection system functions in substations. Carlo. A. This paper describes the experiences and problematic concerns of integrated protection and control system architectures. Oct. It also discusses the synch check problem. Paper no. Synch Check With Distributed Voltages. object models for remote and local operations. D. J./Apr. Florence. Hyvärinen. and new managerial requirements. A. using digital technology available today. 1999. and Programmable Logic Control (PLC) into a single device. F. Paper no. This paper presents the strategy developed by National Grid Company for realization of new technology. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Paper no. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. future implementation of additional functionality are discussed. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 1999. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. S. pp. D. Crognale. This paper describes a new universal protective relay with modular hardware and software components that can be combined into numerous configurations. and others. control. 111. SC34. 1999. C. redundancy. Florence. This paper suggested the use of one microprocessor relay to protect both transmission lines on either side of a single transmission line tie breaker. Gal./M. D. J. V. Goody. Paper no. 1999. Oct. Florence. to advance the developing CBM (Condition Based Maintenance). interlocked line and transformer relaying. SC34. Italy. D. overcurrent relaying. Florence. 1999. F. José. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. A. Protection and Control Integration—The National Grid Company’s Plans and Visions. Control and Monitoring Functions in Romanian EHV Substations. Florence. M. All the relays are integrated into a Substation Integration (SI) system to provide SCADA visibility and to provide information and control capabilities of microprocessor based relays. Tengdin. Italy. allocation of functions. SC34. Multi-function multi-purpose static over-current relays. Italy. Many functions could be decentralized at the bay level using more powerful communication channels. low to moderate impedance unrestrained. Florence. 1999. communications. S. Italy. the constraints in protection due to development in H. This paper presents a PECO Energy Company’s substation using a completely integrated protection and control design. In this paper. S. SC34. analyzed lessons learnt from supplier and customer point of view are presented and discussed. 101.V. low impedance restrained. 53rd Annual Ga. Paper no. Italy. SC34. T. L. B. Gino. Florence. 16. Paper no. Italy. Mar. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. IEEE Industry Applications Magazine. Lissandrin. 1999. comprised of over 140 microprocessorbased relays and communications processors. Oct. various engineering and managerial practices are discussed in applying the combined unit into power system management. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. New Trends on Integration of Protection. control. 116. and may offer many additional functions. 1999. and instantaneous three phase and ground overcurrent protection. and monitoring are considered as one whole entity. 26–28. P. May 5–7. This paper describes an application of a high performance substation Local Area Network (LAN) for a synchronism check function. Frugoni. J. 106.510 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Experience Made When Allocating Functions in Integrated Protection and Control Systems. Included are: high impedance unrestrained. Italy. Oct. some ABB Italy applications. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. Finally.V. Finally. SC34. Shulim. Experiences in the Allocation of Substation Control and Monitoring Functions. Microprocessor Relay Capabilities Improve Protection. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. manual/automatic transaction sequences. OCTOBER 2001 etc. Oct. Finally. Balasiu. 117. This paper serves as a review of the application of bus protective relaying. Diehl. Gharpure. Florence. flexibility. ways to reduce various problems caused by . equipment design are presented and discussed. This article describes two applications that use some of the additional functions in such a relay. 102. Downes. It also integrates the protection. 1999. D. 4. Finally. This paper describes the high voltage substation automation systems focusing on substations where power system protection. Ivan. Florence. Oct. SC34. Paper no. Oct. 103. Iurlo. Experiences and Trends. security. Villani. M. This not only provides the comprehensive feeder protection device. H. D. J. maintenance. The complex decisions must all be done within the constraints of system reliability and stability. Bailey. Operative experiences of numerical control functions installed on board of primary equipment and an example of future application in compact substation are presented and discussed. SC34. 114. 107. practical realizations taking into consideration the important aspects of implementation within the entire system are presented and discussed. Oct. Italy. R. integrated in existing protection and control systems. B. Fagarasan. Khan. Integrated Protection and Control Systems: Evolution. Kojovic. C. The requirements and the resulting advantages of different functions like dependability. Horak. G. SC34. Jakominich. Holstein. provide basic time. but also diagnoses for underground circuits that prevent permanent faults. Cost Effective Protection Scheme for Single Breaker Substations. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. J. A. Koch. D. 10–17. Laakso. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Its benefits include the enhancement in riskmanagement assets. M. Tech Protective Relay Conference. 1999. Schwenk. Florence. Italy. Oct. 1999. NO. F. Paper no. Paper no. testing. B.

Al-Owaid. fault resistance. . Y. calculation methods. this also presents the optimization of line patrolling resources using automatic fault location for a better overall reliability of the power system network. This paper discusses how reliability and availability can be maintained when many functions are integrated in one terminal and which functions require redundancy from the system reliability point of view. Jan. Chang. This paper proposes a new algorithm to solve a nonlinear integer optimization formula for fault section estimation. 1999. M. Oct. Program Set for the Analysis of Disturbances and Fault Location in Transmission Lines DISAN/LOCATOR. H. R. N. Tian. Z. 1999. and standards of supply unbalance and compares the response of the corresponding detection techniques for various system configurations. Florence. Florence. Italy. K. Azuma. Oct. Feb. 1999. The results of the algorithm as obtained from both theoretical and practical power system models are presented. 209. Paper no. S. pp. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. It also discusses the impact of self-supervision on availability and requirements for reliability redundancy. 3156 FAULT AND SYSTEM CALCULATIONS Fault Section Estimation in Power Systems. G. Y. mathematical solution approach. Liamets. Applying Unbalance Detection Relays With Motor Loads. Zhukov. F. J. It also gives some examples of performance improvements of a new numerical protective relays in terms of improved economy and reliability and reductions in hardware. Faijjal. L. This paper emphasizes the basic principles and topics of fundamental importance related to technology and architecture of a modern integrated control. and provides a much faster processing solution. E. Vol. IEE Proceedings—C. 49. Robles. and maintenance of modern substations in utility market. pp. 29–31. Terazono. 689–693. 26–28. A. M. Kai. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. a sample power system is used to demonstrate the efficiency of Ant System based method. The present methods of fault location on transmission line in the power systems of Russian Federation are also described. This paper presents a technique for accurate fault location on distribution overhead lines and underground cables. Italy. R. Florence. 1999. SC34. A New Approach to Fault Section Estimation in Power Systems Using Ant System. Italy. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. N. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Accurate Fault Location Technique for Distribution System Using Fault-Generated High-Frequency Transient Voltage Signals. Bo. T. Florence. 73–79. Present Status and Experiences in Grouping of Protection Functions in Integrated Systems. Florence. C. 1999. L. operation. S. Oct. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. This paper describes the philosophy and experiences of grouping protection functions used in Japan. Lerley. D. Thompson. A. The Single Failure Criterion in Integrated Protection and Local Control Systems. The travelling time of the highfrequency components is used to determine the fault position. 104. This paper discusses the concept of a three level control architecture to achieve economies of a scale in the construction. Oct.5 kV submarine cables. Podshivalin. Efremov. Brinkis. 63–70. The theoretical principles of construction of a widely used program set. Vol. A. SC34. In addition. 1999. 201. The paper presents a new concept of analysis of digital records and location of faults in transmission line based on the optimization approach. M. A. This paper discusses new tendencies of improvement of the fault location system in transmission lines. no. SC34. V. S. Guzman. Italy. M. Also discussed are cable modeling using symmetrical components and analyzes the performance of a negative-sequence directional element during cable fault conditions. This paper analyzes the application of directional comparison schemes to protect two 34. Serizawa. S. A. 206. Mizuma. Paper no. Florence. K. Oct. Marsushima. Protection and Monitoring of High-Voltage Substations: An Update on Concept. 1999. Al-Umair. 1. G. 205. The problems experienced in fault location of large transmission system are discussed.: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELAY LITERATURE. 1999. Subramaniam. Design and Engineering. A. Finally. SC34. A. Florence. IEEE Trans. A. Cuyper. 204. Marashi. The results of the field tests on a 330 kV-transmission line are reported in the end. J. Wen. pp. Laheen. Holst. 1999.SIDHU et al. It also discusses breaker failure relays and how they work. This paper reviews the definitions. Artsishevsky. Iljin. Y. Digital Fault Location for High Resistance Grounded Transmission Lines. A. Al-Hosani. This paper discusses backup protection in general and what issues need to be considered in deciding whether to apply dedicated breaker failure protection. DISAN/LOCATOR. May/June 1999. no. This paper describes the fault location methods used in a widespread transmission system known as the Baltic transmission system connected to the Russian network. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 112. V. Redfern. Paper no. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. H. Q. B. A. T. Y. Trémérie. The algorithm is based on direct classical. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Underground/Submarine Cable Protection Using a NegativeSequence Directional Comparison Scheme. Fundamentals and Advances in Breaker Failure Protection. H. SC34. and its development prospects are presented. Nudelman. protection and monitoring system. Iwatani. 1999. The paper discusses the basic requirements and options allowing the use of existing DFRs to perform automatic fault location. SC34. Liebach. Ibaragi. 108. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Italy. Florence. Control. T. V. 1999. SC34. Nagasawa. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. P. Oct. Paper no. F. V. Paper no. Electric Power Systems Research. Dyakov. Paper no. SC34. J. Oct. 1999 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT 511 lumping too many functions at a single point are presented and discussed. 146. B. Vargas. Italy. Vol. 1999. T. F. This paper presents a new approach known as Ant System applied to solve this optimization problem. Otoguro. Funabashi. 3. S. Paper no. Paper no. on Industry Applications. Lundqvist. Mar. Oct. Italy. Oct. Weller. Italy. along with considerations for backup tripping logic. T. The technique is insensitive to fault type. fault inception angle and system source configuration. P. New Tendencies of Improvement of the Fault Location System in Air Transmission Lines. Optimization of Line Patrolling Resources using Automatic Fault Location on Data From Existing DFRs—Field Experience from a User Point of View in Belgium. M. Problems and Possibilities of Fault Location in a Power Transmission Line. The paper also points out the limitations of voltage unbalance measurement under certain open-phase and load configuration. 35.

Italy. 1999. M. This paper describes improved fault location techniques based on the high frequency signals produced during a fault. Oommen. This paper presents a technique suitable for estimating locations of shunts faults on radial subtransmission and distribution lines from digital relay measurements. Akiyama. SC34. S. Tziouvaras. 41–47. Benmouyal. Horowitz. A. F. Furuse. accurate and robust fault location algorithm for series compensated lines. 789–797. The paper describes a solution for transient data handling in a substation automation system for fault data collection and analysis. C. S. Paper no.512 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. Makino. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Vol. Multiple load taps on a line are shown to affect single-phase-to-ground fault location determination. W. Paper no. Canadian Journal of Elect. A new method to correct for intermediate power sources is developed. The model uses phase coordinates (abc) instead of symmetrical components (012). K. A New Accurate Fault Locating Algorithm for Series Compensated Lines. pp. and also incorporates the automatic fault restoration of busbars into substation control. 1999. These techniques use synchronized phasor measurements. Phadke. Finally. Eng. Fault Location and its Role in Power System Protection. Sidhu. Distribution-Line Shunt-Fault Locations From Digital Relay Measurements. Application and performance of new models are discussed.or Three-Terminal Lines. L. Oliveira. 1999. Ametani. 3. Rebeiro. Finally. M. SC34. 1. S. double-ended algorithms. G. Oct. T. Magnago. Oct. Load behavior needs to be considered in the algorithms for distribution systems fault locations to reduce the resulting error to practical limits. 1999. J. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 2. M. Das. The paper describes the CEMIG practical experience in fault location using an oscillography plan. Oct. The results for double and single ended configuration in transmission systems are presented. Vol. The method is applied to double circuit lines with three terminals. J. S. T. Fault Data Generation and Analysis in Modern Substation Automation Systems. Peterson. P. This paper presents a new accurate and robust fault locating algorithm for series compensated lines. Lidström. Saha. Italy. 1999. Effect of Three-Winding Transformer Models on the Analysis and Protection of Mine Power Systems. A Fault Location Technique for Radial Subtransmission Lines With Tapped Loads. J. 16. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. D. Paper no. K. Sidhu. M. Novosel. Oct. SC34. G. 202. Paper no. Oct. Italy. D. M. Abur. 207. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. pp. S. Mitsuoka. Jan. D. 208. Field data on these activities is also presented. The algorithm uses global positioning system of satellites for synchronized phasor measurements. SC34. A. M. and the conclusions are presented. S. pp. the results and conclusions are presented. 14. which are realized from load-flow and fault studies of mine power systems. Kezunovic. May/June 1999. M. J. 1999. Extension to Fault Location Algorithm Based on Synchronized Sampling. The paper presents an algorithm which uses raw samples of voltages and currents from the two ends of the transmission line for fault analysis and fault location. 1999. M. This paper provides a description and. 35. on Power Delivery. . Hadick. This paper describes the present status of fault location and restoration in the case of transmission line faults and busbar faults in Japan. SC34. F. 146. and methods of fault location. July 1999. Oct. IEEE Trans. it is implemented as an add-on to ABB’s line protection terminal REL531. the paper explores new concepts in back-up protection of power systems. L. Italy. no. 1. no. OCTOBER 2001 Takeuchi. M. Kato. This paper analyzes the impact of more accurate transformer models on voltages and fault currents. G. M. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Kasztenny. Florence. SC34. 906–908. Wikström. The functional variation of CEMIG oscillography network is explained and various faults are simulated on transmission and subtransmission systems. Paper no. The restrictions imposed by the load models proposed so far are discussed in the paper. Das. VOL. SC34. C. Paper no. Florence. R. Roberts. Fault Location and Restoration: Philosophy and Applications. A. an assessment of practically applied fault localization methods at each voltage levels. Florence. J.. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Vol. Vol. Some results that demonstrate the suitability of the technique are also presented. 115–120. Reineri. Oct. Lima. The technique is suitable for handling various faults. M. A distributed recording concept for data generation is presented together with an automated procedure for statistical analysis allowing an improved management of the electrical system. IEE Proceedings—C. CEMIG Practical Experience in Transmission Line Fault Location. Jan. J. The use of proposed method for radial transmission system is also discussed. Italy. 210. on Industry Applications. 1999. Bacchini. The paper provides an overview of the techniques for fault location on transmission lines. Florence. Rosolowski. Sachdev. New Multi-Ended Fault Location Design for Two. pp. Oct. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Italy. C. And Comp. Vol. Italy. 24. A. The algorithm is developed as a one-end fundamental frequency based technique and extensively tested. 1999. T. I. 1999. 1999. Paper no. This paper presents a new. M. Load Research for Fault Location in Distribution Feeders. SC34. H. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. on Power Delivery. It discusses single-ended algorithms. 1999. D. Finally. Terazono. IEEE Trans. This paper presents a technique that estimates the location of radial-distribution-line shunt fault from digital relay measurements. Paper no. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. The system proposed automatically determines the fault section and switches over the line to a sound busbar. pp. Florence. Some test results considering different type of loads and faults are also presented. NO. S. 14. Oct. Gopalakrishanan. Oct. Florence. Álvarez. B. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Mitani. no. Dube. 212. Finally. Saha. A. Gomes. G. 216. 215. A. Fault Location Practice in Transmission and Distribution Systems. Florence. Implementation of New Fault Locating Technique for SeriesCompensated Transmission Lines. Italy. The algorithm is tested on a power system model and the results are presented. 4. 214. Sachdev. no. Tellarini. 1999. Paper no. no. Novosel. E. N. Izykowski. SC34. SC34. IEEE Trans. Florence. 3. Mar. the conclusions based on different voltage levels with respect to the cost-benefit are drawn. Advanced Techniques for Transmission and Distribution System Fault Location. Koppari. M. S. Italy. Italy. and a new modeling methodology. L. R. W. as far as possible. 80–85. referred to as the “fast response model” is proposed. Florence. Florence. 203. Kohler.

Bakar. 773–781. This paper describes a group of integrated tools developed to analyze transient response of numerical distance relays. 146. Also addressed are the modeling approach. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 1999. in which the source impedance of the remote end is not involved. I. P. 3. This paper emphasizes the necessity of designing standard procedures for trying out different types of numerical relays and applications in Spain. and the work performed to date. Italy. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 1999. Zhang. It discusses test instrument requirements for testing and evaluation. Oct. SC34. 1999. This paper presents an accurate fault-location algorithm for nonearth type faults employing a model of both a faulted circuit and healthy circuit of two-parallel transmission line fault locator where the remote source impedance is not involved. SC34. SC34. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. D. L. Agrasar. Determine Current Transformer Suitability Using EMTP Models. Enhancing Equipment Protection With an Automated Diagnostic System. pp. F. An Integrated System to Analyze. Shukri. S. 1999. D. Italy. Tools and Working Methodology Applied to Numerical Protective Relays in Union Fenosa. Florence. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. A. M. Installation of a New Control Cubicle at an Existing 230-kV Switchyard. Italy. Also discussed is the method used to move the 9-230-kV lines from the old control system to the new system. H. Karim. India. It also discusses the use of COMTRADE standard and simulation programs like EMTP. 121–124. Smith. B. D. R. 26–28. Folkers. no. Z. the kinds of equipment that can benefit from this system. Mar. The paper provides step-by-step instructions for using these tools to better understand and protect power systems. no. May 5–7. Paper no. F. Paper no. 1999. Florence. B. 2. application and benefits of an Automated Diagnostic System for evaluating the condition of protective equipment within a substation. It defines a companion standard that enables . 1999 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT 513 Paper no. 311. SC34. This paper highlights the experience gained from the document issued in 1995 called Approval and Acceptance of New Protective Equipment. Wang. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Mumbai. Q. on Power Delivery. ANALYSIS. Oct. Oct. 14. 1999. and A. 305. Oct. 308. Zhang. Oct. IEC 60 870-5-103 applies to protection equipment with coded bit serial data transmission for exchanging information with control systems. Yu. Oct. Florence. Florence. Rudolf. 213. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. whose objective was to standardize relay acceptance. This paper describes the process adopted by Tata Electric Companies. Paper no. 1999. J. 1999. Italy. Y. finally. Bassett. Zhang. Oct. pp. A commercial numerical distance relay is selected to validate simulation results. 303. SC34. 14. Retzmann. Application Testing of Protective Relay—Malaysian Experience. Florence. This paper presents an overview of the application of new Programmable Logic Controller based controls to a major utility substation. C. This paper demonstrates the use of software tools to model transient events in the power system. 309. Certain application problems have been identified and resolved. on Power Delivery. IEE Proceedings—C. the results are presented. It also describes steps required from application by the vendor to the listing of the relay in the departmental list of approved relays to be used in TNB. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. no. This paper presents an example of refurbishing of the protection system of an EHV overhead transmission line from an existing substation. B. Bernd. Italy. digital system models. 306. H. M. Uriondo. Song. A digital simulator is used to evaluate the relay performance. S. AND MODELING Methodology and Test Plans Adopted for Introduction of Numerical Relays in Tata Electric Companies. W. It highlights on some commissioning tests that are to be done to ensure the quality of new digital protection system and the proper integration into the existing protection system including electromechanical relays. SC34. Paper no. M. A. pp. M. Oct. An accurate algorithm for fault location of a single phase-toearth fault on a two-parallel transmission line is presented. Italy. This paper describes how to effectively test multifunction numeric protection. Ojanguren. Experiences Concerning the Interoperability of Protection Devices in Substations Based on IEC 60 870-5-103. V. This paper presents the concepts. Y. Holger. R. Tech Protective Relay Conference. as well as relay response to those events. W. D. Peter. TESTING.SIDHU et al. This paper describes a real time simulator. ATP for testing and evaluation. Rehabilitation of Romanian EHV Overhead Transmission Line Protection Systems—Lessons Learnt. Vol. D. Balasiu. July 1999. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Joachim. The algorithm is extensively tested on a power system model and. Florence. 1999. SC34. some diagnostic results from a substation application. Accuracy and usefulness of this simulator are discussed. 304. Oct. Kumar. IEEE Trans. 863–867. L. P. IEEE Trans. Agarwal. Paper no. July 1999. 1999. Vol. Vol. Paper no. T. J. Hernández. and tests on a numerical EHV line and a distance relay performance are analyzed. Gosalia. Yu. Florence. Paper no. Real Time Digital Power System Simulator Design Considerations and Relay Performance Evaluation. The proposed algorithm communicates with remote relay(s) over a protective relaying channel and does not require data alignment or phase selection information. Song. Amantegui. Y. Bjork. S. Fault Location of Two-Parallel Transmission Line for NonEarth Fault Using One-Terminal Data. J. 1999. The faulted phase circuit and the zero-sequence circuit of the two parallel line are used as a fault location model. Jakominich. Meaningful Testing of Numerical Multifunction Protection Schemes. W. 26–28. A. Y. R. Krebs. Arnáez. Kini. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Visualize and Test Transient Behavior of Units and Logic of Complex Distance Relays. Q. India for a phased transition from conventional and static technology to numerical technology for protective relays. It is recommended to integrate both the relay procedures and the engineering for each feeder so as to develop a feeder procedure. 53rd Annual Ga. and Z. Italy. Y. Fagarasan. Rao. Mumbai. Transmission Line Fault Location for Phase-to-Earth Fault Using One-Terminal Data. Andre. This paper presents a new fault location system for multi-terminal transmission lines. Zhang. 3. test and approval procedure in Tenaga Nasional Berhad (TNB).: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELAY LITERATURE. Performance of numerical relays has been found to be highly satisfactory. 3157 MAINTENANCE.

Mar. E. 52nd Texas A&M Conference for Protective Relay Engineers. Jan.514 IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON POWER DELIVERY. B. Paper no. G. Testing Impedance Characteristics of Transmission Line Relays. A. VDEW Working Committee. Tsujikura. Italy. 14. 1999. 302. 313. Oct. 1999. Deleting a Power Circuit Breaker at Pearl Substation Increases Relay and Control Scheme Complexity. RESTORATION Load Shedding for Utility and Industrial Power System Reliability. Florence. R. D. Thermal Models in Power System Protection. Vol. M. 1999. 14. 1999. SC34. SC34. Guzman. SC34. 26–28. 1999. IEEE Trans. Kockott. This paper is a tutorial on the thermal models used in power system protection. the evaluation criteria. on Power Delivery. is elaborated. Summary Report Analysis and Guidelines for Testing Numerical Protection Schemes. and the details of. and the rationale behind. High Speed Transmission Line Directional Protection Evaluation Using Field Data. T. their parameters. Price. on Power Delivery. which reduces the relay test work. which they are intended to verify. high performance automatic relay test equipment has recently been developed. The emphasis to eliminate costs from substation designs is the focus of this paper. 110–115. Evaluation of the Performance of Line Protection Schemes on the NYSEG Six Phase Transmission System. Paper no. T. Florence. This paper provides a good discussion of subject of overload load shedding as a method of . Horak. Morrow. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. This paper describes how to determine the periodic test interval for relays by minimizing the total costs associated with tests and the cost for outages that will arise when the protection will not operate. NO. This paper explains Eskom’s procurement method and provides the scope of the tests required by Eskom to certify a transmission line protection relay scheme for transmission system application. L. J. McLaren. A protection package of conventional three phase relays in current differential. This paper describes using the automated test set for testing line relay’s impedance characteristics and discusses testing issues that may be encountered. and linked to specific numerical protection functions. E. Oct. the generic design elements of numerical protection are reviewed and the influence of design on test requirements is identified. Yanagihashi. This paper presents two techniques for protective system testing using a Real-Time Power System Simulator (RTPSS) and playback systems. Fujita. A general recommendation for testing numerical protection relays with self-monitoring. SC34. no. S. 851–856. Test classifications are provided. SC34. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. S. J. Oct. Vol. Oct. In this paper. VOL. Ikehara. Testing Numerical Relays—Alternate Techniques and a Laboratory Implementation. 1999. 307. K. Sanaye-Pasand and O. Vol. The results are discussed. P. Y. Oct. 301. 1999. Italy. on Power Delivery. E. T. 29–31. OCTOBER 2001 interoperability between protection equipment and devices of a control system in a substation. 1999. Whittaker. Italy. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. J. Paper no. This paper describes performance of an Elman recurrent network-based algorithm to determine the fault direction on a transmission line from actual fault data recorded in the field. P. 310. The issues in generation of data for testing relays are examined. Eskom’s Certification Testing Requirements for EHV Numerical Transmission Line Protection Relays. Oct. Testing the ground mho and quadrilateral characteristics are emphasized and simple equations are provided to assist in developing automated control programs. 314. 14. A. Apr. 1999. The focus is on the protection schemes as they apply to the bus configuration and equipment within the substation fence. Low voltage stage faults were applied and two unstaged faults occurred. July 1999. pp. pp. 1999. Florence. Test Recommendations for Self-Monitored Protection Relays. R. Florence. the required scope of tests and the chosen test parameters. It also focuses on the model power system simulator testing requirements. 1999. May 5–7. M. Italy. Oct. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Italy. 358–365. This paper examines the analysis and subsequent compression properties of discrete wavelet and wavelet packet transforms and evaluates both transforms using an actual power system disturbance from a digital fault recorder. J. Paper no. Littler. T. SC34. 26–28. Florence. Wavelets for the Analysis and Compression of Power System Disturbances. the objectives to be achieved. Italy. 2. S. Kasai. A. S. 3. I. 26th Western Protective Relay Conference. no. Oct. Tech Protective Relay Conference. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Topham. Day. Finley. This paper identifies the areas not covered by self-monitoring facility of protection relays and emphasizes the need of regular tests to be performed on them. pp. EMTP tests were made in the laboratory. rather than frequency. IEEE Trans. J. Economic Determination of Periodic Test Intervals. 312. M. Also. SC34. This paper introduces the possibilities and the limits of testing the interoperability of protection devices. Oct. Both can accurately simulate transient conditions as well as instrument transformer behavior. Types of tests that can be performed on numerical relays are also reviewed. Real-Time Playback Simulators and Real-Time Digital Simulators for testing numerical relays. l. H. IEEE Trans. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. 53rd Annual Ga. Paper no. Reduction of Test Work by Applying Numerical Relays. Lidström. Test Methods for Digital Relay Protection Systems Using Real-Time Power System Simulators. Paper no. Nagasawa. Sachdev. no. OUT OF STEP. Zocholl. It explains the reasons for these requirements. Oppel. G. 4. 1999. Florence. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. This paper discusses the reduction in test work by applying numerical relays and its evaluation. Numerical relays can be easily tested due to their structural and functional advantages over analog relays. and how they are derived from available application data. the required test set-up. 3158 STABILITY. Wavelets are mathematical functions for the analysis of signals with transient features on the basis of scale. Kojovic. Various aspects of the elimination of one breaker from a traditional four breaker design. A procedure for identifying critical tests is discussed. The Hidden Economy of Cost Reduction. D. 1999. Florence. S. Italy. Malik. and step distance schemes was applied. directional comparison. L. This paper reviews the use of modern Relay Test Sets. almost all the newly installed protection equipment are numerical relays. 16. In Japan. Sidhu. Y. Paper no. Krizauskas. Jodice.

and location and direction of the power system operating point on the power vs phase angle curve is estimated. Considerations in the design of islanding and load shedding schemes and reliability aspects are described. 1301 South Grove Ave. IL 60010 Electric Construction and Maintenance McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Six Hills Way. SC34. Included are the discussion of frequency decay. K. Michael Faraday House. A numerical simulation calculates various indices to consider the reliability and other effects on electric facility. Kim. Baek. 1221 Avenue of the Americas. A. pp. Kim. D. CH-1001. Use of a new approach for auto-reclosing schemes for power quality improvement in KEPCOs distribution system is described. U. Vol.. CIGRÉ 1999 Session. Jan. Florence. Ichikawa. pp. 68–73. IEEE Trans.. Piscataway. on Power Delivery. 2050 Mansfield Street Montreal. CH-5401. S. A New Approach for Auto-Reclosing Schemes for Power Quality Improvement in KEPCOs Distribution System. K. GA 30332 IEE Proceedings Institute of Electrical Engineers. C. 1999.SIDHU et al. H. Canada CIGRÉ 3-5 rue de Metz. 3. Edgemont. 445 Hoes Lane.O. PQ H3A 1Z2. IEEE Trans. J. Baden. Vol. 48. A New Method for Detecting Loss of Synchronism Using Power and Current Measured on a Line. Oct. College Station. NY 10020 Electric Power System Research Elsevier Sequoia S. load variations under changing voltage and frequency conditions. July 1999. The designed relay based on the proposed algorithm is then tested through numerical simulation for a typical study system. 14. Box 58. 805–809. T. Journal and Conference Papers IEEE Service Center.A. 5072 West Chester Pike. Power and current are measured at regular intervals on a tie-line linking sub-networks to which groups of generators belong. CRO 1YD. 1999. Lausanne. Paper no.K. New York. New York. Sato. Herts SG1 2AY. 143–149. Paris. Rajamani and U. and generator response and limitations. E. J. & Comp.. WA 99163 . Minakawa.. 3159 SURGE PHENOMENA LIST OF PERIODICALS ABB Review ABB Marketing Services Ltd. Engineering Institute of Canada Suite 700. Eng. P. Ahn. NJ 08855-1331 Power McGraw Hill Publishing Co. France Electric Light and Power Technical Publishing Co. TX 77843 Transmission and Distribution Intertec Publishing Inc. Barrington. NY 10020 Texas A&M Protective Relaying Conference Texas A&M University. Kim.. Box 1331. Switzerland Electrical Review Reed Business Publishing.: BIBLIOGRAPHY OF RELAY LITERATURE. Electrical World 11 West 19th Street. I. 14. Y. P. on Power Delivery. 211. June K. no. Ishihara.. New York. Central House. pp.K.O.. 1999. U. NY 10011 Georgia Tech Protective Relaying Conference Georgia Institute of Technology. Watt and Var transfer limitations. M. Y. P. Pullman. Talaat. Stevenage. This paper presents a new approach of out-of-step relaying based on fuzzy classification. Islanding and Load Shedding Schemes for Captive Power Plants. Electric Power Systems Research. Box 564. Jan. Switzerland Canadian Journal of Elec. Y. Some results are reported. IEEE Transactions. Croyden. F75010. 1. 1221 Avenue of the Americas. Vol. PA 19028 Western Protective Relaying Conference Washington State University. K. This paper describes the various schemes adopted for islanding in industrial plants with captive generation in India.O. no. The simulation is carried out with actual field data to verify the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Predictive Out-of-Step Relaying Using Fuzzy Rule-Based Classification. Changes in power and current during the interval are calculated. Hambarde. Italy. 27 Park Street. Atlanta. 1999 IEEE COMMITTEE REPORT 515 ensuring power system reliability.

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