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This index covers the current Handbook series published by The page reference for an index entry includes the book letter
ASHRAE. The four volumes in the series are identified as follows: and the chapter number, which may be followed by a decimal point
and the beginning page in the chapter. For example, the page num-
A = 2003 HVAC Applications
ber S31.4 means the information may be found in the 2004 HVAC
S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment Systems and Equipment volume, Chapter 31, beginning on page 4.
F = 2005 Fundamentals Each Handbook volume is revised and updated on a four-year
R = 2006 Refrigeration cycle. Because technology and the interests of ASHRAE members
change, some topics are not included in the current Handbook
Alphabetization of the index is letter by letter; for example, Heat- series but may be found in the earlier Handbook editions cited in
ers precedes Heat exchangers, and Floors precedes Floor slabs. the index.

Abbreviations, F37 Adsorbents types

Absorbents impregnated, S25.24 air washers, S19.7
liquid, F1.14; F22.3 solid, A45.5; F22.4 combination, S24.6
refrigerant pairs, F1.15 Adsorption electronic, S9.1; S24.5, 8; S28.2
Absorption dehumidification, S22.1, 10 evaporative coolers, S19.7
ammonia/water, F20.1, 69 indoor air cleaning, A45.5 maintenance, S24.8
hydrogen cycle, R41.8 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25.24 media filters, S24.5
technology, R41.7 moisture, F22.1 Air conditioners. (See also Central air
bands, atmospheric gases, F31.15 Aeration, of farm crops, A23.4; F11.11 conditioning)
chillers, S4.2 Aerosols, S24.1 packaged terminal (PTAC), S46.5
coefficient of performance (COP), F1.13 Affinity laws for centrifugal pumps, S39.7 design, S46.5, 6
concepts AFUE. See Annual fuel utilization efficiency heavy-duty commercial grade, S5.2
coupling, F1.16 (AFUE) sizes and classifications, S46.5
double-effect AHU. See Air-handlers testing, S46.7
calculations, F1.18 Air residential, A1
cascaded, F1.16 age of, and ventilation, F27.4 split systems, S5.5
cycle characteristics, F1.15 changes per hour (ACH), F27.3 through-the-wall room units, A1.6
dehumidification, S22.10 drying, S22.11 unitary, A1.4
equipment, R41.1 liquefaction, R38.8 retail stores, A2.1
evolving technologies, R41.10 properties, F6.19 rooftop units, S5.7
ideal thermal, F1.13 separation, R38.17 room
industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25.17 Air cleaners. (See also Filters, air; Industrial codes and standards, S46.4
refrigeration cycles, F1.14 exhaust gas cleaning) design, S46.1
ammonia/water, F20.1, 69 gaseous (indoor air) features, S46.3
lithium bromide/water, F20.1, 69 adsorbers, A45.5 filters, S46.4
hermetic loops, F1.16 chemisorbers, A45.6 installation and service, S46.4
multieffect, F1.16 economics, A45.10 noise, S46.4
multistage, F1.16 energy consumption, A45.10 performance, S46.2
modeling analysis and performance environmental effects on, A45.11 sizes and classifications, S46.1
simulation, F1.17 installation, A45.10 split systems, S45.1
thermodynamic equations, F1.17 location, A45.8 coil placement, S45.8
phase constraints, F1.14 media selection, A45.8 residential and light-commercial, S5.5
representations, F1.16 operation and maintenance, A45.11 unitary
solar cooling, A33.18, 26; S33.3, 7 safety, A45.10 air handlers, S45.7
water/lithium bromide technology sizing, A45.8 application, S45.1
components, R41.1 terminology, A45.4 capacity control, S45.6
control, R41.6 testing, A45.12 certification, S45.5
double-effect chillers, R41.3 types, A45.6 circuit components, S45.6
maintenance, R41.7 industrial exhaust systems, A30.6 codes and standards, S45.5, 6
operation, R41.6 particulate desuperheaters, S45.2
single-effect chillers, R41.2 contaminants, S24.1 efficiency, S45.5
single-effect heat transformers, R41.3 industrial ventilation, S24.2 electrical design, S45.7
terminology, R41.1 particle collection mechanisms, installation, S45.2
working fluids, F1.15 S24.2 maintenance, S45.2
Acoustics. See Sound penetration, S24.3 mechanical design, S45.7
Activated carbon residential, S24.9 multizone, S45.3
adsorption, A45.5 safety requirements, S24.12 piping, S45.6
effectiveness, A45.8 selection, S24.8 refrigerant circuit control, S45.6
ADPI. See Air diffusion performance index standards, S24.3, 5 space conditioning/water heating, S45.3
(ADPI) test methods, S24.2 types, S45.2, 3

Copyright © 2006, ASHRAE I.1

I.2 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
unit ventilators, S31.1 subway stations, A13.20 centerline velocity, F33.2
window-mounted, S5.2 swimming areas, A4.5 classification, F33.1
Air conditioning. (See also Central air systems Coanda effect, F33.6
conditioning) air-and-water, S3.1 entrainment ratios, F33.5
airports, A3.9 decentralized, S1.4; S5.1 isothermal, F33.2
animal buildings, A22.4 features, S1.4 radial flow, F33.6
archives, A21 space requirements, S1.5 multiple, F33.6
arenas, A4.4 floor-by-floor, S5.6 nonisothermal, F33.6
atriums, A4.8 forced-air, small, S9.1 surface (wall and ceiling), F33.6
auditoriums, A4.3 packaged throw, F33.5
automobile, A9.1 outdoor equipment, S5.7 ceiling-mounted diffusers, F33.17
bakeries, R28 rooftop, S5.7 equipment, S17
bars, A3.5 radiant panel S6.1 evaluation, F33.12
bowling centers, A3.8 room-by-room, S5.3 air velocity, F33.13
buses, A9.9 selection, S1.1 exhaust inlets, F33.15
bus terminals, A3.10 self-contained, S5.6 methods
casinos, A3.6 space requirements, S1.5 displacement ventilation, F33.10
changeover temperature, S3.7, 9 split, S5.5 mixing systems, F33.7
clean spaces, A16 television studios, A3.9 unidirectional ventilation, F33.12
colleges, A6.3 temporary exhibits, A4.8 outlets
commercial buildings, A3.1; S5.6 textile processing plants, A19.3 Group A, F33.8, 16
computer rooms, A17 theaters, A4.3 Group B, F33.8, 16
concert halls, A4.4 thermal storage, A34.5 Group C, F33.9, 16
convention centers, A4.5 transportation centers, A3.9 Group D, F33.9, 16
data processing areas, A17 universities, A6.3 Group E, F33.9, 16
desiccant dehumidification and, S22.10 warehouses, A3.11 location, F33.15
dormitories, A5.1, 8 warm/humid climates, F24.8 performance, F33.9
educational facilities, A6.1 wood products facilities, A24.1 selection, F33.15
engine test facilities, A15.1 Air contaminants, F12. See Contaminants performance index, F33.13, 17
equipment Aircraft, A10 return air design, F33.17
outdoor, S5.7 air conditioning, A10.5 return inlets, F33.15
refrigeration, S4.2 air distribution, A10.7 space, F33.1
exhibition centers, A4.5 air filters, A10.4, 9 standards, F33.12
fairs, A4.8 air quality, A10.8 system design, F33.14
fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.13 cabin pressurization temperature gradient, F33.9
gymnasiums, A4.5 control, A10.6, 8 terminology, F33.1
health care facilities, A7 performance, A10.2, 4 Air diffusion performance index (ADPI),
hospitals, A7.2 carbon dioxide concentration, A10.9 F33.13, 17
nursing homes, A7.13 environmental control system (ECS), Air distribution
outpatient, A7.12 A10.2, 4, 6, 8 aircraft cabins, A10.7
hotels and motels, A5 air-conditioning packs, A10.4 animal environments, A22.3, 6
houses of worship, A4.3 air-cycle machine, A10.5 bowling centers, A3.8
ice rinks, A4.5 cabin pressure control, A10.2, 4, 6, 8 buildings, S2.1
industrial environments, A12; A29 design conditions central system, A41.2
kitchens, A3.5, 6; A31 considerations, A10.2 communications centers, A3.9
laboratories, A14.1 ventilation, A10.4 control, A46.11; S2.12
libraries, A21 engine bleed air system, A10.4 data processing areas, A17.3
mines, A27 load determination, A10.3 ductwork, S1.6; S2.7
museums, A21 outside air, A10.4 equipment, S17.7
natatoriums, A4.5 pneumatic system, A10.4 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.14
nightclubs, A3.6 regulations, A10.1 forced-air systems, small, S9.7
nuclear facilities, A26 heating, A10.4 industrial environments, A29.2
office buildings, A3.6 humidity, A10.9 in-room terminal systems, S3.6
paper products facilities, A24.2 multiple factors, A10.10 kitchen makeup air, A31.10
photographic processing and storage areas, oxygen levels, A10.1, 9 laboratories, A14.9
A20.1 ozone concentration, A10.1, 7, 8 places of assembly, A4.2
places of assembly, A4 ventilation, A10.1, 4 rail cars, A9.13
plant growth chambers, A22.17 Air curtains retail stores, A2.1
power plants, A25.9 application, S17.9 room terminals, S2.7
printing plants, A18 display cases, R46.5 ships, A11.3, 4
public buildings, A3.1 Air diffusers sound control, A47.2, 33
radio stations, A3.9 sound control, A47.8 static pressure control, S17.8
rail cars, A9.11 testing, A37.2 terminal boxes, A46.9
restaurants, A3.5 Air diffusion testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.2
retrofitting, contaminant control, R6.9 air jets textile processing plants, A19.5
schools, A6.2 angle of divergence, F33.2 zone control, A46.13
ship docks, A3.10 Archimedes number, F33.6 Air exchange rate
solar energy systems, A33.16, 18, 26 behavior, F33.1 air changes per hour (ACH), F27.3
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.3
modeling, F27.20 mixing plenum, S2.5 Algae, control, A48.5
multizone measurement, F27.27 outside air, S2.6 All-air systems
time constants, F27.3 psychrometrics, S2.3 advantages, S2.1
tracer gas measurement method, F27.26 reheat, S2.6 air distribution, S2.7
Air filters. See Filters, air sequencing, A41.26 air handlers, S2.3
Airflow set point reset, A41.27 buildings, S2.1
air-to-transmission ratio, S3.8 sound levels, A47.4 constant-volume, S2.8, 9
around buildings, F16 strategies, A41.26 control, S2.12
air intake contamination estimation unitary, air conditioners, S45.7 cooling, S2.3, 6
minimum dilution, F16.10 vibration isolation, S2.7 costs, S2.2
coefficients wind pressure, F16.3 Air intakes dehumidification, S2.4, 6
internal pressure, F16.9 design, A44.1 disadvantages, S2.1
modeling and testing, F16.10 hospitals, A7.2 dual-duct, S2.8
patterns, A44.3; F16.1 location to avoid contamination, A44.2 economizers, S2.5
wind outdoor, S2.5 heating, S2.2, 3
data, F16.3, 6, 7 vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.30 humidification, S2.4, 6
effects on system operation Air jets. See Air diffusion multizone, S2.10
intakes and exhausts, F16.7 Air leakage. (See also Infiltration) primary equipment, S2.3
system volume, F16.9 area, F27.12 single-duct, S2.8
ventilation, F16.7 building distribution, F27.13 variable-air-volume (VAV), S2.8, 9
velocity pressure (Bernoulli equation), commercial buildings, F27.23 zoning, S2.1
F16.3 controlling, air-vapor retarder, F27.14 Ammonia
through building components, F23.5 leakage function, F27.12 absorption
clean spaces, A16.3 measurement, F27.12, 13 ammonia/water, F1.18; R41.7
computational fluid dynamics, A39.10 Air outlets ammonia/water/hydrogen, R41.8
computer-aided modeling, A16.4 accessories, S17.3, 4, 5 in animal environments, A22.2, 9
condensers, evaporative, S35.16 dampers, S17.3, 4, 5 properties, ammonia/water, F20.1, 69
control, F23 location, S9.4 system practices, R3
and convection, F23.16 selection, S17.2 Anchor bolts, seismic restraint, A54.12
displacement flow, F27.2 smudging, S17.2 Anemometers
entrainment flow, F27.2 sound level, S17.2 air devices, A37.2
exhaust hoods, A30.3 supply, S17.1 types, F14.16
furnaces, S28.2 surface effects, S17.2 Animal environments
and heat flow, F23.8, 16 temperature differential, S17.2 air contaminants, F10.4
laminar, A16.3 types, S17.3 ammonia, A22.2, 9
measurement of, A37.2 Airports, air conditioning, A3.9 carbon dioxide, A22.2
modeling, hygrothermal, F23.8 Air quality. (See also Indoor air quality) air distribution, A22.3, 6
modeling, in buildings, F34 aircraft cabins, A10.8 air inlets, A22.6
and moisture flow, F23.8, 8 animal buildings, A22.2 air quality control, A22.2
nonunidirectional, A16.3 bus terminals, A13.15 air transport, R32.2
perfect mixing, F27.3 diesel locomotive facilities, A13.25 cattle, beef and dairy, A22.7; F10.7
smoke management, A52.5 parking garages, A13.10 chickens, F10.12
solar energy systems, A33.25 road tunnels, A13.5 cooling, A22.4
terminology, F23.2 tollbooths, A13.8 design, A22.1
tracking, A46.3 Airtightness, F14.22 disease control, A22.3
unidirectional, A16.3, 10, 12 Air-to-air energy recovery, S44 evaporative cooling, A22.4; A51.8
Airflow retarders Air-to-transmission ratio, S3.8 fans, A22.7
climates Air transport, R32 heating, A22.4
heating, F24.5 animals, R32.2 insulation, A22.5
mixed, F24.7 commodity requirements, R32.2 laboratory conditions, A14.14; A22.9; F10.14
warm/humid, F24.8 design considerations, R32.2 lighting, F10.3
walls, A43.5 galley refrigeration, R32.4 moisture control, A22.2
Airflow retarders, F23.5, 17 ground handling, R32.4 physiological control
Air flux, (See also Airflow) perishable cargo, R32.1 heat production
Air handlers refrigeration, R32.3 data, F10.2
all-air systems, S2.3 shipping containers, R32.2 genetics affecting, F10.7
control, A46.11 Air washers liquid wastes, F10.7
cooling, S2.3 air cleaning, S19.7 heat transfer, F10.3
dampers, S2.4 coolers, S19.5 systems, F10.2
dehumidification, S2.4, 6 dehumidification performance factor, poultry, A22.9
distribution systems, A41.2 S19.7 shades, A22.3
draw-through, S2.3 heat and mass simultaneous transfer, F5.11 sheep, F10.9
economizers, S2.5 high-velocity spray type, S19.6 swine, A22.7; F10.10
fans, S2.3, 4, 6 humidification, S19.6 temperature control, A22.1; F10.3
filter, S2.5 maintenance, S19.7 turkeys, F10.12
heating, S2.3 spray type, S19.5 ventilation, A22.5
humidification, S2.4, 6 textile processing plants, A19.3 Annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE),
location, S2.3 water treatment, A48.9; S19.8 S28.5; S29.2
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.4 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
Antifreeze hydronic systems, A37.6 cast iron, S27.1
coolants, secondary, F21.4 induction systems, A37.5 central
ethylene glycol, F21.4 kitchen ventilation systems, A31.11 multifamily, A1.5
hydronic systems, S12.16 refrigeration systems, R43.1 plants, S11.3
propylene glycol, F21.4 steam distribution systems, A37.15 classifications, S27.1
Antisweat heaters (ASH), R46.5 temperature controls, A37.16 codes, S27.5
Apartment buildings variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, combination, S27.4
service water heating, A49.12, 14 A37.4 condensing, S27.3
ventilation, A1.6 Barley, F11.13 construction materials, S27.1
Aquifers, thermal storage, A34.9 Bars, A3.4, 5 control, A46.1; S27.6
Archimedes number, F33.6 BAS. See Building automation system (BAS) copper, S27.3
Archives. See Museums, libraries, and archives Baseboard units draft types, S27.3
Arenas application, S32.5 efficiency, S27.5
air conditioning, A4.4 design effects, S32.3 electric, S27.4
smoke management, A52.13 finned-tube, S32.1 equipment, S4.3
Argon, recovery, R38.17 heating equipment, S32.1 gas-fired, S26.1
Asbestos, F9.5 nonstandard condition corrections, S32.3 venting, S30.19
ASH. See Antisweat heaters (ASH) radiant, S32.1 integrated, S27.4
Atriums rating, S32.3 modeling, F32.14
air conditioning, A4.8 Basements noncondensing, S27.3
smoke management, A52.13 conditioned, A43.1 oil-fired venting, S30.20
Attics heat loss, F29.11, F29.13 piping, S10.3
moisture control climates moisture control, A43.3 rating, S27.5
heating, F24.5 unconditioned, A43.1 residential, A1.3
mixed, F24.7 Beer’s law, F3.12 selection, S27.4
warm/humid, F24.8 Bernoulli equation, F35.1 service water heating, A49.21
Auditoriums, A4.3 generalized, F2.2, 6 sizing, S27.5
Automobiles kinetic energy factor, F2.2 stainless steel, S27.3
air conditioners steady flow, F2.12 standards, S27.5
compressors, A9.6 wind velocity pressure, F16.3 steam, S27.1
condensers, A9.7 Best efficiency point (BEP), S39.7 systems, S10.3
controls, A9.6 Beverages, R26 steel, S27.2
design factors, A9.1 beer, R26.1 stokers, S26.9
evaporators, A9.4, 8 storage requirements, R11.11 storing, A48.11
lubricants, A9.8 carbonated, R26.10 venting, S30.19, 20
receiver/drier/filter assembly, A9.7 coolers, R26.11 wall-hung, S27.4
refrigerants fruit juice, R25.1 waste heat, S10.3
flow control, A9.6 liquid carbon dioxide storage, R26.12 water, S27.1
vehicles, A9.8 refrigeration systems, R26.11 water treatment, A48.10
engine test facilities, A15.1 refrigerators for, R47.2 working pressure, S27.1
heaters thermal properties, R9.1 Boiling
controls, A9.6 time calculations critical heat flux, F4.4
design factors, A9.1 cooling, R10.1 evaporators
heater cores, A9.4 freezing, R10.7 flow mechanics, F4.4
ventilation, A9.6 wine heat transfer, F4.5
Avogadro’s law, and fuel combustion, F18.8 production, R26.8 film, F4.2
Backflow-prevention devices, S42.13 storage temperature, R26.10 heat tranfer equations, F4.3
BACnet®, A39.14; F15.16 Bioaerosols natural convection systems, F4.1
Bacteria airborne nucleate, F4.1, 2
control, A48.5 bacteria, F12.2, 5 pool, F4.1
food, growth in, R12.1 control, F12.7 Bowling centers, A3.8
humidifiers, growth in, S20.1 fungus spores, F12.2 Brayton cycle
Bakery products, R28 microbiological particulate, F12.5 cryogenics, R38.11
air conditioning, R28.1 mold, F12.6 gas turbine, S7.9
bread, R28 pollen, F12.2 Bread, R28
cooling, R28.4 sampling, F12.7 Breweries
dough production, R28.2 viruses, F12.2 carbon dioxide production, R26.6
freezing, R28.5 origins, F12.1 refrigeration
ingredient storage, R28.1 particles, F9.4 fermenting cellar, R26.4
refrigeration, R28.1; R47.2 Biocides, control, A48.5 Kraeusen cellar, R26.5
slicing, R28.5 Biodiesel, F18.5 stock cellar, R26.5
wrapping, R28.5 Biological safety cabinets, A14.6 systems, R26.7
Balance point, heat pumps, S45.8 Biomanufacturing cleanrooms, A16.5 wort cooler, R26.3
Balancing. (See also Testing, adjusting, and Boilers, S27 storage tanks, R26.6
balancing) air supply, S30.22 vinegar production, R26.8
air distribution systems, A37.2 aluminum, S27.3 Brines. See Coolants, secondary
dual-duct systems, A37.3 burners, S26.1 Building automation systems (BAS), A39.14;
HVAC systems, A37.1 carbonic acid, S10.2 F15.13
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.5
Building commissioning, A42 physical configuration, A13.14 load calculations, R30.8
acceptance, A42.6 ventilation maintenance, R30.10
authority (CA), A42.1 equipment, A13.25 mechanical cooling and heating, R30.3
basis of design (BOD), A42.1 operation areas, A13.15 operations, R30.9
construction, A42.5 control, A13.17 qualification testing, R30.7
costs, A42.10 effects of alternative fuel use, A13.16 safety, R30.7
design, A42.4 platforms, A13.15 sanitation, R30.3
new construction, A42.1 Butane, commercial, F18.4 shock and virbration, R30.5
objectives, A42.2 CAD. See Computer-aided design (CAD) space considerations, R30.10
occupancy and operations, A42.9 Cafeterias storage effect cooling, R30.4
owner’s project requirements (OPR), A42.2 air conditioning, A3.4 system application, R30.8
predesign, A42.4 service water heating, A49.11, 15 temperature-controlled transport, R30.1
team, A42.2 Calcium chloride brines, F21.1 temperature settings, R30.10
test procedures, A42.8 Candy use, R30.9
training A42.9 chocolate, R29.1 vapor barrier, R30.1
Building energy monitoring, A40. (See also manufacture ventilation, R30.5, 10
Energy monitoring) chilling, R29.3 Carnot refrigeration cycle, F1.6
Building envelopes coating, R29.4 Casinos, A3.4, 6
ceilings, A43.5 cooling, R29.4 Cattle, beef and dairy, A22.7
condensation, S20.2 dipping, R29.2 (See also Animal environments)
energy conservation, A43.1 drying, R29.3 growth, F10.7
fenestration, A43.6 enrobing, R29.2 heat and moisture production, F10.8
foundations, A43.1 plants, R29.1 lactation, F10.8
heat flow through refrigeration plant, R29.4 reproduction, F10.8
effect of moisture on, F23.5 storage CAV. See Constant air volume (CAV)
interface, A43.7 humidity, R29.7 Cavitation, F2.13
museums, libraries, and archives, A21.7 temperature, R29.6 pumps, centrifugal, S39.9
roofs, A43.5 Capillary action, and moisture flow, F23.8 valves, S42.2
structural failure, from moisture, F23.5 Capillary tubes Ceiling effect. See Coanda effect
thermal bridges, F23.4 capacity balance, R44.24 Ceilings
design recommendations, A43.10 characteristic curve, R44.24 air movement, A43.6
heat transfer, A43.8 pressure-reducing device, R44.23 cathedral, F24
mitigation of, A43.9 restrictor orifice, S21.2 moisture control, F24.5
thermal mass, A43.11 selection, R44.26 insulation, A43.5
thermal transmission data, F25.1 Carbon dioxide moisture control, A43.6
walls, residential, A43.3 in aircraft cabins, A10.9 R-values, F25.14
Building thermal mass in animal environments, A22.2 sound correction, A47.25
charging and discharging, A34.18 combustion, F18.1, 10 sound transmission, A47.33
effects of, A34.17 greenhouse enrichment, A22.15 Central air conditioning, A41. (See also Air
precooling, A41.28 liquefaction, R26.7 conditioning)
thermal storage systems, A34.17 measurement, F14.23 Central plants
Burners refrigerant, R3.26 boiler, S11.3
air supply, S30.22 storage, R26.12 chiller, S11.1, 3
controls, S26.12 Carbon emissions, F17.9 distribution design, S11.4
conversion, S26.1, 2 Carbon monoxide district heating and cooling, S11.2
dual-fuel gas/oil, S26.7 analyzers, A13.7, 8 emission control, S11.4
gas-fired, S26.1 parking garages, A13.10, 11 heating medium, S11.3
altitude compensation, S26.3 road tunnels, A13.5 hotels and motels, A5.7
combustion and adjustments, S26.3 tollbooths, A13.8 thermal storage, S11.3
commercial, S26.2 Cargo containers, R30 Central systems
industrial, S26.2 airborne sound, R30.7 cooling and heating, S4.1
residential, S26.1 air circulation, R30.3 features, S1.3
venting, S30.19 ambient design factors, R30.6 furnaces, S28.1
oil-fired, S26.4 commodity precooling, R30.9 humidifiers, S20.5
commercial, S26.5 control, R30.5, 10 residential forced air, S9.1
fuel controlled atmosphere, R30.5 space requirements, S1.5
handling system, S26.8 costs, owning and operating, R30.9 CERs. See Controlled-environment rooms
preparation system, S26.9 design, R30.1 (CERs)
storage, S26.7 equipment Cetane number, engine fuels, F18.7
industrial, S26.5 attachment provisions, R30.3 CFD. See Computational fluid dynamics
residential, S26.4 design and selection factors, R30.5, 8 (CFD)
venting, S30.20 operating economy, R30.6 Charging, refrigeration systems, R45.4
venting, S30.19, 20 qualification testing, R30.7 Chemical plants
Buses selection, R30.8 automation, R37.3
air conditioning, A9.9 system application factors, R30.8 energy recovery, R37.4
garage ventilation, A13.12 types, R30.3 flow sheets, R37.1
Bus terminals heating only, R30.5 instrumentation and controls, R37.8
air conditioning, A3.10 insulation barrier, R30.1 outdoor construction, R37.4
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.6 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
piping, R37.8 maintenance, S38.5, 12, 15 cooling, A16.13
pumps, R37.8 multiple, S38.2 energy conservation, A16.14
refrigeration noise generation, A47.10, S38.10 fire safety, A16.13
compressors, R37.6 optimization, A46.15 high-bay, A16.11
condensers, R37.6 reciprocating humidity control, A16.13
cooling towers, R37.8 components, S38.6 makeup air, A16.13, 15
equipment, R37.3, 6 control, S38.7 noise control, A16.15
evaporators, R37.7 equipment, S38.6 operation, A16.15
load, R37.2 performance, S38.6 particle sources, A16.3
safety requirements, R37.2 refrigerant selection, S38.6 pharmaceutical
spray ponds, R37.8 selection methods, S38.7 aseptic, A16.6
systems, R37.1, 5 refrigeration cycle, S38.1 start-up, A16.8
safety requirements, R37.2 screw biomanufacturing, A16.5
specifications, R37.1 applications, S38.14 contaminant control, A16.7
tanks, R37.8 capacity control, S38.14 control and monitoring, A16.8
Chemisorption, A45.6 components, S38.12 design, A16.6
Chickens, F10.12 (See also Animal equipment, S38.12 isolators, A16.7
environments; Poultry) maintenance, S38.15 nonaseptic, A16.8
Chilled water (CW) performance, S38.13 unidirectional hoods, A16.7
cogeneration distribution, S7.31 selection methods, S38.3, 7, 10 pressurization, A16.14
district heating and cooling, S11.3, 19, 31 sequencing, A41.6, 21, 23 process exhaust, A16.13, 15
optimal temperature, A41.17 standards, S38.5 semiconductor, A16.10
pumping system, A41.2, 6, 16, 18 subcooling, S38.1 system sizing and redundancy, A16.14
pump sequencing, A41.17, 20 vapor compression model, F32.15 temperature control, A16.13
reset, A41.16, 18 vibration control, A47.12, S38.10 terminology, A16.1
systems, S12.1, 11 Chilton-Colburn j-factor analogy, F5.6 testing, A16.5
central plant, A37.14 Chimneys, S30 vibration control, A16.15
heat transfer vs. flow, A37.7 accessories, S30.25 Climate
one-pipe, S12.12 capacity calculation examples, S30.13 design information, F28
testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.8 caps, S30.27 Clothing
two-pipe, S12.12 codes, S30.29 insulation, clo units, F8.8
thermal storage, A34.9, 18 design equations, S30.3 moisture permeability, F8.8
water treatment, A48.10 draft, S30.1 Clo units, F8.8
Chillers altitude correction, S30.8 CLTD. See Cooling load temperature
absorption, S4.2 available, S30.1, 4, 8 differential (CLTD)
ammonia/water, R41.7 theoretical, S30.1, 3, 8 CLTD/CLF. See Cooling load temperature
heat-activated, S7.27 fireplace, S30.1, 21 differential method with solar cooling load
water/lithium bromide, R41.2 flow losses, S30.9 factors (CLTD/CLF)
blast, R47.3 flue gas, S30.1 Coal
central plants, A46.14; S11.1, 3 friction loss, S30.10 classification, F18.7
centrifugal functions, S30.1 handling facilities, A25.6, 9
air-cooled, S38.12 gas heating value, F18.8
controls, S38.10 appliance venting, S30.19 stokers, S26.9
equipment, S38.8 temperature, S30.6 types, F18.7
fouling, S38.10 velocity, S30.9 Coanda effect, A31.2; F33.6; S17.2
free cooling, S38.11 heat transfer, S30.6 Codes, R49. (See also Standards)
heat recovery, S38.11 masonry, S30.19, 21 air conditioners, room, S46.4
maintenance, S38.12 mass flow, S30.5 boilers, S27.5
purge units, S38.11 materials, S30.23 building codes, S16.1
rating, S38.10 resistance coefficients, S30.10 chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S30.29
refrigerant standards, S30.24, 29 cogeneration, S7.50
selection, S38.8 terminations, S30.27 condensers, S35
transfer units, S38.11 wind effects, S30.3, 27 evaporative, S35.19
selection methods, S38.10 Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), A32.7 water-cooled, S35.7
control, A46.14 Chocolate, R29.1 (See also Candy) coolers, liquid, S37.4
capacity, S38.4, 14 Choking, F2.13 dehumidifiers, room, S47.3
considerations, S38.10 CHP systems. See Cogeneration duct construction, S16.1
regulating, S38.4 Cinemas, A4.3 electrical, A55.10
safety, S38.5 Claude cycle, R38.8 engines, S7.50
costs, S38.4 Cleanrooms. See Clean spaces furnaces, S28.10
direct expansion, R2.26; S38.1 Clean spaces, A16 makeup air units, S31.9
economizing, S38.1 aerospace, A16.11 motors, S40.1, 13
expansion turbines, S38.1 air filters, A16.3, 7, 10 nuclear facilities, A26.10
flash, S38.1 airflow, A16.3, 4, 10, 12 piping, S41.6
heat recovery, S38.3 applications, A16.2 service water heating, A49.21
injection, S38.1 biomanufacturing cleanrooms, A16.5 turbines, S7.50
liquid-chilling systems, S38 construction, A16.15 Coefficient of performance (COP)
load distribution, A41.21 contaminant control, A16.3, 7 absorption, F1.13
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.7
compressors, S34.1 selection, S21.5 gas turbine fuel, F18.6
economic (ECOP), cogeneration, S7.35 on ships, A11.4 heating value, F18.3
refrigeration, F1.3, 13 water coils, S21.2 ignition temperature, F18.2
room air conditioners, S46.2 air-heating, S23.1 illuminants, F18.9
Cogeneration, S7 applications, S23.4 liquid fuels, F18.5
codes, S7.50 aqueous glycol, S23.2 engines, F18.6
combined-cycle power plants, S7.35 construction, S23.1 noise, F18.16
controls and instruments, S7.41 control, A46.5 oscillation, F18.16
economic feasibility, S7.46 design, S23.1 pollution, F18.13
estimate, S7.47 electric, A46.6; S23.3 principles, F18.1
load duration curve, S7.47 maintenance, S23.5 pulse, F18.2
two-dimensional, S7.49 rating, S23.4 reactions, F18.1
simulation, S7.50 refrigerant, S23.3 resonance, F18.16
electrical systems, S7.28 selection, S23.3 solid fuels, F18.7
engines shipboard, A11.4 soot, F18.16
design and installation, S7.38 steam, A46.5; S23.2 sound, F18.16
sizing, S7.42 water, A46.5; S14.8; S23.2 stoichiometric, F18.1
expansion engines/turbines, S7.38 condensers, S35 types, F18.1
heat-activated chillers, S7.27 evaporative, S35.16 Combustion air systems, S7.6
heat recovery dehumidifying, S21.1 air required, S7.6; S30.22
engines, S7.19, 21 desuperheating, S35.18 analysis, F14.32
turbines, S7.25 energy recovery loops, S44.11 burners
load profiling, S7.34 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.27 gas, S26.3
maintenance, S7.42 heat and mass simultaneous transfer, oil, S26.4
noise and vibration control, S7.41 F5.12 control, S26.14
packaged systems, S7.34 heat reclaim, S23.3 efficiency boilers, S27.5
peak shaving, S7.34 preheat, S2.5 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25.27
performance, S7.34 reheat, S2.6; S23.2 venting, S30.1
prime movers Colburn’s analogy, F3.14 Combustion turbine inlet air cooling (CTIAC),
engines, S7.2 Colebrook equation S7.10
fuel cells, S7.36 friction factor, F35.6 Comfort. (See also Physiological principles,
selection, S7.34 pressure drop, F36.1 humans)
thermal output, S7.19, 20 Collectors, solar, A33.6, 11, 23, 25; S33.3 environmental indices, F8.20
turbines (See also Solar energy) environmental parameters
combustion, S7.8, 45 Combined heating and power (CHP) systems. air velocity, F14.29
steam, S7.13, 45 See Cogeneration asymmetric thermal radiation, F8.13
regulatory issues, S7.30 Combustion, F18 draft, F8.13
standards, S7.50 air pollution, F18.13 floor temperature, F8.15
terminology, S7.46 air required for, F18.8 radiant temperature, F8.11
thermal energy storage, S7.35 altitude compensation, F18.3 vertical air temperature difference, F8.14
trigeneration, S7.1 calculations humidity, F14.30; S20.1
unconventional systems, S7.36 air required for, F18.8 local discomfort, F8.13
utilization systems carbon dioxide, theoretical, F18.10 nonuniform conditions, F8.13
air, S7.32 efficiency, F18.12 predicted mean vote (PMV), F8.17; F14.30
desiccant systems, S7.33 flue gas predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD), F8.17
district heating and cooling, S7.33 dew point, F18.10 radiant heating, A53.3
HVAC, S7.33 loss, F18.12 special environments
hydronic, S7.33 quantity produced, F18.10 extreme cold, F8.25
requirements, S7.32 water vapor in, F18.10 hot and humid environments, F8.24
service hot water, S7.33 coals infrared heating, F8.22
vibration control, foundations, S7.42 characteristics, F18.7 radiant heating, comfort equations, F8.23
Coils classification, F18.7 steady-state energy balance, F8.16
air-cooling, S2.6 heating value, F18.8 two-node model, F8.17
airflow resistance, S21.6 types, F18.7 thermal sensation scale, F8.11
applications, S21.1, 4 condensation in, F18.15 zones, F8.12, 19; F9.11
aqueous glycol coils, S21.2 continuous, F18.2 Commercial and public buildings
construction and arrangement, S21.1 corrosion in, F18.15 air leakage, F27.23
control, A46.4; S21.3 diesel fuel, F18.6 airports, A3.9
direct-expansion coils, S21.2 efficiency, F18.12 bars, A3.4, 5
fluid flow arrangement, S21.3 engine fuels, cetane number, F18.7 bowling centers, A3.8
heat transfer, S21.7 excess air, F18.9 burners
load determination, S21.15 flammability limits F18.1 gas, S26.2
maintenance, S21.15 fuel oils, F18.5 oil, S26.5
performance gaseous fuels bus terminals, A3.10
cooling and dehumidifying, S21.9 illuminants, F18.9 cafeterias, A3.4
cooling-only, S21.7 liquefied petroleum gas, F18.4 casinos, A3.4, 6
rating, S21.6 natural gas, F18.4 central cooling systems, A41.1
refrigerant coils, S21.2 types and properties, F18.4 communications centers, A3.9
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.8 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
ducts features, S34.7 A39.8
construction, S16.2 lubrication, S34.8 load calculations, A39.5
design, small applications, S9.10 parallel, R3.10 piping design, A39.7
furnaces, S28.8 performance, S34.5 refrigerant properties, A39.12
garages, A3.10 special devices, S34.8 smoke control analysis, A52.12, 13
general criteria, A3.1 types, S34.4 ventilation, A39.12
humidifiers, S20.6 valves, S34.7 road tunnel, A13.5
ice rinks, R35 rotary, R3.12; S34.9, 11 equipment, A39.8
indoor air quality (IAQ), F27.9 screw, S7.44 graphics, A39.10
kitchen ventilation, A31.1 lubricant cooling, R3.12 hardware, A39.1
load characteristics, A3.1 single, S34.11 HVAC simulation, A39.9
malls, A2.7 capacity control, S34.14 Internet, A39.15
nightclubs, A3.4, 6 compression process, S34.11 modeling, F15.18
office buildings, A3.6 economizers, S34.13, 14 peripherals, A39.4
restaurants, A3.4, 5 lubrication, S34.12 smoke control analysis, A52.12, 13
retail facilities, A2.1 noise and vibration, S34.16 software, A39.2
service water heating, A49.10 oil-injected, S34.12 custom programming, A39.4
ship docks, A3.10 performance, S34.16 development tools, A39.4
transportation centers, A3.9 volume ratio, S34.14 energy analysis, F32.3
warehouses, A3.11 twin, S34.17 HVAC, A39.5
Commissioning. (See also Building capacity control, S34.18 readymade, A39.4
commissioning) compression process, S34.17 road tunnel, A13.5
building, A42.1 economizers, S34.20 terminology, A39.2
control systems, F15.16 hermetic, S34.21 utilities, A39.2, 12
desiccant dehumidifiers, S22.7 lubrication, S34.20 supervisory control, A39.14
design, A46.19 volume ratio, S34.18 World Wide Web, A39.16
laboratories, A14.19 scroll, S34.21 Concert halls, A4.4
makeup air units, S31.10 capacity control, S34.23 Concrete
pumps, centrifugal, S39.14 efficiency, S34.23 cooling, R36.1
thermal storage systems, A34.20 noise and vibration, S34.24 pozzolanic admixtures, R36.1
Communications centers, A3.9 trochoidal (Wankel), S34.25 selection, R36.1
Compressors, S34 Computational fluid dynamics (CFD), F34.1 thermal design, R36.4
air conditioners, room, S46.2 assessing predictions, F34.11 water heating for, A49.19
ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.2 boundary conditions for Condensate
centrifugal, S7.44 inlet, F34.6 steam systems, F36.15; S10.6; S11.7, 18
angular momentum, S34.26 outlet, F34.7 water treatment, A48.11
capacity control, S34.31 reporting, F34.13 Condensation
critical speed, S34.32 sources/sinks, F34.8 in building components, F23.9
design, S34.33, 34 surfaces, F34.7 concealed, S20.2
drivers, S34.33 symmetry, F34.8 control, with insulation, F26.2
efficiency, S34.30 walls, F34.7 dew-point analysis, F23.10
isentropic analysis, S34.27 considerations, F34.9 dropwise, F4.8
lubrication, S34.34 grids, F34.4 energy recovery equipment, S44.7
Mach number, S34.29 mathematical approaches, F34.1 film, F4.8
noise, S34.32 meshing, F34.4 heat transfer coefficients, F4.9
paralleling, S34.33 reporting, F34.9, 13 in combustion systems, F18.15
polytropic analysis, S34.27 steps, F34.9 interstitial, and drying, F23.10
refrigeration cycle, S34.25 turbulence modeling, F34.3 noncondensable gases, F4.10
surging, S34.30 validation, F34.9, 10 with oil, F4.11
testing, S34.30 verification, F34.9 oil-fired appliances, S30.20
turbocompressors, S34.25 viscosity modeling, F34.10 prevention, F24.4
vibration, S34.32 Computer-aided design (CAD), A16.4; A39.10 dehumidification for, S22.10
chemical industry refrigeration, R37.6 Computers, A39 surface, F23.10
drives, R3.2 abbreviations for programming, F37.1 in tubes, F4.10
dynamic, S34.1 BACnet®, A39.14; F15.16 visible, S20.2
engine-driven, S7.44, 44 building automation systems (BAS), A39.14 Condensers, S35
halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.24 computational fluid dynamics, A13.5, 6; air conditioners, room, S46.2
heat pump systems, S8.6 A39.10; A52.14 air-cooled, R46.16; S35.11
motors, S40.4 computer-aided design (CAD), A16.4; control, S35
noise generation, A47.10 A39.10 air-side, S35.12
operation and maintenance, S34.34 for control, F15.4, 9, 18 low-pressure-drop, S35.12
orbital, S34.21 design tools refrigerant-side, S35.12
positive-displacement, S34.4 acoustic calculations, A39.7 installation, S35.13
performance, S34.1 cogeneration, S7.50 machine room, R46.17
reciprocating, S7.43; S34.4 computational fluid dynamics, A39.10 maintenance, S35.13
application, S34.9 computer-aided design (CAD), A39.10 noise, R46.18
capacity control, S34.8 duct design, A39.6 rating, S35.11
crankcase, R2.33 equipment selection and simulation, remote from compressor, R46.17
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.9
ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.2 Construction. (See also Building envelopes) polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC),
horizontal shell-and-tube, R3.15 curtain wall, F31.5 F9.6
parallel horizontal shell-and-tube, R3.15 glass block wall, F31.40 radioactive, F12.18
piping, R3.14 wood frame, F24.1 size distribution, F12.4
cascade, R43.1 Containers. (See also Cargo containers) smogs, F12.1, 3
chemical industry refrigeration, R37.6 air transport, R32.2 smokes, F12.1
in chillers, S38.6, 8, 13 marine transport, R31.2 suspended particles,
circuiting, S35.5 Contaminants counters, F12.5
evaporative, R46.17; S35.14 clean spaces, A16.3, 7 synthetic vitreous fibers, F9.5
airflow, S35.16 food, R12.1 refrigerant systems, R6.1
capacity control, S35.19 gaseous, F12.1 dirt, R6.6
codes, S35.19 animal environments, F10.4 field assembly, R6.8
coils, S35.16 combustion, F18.13; S25.27 filter-driers, R6.6
desuperheating, S35.18 concentration, indoor generation by high temperature, R5.8
wetting method, S35.16 measurement, A45.3 lubricants, R6.7
freeze prevention, S35.16 prediction, A45.2 metallic, R6.6
heat transfer, S35.14 control, A45.5; F12.14 moisture, R6.1
liquid subcoolers, S35.18 adsorption, A45.5; S25.24 motor burnout, R6.8, 8
location, R3.15; S35.16 catalysis, A45.6 noncondensable gases, R6.7
maintenance, S35.19 chemisorption, A45.6 residual cleaning agents, R6.7
multicircuiting with liquid coolers, S35.18 desiccant dehumidification, S22.10 sludge, tars, and wax, R6.7
multiple-condenser installations, dilution ventilation, A45.4 solvents, R6.7
S35.16, 17 hoods and local exhaust, A45.4 special system characteristics, R6.9
purging, S35.19 incineration, S25.27 textile processing, A19.6
rating, S35.17 source elimination, A45.3 Continuity, fluid dynamics, F2.2
standards, S35.19 wet-packed scrubbers, S25.18 Control. (See also Controls, automatic)
water, S35.18 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), absorption units, R41.6, 9
halocarbon refrigeration systems A45.1; F12.2 air-conditioning components, A17.5
air-cooled, R2.33 flammable, F12.17, 17 air-cooled condensers, S35.12
evaporative, R2.32 indoor air, F12.15 aircraft cabin pressure, A10.6, 8
piping, R2.23 industrial, F12.15 air-handling systems, A41.26; A46.11
pressure control, R2.32 inorganic, F12.13 all-air systems, S2.12
water, R2.32 measurement, A45.3; F12.9; F14.32 authority, F15.6
retail food store refrigeration, R46.16 nuclear facilities, A26.3, 5, 6 automobile air conditioning, A9.6
water-cooled, S35.1 odors, F13.1 biological growth, A48.5
circuiting, S35.5 outdoor air, F12.15 boilers, A46.1; S27.6
codes, S35.7 ozone, A45.9 building pressurization, A46.2
Darch-Weisbach equation, S35.4 plant environments, F10.21 burners, S26.12
fouling factor, S35.4 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), bus terminal ventilation, A13.17
heat removal, S35.1 F9.6 central air conditioning, A41.1
cooling tower, S13.1 radioactive, F12.18 chemical plants, R37.3
once-through, S13.1 radon, A45.9; F9.16 chilled-water pumps, A41.6, 16, 18
heat transfer, S35.2 soil gases, F12.19 chillers, A41.21; A46.14
liquid subcooling, S35.5 sources, A45.1 clean spaces, noise and vibration, A16.15
maintenance, S35.7 vapors, flammable, F12.17, 17 cogeneration systems, S7.41
noncondensable gases, S35.6 volatile organic compounds (VOC), combustion turbines, S7.11
pressure drop, S35.4 F12.10 components, F15.4
standards, S35.7 health effects, F9.8 condensers, S35
types, S35.5 total (TVOC), F12.11 evaporative, S35.19
Conductance, thermal, F3.18; F23.1 indoor cooling, S6.20
Conduction concentration prediction, F34.16 coils, A46.4; S21.3
display cases, R46.4 organism destruction, R12.4 tower fans, A41.12
steady-state, F3.2 particulate towers, A46.4
thermal, F3.1, 2 aerosols, S24.1 corrosion, A48.2, 9
Conductivity, thermal, F23.1 animal environments, F10.4 dehumidifying coils, S21.3
apparent, F23.1 asbestos, F9.5 design principles
of thermal insulation, F23.14 classification, F12.1 building and mechanical subdivision,
foods, R9.9 collection mechanisms, S24.2; S25.10, 15 A46.18
soils, F25.15 combustion, F18.13 controlled area size, A46.19
Constant air volume (CAV) dusts, S24.1 energy conservation, A46.18
control, A41.2 combustible, F12.18 load matching, A46.18
supply air temperature reset, A41.27 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), mechanical and electrical coordination,
versus variable-air-volume (VAV), F12.2 A46.17
A14.12 fogs, F12.1, 3 sensor location, A46.19
Constant-volume, all-air systems fumes, F12.1 system selection, A46.18
dual-duct, S2.9 measurement, F14.32 duct heaters, A46.17
single-duct, S2.8 mists, F12.1, 3 economizers, A46.5
terminal units, S2.11 pollen, F12.6 electric heating slabs, S6.20
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.10 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
energy recovery equipment, S44.7, 11 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A41.2; proportional-integral-derivative (PID),
engines, S7.7 A46.1 F15.3
fans, A46.1; S18.9 vibration, A47.39 proportional-only (P), F15.2
air volume, S40.7 zone systems, A46.13 proportional plus integral (PI), F15.3
fire, A52.1 zone valves, S10.13 refrigerant flow, R44.1
fixed-guideway vehicle air conditioning, Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage safety, A46.16
A9.14 apples, R22.3 sensors, F15.7, 9; R44.4
forced-air systems, small, S9.3 apricots, R22.13 switches, R44.1
furnaces, S28.1, 7 berries, R22.13 systems, F15.1
gaseous contaminants, A45.1 cherries, sweet, R22.12 terminology, F15.1
heaters, S29.2, 4 figs, R22.13 testing, A37.16
infrared, S15.4 grapes, R22.8 transducers, pressure, R44.4
heating coils, A46.5 nectarines, R22.12 tuning, F15.3, 16, 17
heat pumps, A46.6; S45.10 peaches, R22.12 two-position, F15.2
heat recovery systems, S8.18 pears, R22.6, 7 valves, F15.4
heat timers, S10.13 plums, R22.11 actuators, F15.5
humidifiers, S20.8 strawberries, R22.13 flow characteristics, F15.5
humidity, A46.7; S20.1; S22.1 vegetables, R24.6 selection and sizing, F15.5
hydronic heating systems, A46.1, 16; S12.9, Controlled-atmosphere (CA) storage Convection
S14.8 refrigerated facilities, R14.3 and heat transfer, with insulation, F23.16
justice facilities, A8.2 Controlled-environment rooms (CERs), and flow, fully developed turbulent, F3.14
kitchen ventilation, A31.19 plant growth, A22.17 forced, F3.13
laboratory systems, A14.12 Controls, automatic, F15 condensation in tubes, F4.8
liquid chillers, (See also Control) evaporation in tubes, F4.4
considerations, S38.4, 7, 10, 14 authority, F15.6 equations, F4.6, 9
low-temperature, R3.6 classification, F15.4 laminar, F3.13
makeup air units, A46.13; S31.9 closed loop (feedback), F15.1 transition region, F3.14
moisture, in insulation, F23; F24.1 commissioning, F15.16 turbulent, F3.13
motors, S40.4, 6 components free, F3.16
protection, S40.6 auxiliary, F15.10 mass, F5.4
noise and vibration, S7.7 controlled devices natural, F3.16; F4.1
nuclear facilities, A26.5 actuator, F15.4 steam heating systems, S10.11
optimization, A41.1 dampers, F15.4, 6 thermal, F3.2
outdoor air quantity, A46.8 operator, F15.4 Convectors
paper moisture content, A18.2 positive positioners, F15.7 application, S32.5
parking garage ventilation, A13.11 valves, F15.4 design effects, S32.3
photographic materials processing, A20.2 controllers heat-distributing unit, S32.1
pipe-tracing systems, A50.20 direct digital (DDC), F15.9, 17 nonstandard condition corrections, S32.3
plant growth chambers, A22.17 static pressure, A46.2, 17 rating, S32.3
processes, A45.5 thermostats, F15.10 Convention centers, A4.5
radiant panels, A46.8; S6.20 sensors, F15.7 Conversion factors, F38
radioactivity, A26.6 flow rate, F15.9 Coolants, secondary
rail car air conditioning, A9.13 humidity (hygrometers), F15.8 brines
refrigerant flow, R44.1 indoor air quality, F15.9 corrosion inhibition, A48.10; F21.4
residential heating and cooling, A1.5 lighting level, F15.9 properties, F21.1
road tunnel ventilation, A13.7 location, A46.19 calcium chloride solutions, F21.1
scale, A48.4 power sensing and transmission, d-limonene, F21.12
ship air conditioning F15.9 ethylene glycol, F21.4
merchant, A11.3 pressure, F15.9 halocarbons, F21.12
naval surface, A11.4 temperature, F15.8 inhibited glycols
smoke, A52.1 transducers, electronic-to-pneumatic corrosion inhibition, F21.5
snow-melting systems, A50.10 (E/P), F15.12 ethylene, F21.4
solar energy, A33.13, 24, 26; S33.17 computers, A39.14; F15.4 propylene, F21.4
differential temperature controller, control action types, F15.2, 3, 16 service considerations, F21.10
S33.17 dampers, F15.6 low-temperature refrigeration, R39.11
hot-water dump, S33.18 actuator mounting, F15.7 nonhalocarbon nonaqueous fluids, F21.12
over-temperature protection, S33.17 actuators, F15.6 polydimethylsiloxane, F21.12
sound, A47.1, 42; F7.15 types, F15.6 propylene glycol, F21.4
insulation, F23.17 direct digital (DDC), A37.16; F15.4, 9, 17 refrigeration systems, R4.1
static pressure energy sources, F15.4 sodium chloride solutions, F21.1
limit control, A46.17 explosive atmospheres, A46.16 Coolers. (See also Refrigerators)
variable flow rates, A46.2 feedback (closed loop), F15.1 beverage, R26.11
steam systems, S10.13 fuzzy logic, F15.3 cryocoolers, R38.11
thermal, F23 mobile applications, A46.16 forced-circulation air, R42.1
thermal, in insulation, F24.1 modeling, F32.23 installation and operation, R42.6
thermal storage systems, A34.4, 20; A41.29 modulating, F15.2 liquid (See also Evaporators)
unit heaters, S31.7 open loop, F15.1 Baudelot, S37.2
unit ventilators, A46.11; S31.3 positive positioners, F15.7 brazed (semiwelded) plate, S37.2
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.11
evaporative, with evaporative condensers, residential load factor (RLF) method, cathodic protection, A48.4
S35.18 F29.2 buried pipe, S11.23
flooded, S37.2 space, F30.1 in cooling towers, A48.4
freeze prevention, S37.5 Cooling towers, S36 cycles of concentration, A48.3
heat transfer, S37 approach to the wet bulb, S36.1 in geothermal energy systems, A32.8
coefficients, S37.3 capacity control, A46.4; S36.2 inhibitors, A48.3
fouling factor, S37.4 airflow, A41.13 materials selection, A48.3
in chillers, S38.6, 8, 12 fan cycling, S36.8 passivation, A48.4
maintenance, S37.6 fan sequencing, A41.13 protective coatings, A48.3
oil return, S37.6 flow modulation, A41.8 in steam and condensate systems, A48.11
piping, R2.25, 26 two-speed fans, S36.8 energy recovery equipment, S44.7
pressure drop, S37.4 variable-frequency fan drives, S36.9 inhibited glycols, F21.5
refrigerant flow control, S37.5 variable- vs. fixed-speed fans, A41.8 microorganism influence, A48.2, 5
residential, A1.4 construction materials, S36.7 oil-fired appliances, S30.21
shell-and-tube, S37.1 design conditions, S36.2 oxygen corrosion, A48.2, 11
tube-in-tube, S37.1 drift, S36.11 secondary coolant systems, R4.5
vessel design requirements, S37.4 eliminators, S36.11, 12 service water systems, A49.7
retail food store, R46.1 economics, S36.7 types, A48.2
walk-in, R46.12; R47.3 fill, S36.3 under insulation, F26.5
water, R26.11 fogging, S36.11 white rust, A48.4
Cooling. (See also Air conditioning) free cooling, S36.10 Costs. (See also Economics)
absorption equipment, R41.1 freeze protection, S13.3; S36.10 all-air systems, S2.2
animal environments, A22.4 heat and mass simultaneous transfer, analysis period, A36.2
bakery products, R28.4 F5.12 economic analysis techniques
concrete indirect evaporative coolers, S13.3; S19.4 cash flow, A36.12
active systems, R36.5 inspections, S36.11 computer analysis, A36.12
air blast, R36.2 Legionella pneumophila, S36.12, 13 life-cycle cost analyses, A36.8
chilled water, R36.1 maintenance, S36.11 present value (worth), A36.8
embedded coils, R36.1 model, F32.17 simple payback, A36.8
inundation, R36.2 number of transfer units (NTU), S36.16 uniform annualized costs, A36.10
passive, R36.4 performance energy, A36.3, 7
controls, S6.20 curves, S36.13 financing alternatives, A36.7
ebullient, S7.22, 39 monitoring, S36.11 inflation, A36.9
foods and beverages, time calculations, thermal, S36.15 interest and discount rate, A36.2
R10.1 tower coefficients, S36.19 laboratory systems, A14.19
fruits and vegetables piping, S13.2; S36.8 life-cycle, A36.10
evaporative, R15.8 plumes, S36.11 energy recovery equipment,
forced-air, R15.6 principle of operation, S36.1 S44.12, 16, 23
hydrocooling, R15.3 recommissioning, A48.8 operation and maintenance, A38.1
load calculation, R15.1 selection, S36.7 piping insulation, S11.16
package icing, R15.8 shutdown, A48.9 maintenance, A36.5
vacuum cooling, R15.9 siting, S36.8 operating
geothermal energy systems, A32.11 sound, attenuators, S36.11 actual, A36.3
greenhouses, A22.13 start-up, A48.8 electrical energy, A36.4
radiant panel systems, S6.1 testing, A37.15; S36.15 natural gas, A36.4
radiative, A33.17 theory, S36.15 other fuels, A36.5
solar energy systems, A33.16, 18, 26 counterflow integration, S36.17 snow-melting systems, A50.8, 10
water systems, S12.1, 11, 12 cross-flow integration, S36.17 owning
dynamometers, A15.4 heat and mass transfer, S36.15 initial cost, A36.1
Cooling load types, S4.3 insurance, A36.3
calculations, F29; F30 direct contact, S36.5 taxes, A36.3
central plant, S4.2 indirect contact, S36.2, 6 periodic, A36.3
coil, F30.2 open systems, S13.1 refrigerant phaseout, A36.6
nonresidential, F30.1 water treatment, A48.4, 8, 9; S13.2; S36.13 Cotton, drying, A23.8; F11.12
heat balance, F30.2 winter operation, S36.10 Courts, A8.1
conduction transfer functions, F30.22 inspections, S36.13 CPVC. See Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride
heat gain Cool storage, A34.1 (CPVC)
fenestration, F30.17 COP. See Coefficient of performance (COP) Crawlspaces
sol-air temperature, F30.26 Corn heat loss, F29.13
heat sources, F30.3 drying, A23.1; F11.12 insulation, A43.1
radiant time series (RTS), F30.28 fungi, F11.2 moisture control, F24.10
sol-air temperature, F30.26 Corrosion vented vs. unvented, A43.1
perimeter zones, S3.1 brines, F21.4 wall insulation, A43.2
refrigeration, S3.7 in combustion systems, F18.15 Crops. See Farm crops
residential calculations, concentration cell corrosion, A48.2 Cryogenics, R38
block load, F29.8 contributing factors, A48.2 biomedical applications
residential heat balance (RHB) method, control, A48.2, 3, 9 cryomicroscopy, R40.6
F29.2 in boilers, A48.10 cryopreservation, R40.1
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.12 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
cryoprotective agents, R40.2 Curtain walls, F31.5 controls, A17.5
cryosurgery, R40.7 Cycloparaffins, R7.2 cooling loads, A17.2
induced hypothermia, R40.7 Dairy products, R20 design criteria, A17.1
refrigeration, R40.1 aseptic packaging, R20.20 direct-cooled computer equipment, A17.5
specimen preparation, R40.6 butter energy conservation, A17.6
Brayton cycle, R38.11 manufacture, R20.6 fire protection, A17.6
cascade cycle, R38.8 refrigeration load, R20.9 heat recovery, A17.6
Claude cycle, R38.8 buttermilk, R20.5 instrumentation, A17.6
cryobiological, R40.8 cheese return air, A17.5
cryocoolers cheese room refrigeration, R20.13 supply air distribution, A17.3
recuperative manufacture, R20.10 Daylighting
Brayton, R38.12 cream, R20.5 interior building illumination, F31.56
Joule-Thomson, R38.11 display refrigerators, R46.6 light transmittance, F31.58
Kleemenko, R38.13 ice cream solar radiation, F31.1
regenerative freezing, R20.16 Defrosting
Gifford-McMahon, R38.16 hardening, R20.17 air coolers, forced-circulation, R42.4
orifice pulse tube, R38.14 milkfat content, R20.13 air-source heat pump coils, S8.7, 8; S45.9
Stirling, R38.14 mix preparation, R20.15 ammonia liquid recirculation systems,
cryopumping, R38.1 refrigeration R3.22
equipment equipment, R20.19 household refrigerators and freezers, R48.6
coiled-tube exchanger, R38.21 requirements, R20.16 meat coolers, R17.2
compressors, R38.20 milk retail food store refrigerators, R46.19
expansion devices, R38.20 dry, R20.22 Degree-day method, F32.17
heat exchangers evaporated, R20.21 variable-base, F32.19
construction, R38.21 fresh Dehumidification, A46.7; S22
effectiveness, R38.21 processing, R20.2 absorption, S22.10
regenerators, R38.22 production, R20.1 adsorption, S22.10
systems, R38.20 storage, R20.4 air washers, S19.7
turboalternators, R38.21 sweetened condensed, R20.22 all-air systems, S2.4
turboexpanders, R38.21 thermal properties, R9.1 desiccant, S22.1
fluids UHT sterilization, R20.19 applications, S22.1, 8
cold burns, R38.28 yogurt, R20.5 air-conditioning systems, S22.10
flammability, R38.29 Dampers condensation prevention, S22.10
storage vessels, R38.26 air outlet, S17.3, 4, 5 gaseous contaminant control, S22.10
transfer, R38.26 balancing industrial processes, S22.8
freezers, industrial, R16.5 in constant-volume systems, F35.15 materials storage, S22.8
hazards, R38.28 in VAV systems, F35.15 testing, S22.10, 11
Heylandt cycle, R38.8 controls, automatic, F15.6, 6 ventilation air preconditioning, S22.8
instrumentation, R38.27 fire and smoke control, A52.8 capacity, S22.2
insulation furnaces, S28.2, 7 equipment, S22.3
low-temperature, R38.23 multilouver, S17.5 high-pressure, S22.10
selection (table), R38.26 multishutter, S17.3 liquid, F22.3
thermal conductivity (table), R38.24 opposed-blade, S2.4; S17.3, 6 solid, F22.4
isenthalpic expansion, R38.6 outdoor air, A46.8 evaporative cooling, A51.2; S19.7
isentropic expansion, R38.7 parallel-blade, S2.5 performance factor, S19.7
Joule-Thomson cycle, R38.6 return air, S2.4 residential, A1.5
Kleemenko cycle, R38.13 sound control, A47.7 Dehumidifiers
Linde cycle, R38.6 splitter, S17.6 desiccant, S22
liquefaction vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.27 capacity, S22.2
balanced flow condition, R38.6 vent, S30.25 commissioning, S22.8
of gases, R38.6 Dams, concrete cooling, R36.1 high-pressure, S22.10
liquid-level sensors, R38.27 Darcy equation, F35.6 liquid, S22.3
mixed refrigerant cycle, R38.8 Darcy-Weisbach equation operation, S22.7
natural gas processing, R38.18 ductwork sectional losses, F35.8 rotary solid, S22.4
properties pressure drop, F2.7; F36.1 solid, S22.4
electrical, R38.5 water-cooled condensers, S35.4 heat pipes, S47.5
magnetic, R38.5 water systems, S39.4 ice rinks, S47.4
mechanical, R38.6 Data-driven modeling indoor swimming pool, S47.4
thermal, R38.3 black-box, F32.24 makeup air treatment, S47.3
purification of gases, R38.19 calibrated simulation, F32.25 mechanical, S47.1
recovery of gases, R38.17, 18 empirical, F32.24 components, S47.2
separation of gases, Gibbs phase rule, R38.16 examples, F32.30 psychrometrics, S47.1
staging, R38.15 gray-box, F32.25 types, S47.2
Stirling cycle, R38.14 neural network, F32.30 Dehydration
storage systems, R38.26 steady-state, F32.25 farm crops, A23.1; F11.1
transfer systems, R38.26 Data processing areas industrial systems for, A28.1
CTIAC. See Combustion turbine inlet air air-conditioning systems, A17.1, 2, 5 of eggs, R21.11
cooling (CTIAC) humidification, A17.5; S20.1 refrigeration systems, R45.1
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.13
Density flow control, S11.28 constant-moisture solvent, A28.7
fluids, F2.1 hot water, S11.29 convection, A28.4
modeling, R9.6 indirect connection dielectric, A28.4
Dental facilities, A7.13 heat exchangers, S11.27 drying time determination, A28.1
Desiccants, F22.1; S22.1 steam, S11.18, 29 flash, A28.6
adsorption, S22.1 temperature differential control, S11.31 fluidized-bed, A28.6
cosorption of water vapor and air costs, A36.7 freeze drying, A28.6
contaminants, F22.5 distribution system mechanism, A28.1
dehumidification, S22.1 aboveground systems, S11.18, 19 microwave, A28.4
cogeneration, S7.33 condensate drainage and return, S11.7, 18 psychrometrics, A28.1
glycols, S22.2 conduits, S11.21, 23 radiant infrared, A28.3
isotherms, F22.5 constant-flow, S11.4 selection, A28.3
life, F22.5 construction, S11.18 superheated vapor, A28.6
liquid, S22.2, 3 entry pits, S11.24 tunnel, A28.5
lithium chloride, S22.2 hydraulic design, S11.6 ultraviolet (UV), A28.3
materials, F22.1 insulation vacuum drying, A28.6
refrigerant systems, R6.5 economical thickness, S11.16 desiccant, high-pressure, S22.10
equilibrium curves, R6.4 pipe, S11.7, 16, 20 farm crops, A23.1
moisture, R6.3 pipe, S11.6 Drying
types thermal design conditions, S11.7 air, S22.11
liquid absorbents, F22.3 underground systems, S11.19 desiccant, high-pressure, S22.10, 11
solid adsorbents, F22.4 valve vaults, S11.24 dew point control, S22.11
wheel, S22.4 variable-flow, S11.5 farm crops, A23.1; F11.1
Desuperheaters water hammer, S11.6 gases, S22.11
air conditioners, unitary, S45.2 economics, S11.2 DTW. See Dual-temperature water (DTW)
condensers, evaporative, S35.18 geothermal heating systems, A32.9 system
heat pumps, unitary, S45.2 heating conversion to, S11.31 Dual-duct systems
Dew-point analysis, F23.12 heat transfer analysis, S11.9 all-air systems, S2.8
Diamagnetism, and superconductivity, R38.5 ground to air, S11.10 control, A46.13
Diesel fuel, F18.6 pipes in terminal boxes, A46.10
Diffusion air, S11.16 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.3
coefficient, F5.2 buried trenches or tunnels, S11.14 Dual-temperature water (DTW) system, S12.1
eddy, F5.6 shallow trenches, S11.15 DuBois equation, F8.3
moisture flow, F23.7 single buried pipe, S11.10 Duct design
molecular, F5.1 soil temperature calculation, S11.9 all-air systems, S2.7
space air, F33.1 two pipes buried, S11.12 Bernoulli equation, F35.1
Diffusivity metering, S11.32 commercial, small applications, S9.10
thermal, F23.1 pressure losses, S11.6 computer analysis, A39.6
of foods, R9.17 thermal storage, A34.9; S11.3 Darcy equation, F35.6
water vapor, F23.2 water systems, S11.1 Darcy-Weisbach equation, F35.8
Dilution d-limonene, F21.12 design considerations
exhaust, F16.10 DNS. See Direct numerical simulation (DNS) space pressure relationships, F35.10
smoke, A52.4 Docks, A3.10 velocities for HVAC components, F35.12
ventilation, A29.2; A45.4 Doors duct fitting database, F35.8
Dimensionless variables, F3.14 U-factors, F25.14 dynamic losses
DIR. See Dispersive infrared (DIR) Dormitories duct fitting database, F35.8
Direct digital control (DDC), F15.4, 9 air conditioning, A5.8 local loss coefficients, F35.7
Direct numerical simulation (DNS), turbulence design criteria, A5.1 fan-system interface, F35.8
modeling, F34.4 energy systems, A5.1 fire safety, F35.11
Discharge coefficients, in fluid flow, F2.9 load characteristics, A5.1 fitting loss coefficients
Dispersive infrared (DIR), F15.8 service water heating, A49.11, 12, 14 duct fitting database, F35.8
Display cases, R46.1, 4 Draft flexible ducts, F35.8
District heating and cooling, S11 burners, S26.14 tables, F35.20–60
applicability, S11.1 chimney, S30.1 friction losses, F35.4
central plants altitude correction, S30.8 head, F35.2
boiler, S11.3 available, S30.1, 4, 8 industrial exhaust systems, F35.17; S25.28
chiller, A46.14; S11.1, 3 theoretical, S30.1, 3, 8 insulation, F35.11
distribution design, S11.4 comfort affected by, F8.13 leakage, F35.11
emission control, S11.4 cooling towers, S36.3, 5 methods, F35.13
equipment, S11.2 Drag, in fluid flow, F2.5 noise, F35.13
heating medium, S11.3 Driers, R6.6. (See also Dryers) pressure, F35.2
thermal storage, S11.3 Drip station, steam systems, S11.7 residential, S9.8
cogeneration, S7.33 Dryers. (See also Driers) roughness factors, F35.6
components, S11.1 commercial and industrial smoke management, F35.11
consumer interconnections adsorption, S22.10, 11 stack effect, F35.2
chilled water, S11.3, 19, 31 agitated-bed, A28.6 testing, adjusting, and balancing, F35.13
components, S11.27 calculations, A28.2 Ducts
direct connection, S11.26 conduction, A28.3 acoustical lining, A47.14; S16.4
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.14 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
fiberglass, A47.20 uniform annualized costs, A36.10 structure, R21.1
in hospitals, A7.12 Economic coefficient of performance (ECOP), transportation, R21.8
airflow measurement in, A37.2 S7.35 storage, R21.1
antimicrobial, S16.5 Economics. (See also Costs) thermal properties, R9.1
classifications, S16.1 cogeneration, S7.46 EIFS. See Exterior insulation finishing system
cleaning, S16.2 district heating and cooling, S11.2 (EIFS)
construction energy management planning, A35.2 Electricity
codes, S16.1 energy recovery equipment, S44.23 billing rates, A55.8
commercial, S16.2 evaporative cooling, A51.10, 11 codes, A55.10
acoustical treatment, S16.4 indoor gaseous contaminant control, A45.10 costs, A36.4, 7
hangers, S16.4 insulation thickness, pipe, S11.16 generation, on-site, A36.7
materials, S16.2 laboratory systems, A14.19 imbalance, S40.1
plenums and apparatus casings, S16.4 owning and operating costs, A36.1 motor starting, A55.8; S40.7
industrial, S16.4 steam turbines, S7.19 performance, A55.1
hangers, S16.5 thermal storage, A34.2 power quality variations, A55.3
materials, S16.4 Economizers, A6.1 principles, A55.1
kitchen exhaust, S16.5 air-side, S5.9 safety, A55.1
master specifications, S16.6 compressors voltage, A55.1
outdoor ducts, S16.6 single-screw, S34.13, 14 Electric thermal storage (ETS), A34.8
residential, S16.2 twin-screw, S34.20 Electrostatic precipitators, S24.8; S25.7
seismic qualification, S16.6 control, A41.26 Elevators, smoke control, A52.11
sheet metal welding, S16.6 cycle, A46.5 Emissions
standards, S16.1 humidification load calculation, S20.3 pollution, F18.6
commercial, S16.2 kitchen ventilation, A31.15 Emissivity, F3.2, 8
industrial, S16.4 water-side, S5.2, 9 Emittance, thermal, F23.2
residential, S16.2 ECOP. See Economic coefficient of Enclosed vehicular facilities, A13
thermal insulation, S16.6 performance (ECOP) Energy
underground, S16.6 ECS. See Environmental control system (ECS) audit, A35.14
desiccant dehumidifiers, S22.7 Eddy diffusivity, F5.6 costs, A36.3
efficiency testing, S9.11 Educational facilities, A6 emergency use reduction, A35.18
fabric, S16.6 air conditioning, A6.1 field survey audit, A37.17
fibrous glass, S16.3 service water heating, A49.17 forecasting building needs, A41.31
flat oval, F35.7; S16.3 EER. See Energy efficiency ratio (EER) savings verification, A40.2
flexible, S16.4 Effectiveness, heat transfer, F3.28 wheels, S44.10
fluid flow, F2.1 Effective radiant flux (ERF), A53.2 Energy balance
forced-air systems, small, S9.2, 8 Efficiency comfort, F8.2, 16
friction chart, F35.6 air conditioners refrigeration systems, R43.3
heaters for, control, A46.17 room, S46.2 Energy conservation
industrial exhaust systems, A30.5 unitary, S45.5 air conditioners, room, S46.3
insulation, F24.15; F26.11; F35.11 boilers, S27.5 building envelopes, A43.1
leakage, F35.11; S16.2 combustion, F18.12 building supervisory control, A41.1
noise in, A47.7 compressors clean spaces, A16.14
noncircular, F35.6 centrifugal, S34.30 data processing areas, A17.6
plastic, S16.5 positive-displacement, S34.2 educational facilities, A6.1
rectangular, F35.7; S16.2, 5 reciprocating, S34.6 farm crop drying, A23.4
road tunnels, A13.7 rotary, S34.10 greenhouses, A22.16
roughness factors, F35.6 scroll, S34.23 hospitals, A7.12
round, S16.2, 5 single-screw, S34.16 industrial environments, A29.5
ships, A11.3 fins, F3.24 infrared heaters, S15.1
sound forced-air systems, small, S9.12 kitchen ventilation, A31.14
attenuation, A47.13 furnaces, S9.12; S28.5, 7 pumps, centrifugal, S39.13
control, F7.13 heat pumps, unitary, S45.5 temperature and ventilation control,
transmission, A47.20 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25.3 A46.18
velocity measurement in, F14.17 infrared heaters, S15.4 textile processing, A19.6
vibration control, A47.48 motors, S40.2 thermal insulation, F26.1
Dust mites, F23.5 pumps, centrifugal, S39.7 Energy conservation, F17.2
Dusts, S24.1 refrigerating, F1.3 refrigerators‚ commercial, R47.7
indoor environmental health, F9.4 Eggs, R21 Energy conservation opportunity (ECO),
synthetic, S24.2 composition, R21.1 A35.15
Dynamometers, A15.1 dehydration, R21.11 Energy consumption
Earth, stabilization, R36.3, 4 processing plant sanitation, R21.12 benchmarking, A35.3
Earthquakes, seismic restraint design, A54.1 products, R21.9 building HVAC, control effect on, A41.7
Economic analysis, A36 shell eggs in buildings, F17.3
cash flow, A36.12 packaging, R21.8 emergency reduction, A35.18
computer analysis, A36.12 processing, R21.5 gaseous contaminant control, A45.10
life-cycle cost analyses, A36.8 refrigeration, R21.5 humidifiers, S20.3
present value (worth), A36.8 spoilage prevention, R21.4 United States
simple payback, A36.8 storage, R21.8 per capita end-use, F17.10
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.15
projections, F17.10 applications, S44.1 cetane number, F18.7
world, F17.8 design heating values; S7.5
Energy efficiency, F17.2 condensation, S44.7 selection, S7.4
in commercial and food service refrigerators, controls, S44.7, 11 heat recovery
R47.7 corrosion, S44.7 exhaust gas, S7.23
design, F17.2 cross-contamination, S44.11 jacket water, S7.21
Energy efficiency ratio (EER), S46.2 filters, air, S44.7 lubricant, S7.23
Energy estimating, F32 fouling, S44.7 reciprocating, S7.21
analysis, F32.3 freeze prevention, S44.7 turbocharger, S7.23
application to cooling and dehumidifying maintenance, S44.7, 11 heat release, A15.1
coils, F32.11 performance, S44.9 heat removal, S7.40
degree-day and bin methods, F32.17 pressure drop, S44.7 jacket water system, S7.6, 38
annual degree-day, F32.18 economic considerations, S44.23 lubrication, S7.6
variable base, F32.19 effectiveness, S44.8 maintenance, S7.7
balance point temperature, F32.18 energy transfer, S44.4 noise control, S7.7
correlation, F32.22 equipment performance, S7.3
degree-day, F32.20 coil energy recovery loops, S44.11 reciprocating, S7.2
forecasting, A41.31 devices, S44.1 sizing, S7.42
general considerations, F32.1 heat pipe heat exchangers, S44.13 standards, S7.50
integration of systems, F32.23 rating, S44.9 superchargers, turbochargers, S7.6
models, F32.1 rotary energy exchangers, S44.10 vibration control, S7.7
monthly degree-day, F32.20 runaround loops, S44.11 water-cooled, S7.38
seasonal efficiency of furnaces, F32.19 thermosiphon (two-phase) heat ex- Engine test facilities, A15
simulating, F32.23 changers, S44.14 air conditioning, A15.1
software selection, F32.3 twin-tower enthalpy recovery loops, dynamometers, A15.1
Energy management, A35 S44.14 exhaust, A15.2
cost control, A35.4 evaporative cooling, indirect, S19.3; noise levels, A15.4
emergency energy use reduction, A35.18 S44.21 ventilation, A15.1, 4
energy audits, A35.14 precooling air reheater, S44.22 Enhanced tubes. See Finned-tube heat transfer
energy conservation opportunity (ECO), in chemical industry, R37.4 coils
comparing, A35.17 industrial environments, A29.5 Enthalpy
implementation, A35.4, 18 Energy resources, F17 calculation, F1.4
resource evaluation, A35.2 demand-side management (DSM), F17.6 definition, F1.2
Energy modeling, F32 electricity, F17.1 foods, R9.7
calculating fossil fuel, F17.1 recovery loop, twin-tower, S44.14
basements, F32.7 integrated resource planning (IRP), F17.6 water vapor, F5.9
effectiveness-NTU, F32.10 nonrenewable, F17.1 wheels, S44.10
slab foundations, F32.7 renewable, F17.1 Entropy, F1.1
space sensible loads, F32.3 United States calculation, F1.4
classical approach, F32.1 overall consumption projections, F17.10 Environmental control
data-driven approach, F32.1 per capita consumption projections, animals. See Animal environments
data-driven models, F32.2, 24 F17.10 humans. See Comfort
forward models, F32.1 world plants. See Plant environments
general considerations, F32.1 consumption, F17.8 retail food stores
system controls, F32.23 production, F17.7 equipment and control, R46.21
Energy monitoring, A40 reserves, F17.7 store ambient effect, R46.3
applications Energy savings performance contracting Environmental control system (ECS), A10
building diagnostics, A40.2 (ESPC), A36.7 Environmental health, F9
energy end use, A40.1 Engines, S7 background, F9.1
performance monitoring, A40.3, 4 air-cooled, S7.40 biostatistics, F9.2
savings measurement and verification air systems cellular biology, F9.2
(M&V), A40.2 combustion, S7.6, 40 dusts, F9.4
specific technology assessment, A40.1 compressed, S7.6 epidemiology, F9.2
data applications exposure, F9.6
acquisition, A40.10 centrifugal compressors, S7.44 genetics, F9.3
analysis, A40.6, 8 heat pumps, S7.44 indoor, F9.1
measurement uncertainty, A40.11 reciprocating compressors, S7.43 industrial hygiene, F9.3
reporting, A40.6, 14 screw compressors, S7.44 microbiology/mycology, F9.3
requirements, A40.7 sizing, S7.42 molecular biology, F9.3
verification, A40.5, 13 codes, S7.50 physical hazards
design and implementation methodology, continuous-duty standby, S7.37 electrical hazards, F9.13
A40.6 controls and instruments, S7.7 electromagnetic radiation, F9.15
documentation, A40.7, 14 design and installation, S7.38 noise, F9.15
planning, A40.5, 14 ebullient cooling, S7.22, 39 thermal comfort, F9.11
quality assurance, A40.5, 13 exhaust systems, S7.6, 39 diseases affected by, F9.12
Energy production, world, F17.7 gas, S7.6 vibrations, F9.13
Energy recovery. (See also Heat recovery) expansion engines, S7.38 standards, F9.9
air-to-air fuels, F18.6 toxicology, F9.3
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.16 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) equipment, R3.2 air conditioners, room, S46.2
contaminants, A45.1 piping, R3.18 all-air systems, S2.3, 4, 6
secondhand smoke, F12.17 automobile air conditioning, A9.4, 8 animal environments, A22.7
sidestream smoke, F9.6 chemical industry refrigeration, R37.7 control, A46.1; S18.9
superheated vapors, F12.2 flooded, F4.4 cooling tower capacity control, A41.12; S36.8
Equipment vibration, A47.39; F7.19 halocarbon refrigeration systems, piping, draft, S30.26
ERF. See Effective radiant flux (ERF) R2.28 duct system interface, F35.8
ESPC. See Energy savings performance liquid overfeed systems, R1.6 fixed- vs. variable-speed, A41.8
contracting (ESPC) Exfiltration, F27.1 flow control, S18.9; S40.7
Ethylene glycol Exhaust furnaces, S28.2
coolants, secondary, F21.4 animal buildings, A22.7 industrial exhaust systems, A30.7
hydronic systems, S12.16 clean spaces, A16.13, 15 isolation, S18.9
ETS. See Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS); engines kitchen exhaust, A31.7
Electric thermal storage (ETS) gas systems, S7.6 laws, S18.4
Evaporation, in tubes heat recovery, S7.23 operating principles, S18.1
forced convection, F4.4 installation recommendations, S7.39 parallel operation, S18.7
equations, F4.6 engine test facilities, A15.2 plenum, S18.1
natural convection, F4.1 industrial environments, A12.8; A30.1 plug, S18.1
Evaporative coolers. (See also Refrigerators) kitchens, A31.6, 20 pressure relationships, S18.5
liquid (See also Evaporators) laboratories, A14.3, 9 effect of duct system on, S18.6
in chillers, S38.6, 8, 12 stack height, A14.13 rating, S18.4
Evaporative cooling, A51 photographic processing areas, A20.2 selection, A47.5; S18.7
applications stacks ships, naval surface, A11.4
air cleaning, A51.2; S19.7 buildings, A44.1 sound level, A47.4; S18.8
animal environments, A22.4; A51.8 design strategies, A44.1 system effects, S18.7
combustion turbines, S7.11 exhaust dilution prediction equations, testing, S18.4
commercial, A51.4 A44.10 types, S18.1
dehumidification, A51.2; S19.7 exhaust velocity, A44.1 unstable operation, A46.3
gas turbines, A51.7 industrial exhaust systems, A30.7 variable- vs. fixed-speed, A41.8
greenhouses, A22.14; A51.9 location relative to air intake, A44.2 vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.26
humidification, A51.2; S19.6 wake downwash, A44.1 Farm crops
industrial vehicular facilities, enclosed, A13.30 aeration, A23.4, 10; F11.11
air conditioning, A12.7 Exhibit buildings, temporary deep bed drying, F11.10
area cooling, A51.6 air cleanliness, A4.8 dryeration, A23.4
process cooling, A51.8 HVAC equipment, A4.8 drying, F11.8
spot cooling, A51.6 occupancy, A4.8 airflow resistance, F11.9
laundries, A51.8 Exhibit cases, A21.4, 10 barley, F11.13
makeup air pretreatment, S19.5 Exhibition centers, A4.5 combination, A23.4
motors, A51.7 smoke management, A52.13 corn, A23.1; F11.12
power generation facilities, A51.8 Expansion joints and devices, S41.11 cotton, A23.8; F11.12
precooling, S19.5 bends, S41.11 deep-bed, A23.4; F11.10
mixed air systems, A51.3 joints energy conservation, A23.4
outdoor air systems, A51.3 district heating and cooling, S11.17 equipment, A23.2
produce storage, A51.9 packed, S41.14 full-bin, A23.5
residential, A51.4 packless, S41.14 grain, F11.12
wood and paper products facilities, A51.8 loops, S41.12 hay, A23.8; F11.11
cooling towers, S36.1 Expansion tanks, S11.4 layer, A23.6
direct, A51.1, 2; S19.1 hydronic systems, S14.4 peanuts, A23.9; F11.13
economics, A51.10 closed, S12.3 physiological factors, F11.1
entering air condition, A51.11 diaphragm, S12.3 rice, A23.9; F11.13
equipment expansion chamber, S12.3 seeds, F11.13
direct, S19.1 functions of, S12.3, 7 shallow-layer, A23.3; F11.9
indirect, S19.2 open, S12.3 soybeans, A23.7; F11.13
maintenance, S19.7 sizing equations, S12.4 specific, A23.7
two-stage, S19.4 secondary coolant systems, R4.3 tobacco, F11.14
exhaust requirement, A51.5 solar energy systems, A33.12 wheat, F11.13
heat recovery and, A51.3; S19.3; S44.21 Exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS), microbial growth, A23.1
indirect, A51.1, 3; S19.2; S44.21 A43.4 recirculation, A23.4
psychrometrics, A51.1, 5, 10, 11 Fairs, A4.8 storing, A23
staged Family courts. See Juvenile facilities carbon dioxide, F11.3
booster refrigeration, A51.3, 11 Fan-coil units, S3.2 fungi,
two-stage (indirect/direct), A51.5, 10; capacity control, S3.4 growth, F11.6
S19.4 performance under varying load, S3.6 grain aeration, A23.10; F11.11
water treatment, A48.9; S19.8 two-pipe systems, S3.5 insects, F11.3, 8
Legionella pneumophila, S19.8 types, S3.3 moisture content, F11.1, 5
Evaporators. (See also Coolers, liquid) water distribution, S3.5 moisture migration, A23.9; F11.2
air conditioners, room, S46.2 wiring, S3.4 oxygen, F11.3
ammonia refrigeration systems Fans, S18 rodents, F11.8
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.17
temperature, F11.3 design, S32.3 Fluid dynamics computations, F34.1
f-Chart method, sizing heating and cooling nonstandard condition corrections, S32.3 Fluid flow, F2
systems, A33.20 rating, S32.3 analysis, F2.6
Fenestration Finned-tube heat transfer coils, F3.27 Bernoulli equation, F2.6
air leakage, F31.56 energy recovery loops, S44.11 kinetic energy factor, F2.2
attachments, F31.43 two-phase flow in, F4.14 pressure variation, F2.2
building envelopes, A43.6; F31.1 Fins, F3.24 boundary layer, F2.4
codes, F31.65 Fireplaces, S29.4 cavitation, F2.14
components, F31.1 chimney design, S30.21 choking, F2.13
condensation resistance, F31.60 Fire safety compressible, F2.13
cooling load, F30.17 clean space exhaust systems, A16.13 expansion factor, F2.13
draperies, F31.49 data processing areas, A17.6 pressure, F2.12
durability, F31.64 duct design, F35.11 continuity, F2.2
energy flow, F31.3 fire and smoke dampers, A52.8 Darcy-Weisbach equation, F2.7
energy performance, annual, F31.60 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25.29 devices, F2.5
exterior shading, F31.45 insulation fire resistance ratings, F26.5 discharge coefficients, F2.9
glazing (glass), F31.1 kitchens, A31.15 drag, F2.5
infiltration, A43.6 laboratories, A14.11 friction factors, F2.7
interior shading, F31.47 nuclear facilities, A26.2 incompressible, F2.10
occupant comfort, F31.62 penetration fire stopping, A52.1 laminar, F2.3
opaque elements, F31.42 smoke management, A52.1 measurement, A37.12, F2.10; F14.19
shading devices, F31.43 thermal insulation, F26.4 noise, F2.14
solar angle, F31.15 Fish, R19 nonisothermal effects, F2.5
solar heat gain, A43.6; F31.13, 36 fresh, R19.1 parabolic velocity profile, Poiseuille, F2.3
standards, F31.65 frozen, R19.4 patterns, F2.4
thermal radiation, F31.35 thermal properties, R9.1 pipe friction, F2.7
U-factors, F31.4, 6 Fittings properties, F2.1
Fick’s law, F5.1 duct fitting database, F35.8 Reynolds number, Re, F2.3
and moisture flow, F23.7 effective length, F2.9 section change losses, F2.7
Filters, air, S24 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.10 sensors, F15.9
(See also Air cleaners) loss coefficients, F2.8 separation, F2.4
air conditioners, room, S46.4 local, F35.7 turbulent, F2.3
aircraft, A10.4, 9 pipe two-phase
clean spaces, A16.3, 7, 10 sizing, F36.1, 7 boiling, F4.1
demisters, A26.6 standards, S41.2 condensation, F4.8
desiccant dehumidifiers, S22.7 tees, F36.7 evaporation, F4.2, 4
dry, extended surface, S24.6 Fixed-guideway vehicles, (See also pressure drop, F4.11
electronic, S24.5, 8 Mass-transit systems) unsteady, F2.11
furnaces, S28.2 Fixture units, A49.4; F36.9 valve losses, F2.7, 9
high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters; Flammability limits, gaseous fuels, F18.1 vena contracta, F2.4
A26.3, 6; S24.3, 5, 7; S25.2 Flash tank, steam systems, S10.14 wall friction, F2.3
tests, S24.3 Floors Food. (See also specific foods)
hospitals, A7.2 coverings codes, R46.2
industrial air-conditioning, A12.7 panel systems, S6.7 cooling and freezing times, R10.1
industrial exhaust gas temperature comfort, F8.15 cooling, R10.1
fabric, S25.10 insulation, F24.2 equivalent heat transfer dimensionality,
granular bed, S25.14 insulation, acoustic, F23.17 R10.4
installation, S24.9 moisture control, F24.10 estimating algorithms, R10.5
kitchens, A31.3, 6 slabs, heat loss, F29.12 irregular shapes, R10.3
laboratories, A14.9 Flowers, cut slabs, cylinders, and spheres, R10.2
maintenance, S24.8 air transport, R32.1, 3 freezing
nuclear facilities, A26.3, 6 cooling, R15.11 estimating algorithms, R10.12
panel, S24.6 refigerators, R47.3 geometric considerations
places of assembly, A4.1 storage, temperatures, R11.12 equivalent heat transfer dimen-
printing plants, A18.4 Flowmeters, A37.13; F14.17 sionality, R10.9
renewable media, moving-curtain, S24.7 bypass spring impact meters, A37.13 equivalent sphere diameter,
residential, A1.5 devices, A37.13 R10.12
safety requirements, S24.12 district heating and cooling systems, S11.32 mean conducting path, R10.12
selection, S24.8 flow nozzles, F14.20 phase change, R10.8
ships, A11.4 hoods, F14.18 Plank’s equation, R10.7
standards, S24.3, 5 in conduits, F2.13 precooling, R10.8
test methods, S24.2 orifice plates, A37.13; F14.20 subcooling, R10.8
types, S24.6 positive-displacement meters, F14.22 industrial freezing methods, R16.1
ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters, rotameters, F14.21 long-term storage, R27.7
S24.5, 7; S25.2 turbine meters, A37.13; F14.22 microbial growth
viscous impingement, S24.6, 7 ultrasonic, A37.13 control, R12.3
Filters, water, A48.7 velocity impact meters, A37.13 generalized, R12.1
Finned-tube heat-distributing units, S32.1, 5 venturi meters, A37.13; F14.20 requirements, R12.2
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.18 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
plants, R27.3 Freeze drying, A28.6 grapes, R22.8
poultry products biological materials, R40.4 mangoes, R23.8
freezing, R18.5 Freeze prevention. (See also Freeze protection nectarines, R22.12
refrigeration, R18.1 systems) peaches, R22.12
processing facilities condensers, evaporative, S35.16 pears, R22.6
contamination prevention, R12.3 coolers, liquid, S37.5 pineapples, R23.8
dairy, R20.1 cooling tower plums, R22.11
fruits, R27.5 piping, S13.3 storage diseases, R22.1
main dishes, R27.1 sump water, S36.10 strawberries, R22.13
meat, R17.1 energy recovery equipment, S44.7 thermal properties, R9.1
organism destruction, R12.4 hydronic systems, S12.15 vine fruits, R22.1
potato products, R27.5 insulation for, F26.2 Fuel cells, cogeneration, S7.36
poultry, R18.1 pipes, F24.14 Fuels, F18
precooked foods, R27.1 solar energy systems, A33.24; S33.2, 18 altitude compensation, F18.3
refrigeration systems, R27.3, 4, 6 Freeze protection systems, A50.17, 19 classification, F18.4
regulations and standards, R12.5 Freezers combustion, F18
sanitation, R12.4 blast, R14.10; R16.1; R17.15, R47.3 engines, S7.4
vegetables, R27.3 household, R48.1 flammability limits, F18.1
refrigeration cabinet construction, R48.3 gaseous, F18.4
dairy products, R20 defrosting, R48.6 heating value, F18.3; S7.5
eggs and egg products, R21.1 efficiency, R48.1 ignition temperature, F18.2
fishery products, R19 refrigeration systems, R48.5 liquid, F18.4
fruits, fresh, R22; R23 testing, R48.9 oil. See Oil, fuel
meat products, R17 industrial, R16.1 systems, S7.5
vegetables, R24 walk-in, R47.3 solid, F18.7
refrigerators Freezing turbines, S7.9
commercial, R47 beverages, R10.7 Fume hoods, laboratory exhaust, A14.3
retail food store, R46.1 biomedical applications, R40.1 Fungi, and farm crop storage, F11.6
walk-in, R46.12 foods Furnaces, S28
storage requirements bakery products, R28.5 air cleaners and filters, S28.2
canned foods, R11.11 egg products, R21.9 airflow configurations, S28.2
citrus fruit, R23.3 fish, R19.5 air supply, S30.22
commodities, R11.1 freezing time calculations, R10.7 burners, S26.1; S28.1
dried foods, R11.11 ice cream, R20.15 casings, S28.1
fruit, R22 meat products, R17.16 codes, S28.10
thermal properties, R9 poultry products, R18.5 commercial, S28.8
enthalpy, R9.7 processed and prepared food, R27.1 control, S28.1, 7
heat of respiration, R9.18, 19 industrial, R16.1 derating, S26.3
ice fraction, R9.2 soil, R36.3, 4 duct furnaces, S26.2; S28.8
surface heat transfer coefficient, R9.25 Friction, in fluid flow efficiency, S28.5
thermal conductivity, R9.9 conduit, F2.7 electric, S28.4, 6, 8
thermal diffusivity, R9.17 wall, F2.3 fans and motors, S28.2
transpiration coefficient, R9.19, 25 Friction losses, F35.7 floor furnaces, S28.9; S29.2
water content, initial freezing point, R9.2 duct design, F35.4 gas-fired, S28.5, 6
Food service fittings, F36.1, 7 codes, S28.10
refrigerators for, R47.1 roughness factors, F35.6 commercial, S28.8
service water heating, A49.11, 15 valves, F36.1, 7 installation, S28.10
vending machines, R47.5 Fruit juice, R25 residential, S28.1
Forced-air systems, residential, A1.1 Fruits standards, S28.10
multifamily, A1.5 dried humidifiers, S28.2
Fouling factor storage, R29.7 installation practices, S28.10
condensers, water-cooled, S35.4 thermal properties, R9.1 natural gas, S26.1; S28.1, 5, 6
coolers, liquid, S37.4 fresh draft hoods, S28.2
Foundations air transport, R32.1 residential, S28.1, 6
insulation, A43.2; F24.2 apples, storage, A51.9; R22.1 capacity ratings, S28.6
moisture control, A43.2 apricots, R22.13 combustion system, S28.3
radon control, A43.3 avocados, R23.8 efficiency, S28.5, 7
Fountains, Legionella pneumophila control, bananas, R23.5 heat exchangers, S28.1
A48.7 berries, R22.13 vent dampers, S28.2, 7
Fourier’s law, F3.1 cherries, sweet, R22.12 venting, S28.2; S30.19
and heat transfer, F23.2 citrus, A51.9; R23.1 oil, S28.4, 8
Four-pipe systems, S3.11 cooling, R15.1 venting, S30.20
load, S12.13 deciduous tree, R22 propane, S28.4, 8
room control, S3.11 desiccation, R11.1 regulating agencies, S28.10
zoning, S3.11 deterioration rate, R11.1 residential, A1.3; S28.1
Framing display refrigerators, R46.8 annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE),
materials, F31.2 figs, R22.13 S28.5
solar gain, F31.38 frozen, R27.5 efficiency, S9.12
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.19
floor furnaces, S29.2 Glycols Heaters, S29
indoor or outdoor, S28.3 coolants, secondary, F21.4 automobiles, A9.4
selection, S28.5 desiccant solution, S22.2 catalytic, S29.1
selection, S28.5, 9 Graetz number, F3.14 control, S29.2, 4
standards, S28.10 Grain. (See also Farm crops) direct-contact, S14.6
stokers, S26.9 drying, F11.12 electric, S15.2; S29.3
thermal storage, A34.16 insects, F11.3 fireplaces, S29.4
venting, S30.19, 20 storage moisture, F11.2 gas, S15.1; S26.2; S29.1
wall furnaces, S29.1 Grashof number, F3.14 control valves, S29.2
Garages, parking, A13.9 Greenhouses. (See also Plant environments) efficiency requirements, S29.2
contaminant criteria, A13.10 evaporative cooling, A51.9 infrared, S15.1
enclosed, A3.10 heating, F10.15 room, S29.1
ventilation plant environments, A22.10 thermostats, S29.2
airflow rate, A13.10 supplemental irradiance, F10.20 wall furnaces, S29.1
control, A13.11 Grids, for computational fluid dynamics, hot-water, S31.4
equipment, A13.25 F34.4 hydronic snow melting, A50.12
system configuration, A13.11 Ground-coupled heat pumps (GCHP) infrared, S15.1; S26.2; S28.9
Gases closed-loop ground-source, A32.12 indirect, S26.2
compressed, storage, A14.8 heat exchanger, S45.10 oil-fired, S15.3
drying, S22.11 Ground-source heat pumps (GSHP), A32.1, 12 radiant, A53.1, 4, 8
liquefaction, R38.6 Groundwater heat pump (GWHP), A32.23 in-space, S29.1
purification, R38.16, 19 GSHP. See Ground-source heat pumps kerosene, S29.3
separation (GSHP) oil, S15.3; S29.3
gaseous oxygen, R38.18 GWHP. See Groundwater heat pumps radiant, S26; S29
Gibbs phase rule, R38.16 (GWHP) electric, S15.2
Gas-fired equipment, Gymnasiums, A4.5 gas-fired, S15.1; S26.2; S29.1
(See also Natural gas) HACCP. See Hazard analysis and critical infrared, S26.2; S28.9
noise, F18.16 control point (HACCP) oil-fired infrared, S15.3
Gas vents, S30.1 Halocarbon panels, S29.4
GCHP. See Ground-coupled heat pumps coolants, secondary, F21.12 quartz, S29.4
(GCHP) refrigerant systems, R2.1 residential, S29.1
Generators Hartford loop, S10.3 room, S29.1
absorption units, R41.1, 10 Hay, drying, A23.8; F11.11 solid fuel, S29.4
cogeneration, S7.28 Hazard analysis and critical control point standards, S29.6, 7
Geothermal energy, A32 (HACCP), R12.4 steam, S31.4
corrosion control, A32.8 Hazen-Williams equation, F36.1 stoves, S29.5
direct-use systems, A32.3 HB. See Heat balance (HB) testing, S29.7
cooling, A32.11 Health unit, S26.2; S28.9; S31.4
equipment, A32.6 asbestosis, F9.5 control, S31.7
heating, A32.9 coalworker’s pneumoconiosis, F9.5 location, S31.6
service water heating, A32.11 and insulation, F23.17 maintenance, S31.7
district heating, A32.9 and moisture problems, F23.5 piping, S31.7
geothermal fluids, A32.1 silicosis, F9.5 ratings, S31.6
disposal, A32.4 synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), F9.5 selection, S31.4
temperature, A32.1, 3 Health care facilities, . (See also specific types) sound level, S31.6
ground-source heat pump (GSHP) systems, Heat types, S31.6
A32.12, 26; S8.4 animal production, F10.2, 7 ventilators, S31.1
heat exchangers, A32.8, 25 flow rates, F30.1 water, A49
materials performance, A32.7 latent Heat exchangers, S43
resources, A32.1 respiratory loss, F8.4 air-to-air energy recovery, S44.1
valves, A32.9 skin loss, F8.3, 10 heat pipes, S44.13
water wells sensible rotary enthalpy wheels, S44.10
flow rate, A32.3 respiratory, F8.4 thermosiphon, S44.14
pumps, A32.8, 25 skin, F8.3 animal environments, A22.4
terminology, A32.4 space extraction rate, F30.2 antifreeze effect on, S12.16
water quality testing, A32.6 timers, S10.13 chimneys, S30.26
Geothermal heat pumps (GHP), A32.12 Heat balance (HB), S8.19 counterflow, F3.28; S43.1
Glazing air, F30.21 district heating and cooling, S11.27
angular averaging, F31.25 conduction transfer function, F30.22 double-wall construction, S43.3
coated, F31.22 equations, F30.22 effectiveness, capacity rate ratio, F3.28
glass, F31.1 input procedure, F30.23 enhanced surfaces, F4.14
planar, F31.50 load calculations external, S33.16
plastic, F31.41 cooling, F30.18 fouling, S43.5
solar-optical properties, F31.18 nonresidential, F30.1 freeze protection, S33.18
spectral averaging, F31.24 model, F30.18 furnaces, S28.1
spectral range, F31.35 studies, S8.19 geothermal energy systems, A32.8, 25
systems, F31.42 surface, F30.19 halocarbon refrigeration systems, R2.28
GLFs. See Glass load factors (GLFs) Heat capacity, F23.1 heat transfer, S43.1
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.20 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
installation, S43.5 industrial environments, A12.6 industrial process, S8.8
liquid suction, R2.28 infrared, S15.1 closed-cycle systems, S8.9
number of transfer units (NTU), F3.28 radiant, A53.1, 8 design, S8.12
parallel flow, F3.28 nonresidential, S12.10 heat recovery, S8.8, 9
performance, S33.16 places of assembly, A4.1 open-cycle systems, S8.11
plate, F3.30; R2.29; S37.2 plant growth chambers, A22.17 semi-open-cycle systems, S8.11
boiling in, F4.7 power plants, A25.10 packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs),
brazed, S11.28; S43.3 residential, A1.1 S46.5
components, S43.4 solar energy, S33.1 testing, S46.7
gasketed, S11.28; S43.3 systems residential, A1.1
plate-and-frame, S11.28; S33.16 all-air, S2.2, 3 room, S46.1
pressure drop in, F4.13 selection, S1.1 split systems, S45.1
welded, S11.28; S43.3 small forced-air, S9.1 supplemental heating, S8.8
selection, S43.5 dynamic simulation model (HOUSE), through-the-wall, S5.2
shell-and-coil, R2.29; S11.28; S43.2 S9.12 types, S8.4
shell-and-tube, R2.29; S11.28; S37.1, 2 solar energy, A33.16, 26 unitary, S45.1
components, S43.4 space requirements, S1.5 application, S45.1
converters, S43.2 steam, S10.1 certification, S45.5
straight-tube, S43.2 thermal storage, A34.8 codes, S45.5
tube-in-tube, R2.29; S33.16; S37.1 Heating load desuperheaters, S45.2
U-tube, S43.2 calculations, F30.31 installation, S45.2
systems central plant, S4.2 space conditioning/water heating, S45.3
solar energy, A33.12; S33.15 residential calculations standards, S45.5
steam, S10.3 crawlspace heat loss, F29.13 types, S45.2
water, medium/high temperature, S14.8 Heating values of fuels, F18.3, 6, 8 water heaters, A49.2, 21
Heat flow, F23 Heat loss. (See also Load calculations) water-source
(See also Heat transfer) basement, F29.12 certification, S45.11
and airflow, F23.8 crawlspaces, F29.13 design, S45.11
apparent conductivity, F23.14 floor slabs, F29.12 entering water temperature, S45.11
through flat building component, F23.4 latent heat loss, F29.13 groundwater, A32.13, 23; S45.10
hygrothermal modeling, F23.8 radiant panels, S6.8 indirect systems, A32.25
and moisture, F23.5, 8 Heat pipes, air-to-air energy recovery, S44.13 surface water, A32.14, 26
paths, series and parallel, F23.4 dehumidifiers, S47.5 antifreeze requirements, A32.28
terminology, F23.1 Heat pumps closed-loop heat pumps, A32.27;
Heat flow, F23. (See also Heat transfer) absorption, R41.3 S45.10
variation, F23.3 air-source, S45.1, 8 lake heat transfer, A32.26
Heat flux, radiant panels, S6.2 add-on, S45.8 open-loop heat pumps, A32.26
Heat gain. (See also Load calculations) air-to-air, S8.4, 9 testing, S45.11
appliances, F30.6 air-to-water, S8.6, 9 water loop, S8.14; S45.10
calculation, balance point, S45.8 water-to-air, S8.4
solar heat gain coefficient (SHGC), compressor selection, S45.9 water-to-water, S8.6
F30.20 control, S45.10 window-mounted, S5.2
standard air values, F30.9 defrost cycle, S45.9 Heat recovery. (See also Energy recovery)
electric motors, F30.4 installation, S45.10 balanced heat recovery, S8.18
engine test facilities, dynamometers, A15.1 refrigerant circuits, S45.9 cascade systems, S8.13
fenestration, F30.17 selection, S45.8 cogeneration, S7.19
floors, F30.27 boosters, A34.16 coils, S23.3
hospital and laboratory equipment, F30.8 cascade systems, S8.6 combustion turbines, S7.25
humans, F30.3 components, S8.6 data processing areas, A17.6
laboratories, A14.2 compression cycles, S8.1 evaporative cooling, A51.3; S19.3; S44.21
latent, permeable building materials, F30.13 control, A46.6; S8.7, 8 heat-activated chillers, S7.27
lighting, F30.3 efficiency, S45.5 heat balance, S8.19
office equipment, F30.8 engine-driven, S7.44 heat pumps, S8.9
radiant panels, S6.8 ground-source industrial exhaust systems, A30.7
space, F30.1 ground-coupled, A32.12, 15; S8.14; kitchen ventilation, A31.15
Heating S45.10 laboratories, 19
absorption equipment, R41.1 heat transfer analysis, A32.15 liquid chillers; S38.3, 11
animal environments, A22.4 horizontal systems, A32.12, 20 multiple buildings, S8.21
equipment, S4.1; S45 vertical systems, A32.12, 15 reciprocating engines, S7.21
baseboard units, S32.1 water loop, S8.14 retail food store refrigeration, R46.18
boilers, S27.1 groundwater, A32.13, 23; S45.10 service water heating, A49.3
convectors, S32.1 surface water, A32.14, 26; S45.10 steam
finned-tube units, S32.1 terminology, A32.12 systems, S10.3, 14
furnaces, S28.1 heat recovery heat pumps, S8.9 turbines, S7.26
radiators, S32.1 design principles, S8.12 supermarkets, A2.4
equipment, S26–S33 ; S26 waste heat recovery, S8.13 terminology, S8.1
geothermal energy systems, A32.9 heat sources and sinks, S8.2, 4 waste heat, S8.13
greenhouses, A22.11; F10.15 ice-source, R34.6 water loop heat pump systems, S8.14
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.21
Heat storage. See Thermal storage simultaneous with, F5.9 volumetric flow rate, A30.2
Heat stress cooling coils, F5.12 kitchen exhaust, A31.20
index (HSI), A29.4; F8.20 number of transfer units (NTU), F3.28 ductless, A31.6
industrial environments, A29.4 radiant balance, F3.12 recirculating systems, A31.6, 9
thermal standards, A29.4 radiation residential, A31.20
Heat transfer, F3; F23. (See also Heat flow) actual, gray, F3.2, 8 type I, A31.3
across air space, F23.3 angle factor, F3.10 type II, A31.3, 5
air infiltration, effect of, F23.16 Beer’s law, F3.12 laboratory fume, A14.3
animal environments, F10.3 blackbody, F3.1, 8 sound control, A47.34
antifreeze effect on water, S12.16 spectral emissive power, F3.8 unidirectional, A16.7
augmentation coefficient, F3.18 Hospitals, A7.2
active, F3.20 energy transfer, F3.8 air conditioning, A7.2
passive, F3.19 exchange between surfaces, F3.11 air movement, A7.3
chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, gray surface, F3.8 air quality, A7.2
S30.6 hemispherical emissivity, F3.8 cooling, A7.12
coefficients, F31.5 in gases, F3.12 design criteria
condensation, F4.9 Kirchoff’s law, F3.9 administration, A7.10
convective, F8.7 monochromatic emissive power, F3.8 ancillary spaces, A7.8
convective evaporation, F4.6 net, F3.8 autopsy rooms, A7.9
evaporative, F8.8 Stefan-Boltzmann diagnostic and treatment, A7.10
foods, R9.25 law, F3.8 infectious isolation, A7.8
Lewis relation, F8.4 relation, F3.1 intensive care units, A7.5
low-temperature, R39.9 thermal, F3.1 laboratories, A7.9
overall, F3.18 Wien’s displacement law, F3.8 nursery, A7.5
pool boiling, F4.3 simultaneous, F5.9 nursing, A7.8
coils snow-melting systems, A50.1 operating rooms, A7.5
air-cooling and dehumidifying, S21.7 fluids, A50.10 humidity, S20.2
air-heating, S23.4 solar energy systems, A33.11 patient rooms, A7.8
condensers, S35.2 steady-state, F23.2 protective isolation, A7.8
water-cooled, S35.2 terminology, F23.1 recovery rooms, A7.5
conductance, F3.18 transient service areas, A7.10
conduction, F3.1, 2 cooling time estimation, F3.5 sterilizing and supply, A7.10
shape factors, F3.2 cylinder, F3.5 surgery and critical care, A7.5
control, F23.1 multidimensional, F3.5 energy conservation, A7.12
convection performance, F23.4 heating and hot-water standby, A7.11
buffer layer, F3.2 radiation, F3.3 indoor air quality (IAQ), A7.2
coefficient, F3.2 slab, F3.5 infection sources and control, A7.2
effect of, F23.16 sphere, F3.5 insulation, A7.12
external, F3.13 temperature distribution, F3.5 Legionella pneumophila, A7.2
flow, fully developed laminar, F3.14 water, S12.2 pressure relationships and ventilation, A7.4
forced, boundary layer, F3.13 Heat transmission smoke control, A7.5
free, F3.2, 16 below-grade construction, F25.15 zoning, A7.11
internal, F3.14 doors, F25.14 Hot-box method, of thermal modeling, F23.4
laminar sublayer, F3.2 floor slabs, F29.12 Hotels and motels, A5
natural, F3.2, 16 pipes accommodations, A5.3
turbulent region, F3.1 buried, F25.18 back-of-the-house areas, A5.6
definition, F23.1 properties, F25.1 central plant, A5.7
diffuse radiation, F3.12 slab-on-grade construction, F25.15 design criteria, A5.1
district heating and cooling pipes, S11.9 soils, F25.15 guest rooms, A5.3
effectiveness, F3.28 windows, F25.14 indoor air quality (IAQ), A5.6
extended surfaces, F3.23 Heat traps, A49.7 load characteristics, A5.1
factor, friction, F3.14 Helium makeup air units, A5.7
film recovery, R38.18 public areas, A5.6
coefficient, F23.1 High-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, service water heating, showers, A49.11, 14
resistance, F23.1, 2 A26.3; S24.7; S25.2 sound control, A5.8
fins, F3.23, 25 High-temperature short-time (HTST) systems, A5.2
forced convection pasteurization, R20.2 Hot-gas bypass, R2.34
air coolers, F3.13 High-temperature water (HTW) system, S12.1 HOUSE dynamic simulation model, S9.12
solid-to-fluid, F3.2 Hoods Houses of worship, A4.3
Fourier’s law, F23.2 draft, S28.2; S30.25 HSI. See Heat stress index (HSI)
ground, F32.7 gaseous contaminant control, A45.4 HTST. See High-temperature short-time
ground loops, A32.15 industrial exhaust systems (HTST) pasteurization
heat exchangers, S43.1 capture velocities, A30.2 Humidification, A46.8; S20
insulation, F14.31 compound hoods, A30.4 air washers, S19.6
lakes, A32.26 design principles, A30.3 all-air systems, S2.4, 6
mass transfer entry loss, A30.3 control, A46.7; S20.1
convection, F5.5 overhead hoods, A30.5 data processing areas, A17.5
molecular diffusion, F5.2 sidedraft hoods, A30.5 design, S20.3
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.22 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
direct evaporative cooling, A51.2 manufacture, R34.1 service water heating, A49.19
evaporative coolers, S19.6 storage, R34.4 steam generators, A25.4
load calculations, S20.4 thermal storage, A34.11; R34.3 Industrial environments, A12; A29; A30
Humidifiers, S20 Ice makers air conditioning, A12
all-air systems, S2.6 commercial, R47.6 cooling load, A12.5
bacterial growth, S20.1 heat pumps, R34.6 design, A12.5
central air systems household refrigerator, R48.3 evaporative systems, A12.7
industrial and commercial, S20.6, 7 large commercial, R34.1 maintenance, A12.8
residential, S20.5 storage, R34.4 refrigerant systems, A12.7
commercial, S20.6 thermal storage, R34.3 spot cooling, A29.2, A51.6
controls, S20.8 types, R34.1 ventilation, A29.1
energy considerations, S20.3 water treatment, A48.7, 9 air distribution, A29.2
equipment, S20.4 Ice rinks, A4.5; R35 air filtration systems, A12.7; S24.2; S25.1
evaporative cooling, S20.7 conditions, R35.4 contaminant control, A12.5, 8
furnaces, S28.2 dehumidifiers, S47.4 energy conservation, A29.5
industrial, S20.6 energy conservation, R35.5 energy recovery, A29.5
Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 floor design, R35.7 evaporative cooling, A51.6
load calculations, S20.3 heat loads, R35.2 heat control, A29.4
nonducted, S20.6 pebbling, R35.10 heat exposure control, A29.5
portable, S20.6 refrigeration, R35.5 heating systems, A12.6
residential, A1.4; S9.1; S20.5 surface building and maintenance, R35.9 heat stress, A29.4
scaling, S20.4 water quality, R35.10 local exhaust systems, A29.5; A30.1
supply water, S20.4 Ignition temperatures of fuels, F18.2 air cleaners, A30.6
terminal, S2.12 IGUs. See Insulating glazing units (IGUs) airflow near hood, A30.3
Humidity Indoor air quality (IAQ) air-moving devices, A30.7
building envelope affected by, S20.2 (See also Air quality) ducts, A30.5; S25.28
control, A46.7; F22.1; F24.4; S20.1; S22.1 bioaerosols energy recovery, A30.7
disease prevention and treatment, S20.1 health effects, F9.7 exhaust stacks, A30.7
human comfort conditions, S20.1 particles, F9.4 fans, A30.7
measurement, F14.10 sampling, F9.8 hoods, A30.2
odors affected by, F13.2 sources, F9.6 operation and maintenance, A30.8
plant environments, F10.20 environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), F9.6 system testing, A30.7
sensors, F15.8 gaseous contaminant control, A45.1 process and product requirements, A12.1
sound transmission affected by, S20.2 hospitals, A7.2 spot cooling, A29.2, 5
static electricity affected by, S20.2 hotels and motels, A5.6 thermal control, A12.4
Hydrogen, liquid, R38.2 infiltration, F27.9 ventilation systems, A29.1
Hydronic systems kitchens, A31.9 Industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25
capacity control, A46.1, 16 modeling, F34.1 (See also Air cleaners)
central multifamily, A1.5 particulate matter, F9.4 auxiliary equipment, S25.28
cogeneration, S7.33 polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), F9.6 equipment selection, S25.1
heating and cooling design, S12.1 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), gaseous contaminant control, S25.17
heat transfer vs. flow, A37.6, 7 F9.6 absorption, S25.17
pipe sizing, F36.6 radon action levels, F9.16 adsorption, S25.24, 26
residential, A1.3 sensors, F15.9 incineration, S25.27
snow melting, A50.10 standards, F9.9 spray dry scrubbing, S25.18
testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.6, 8 synthetic vitreous fibers, F9.5 wet-packed scrubbers, S25.18, 24
water treatment, A48.10 ventilation, F27.9 gas stream, S25.2
Hydronic units, S32 volatile organic compounds (VOC), F9.8 monitoring, S25.1
(See also Water systems) Indoor environmental health, F9 operation and maintenance, S25.29
baseboard, S32.1, 3, 5 (See also Indoor air quality) particulate contaminant control, S25
convectors, S32.1, 3, 5 Indoor environmental modeling, F34 collector performance, S25.3
finned-tube, S32.1, 3, 5 computational fluid dynamics (CFD), F34.1 electrostatic precipitators, S25.8
heaters, S31.4 contaminant transport, F34.16 fabric filters, S25.10
makeup air, S31.9 multizone network, F34.14 inertial collectors, S25.4
pipe coils, S32.1 verification and validation, F34.17 scrubbers (wet collectors), S25.15
radiant panels, S6.11; S32.6 Induction settling chambers, S25.3
ceiling, S6.13 air-and-water systems, A37.5 regulations, S25.1
design, S6.11 units under varying load, S3.6 safety, S25.29
floor, S6.15 Industrial applications scrubbers (wet collectors), S25.15
wall, S6.15 burners Industrial hygiene, F9.3
radiators, S32.1, 2, 5 gas, S26.2 Infiltration. (See also Air leakage)
ventilators, S31.1 oil, S26.5 air exchange, R13.4
Hygrometers, F14.10, 10; F15.8 gas drying, S22.11 rate, F27.3, 10
Hygrothermal modeling, F23.8 heat pumps, S8.8 air leakage
IAQ. See Indoor air quality (IAQ) humidifiers, S20.6 air-vapor retarder, F27.14
Ice process drying, S22.11 building data, F27.13
commercial, R34.6 process refrigeration, R37.1 controlling, F27.14
delivery systems, R34.5 thermal storage, A34.7 calculation, residential, F27.20
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.23
climatic zones, F27.16 heat gain, F26.14 juvenile, A8.1
commercial buildings, F27.23 heat loss, F26.14 police stations, A8.1
direct flow through doorways, R13.6 heat transfer, F14.31 prisons, A8.1
driving mechanisms, F27.10 hospitals, A7.12 system controls A8.2
examples, F27.21 insertion loss, F26.4 system requirements, A8.1
fenestration, F31.56 limited combustible, F26.5 terminology, A8.1
indoor air quality (IAQ), F27.9 masonry construction, F24.2 types of, A8.1
infiltration degree-days, F27.10 materials, F23.13; F26.6 Juvenile facilities, A8.1
leakage function, F27.12 cellular, F26.6 Kelvin’s formula, F23.8
measurement, F14.22 fibrous, F26.6 Kirchoff’s law, F3.9
refrigerated facilities, R13.4 foil, scrim, and kraft paper (FSK), F26.9 Kitchens, A31
residential buildings, F27.12 foil-reinforced kraft (FRK), F26.10 air balancing, A31.11
terminology, F27.1 granular, F26.6 multiple-hood systems, A31.13
thermal loads, F27.9 reflective, F26.6 air conditioning, A3.5, 6
ventilation, R46.4 moisture control, F24.1 air filtration, A31.3, 6
Infrared applications noise control, F23.17; F26.3 controls, A31.19
comfort, F8.22, 23 noncombustible, F26.5 cooking effluent
drying, A28.3 operating temperature, F26.6 control of, A31.6
energy generators, S15.1 performance, F24.3 generation of, A31.1
greenhouse heating, A22.13 personnel protection, F26.2 plume, A31.1
heaters, A53.1, 4, 8, S15.1 pipes, F26.9 thermal plume behavior, A31.2
electric, S15.2 economic thickness, S11.16 dishwashers, piping, A49.5
gas-fired, S15.1; S26.2 hangers, F26.9 energy conservation
industrial environments, A12.7 underground, F24.14, F26.10; S11.7 economizers, A31.15
oil-fired, S15.3 properties, F23.14, 17 reduced airflow, A31.15
system efficiency, S15.4 reflective, F23.3 residential hoods, A31.20
snow-melting systems, A50.16 refrigerant piping, R33.1 restaurants, A31.14
In-room terminal systems design, R33.1 exhaust hoods, A31
changeover temperature, S3.7 installation, R33.7 ductless, A31.6
description, S3.2 jacketing, R33.7 recirculating systems, A31.6, 9
induction systems, S3.2 joint sealant, R33.4 residential, A31.20
performance under varying load, S3.6 maintenance, R33.9 systems, A31.2
primary air, S3.6 vapor retarders, R33.4 type I, A31.3
refrigeration load, S3.7 refrigerated facilities, R13.1; R14.12 type II, A31.3, 5
ventilation air, S3.5 roof deck construction, F24.3 exhaust systems, A31.2, 6, 20
Insects, farm crop storage, F11.8 roofs, A43.5 ducts, A31.7; S16.5
Instruments, F14. (See also specific instruments safety issues, F23.17 effluent control, A31.6
or applications) smoke developed index, F26.4 fans, A31.7
Insulating glazing units (IGUs), F31.1 solar energy systems, S33.7, 13 fire safety, A31.6
Insulation, electrical, R5.8 steel frame construction, F24.1, 2 hoods, A31.2
Insulation, thermal tanks, vessels, and equipment, F26.11 maintenance, A31.18
airflow retarders, F23.17 thermal bridging, F24.2 multiple-hood systems, A31.13, 17
heating climates, F24.5 thermal conductivity, F26.6 residential, A31.20
mixed climates, F24.7 thermal control, F24.1 terminations, A31.8
warm/humid climates, F24.8 thermal storage systems, A34.19 fire safety, A31.15, 17
animal environments, A22.5 ice, A34.15 fire suppression, A31.15
apparent thermal conductivity of, F23.14 water, A34.11 multiple-hood systems, A31.17
below-ambient system, R33.2 types, F23.14 prevention of fire spread, A31.17
ceilings, A43.5 walls, A43.4 protection, A31.15
clothing, F8.8 water absorption, F26.6 residential, A31.20
compressive resistance, F26.6 water vapor permeability, F26.6 grease removal, A31.3, 6
condensation control, F26.2 water vapor permeance, F26.6 heat recovery, A31.15
and convection, effects of, F23.16 water vapor retarders, F23.17, 18; F26.8 indoor air quality (IAQ), A31.9
corrosion under, F26.5 weather barriers, F26.6 integration and balancing, A31.11
cryogenic, R38.23 weather protection, F26.6 maintenance, A31.18
ducts, F24.15, F26.11; F35.11; S16.6 wood frame construction, F24.1 makeup air systems
flexible, F26.9 Intercoolers, ammonia refrigeration systems, air distribution, A31.10
process, F26.11 R3.3 maintenance, A31.19
economic thickness Jails, A8.1 replacement, A31.9
mechanical systems; F26.1 Joule-Thomson cycle, R38.6 residential, A31.20
energy conservation, F26.1 Juice, R25.1 operation, A31.18
fire resistance ratings, F26.5 Justice facilities, A8 residential, A31.19
fire safety, F26.4 energy considerations, A8.2 service water heating, A49.5
flame spread index, F26.4 fire/smoke management, A8.2 ventilation, A31
floors, F24.2 health issues, A8.3 Kleemenko cycle, R38.13
foundations, A43.2; F24.2 heating and cooling plants, A8.2 Krypton, recovery, R38.17
freeze protection, F26.2 indoor air quality, A8.2 Laboratories, A14
green buildings, F26.1 jails, A8.1 air distribution, A14.9
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.24 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
air filtration, A14.9 service water systems, A49.8 flexible ducts, F35.8
air intakes, A14.13 Legionnaires’ disease. See Legionella Louvers, F31.45, F35.13
animal labs, A14.14 pneumophila Low-temperature water (LTW) system, S12.1
cage environment, A22.9 LES. See Large eddy simulation (LES) LPG. See Liquefied petroleum gases (LPG)
heat and moisture production, F10.14 Lewis relation, F5.8; F8.4 LTW. See Low-temperature water (LTW)
ventilation performance, A22.9 Libraries. See Museums, libraries, and system
biological safety cabinets, A14.6 archives Lubricants, R7
biosafety levels, A14.17 Life expectancy (LE) rating, film, A20.3 (See also Lubrication; Oil)
clean benches, A14.8 Lighting additives, R7.4
cleanrooms, A16.1 animal environments, F10.3 ammonia refrigeration, R3.6
clinical labs, A14.18 cooling load, F30.3 component characteristics, R7.3
commissioning, A14.19 greenhouses, A22.15 effects, R7.27
compressed gas storage, A14.8 heat gain, F30.3 evaporator return, R7.18
containment labs, A14.16 plant environments, A22.18; F10.18 foaming, R7.26
controls, A14.12 return air light fixtures, F30.4 halocarbon refrigeration
design parameters, A14.2 sensors, F15.9 compressor floodback protection, R2.31
duct leakage rates, A14.10 Light measurement, F14.29 liquid indicators, R2.32
economics, A14.19 Linde cycle, R38.6 lubricant management, R2.10
exhaust devices, A14.8 Line sizing for halocarbon systems, R2.2 moisture indicators, R2.31
exhaust systems, A14.10 Liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), F18.4 purge units, R2.32
fire safety, A14.11 Liquid overfeed (recirculation) systems, R1 receivers, R2.32
fume hoods, A14.3 ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.21 refrigerant driers, R2.31
controls, A14.13 circulating rate, R1.3 separators, R2.30
performance, A14.4 evaporators, R1.6 strainers, R2.31
hazard assessment, A14.2 line sizing, R1.7 surge drums or accumulators, R2.30
heat recovery, A14.19 liquid separators, R1.7 mineral oil
hospitals, A7.9 overfeed rate, R1.3 aromatics, R7.3
loads, A14.2 pump selection, R1.5 naphthenes (cycloparaffins), R7.2
nuclear facilities, A26.9 receiver sizing, R1.7 nonhydrocarbons, R7.3
paper testing labs, A24.3 recirculation, R1.1 paraffins, R7.2
radiochemistry labs, A14.18 refrigerant distribution, R1.2 miscibility, R7.13
safety, A14.2, 11 terminology, R1.1 moisture content, R45.1
scale-up labs, A14.17 Lithium bromide/water, F20.1, 69 oxidation, R7.26
stack heights, A14.13 Lithium chloride, S22.2 properties, R7.4
supply air systems, A14.9 Load calculations floc point, R7.20
system maintenance, A14.18 cargo containers, R30.8 viscosity, R7.5
system operation, A14.18 coils, air-cooling and dehumidifying, S21.15 refrigerant
teaching labs, A14.18 computer calculation, A39.5 contamination, R6.7
types, A14.1 humidification, S20.3 reactions with, R5.5
ventilation, A14.8 hydronic systems, S12.2 solutions, R7.8
Lakes, heat transfer, A32.26 internal heat load, R13.3 density, R7.8
Laminar flow nonresidential, F30.1, 22 solubility, R7.9, 11, 13
air, A16.3 precooling fruits and vegetables, R15.1 viscosity, R7.13
fluids, F2.3 refrigerated facilities requirements, R7.2
Large eddy simulation (LES), turbulence air exchange, R13.4 separators, R44.22
modeling, F34.3 direct flow through doorways, R13.6 solubility
Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA), F14.17 equipment, R13.6 air, R7.26
Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV), F14.17 infiltration, R13.4 hydrocarbon gages, R7.21
Latent energy change materials, A34.11 internal, R13.3 refrigerant solutions, R7.9, 11, 13
Laundries product, R13.3 water, R7.26
evaporative cooling, A51.8 transmission, R13.1 stability, R7.27
service water heating, A49.17 residential cooling synthetic lubricants, R7.3
LCR. See Load collector ratio (LCR) block load, F29.8 testing, R7.1
LDA. See Laser Doppler anemometers (LDA) load components, F29.8 wax separation, R7.20
LDV. See Laser Doppler velocimeters (LDV) residential heat balance (RHB) method, Lubrication
LE. See Life expectancy (LE) rating F29.2 combustion turbines, S7.10
Leakage, ducts, F35.11; S16.2 residential load factor (RLF) method, compressors
Leakage function, relationship, F27.12 F29.2 centrifugal, S34.34
Leak detection of refrigerants, F19.7; R8.2 residential heating reciprocating, S34.8
methods, R45.4 crawlspace, F29.13 rotary, S34.10
Legionella pneumophila, A48.6 procedure, F29.11 single-screw, S34.12
air washers, S19.8 snow-melting systems, A50.1 twin-screw, S34.20
control, A48.7 Load collector ratio (LCR), A33.21 engines, S7.6
cooling towers, S36.12, 13 Local exhaust. See Exhaust Mach number, S34.29
decorative fountains, A48.7 Loss coefficients Maintenance. (See also Operation and
evaporative coolers, S19.8 control valves, F2.9 maintenance)
hospitals, A7.2 duct fitting database, F35.8 absorption units, R41.7
Legionnaires’ disease, A48.6 fittings, F2.8 air cleaners, S24.8
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.25
air conditioners, retail store, A2.1 simultaneous, F5.9 lard chilling, R17.14
air washers, S19.7 Mass-transit systems sausage dry rooms, R17.13
chillers, S38.5, 12 buses, A9.8, 9 smokehouses, R17.12
cogeneration systems, S7.42 bus garages, A13.12 sanitation, R17.1
coils bus terminals, A13.14 shipping docks, R17.17
air-cooling and dehumidifying, S21.15 diesel locomotive facilities, A13.24 variety meats, R17.10
air-heating, S23.5 enclosed vehicular facilities, A13.1 retail storage, R46.12
condensers, S35 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.8 thermal properties, R9.1
air-cooled, S35.13 rail cars, A9.8, 12 Mechanical traps, steam systems, S10.8
evaporative, S35.19 rapid transit, A9.12; A13.17 Medium-temperature water (MTW) system,
water-cooled, S35.7 stations, A13.20 S12.1
cooking equipment, A31.18 thermal comfort, A9.9; A13.20 Meshes, for computational fluid dynamics, F34.4
coolers, liquid, S37.6 thermal load analysis, A9.9; A13.21 refining, F34.11
cooling towers, S36.11 tunnels Metabolic rate, F8.6
costs, A36.5 railroad, A13.21 Metals and alloys, low-temperature, R39.6
documentation, A38.3 rapid transit, A13.17 Microbial growth, R12.4
energy recovery equipment, S44.7, 11 subway, A13.17 Microbiology of foods, R12.1
engines, S7.7 ventilation, A9.9; A13.1 Mines, A27
evaporative coolers, S19.7 McLeod gages, F14.14 heat sources, A27.2
filters, air, S24.8 Mean radiant temperature (MRT), A53.1 mechanical refrigeration plants, A27.9
gaseous air cleaners, A45.11 Mean temperature difference, F3.28 spot coolers, A27.10
heat pumps, unitary, S45.2 Measurement, F14 ventilation, A27.1
industrial air-conditioning systems, A12.8 (See also Instruments) wall rock heat flow, A27.2
infrared heaters, S15.5 air exchange rates, F27.10 Modeling. See also Data-driven modeling;
kitchen ventilation systems, A31.18, 20 airflow, A37.2 Energy modeling
laboratory HVAC equipment, A14.18 air infiltration, F14.22 airflow, A16.4
liquid chillers; S38.15 air leakage, F27.13 around buildings, F16.10
makeup air units, S31.10 airtightness, F14.22 in buildings, F34.1
management, A38 carbon dioxide, F14.23 contaminant transport, F34.16
manual, A38.3 combustion analysis, F14.32 multizone, F34.1, 14
solar energy systems, A33.24 contaminants, F14.32 pollutant transport, F34.1, 18
terminology, A38.1 data acquisition, F14.32 turbulence, F34.3
turbines electricity, F14.24 boilers, F32.14
combustion, S7.13 fluid flow, A37.12; F2.10; F14.19 compressor, F32.15
steam, S7.19 gaseous contaminants, A45.3 condenser and evaporator, F32.15
unit heaters, S31.7 heat transfer in insulation, F14.31 controls, F32.23
Makeup air units, S31.8 humidity, F14.10 cooling tower, F32.17
applications, S31.9 light levels, F14.29 moisture in buildings, F23.8
codes, S31.9 moisture content, F14.30; R6.3 scale simulation and testing, A44.11
commissioning, S31.10 farm crops, F11.5 small forced-air heating systems, S9.12
controls, A46.13; S31.9 refrigeration systems, R45.3 systems, F32.17
design, S31.8 moisture transfer, F14.30 thermal (hot-box method), F23.4
maintenance, S31.10 odors, F13.5 validation, F32.31
selection, S31.8 pressure, F14.13 Moist air, F6
standards, S31.9 rotative speed, F14.25 psychrometrics, F6.1
types, S31.9 sound, F14.27 thermal conductivity, F6.19
Malls, A2.7 temperature, F14.4 thermodynamic properties
Manometers, differential pressure readout, thermal comfort, F14.29 standard pressure, F6.14
A37.12 uncertainty analysis, A40.11; F14.3 temperature scale, F6.2
Manufactured homes, A1.6 velocity, F14.15 transport properties, F6.19
airflow modeling example, F34.18 vibration, F14.28 viscosity, F6.19
Masonry, insulation, F24.2 Meat, R17 Moisture
(See also Building envelopes) display refrigerators, R46.7 animal production, F10.8, 14
Mass transfer, F5 food processing, R17.1 in attics, F24.5
convection, F5.4 frozen, R17.16 in building materials, F23.6
eddy diffusion, F5.8 packaged fresh cuts, R17.11 in buildings
Lewis relation, F5.8; F8.4 processing facilities animal facilities, A22.2
energy recovery, air-to-air, S44.5, 7 boxed beef, R17.7 commercial and institutional, F24.12
heat transfer simultaneous with, F5.9 carcass coolers condensation prevention; F24.4
air washers, F5.11 beef, R17.2 envelope component intersections, F24.11
cooling coils, F5.12 calves, R17.10 humidity control, F24.4
cooling towers, F5.12 hogs, R17.8 capacity, F23.2
dehumidifying coils, F5.12 lamb, R17.10 in cathedral ceilings, F24.5
direct-contact equipment, F5.9 energy conservation, R17.17 in ceilings, A43.6
enthalpy potential, F5.9 pork trimmings, R17.10 combustion, F18.10
molecular diffusion, F5.1 processed meats condensation, S20.2
in liquids and solids, F5.4 bacon slicing rooms, R17.13 content, F23.2
two-film theory, S25.21 freezing, R17.15 control, F23
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.26 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
heating climates, F24.4, 6 in variable-speed drives, S40.8 fluid flow, F2.14
mixed climates, F24.7 Movie theaters, A4.3 health effects, F9.15
options, F24.4 MRT. See Mean radiant temperature (MRT) valves, S42.2
terminology, F23.1 Multifamily residences, A1.5 water pipes, F36.5
warm/humid climates, F24.8, 8 Multiple-use complexes Noise criterion (NC) curves, A47.27; F7.16
diffusivity, F14.31 air conditioning, A5.8 balanced (NCB), A47.27
farm crops content, A23.1; F11.1, 5, 6 design criteria, A5.1 Noncondensable gases
flow load characteristics, A5.1 condensers, water-cooled, S35.6
and airflow, F23.8 systems, A5.1, 2 refrigerant contamination, R6.7
and heat flow, F23.5, 8 energy inefficient, A5.2 Nonhydrocarbons, R7.2
isothermal, F23.8 total energy, A5.2 NPSH. See Net positive suction pressure
mechanisms, F23.7 Multizone airflow modeling, F34.14 (NPSH)
modeling, F23.8 applications example, F34.18 NTU. See Number of transfer units (NTU)
nonisothermal, F23.8 approaches, F34.16 Nuclear facilities, A26
in foundations, A43.2; F24.10 verification and validation, F34.17 air filtration, A26.3, 6
and heat storage, F23.6 Museums, libraries, and archives basic technology, A26.1
hygrothermal modeling, F23.8 air distribution, A21.12 codes, A26.10
in insulation, air filtration, A21.12 criticality, A26.1
for refrigeration piping, R33 artifact deterioration, A21.4 decommissioning, A26.9
F24.1 building construction, A21.7 Department of Energy facilities requirements
measurement, F14.30 dehumidification, A21.11, 12 confinement systems, A26.3
in membrane roofs, F24.9 exhibit cases, A21.4 ventilation, A26.4
migration; F24.4 humidification, A21.11 fire protection, A26.2
paint, effects on, F23.5 mold growth, A21.4 HVAC design considerations, A26.1
permeability, F14.31 outside air, A21.11 Nuclear Regulatory Commission
permeance, F14.31 relative humidity, effect on artifacts, A21.4 requirements
problems, in buildings, F23.5 system selection, A21.10 boiling water reactors, A26.7
ratio, F23.2 temperature, effect on artifacts, A21.2 laboratories, A26.9
in refrigerant systems Mycotoxins, F11.6 medical and research reactors, A26.9
control, R6.1 Naphthenes, R7.2 other buildings and rooms, A26.8
desiccants, R6.3 Natatoriums. (See also Swimming pools) power plants, A26.5
driers, R6.6 air conditioning, A4.5 pressurized water reactors, A26.6
drying methods, R6.2 dehumidifiers, S47.4 radioactive waste facilities, A26.9
effects, R6.1 duct design, A4.7 safety design, A26.1
factory dehydration, R45.1 envelope design, A4.7 standards, A26.10
hydrocarbon gages solubility, R7.21 load estimation, A4.6 tornado and wind protection, A26.2
indicators, R6.3 pool water chemistry, A4.7 Number of transfer units (NTU)
lubricant solubility, R7.26 ventilation requirements, A4.6 cooling towers, S36.16
measurement, R6.3; R45.3 Natural gas, F18.4 heat transfer, F3.28
solubility, R6.1 liquefaction, R38.8 Nursing homes
sources, R6.1; R45.1 liquefied, R38.3 air conditioning, A7.13
in roofs, A43.6 pipe sizing, F36.20 classifications, A7.13
sorption isotherms, F14.30 processing, R38.18 service water heating, A49.11
in walls, A43.4 separation, R38.18 Nusselt number, F3.14
water vapor retarders, F23.18; F27.14 Navier-Stokes equations, F34.1 Nuts, storage, R29.7
heating climates, F24.5 Reynolds-averaged, F34.3 Odors, F13
mixed climates, F24.7 NC curves. See Noise criterion (NC) curves analytical measurement, F13.5
warm/humid climates, F24.8 Net positive suction, S39.9 control of, in industrial exhaust gas cleaning,
in windows, A43.7 Nightclubs, A3.6 S25.26, 27
Mold, F23.5 Night setback factors affecting, F13.2, 5
Montreal Protocol, F19.1 furnaces, residential, S9.15, 16 odor units, F13.5
Motors, S40 recovery, A41.28 olf unit, F13.6
codes, S40.1 Nitrogen sense of smell, F13.1
compressors, S34.4 liquid, R38.3 sensory measurement, F13.2
controls, S40.6 recovery, R38.17 acceptability, F13.5
efficiency, S40.2 Noise, F7.14 sources, F13.1
evaporative cooling, A51.7 (See also Sound) suprathreshold intensity, F13.3
field assembly and refrigerant contamination, air conditioners, room, S46.4 threshold, F13.1
R6.8 combustion, F18.16 Office buildings
furnaces, residential, S28.2 compressors air conditioning, A3.6
general purpose, S40.2 centrifugal, S34.32 space requirements, A3.7
hermetic, S40.4 scroll, S34.24 service water heating, A49.11, 13
burnout, R6.8, 8 single-screw, S34.16 Oil, fuel, F18.5
integral thermal protection, S40.4 condensing units, R46.18 characteristics, F18.5
power supply (ac), S40.1 control, with insulation, F26.3 distillate oils, F18.5
pumps, centrifugal, S39.8, 12, 13 controls, A16.15 handling, S26.8
standards, S40.1 engine test facilities, A15.4 heating value, F18.6
starting, and electricity, S40.7 fans, S18.8 pipe sizing, F36.20
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.27
preparation, S26.9 control, S6.20 Physical properties of materials, F39
residual oils, F18.5 cooling, S6.1 boiling points, F39.1, 2
storage buildings, A25.8 design, S6.6 density
storage tanks, S26.7 calculations, S6.8 liquids, F39.2
sulfur content, F18.6 disadvantages, S6.2 solids, F39.3
viscosity, F18.5 electric heating systems, S6.16 vapors, F39.1
Oil. (See also Lubricants) ceiling, S6.16 emissivity of solids, F39.3
in refrigerant systems, R7.2 floor, S6.18 freezing points, F39.2
in two-phase flow, F4.11 wall, S6.18 heat of fusion, F39.2
Olf unit, F13.6 heat flux heat of vaporization, F39.2
One-pipe systems combined, S6.4 solids, F39.3
chilled-water, S12.12 natural convection, S6.3 specific heat
steam convection heating, S10.11; 1993 thermal radiation, S6.2 liquids, F39.2
Fundamentals, Chapter 33, pp. 18-19 (See heating, S6.1 solids, F39.3
explanation on first page of index.) hybrid HVAC, S6.1 vapors, F39.1, 2
Operating costs, A36.3 hydronic systems, S6.11 thermal conductivity
Operation and maintenance, A38 ceiling, S6.13 solids, F39.3
(See also Maintenance) design considerations, S6.11 vapors, F39.1
compressors, S34.34 distribution and layout, S6.14 viscosity
condition monitoring, A38.4 floor, S6.15 liquids, F39.2
desiccant dehumidifiers, S22.7 wall, S6.15 vapors, F39.1
documentation, A38.3 Paper Physiological principles, humans. (See also
industrial exhaust systems, A30.8 moisture content, A18.2 Comfort)
exhaust gas cleaning equipment, photographic, A20.1 adaptation, F8.15
S25.29 storage, A20.3 age, F8.15
laboratory HVAC equipment, A14.18 Paper products facilities, A24 body surface area (DuBois), F8.3
management air conditioning, A24.2 clothing, F8.8
condition monitoring, A38.4 conduction drying, A28.3 cooling load, F30.3
results-oriented maintenance, A38.1 control rooms, A24.3 DuBois equation, F8.3
system complexity, A38.3 evaporative cooling, A51.8 energy balance, F8.2
manuals, A38.3 finishing area, A24.3 heat stress, F8.20, 24
new technology, A38.5 machine area, A24.2 heat transfer coefficients
responsibilities, A38.5 system selection, A24.4 convective, F8.7
Outlets, air diffusion, testing laboratories, A24.3 evaporative, F8.8
location, F33.15 Paraffins, R7.2 Lewis relation, F8.4
performance, F33.9 Parallel compressor systems, R46.14 radiative, F8.7
selection, F33.15 Particulate matter, indoor air quality (IAQ), hypothalamus, F8.1
Outpatient health care facilities, A7.12 F9.4, 5 hypothermia, F8.1
Outside air, free cooling Pasteurization, R20.2 latent heat loss, F8.3, 10
cooling towers, S36.9 beverages, R26.6 mechanical efficiency, F8.6
liquid chillers, S38.11 dairy products, R20.2 metabolic rate, F8.6
Outside air fraction, F27.8 eggs, R21.4, 10 respiratory heat loss, F8.4
Owning costs, A36.1 juices, R25.4, 7 seasonal rhythms, F8.16
Oxygen Peanuts, drying, A23.9; F11.13 sensible heat loss, F8.3
in aircraft cabins, A10.9 Peclet number, F3.14 sex, F8.16
liquid, R38.3 PEL. See Permissible exposure limits (PEL) skin heat loss, F8.3, 5
recovery, R38.17 Performance contracting, A40.2 skin wettedness, F8.20
Ozone Permafrost stabilization, R36.4 thermal exchanges, F8.2
absorption bands, F31.15 Permeability thermoregulation, F8.1
activated carbon air cleaner, A45.9 air, F23.2 vasodilation, F8.1
in aircraft cabins clothing, F8.8 Pigs. See Swine
catalytic converters, A10.7, 8 vapor, F14.31 Pipes, S41
limits, A10.1 water vapor, F23.2 (See also Piping)
electronic air filters, S24.8 Permeance buried, F25.18
PAC. See Polycyclic aromatic compounds air, F23.2 heat transfer analysis, S11.10
(PAC) thickness, F14.31 codes, S41.6
Packaged terminal air conditioners (PTACs), water vapor, F23.2 cold springing, S11.17; S41.12
A1.6; S46.5 Permissible exposure limits (PEL), F9.5 computer analysis, A39.7
Packaged terminal heat pumps (PTHPs), A1.6; Pharmaceutical manufacturing cleanrooms, copper tube, S41.1
S46.5 A16.5 expansion, S11.17
PAH. See Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Phase-change materials, thermal storage of, expansion bends, S41.11
(PAH) A34.14, 19 expansion joints, S41.13
Paint, and moisture problems, F23.5 Photographic materials, A20 expansion loops, S41.11, 12
Panel heating and cooling, S6 processing and printing requirements, fluid flow, F2.1
(See also Radiant heating and cooling) A20.1 freeze prevention, F24.14
advantages, S6.1 storage, A20.1, 3 heat transfer analysis, S11.9
air-heated/cooled panels, S6.19 unprocessed materials, A20.1 insulation, F24.13; F26.9
capillary tube mats, S6.7 Photovoltaic (PV) systems. See Solar energy hangers, F26.9
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.28 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
installation, F26.9 standards, S11.18; S41.6 design, A22.10
underground, F26.10 system identification, F37.10 energy balance, F10.15
iron, S41.2 systems greenhouses, A22.10
joining methods, S41.2, 5 ammonia refrigeration, R3.7 carbon dioxide enrichment, A22.15
plastic, F36.11; S41.8, 9 compressor piping, R3.10, 12 cooling, A22.13
selection, S41.7 condenser and receiver piping, R3.14 energy conservation, A22.16
sizing, F36 evaporator piping, R3.18 evaporative cooling, A22.14
ammonia systems capacity tables, R3.8, 9 carbon dioxide refrigeration, R3.26 heating, A22.11; F10.15
fittings, F36.1, 7 halocarbon refrigeration heat loss calculation, A22.11
fuel oil, F36.20 compressor, R2.24 heat loss reduction, A22.16
gas, F36.20 defrost gas supply lines, R2.21 humidity control, A22.14
hydronic systems, F36.6; S12.15 discharge lines, R2.19 photoperiod control, A22.16
air separation, F36.7 double hot-gas risers, R2.19 shading, A22.13
insulation and vapor retarders, R3.10 draining prevention, R2.19 site selection, A22.10
isolated line sections, R3.10 evaporator, R2.28 supplemental irradiance, A22.15; F10.20
pressure drop equations, F36.1 gas velocity, R2.1 ventilation, A22.13
refrigerant hot-gas humidity, F10.20
halocarbon systems, R2.2 (discharge) mufflers, R2.20 lighting, F10.18
retail food store refrigeration, R46.13 bypass, R2.34 other facilities, A22.21
service water, F36.9 insulation, R2.5 photoperiod control, A22.16; F10.20
cold water sizing procedure, F36.11 liquid cooler, flooded, R2.25, 26 plant growth chambers, A22.17
steam, F36.12 location and arrangement, R2.5 supplemental irradiance, A22.15; F10.19
condensate return, F36.15 minimum gas velocities, R2.19 temperature, F10.15
high-pressure, F36.15 oil transport up risers, R2.19 Plate heat exchangers (PHEs), S11.27
low-pressure, F36.13 pressure drop, R2.2 Plenums
two-pipe systems, F36.15 refrigerant feed devices, R2.26 construction, S16.4
valves, F36.1, 7; R3.8 single riser and oil separator, R2.19 mixing, S2.5
water vibration and noise, R2.5 sound attenuation, A47.13
fixture units, F36.9 solar energy, A33.12; S33.8, 9 stratification in, A37.2
flow rate limitations, F36.5 steam, S10.3, 5 PMV. See Predicted mean vote (PMV)
aging allowances, F36.6 water, S14.7 Police stations, A8.1
erosion, F36.6 circuits, S12.8 Pollutant transport modeling. See
noise, F36.5 distribution, S12.5 Contaminants, indoor, concentration
water hammer, F36.6 unit heaters, S31.7 prediction
standards, fittings, S41.2 vibration Pollution,
steel, S41.1 control, A47.42 air, and combustion, F18.6, 13
stress calculations, S41.7 transmission, A37.24 Polycyclic aromatic compounds (PAC), F9.6
supporting elements, S11.17; S41.10 Pitot tube, A37.2; F14.17 Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), F9.6
underground, F24.14 Places of assembly, A4 Polydimethylsiloxane, F21.12
Piping. (See also Pipes) air conditioning, A4.2 Ponds, spray, S36.6
boilers, S10.3 air distribution, A4.2 Pope cell, F14.12
capacity tables, R2.10–?? air filtration, A4.1 Positive positioners, F15.7
codes, S41.6 air stratification, A4.2 Potatoes
cooling towers, S13.2; S36.8 arenas, A4.4 processed, R27.5
district heating and cooling atriums, A4.8 storage, A51.9
distribution system, S11.6 auditoriums, A4.3 Poultry. (See also Animal environments;
heat transfer, S11.9 concert halls, A4.4 Chickens; Turkeys)
insulation thickness, S11.16 convention centers, A4.5 chilling, R18.1
geothermal energy systems, A32.9 exhibition centers, A4.5 decontamination, R18.4
heat carrying capacity, S12.3 fairs, A4.8 freezing, R18.5
hydronic snow melting, A50.11 gymnasiums, A4.5 packaging, R18.7
insulation, R33.1 houses of worship, A4.3 processing, R18.1, 4
radiant panels, hydronic, S6.14 lighting loads, A4.1 processing plant sanitation, R18.9
refrigerant mechanical equipment rooms, A4.3 recommended environment, A22.9
ammonia systems, R3.1 movie theaters, A4.3 refrigeration, retail, R18.10
below-ambient, R33.1 natatoriums, A4.5 storage, R18.10
carbon dioxide systems, R3.26 playhouses, A4.3 tenderness control, R18.9
halocarbon systems, R2.1 precooling, A4.2 thawing, R18.11
insulation, R33.1 sound control, A4.1 Power-law airflow model, F34.14
jacketing, R33.7 space conditions, A4.1 Power plants, A25
pipe preparation, R33.2 stadiums, A4.4 buildings
supports and hangers, R33.8 temporary exhibit buildings, A4.8 oil pump, A25.8
vapor retarders, R33.4 vibration control, A4.1 oil storage, A25.8
service hot water, A49.4 Planes. See Aircraft steam generator, A25.4
solar energy, A33.12; S33.3 Plank’s equation, R10.7 turbine generator, A25.6
sound Plant environments, A22.10; F10.15 coal-handling facilities, A25.6, 9
control, A47.42 air, F10.21 cogeneration, S7.1
transmission, A37.24 controlled environment rooms, A22.17 combined cycle, S7.35
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.29
combustion turbine areas, A25.8 deterioration rate, R11.1 pump curves, S12.5; S39.3, 5
control center, A25.8 display refrigerators, R46.8 radial thrust, S39.9
cooling, A25.9 Propane selection, S39.10
design criteria, A25.1 commercial, F18.4 types, S39.2
evaporative cooling, A51.8 furnaces, residential, S28.8 chilled-water, A41.2, 6, 16, 18
fuel cells, S7.36 Propylene glycol sequencing, A41.17, 20
heating, A25.10 coolants, secondary, F21.4 condenser water, A41.6
turbines hydronic systems, S12.16 as fluid flow indicators, A37.13
combustion, S7.8 Psychrometers, F6.13 geothermal wells, A32.25
steam, S7.13 Psychrometrics, F6 lineshaft, A32.8
ventilation, A25.3 air composition, F6.1 submersible, A32.8
rates, A25.2 air handlers, S2.3 hydronic snow melting, A50.13
PPD. See Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD) chart, F6.15 liquid overfeed systems, R1.5
Prandtl number, F3.14 adiabatic mixing, F6.17 solar energy systems, A33.12
Precooling of water, F6.17 systems
buildings, A41.28 heat absorption and moisture gain, F6.18 water, S12.5, S14.7
flowers, cut, R15.11 moist air variable-speed, A41.8, 18
fruits and vegetables, cooling, F6.16 Purge units, centrifugal chillers, S38.11
load calculation, R15.1 heating, F6.16 Radiant heating,
indirect evaporative, A51.3 thermodynamic properties, F6.14 beam heating design, S15.5
places of assembly, A4.2 evaporative cooling systems, A51.1, 5, 10, 11 infrared,
Predicted mean vote (PMV), F14.30 humidity parameters, F6.2 beam heater design, S15.5
comfort, F8.17 industrial drying, A28.1 control, S15.4
Predicted percent dissatisfied (PPD), F8.17 moist air efficiency, S15.4
Preschools, A6.2 standard atmosphere, U.S., F6.1 electric, S15.2
Pressure thermodynamic properties, F6.2, 14 energy conservation, S15.1
absolute, F14.13 transport properties, F6.19 gas-fired, S15.1
aircraft cabins, A10.2, 4, 6, 8 viscosity, F6.19 indirect, S15.2
clean spaces, A16.14 perfect gas equations, F6.12 intensity, S15.1
differential water at saturation, thermodynamic maintenance, S15.5
hospitals, A7.3, 4 properties, F6.2 oil-fired, S15.3
readout, A37.13 PTACs. See Packaged terminal air precautions, S15.4
differential, F14.13 conditioners (PTACs) reflectors, S15.4
dynamic, F14.13 PTHPs. See Packaged terminal heat pumps terminology
gage, F14.13 (PTHPs) angle factor, S15.5
measurement, A37.2; F14.13 Public buildings. See Commercial and public effective radiant flux (ERF), S15.5
sensors, F15.9 buildings fixture efficiency, S15.4
smoke control, A52.5, 9 Pulldown load, R46.5 pattern efficiency, S15.4
stairwells, A52.9, 11 Pumps radiant flux distribution, S15.5
static control, A46.2; F14.13 centrifugal, S39 radiation-generating ratio, S15.4
steam systems, S10.4 affinity laws, S39.7 Radiant heating and cooling, A53; S6.1; S29.4
units, F14.13 antifreeze effect on, S12.17 (See also Panel heating and cooling)
vacuum, F14.13 arrangement, S39.10 applications, A53.8
Pressure drop. (See also Darcy-Weisbach compound, S12.6 asymmetry, A53.5
equation) pumping beam heating design, A53.4
correlations, F4.11 distributed, S39.13 control, A46.8
in plate heat exchangers, F4.13 parallel, S12.6; S39.10 design, A53.2, 3
pipe sizing, F36.1 primary-secondary, S12.6; S39.12 direct infrared, A53.1, 4, 8
two-phase fluid flow, F4.11 series, S12.6; S39.11 equations, A53.2
Pressure losses, district heating and cooling, variable-speed, S39.12 floor reradiation, A53.5
S11.6 standby pump, S12.6; S39.12 infrared, A53.1, 4, 8
Printing plants, A18 two-speed motors, S39.12 installation, A53.8
air conditioning, A18.1 casing, S39.2 panels, A53.1, 8; S29.4; S32.6
air filtration, A18.4 cavitation, S39.9 applications, A53.1, 8
binding areas, A18.5 commissioning, S39.14 control, A46.8
collotype printing rooms, A18.4 construction, S39.1 heating, S29.4
letterpress areas, A18.2 efficiency, best efficiency point (BEP), hydronic systems, S32.6
lithographic pressrooms, A18.3 S39.7 radiation patterns, A53.5
paper moisture content control, A18.2 energy conservation, S39.13 snow-melting systems, A50.16
platemaking rooms, A18.2 impellers terminology
relief printing areas, A18.2 operation, S39.2 adjusted dry-bulb temperature, A53.1
rotogravure pressrooms, A18.4 trimming, S39.6, 7, 9 ambient temperature, A53.1
salvage systems, A18.4 installation, S39.14 effective radiant flux (ERF), A53.2
shipping areas, A18.5 motors, S39.13 mean radiant temperature (MRT), A53.1;
ink drying, A28.3 operation, S39.2, 14 S6.1
Prisons, A8.1 performance operative temperature, A53.1
Produce net positive suction, S39.9 test instruments, A53.7
desiccation, R11.1 operating point, S39.5 total space heating, A53.6
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.30 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
Radiant time series (RTS), F30.24 Refrigerant-control devices, R44 ethane series, F20.1, 10–21
cooling load, F30.24 air conditioners, S45.6; S46.2 flow rate, R2.1
factors, F30.24 automobile air conditioners, A9.6 hydrolysis, R5.5
load calculations, nonresidential, F30.1 capillary tubes, R44.23 methane series, F20.1, 2–3
Radiation coolers, liquid, S37.5 propane series, F20.1, 25
atmospheric, A33.5 heat pumps refrigeration system practices, R2.1
diffuse, F31.16, 37 system, S8.7 thermal stability, R5.4
electromagnetic, F9.15 unitary, S45.9 zeotropic blends, F20.1, 26–31
ground-reflected, F31.16 lubricant separators, R44.22 hydrocarbons, F20.1; R5.3
optical waves, F9.16 pressure transducers, R44.4 ethane, F20.1, 42–43
radiant balance, F3.12 sensors, R44.4 ethylene, F20.50–51
radio waves, F9.17 short tube restrictors, R44.30 isobutane, F20.48–49
solar, A33.3 switches methane, F20.1, 40–41
thermal, F3.1, 8; S6.1 differential control, R44.2 n-butane, F20.1, 46–47
angle factors, F3.10 float, R44.3 propane, F20.1, 44–45
blackbody, F3.1, 8 pressure control, R44.1 propylene, F20.1, 52–53
spectral emissive power, F3.8 valves, control leak detection, F19.7, R8.2; R45.4
display cases, R46.4 check, R44.20 lines
energy transfer, F3.8 condenser pressure regulators, R44.14 oil management, R2.10
exchange between surfaces, F3.11 condensing water regulators sizing, R2.2
in gases, F3.12 operation, R44.20 lithium bromide/water, F20.1, 69
gray, F3.2, 8 year-round, R44.19 lubricant solutions, R7.8
heat transfer, F3.1 expansion moisture in, R6.1
infrared, F31.17 constant pressure, R44.11, 13 performance, F19.6
Kirchoff’s law, F3.9 electric, R44.10 phaseout, F19.1
monochromatic emissive power, F3.8 thermostatic, R44.5 costs, A36.6
nonblack, F3.8 float, R44.16 piping, R2.1
transient, F3.3 pressure relief devices, R44.21 design, R33.1
Radiators, S32.1, 5 solenoid, R44.17 insulation, R33.1
design, S32.3 suction pressure regulators, R44.14 pressure drop
nonstandard condition corrections, S32.3 Refrigerants, F19 discharge lines, R2.5
types, S32.1 absorption solutions, F20.1, 69 liquid lines, R2.2
Radioactive gases, contaminants, F12.18 ammonia, F20.1, 34–35; R5.3 suction lines, R2.4
Radiometers, A53.7 chemical reactions, R5.5 properties, F19.1; R5.1, 4
Radio stations, A3.9 refrigeration system practices, R3.1 rail car air conditioning, A9.11
Radon, ammonia/water, F20.1, 69 reclamation, R8.3
F9.9, 11, 16 analysis, R5.4 removing contaminants, R8.2
control, A43.3; A45.9; F27.18 automobile air conditioners, A9.8 recovery, R8.2
indoor concentrations, F12.16 azeotropic, F1.6 recycling, R8.3
Rail cars bakeries, R28.7 safety, F19.7
air conditioning, A9.11 carbon dioxide, F20.1, 38–39 safety classifications, F19.2
air distribution, A9.13 refrigeration system practices, R3.26 sound velocity, F19.5
heaters, A9.13 cascade refrigeration systems, R39.3 systems
vehicle types, A9.12 CFC conversion, R7.27 chemistry, R5.1
Railroad tunnels, ventilation compatibility with other materials, R5.8 lubricants, R7.1
design, A13.22 database, R5.11 thermodynamic properties
diesel locomotive facilities, A13.24 elastomers, R5.10 pressure-enthalpy diagrams, F20.1
equipment, A13.25 electrical insulation, R5.8 saturated liquid and vapor data, F20.1
locomotive cooling requirements, A13.22 plastics, R5.10 tabular data, F20.1
tunnel aerodynamics, A13.23 compositional groups, R5.1 thermophysical properties, R3.26
tunnel purge, A13.24 ammonia, R5.3 transport properties, F20.1
RANS. See Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes chlorofluorocarbons, R5.1 water/steam, F20.1, 36–37
(RANS) equation fluoroethanes, R5.3 zeotropic, F1.6, 9
Rapid-transit systems. See Mass-transit fluoroethers, R5.3 Refrigerant transfer units (RTU)
systems fluoromethanes, R5.3 liquid chillers, S38.11
Rayleigh number, F3.14 fluoropropanes, R5.3 Refrigerated facilities, R14
RC curves. See Room criteria (RC) curves hydrocarbons, R5.3 air
Receivers hydrochlorofluorocarbons, R5.1 circulation, R11.10
ammonia refrigeration systems hydrofluorocarbons, R5.3 purification, R11.10
high-pressure, R3.3 computer analysis, A39.12 automated, R14.4, 15
piping, R3.14 contaminants in, R6 construction, R14.4
through-type, R3.15 generation by high temperature, R5.8 controlled-atmosphere storage, R14.3
halocarbon refrigerant, R2.21 cryogenic fluids, F20.1, 54–67 controls, R11.10
liquid overfeed systems, R1.7 electrical properties, F19.5 design
Recycling refrigerants, R8.3 emissions, R8.1 building configuration, R14.1
Reflectance, thermal, F23.2 environmental acceptability, R5.1 initial building considerations, R14.1
Reflectors, S15.4 halocarbons, F20.1; R5.3 location, R14.1
Refrigerant/absorbent pairs, F1.15 azeotropic blends, F20.1, 33 shipping and receiving docks, R14.3
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.31
single-story structures, R14.2 food service equipment, R47 freezers, R47.3
specialized storage facilities, R14.3 fruits, fresh, R22.1; R23 temperatures, R47.2
stacking arrangement, R14.2 halocarbon systems, R2 types, R47.1
utility space, R14.3 accessories, R2.28 cryocoolers, R38.11
freezers, R14.10 heat exchangers, R2.28 food service, R47.1
insulation, R14.12 lubricant management, R2.10 household
load calculations, R13.1 piping, R2.2 absorption cycle, R41.8
refrigerated rooms, R14.4 refrigerant receivers, R2.23 cabinet construction, R48.3
refrigeration systems subcoolers, R2.29 defrosting, R48.6
condensate drains, R14.9 valves, R2.10 design and construction, R48.1
defrosting, R14.9 heat reclaim, service water heating, A49.3, 21 efficiency, R48.1
fan-coil units, R14.8 ice rinks, R35.1 ice makers, R48.3
multiple installations, R14.10 insulation, R33.1 refrigeration systems, R48.5
unitary, R14.7 liquid overfeed systems, R1.1 testing, R48.9
valves, R14.9 loads, R13.1; R27.3 mortuary, R47.3
sanitation, R11.10 low-temperature retail food store
temperature pulldown, R14.15 autocascade systems, R39.1 display, A2.3; R46.1
vapor retarders, R14.5, 12 cascade systems, R39.3 storage, R46.11
Refrigeration, F1.1 heat transfer, R39.9 walk-in, R47.3
absorption cycle, F1.13 (See also material selection, R39.6 Regulators. (See also Valves)
Absorption) secondary coolants, R39.11 condenser pressure, R44.14
air coolers, forced-circulation, R42.1 single-refrigerant systems, R39.2 condensing water, R44.19
air transport, R32.3, 4 lubricant coolers, R43.2 draft, S30.25
ammonia systems, R3 marine, R31 pressure, steam, S10.9
compressors fishing vessels, R31.7 suction pressure, R44.14
cooling, R3.11, 12 ships’ stores, R31.4 Reporting
piping, R3.10, 12 refrigerated-facility design, R14.1 airflow modeling, F34.9
types, R3.2 retail food store systems, R46.12 Reporting,
controls, R3.6 secondary coolant systems, R4.1 airflow modeling, 13
converting systems, R3.21 applications, R4.5 Residential systems, A1
equipment, R3.2 coolant selection, R4.1 air cleaners, S24.9
evaporative condensers, R3.15 design air leakage, F27.13
liquid recirculation (overfeed), R3.21, control valves, R4.2 calculation, F27.21
R3.22 expansion tanks, R4.3, 5 climatic infiltration zones, F27.16
lubricant management, R3.6 piping, R4.2 dehumidifiers, A1.5
multistage systems, R3.20 pulldown time, R4.4 duct construction, S16.2
piping, R3.7 storage tanks, R4.2 equipment sizing, A1.2
safety, R3.25 system costs, R4.5 forced-air systems
system selection, R3.1 soils, subsurface, R36.3, 4 air outlets and returns, S9.3
two-stage screw compressor, R3.20 systems selection, S9.10
valves, R3.8 charging, factory, R45.4 controls, S9.3
vessels, R3.3 chemical reactions, R5.4 design, S9.1, 3
autocascade systems, R39.1 component balancing, R43.1 distribution design, S9.7
azeotropic mixture, F1.6 contaminant control, R6 ducts, S9.6
beverage plants, R26.11 of moisture, R6.1 efficiency testing, S9.11
biomedical applications, R40.1 retrofitting, during, R6.9 furnace, S28.1
breweries, R26.3 copper plating, R5.7 heating performance
carbon dioxide systems, R3.26 dehydration, factory, R45.1 climate effect, S9.15
cascade systems design balance points, R43.2 dynamic simulation model (HOUSE),
compressors, R39.5 energy and mass balance, R43.3 S9.12
refrigerants, R39.4 evaluating system chemistry, R5.10 factors, S9.12
chemical industry, R37.1, 2, 5 moisture in, R45.1 furnace
coefficient of performance (COP), F1.3, 13 performance, R43.4 efficiency, S9.12
compression cycles reactions, R5.7 size effect, S9.16
Carnot cycle, F1.6, F1.7 testing, factory, R45.4 type effect, S9.15
Lorenz cycle, F1.9 thermal storage, A34.5, 7, 19 night setback effect, S9.15, 16
multistage, F1.10 ultralow-temperature, R39.1 zone control, S9.9
zeotropic mixture, F1.9 wineries, R26.8 furnaces, S28.1
concrete, R36.1 Refrigeration load, R13 gas burners, S26.1
condensers, cascade, R43.1 (See also Load calculations) heating and cooling systems, A1.1
food calculations, air-and-water systems, S3.7 humidifiers, S9.1; S20.5
eggs and egg products, R21.1 safety factor, R13.7 kitchen ventilation, A31.19
fish, R19.1 Refrigeration oils, R7 load calculations, F29.1
vegetables, R24.1 (See also Lubricants) oil burners, S26.4
food processing facilities, R27.1 Refrigerators ventilation, F27.15
banana ripening rooms, R23.5 commercial water heating, A49.9
control of microorganisms, R12.3 blast, R47.3 Resistance, thermal, F3.2, 26; F23
meat plants, R17.1 energy efficiency, R47.7 (See also R-values)
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.32 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
contact, F3.26 Roofs service water heating, A49.17
of flat assembly, F23.2 air movement, A43.6 elementary, A49.12
of flat building components, F23.2 insulation, A43.5; F24.3 high schools, A49.12, 14
overall, F3.18 membrane roof systems, F24.9 Seeds
radiant panels, S6.6 moisture control, A43.6; F24.9 drying, F11.13
surface film, F23.1 radiant barriers, A43.6 storage, A23.12
water vapor, F23.2 R-values, F25.14 Seismic restraint, A47.48; A54.1
Resistance temperature devices (RTDs), F14.6; wall interface, A43.7 anchor bolts, A54.12
F15.8 Room criterion (RC) curves, A47.27; F7.17 design, A54.1
Resistivity, thermal, F23.1 Mark II, A47.28 design calculations
Resource utilization factor (RUF), F17.5 Root mean square (RMS), F14.1 examples, A54.13–19
Respiration of fruits and vegetables, R9.18 Rotary vane compressors, S34.11 static analysis, A54.2, 5
Restaurants Rotative speed, F14.25 duct construction, S16.6
air balancing, A31.11 Roughness factors, ducts, F35.6 dynamic analysis, A54.2
air conditioning, A3.4, 5 RTDs. See Resistance temperature devices installation problems, A54.19
commercial and public buildings, A3.4 (RTDs) snubbers, A54.12
energy conservation, A31.14 RTS. See Radiant time series (RTS) terminology, A54.2
kitchen ventilation, A31.1 RTU. See Refrigerant transfer units (RTU) weld capacities, A54.12
service water heating, A49.11, 12, 15 RUF. See Resource utilization factor (RUF) Sensible heat
Retail facilities, A2 Rusting, of building components, F23.5 load calculations, F29; F30
air conditioning, A2.1 R-values, F3; F23; F25; F26 psychrometrics, F6.18
convenience centers, A2.6 (See also Resistance, thermal) ratio
department stores, A2.5 calculation, F3.2, 18 coils, S21.6, 12–14
design considerations, A2.1 modified zone method, F25.13 dehumidifiers, S47.1
discount and big-box stores, A2.2 overall lthermal resistances, F3.18 refrigeration load, R13
load determination, A2.1 overall thermal resistances, F25.2 room air conditioners, S46.2
malls, A2.7 zone method, F25.12 small forced-air systems, S9.8
multiple-use complexes, A2.7 ceilings, F25.14 Sensors
refrigeration, R46.1, R47 masonry construction, F25.3 automatic controls, F15.7, 9
shopping centers, A2.7 roofs, F25.14 location, A46.19
small stores, A2.1 steel frame construction, F25.10 Separators, lubricant, R44.22
supermarkets, A2.2 wood frame construction, F25.2 Service water heating, A49
refrigerators, R46.1 Safety codes, A49.21
service water heating, A49.12 air cleaners, A45.10; S24.12 cogeneration, S7.33
Retrofit performance monitoring, A40.3 automatic controls, A46.16 commercial and institutional, A49.10
Retrofitting refrigerant systems, contaminant burners, S26.13 corrosion, A49.7
control, R6.9 chemical plants, R37.2 design considerations, A49.7
Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) cryogenic equipment, R38.28 distribution system
equation, F34.3 electrical, A55.1 for commercial kitchens, A49.5
Reynolds number, F2.3; F3.14 filters, air, S24.12 manifolding, A49.6
Rice, drying, A23.9; F11.13 industrial exhaust gas cleaning, S25.29 piping, A49.4
RMS. See Root mean square (RMS) nuclear facilities, A26.1 pressure differential, A49.4
Road tunnels, A13.1 refrigerants, F19.2, F19.7 return pump sizing, A49.4
carbon monoxide service water heating, A49.7 two-temperature service, A49.5
allowable concentrations, A13.5 solar energy systems, A33.24 geothermal energy, A32.11
analyzers and recorders, A13.7, 8 thermal insulation and fires, F26.4 indirect, A49.2, 21
computer analysis, A13.5 thermal insulation for, F26.2 industrial, A49.19
vehicle emissions, A13.5 water systems, S14.9 Legionella pneumophila, A49.8
ventilation wood stoves, S29.6 pipe sizing, F36.9
air quantities, A13.5 Safety showers, Legionella pneumophila control, requirements, A49.9
computer analysis, A13.5 A48.7 residential, A49.9
controls, A13.7 Sanitation safety, A49.7
ducts, A13.7 food production facilities, R12 scale, A49.7
emergency, A13.1 control of microorganisms, R12.4 sizing water heaters
air quantities, A13.5 egg processing, R21.12 instantaneous and semi-instantaneous,
enclosed facility, A13.1 HACCP, R12.4 A49.19
enhancements, A13.5 meat processing, R17.1 refrigerant-based, A49.21
equipment, A13.25 poultry processing, R18.9 storage heaters, A49.9, 12
hybrid, A13.4 regulations and standards, R12.5 solar energy, A33.13, 18, 25; A49.3
mechanical, A13.2 refrigerated storage facilities, R11.10 standards, A49.21
natural, A13.1 Scale steam, S10.1
normal air quantities, A13.5 control, A48.4 system planning, A49.1
normal conditions, A13.1 humidifiers, S20.4 terminology, A49.6
pressure evaluation, A13.6 service water systems, A49.7 thermal storage, A34.8
temporary, A13.1 water treatment, A48.4 water heating equipment
Rodents, and farm crop storage, F11.8 Schneider system, R14.7 placement, A49.8
Roof ponds, Legionella pneumophila control, Schools sizing, A49.9, 19, 21
A48.7 air conditioning, A6.3 types, A49.1
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.33
water quality, A49.7 pressurization, A52.5, 9, 11 piping, S33.9
SES. See Subway environment simulation remote dilution, A52.4 shading factor, S33.10
(SES) program rapid-transit systems, A13.19 concentrating, A33.8
Shading road tunnels, A13.5 construction
coefficient, F31.38 smoke dampers, A52.8 absorber plates, S33.5
devices, indoor, F31.54 smoke movement glazing, S33.6
fenestration, F31.2 buoyancy, A52.3 housing, S33.5
Sheep, F10.9 expansion, A52.3 insulation, S33.7
Ship docks, A3.10 HVAC systems, A52.4 manifolds, S33.5, 8
Ships stack effect, A52.2 design and installation, A33.25
air conditioning wind, A52.3 efficiency, A33.10
air distribution, A11.3, 4 stairwells flat plate, A33.5, 6
controls, A11.3, 4 analysis, A52.10 glazing materials, A33.7
design criteria, A11.1, 3 compartmentation, A52.9 plates, A33.8
equipment selection, A11.2, 4 open doors, A52.11 module design
systems, A11.2, 4 pressurization, A52.11 piping, S33.8
cargo holds, R31.2 pressurized, A52.9 thermal expansion, S33.9
cargo refrigeration, R31.1 zones, A52.12 velocity limits, S33.8
coils, A11.4 Smudging air outlets, S17.2 mounting, A33.23
ducts, A11.3 Snow-melting systems, A50 performance, A33.9; S33.4
fish freezing, R31.8 back and edge heat losses, A50.6, 8 operational results, S33.5
fish refrigeration control, A50.10 steady conditions, S33.4
icing, R19.1; R31.7 electric system design selection, S33.7
refrigerated seawater, R19.2; R31.8 constant wattage systems, A50.15 testing, S33.4
merchant, A11.1 electrical equipment, A50.13 types, S33.3
naval surface, A11.3 gutters and downspouts, A50.17 constant, A33.1
refrigerated stores, R31.4 heat flux, A50.13 control, A33.24, 26; S33.16
refrigeration systems, R31.1 idling, A50.18 automatic temperature, S33.16
regulatory agencies, A11.3 heating elements, A50.13 differential temperature controller, S33.17
Single-duct systems, all-air, S2.8 infrared systems, A50.16 hot-water dump, S33.18
Skating rinks, R35.1 installation, A50.16 over-temperature protection, S33.17
Skylights, and solar heat gain, F31.40 mineral insulated cable, A50.13 cooling systems, A33.16, 18, 26
Slab heating, A50 free area ratio, A50.1 absorption refrigeration, A33.18; S33.3, 7
Slab-on-grade foundations, A43.2 freeze protection systems, A50.10, 17 sizing, A33.19
moisture control, A43.3 heat balance, A50.1 types, A33.16
SLF. See Shade line factor (SLF) heating requirement design, installation, operation checklist,
SLR. See Solar-load ratio (SLR) annual operating data, A50.8 A33.25
Smoke management, A52 heat flux equations, A50.2 design values, solar irradiation, A33.4
acceptance testing, A52.17 hydronic and electric, A50.1 domestic hot water, A33.13, 25
atriums, A52.13 load frequencies, A50.6 equipment, S33.1
computer analysis, A52.12, 13 surface size, A50.6 freeze protection, A33.24; S33.2, 18
design transient heat flux, A50.6 heat exchangers, A33.12; S33.15
door-opening forces, A52.6 weather data, A50.6 external, S33.16
flow areas wind speed, A50.6 freeze protection, S33.18
airflow paths, A52.6 hydronic system design internal, S33.15
effective, A52.6 components, A50.10 performance, S33.16
symmetry, A52.8 controls, A50.13 requirements, S33.15
open doors, A52.8 fluid heater, A50.12 heating systems, A33.16; A34.8
pressure differences, A52.8 heat transfer fluid, A50.10 active, A33.16, 17
weather data, A52.8 piping, A50.11 air, S33.1, 10, 11
duct design, F35.11 pump selection, A50.13 components, A33.11
elevators, A52.11 thermal stress, A50.13 control, A33.13
hospitals, A7.5 operating costs, A50.10 design, S33.1
large open spaces slab design, hydronic and electric, A50.8 direct circulation, S33.2
plugholing, A52.16 snow detectors, A50.10 drain-down, A33.14
plume, A52.14 Snubbers, seismic, A54.12 hybrid, A33.16
prestratification layer, A52.16 Sodium chloride brines, F21.1 indirect
smoke filling, A52.14, 15 Soft drinks, R26.10 circulation, S33.2
steady clear height and upper layer Soils. (See also Earth) drainback, A33.14; S33.2
exhaust, A52.15 stabilization, R36.3, 4 nonfreezing fluid, S33.2
steady fire, A52.13, 14 temperature calculation, S11.9 water heating, A33.14
unsteady fire, A52.13, 15 thermal conductivity, F25.15; S11.8 integral collector storage systems,
zone fire models, A52.13 Solar angle, determining, F31.15 A33.15; S33.3
methods Solar energy, A33; S33.1 liquid, S33.9, 11
airflow, A52.5 active systems, A33.16, 17, 19 freezing protection, S33.1
buoyancy, A52.6 airflow, A33.25 passive, A33.16
compartmentation, A52.4, 9 collectors, A33.5, 6, 11, 25; S33.3 pool heating, A33.15
dilution near fire, A52.5 array design recirculation, A33.16
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.34 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
residential, A1.3 controlling, F7.11 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A47.5
sizing, A33.19 decibel, F7.1 Soybeans, drying, A23.7; F11.13
thermosiphon, A33.14 frequency, F7.2 Specific heat
heat pump systems, S8.4 frequency spectrum, F7.15 equation, F1.4
hybrid systems, A33.16 intensity, F7.3 foods, R9.7
hydraulics, A33.25 level, F7.1 liquids, F39.2
installation, A33.23 loudness, F7.14 materials, F39.1
irradiation, A33.4 pressure, F7.1 Spot cooling
maintenance, A33.24 quality, F7.14 evaporative, A51.6
overheat protection, A33.24 wavelength, F7.2 industrial environments, A29.2, 5; A51.6
passive systems, A33.16, 21 testing, A37.18 makeup air units, S31.9
photovoltaic (PV) systems, A33.26; S33.18 time averaging, F7.4 mines, A27.10
quality and quantity, A33.1 transmission, A37.20; A47.20 Spot heating, A53.4
radiation at earth’s surface, A33.3, 4 humidity affecting, S20.2 Stack effect
safety, A33.24 paths, F7.9 duct design, F35.2
service water heating systems, A33.13, 18, typical sources, F7.10 multizone airflow modeling, F34.14
25; A34.8; A49.3 unit heaters, S31.6 smoke movement, A52.2
combined with space heating, A33.18 Sound control, A47; F7 Stadiums, A4.4
sizing heating and cooling systems, A33.19 acoustical design of HVAC systems, A47.1 Stainless steel boilers, S27.3
spectrum, A33.3 air handlers, S2.7 Stairwells, smoke control, A52.9
start-up procedure, A33.24 A-weighted sound level (dBA), A47.27; Standard atmosphere, U.S., F6.1
thermal storage systems, A33.11, 25 F7.16 Standards, R49. (See also Codes)
short circuiting, S33.14 barriers, A47.35; F7.11 air cleaners, S24.3, 5
sizing, S33.14 ceiling sound transmission, A47.33 air conditioners, S45
time, A33.1, 3 chillers, A47.10 packaged terminal, S46.7
types, S33.14 clean spaces, A16.15 room, S46.4
uses, A33.25 cogeneration, S7.41 unitary, S45.5, 6
Solar heat gain combustion turbines, S7.13 boilers, S27.5
calculation, F31.41 cooling towers, S36.11 chimneys, fireplaces, and gas vents, S30.24,
coefficient, F31.36 data reliability, A47.1 29
roof overhangs, F31.46 design, A47.2, 36; F7.15 cogeneration, S7.50
skylights, F31.40 ducts, A47.7; S16.4 condensers, S35
Solar-load ratio (SLR), A33.21 fiberglass liners, A47.20 evaporative, S35.19
Solar-optical glazing, F31.18 sound attenuation, A47.13; F7.13 water-cooled, S35.7
Solar radiation branch division, A47 coolers, liquid, S37.4
daylighting, F31.1 end reflection loss, A47.19 dehumidifiers, room, S47.3
flux, F31.13 insulated flexible, A47.16 duct construction, S16.1
optical properties, F31.17 plenums, A47.13 commercial, S16.2
Solar-thermal separation, F31.44 sheet metal, A47.14 industrial, S16.4
Solid fuel silencers, A47.16 residential, S16.2
burners, S26.9 sound transmission, A47.20 electrical, A55.10
coal, F18.7 enclosures, F7.13 engines, S7.50
coke, F18.10 engines, S7.7 filters, air, S24.3, 5
Solvent drying, constant-moisture, A28.7 engine test facilities, A15.4 furnaces, S28.10
Soot, F18.16 equipment sound levels, A47.3 heaters, S29.6, 7
Sorbents, F22.1 fans, A47.5, 5 heat pumps, S45
Sorption isotherm, F23.6 fume hood duct design, A47.34 packaged terminal, S46.7
Sound, F7 hotels and motels, A5.8 unitary, S45.5, 6
(See also Noise) indoor sound rating, A47.26 water-source, S45.11
air outlets, S17.2 insertion loss, A47.14 indoor air quality (IAQ), F9.9
bandwidths, F7.4 insulation, F23.17 liquid chillers; S38.5
chillers, A47.10 mechanical equipment rooms, A47.31 makeup air units, S31.9
combustion, F18.16 noise criterion (NC) curves, A47.27; F7.16 motors, S40.1, 10, 13
compressors, A47.10 outdoor nuclear facilities, A26.10
computerized analysis, A39.7 criteria, A47.31 pipe fittings, S41.2
cooling towers, S36.10 equipment, A47.34 piping, S11.18; S41.6
ducts, A47.7 piping, A47.42, 42 service water heating, A49.21
loudness, F7.14 places of assembly, A4.1 sound control, A47.50
measurement, F14.27 return air system sound transmission, A47.33 turbines, S7.50
basics, F7.5 rooftop air handlers, A47.6 vibration control, A47.50
instrumentation, A37.18; F7.4 room criterion (RC) curves, A47.27, 28; Stanton number, F3.14
level meter, F7.4 F7.17 Static electricity and humidity, S20.2
power, F7.2 room sound correction, A47.25 Steam
pressure, F7.1 standards, A47.50 psychrometric properties, F6.19
rating methods, A47.26 terminology, F7.11 quality, S10.2
speed, F7.2 transmission loss, A47.21 sources, S10.2
terminology troubleshooting, A37.20; A47.48 testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.15
bandwidths, F7.8 noise problems, A47.49 thermophysical properties, F20.1, 36–37
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.35
Steam systems, S10 bakery ingredients, R28.1 precooling, A41.28
air, effects of, S10.2 candy, R29.5 chilled-water pumps, A41.6, 16, 18
boilers, S10.3; S27.1 carbon dioxide, R26.12 chillers
classification, S10.2 citrus, A51.9; R23.3 load distribution, A41.21
cogeneration distribution, S7.31 cold, facility design, R14.1 sequencing, A41.6, 21, 23
coils, air-heating, S23.2 compressed gases, A14.8 computerized, A39.14
combined steam and water, S10.15 controlled-atmosphere (CA), R14.3 cooling systems without storage, A41.5
condensate removal, S10.6 cryogenic fluids, R38.26 cooling tower fans, A41.8, 12
drainage and return, S11.7 desiccant dehumidification, S22.8 cool thermal storage systems, A41.29
drip stations, S11.7 high-pressure, S22.11 ice storage control optimization, A41.37
return pipes, S11.18 design, refrigerated-facility, R14.1 forecasting energy requirements, A41.31, 32
convection heating, S10.11 eggs, R21.5 optimization methods
design, S10.2; S32.3 farm crops, A23.9; F11.1 dynamic, A41.36
piping, S10.5 fish static, A41.33
pressure, S10.4 fresh, R19.3 system based, A41.34
distribution, S10.12 frozen, R19.7 performance measures, A41.2
district heating and cooling, S11.18 flowers, cut, R11.12 Supply air outlets, S17.1. (See also Air outlets)
district heating and cooling, S11.3, 18, 29 food, canned or dried, R11.11 Surface effect. See Coanda effect
flash steam, S10.14 fruit Surface transportation
percentage, S10.2 dried, R29.7 automobiles, A9.1
flash tank, S10.14 fresh, R22.1 buses, A9.9
gas, effects of, S10.2 furs and fabrics, R11.11 environmental control, A9.1
generator buildings, A25.4 ice, R34.4 fixed-guideway vehicles, A9.13
heat exchangers, S10.3 meat products, frozen, R17.16 rail cars, A9.11
heating, A48.11 milk, R20.4 Surface water heat pump (SWHP)
heat recovery nursery stock, R11.12 heat exchanger, S45.10
direct recovery, S10.15 nuts, R29.7 subset of GSHPs, A32.14
flash steam, S10.14 photographic materials, A20.3, 4 Sustainability, F17.2
waste heat boilers, S10.3 unprocessed, A20.1 SVFs. See Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs)
makeup air units, S31.9 potatoes, A51.9 SWHP. See Surface water heat pump (SWHP)
one-pipe systems, S10.11; 1993 poultry products, R18.10 Swimming pools. (See also Natatoriums)
Fundamentals, Chapter 33, pp. 18-19 (See refrigerated-facility design, R14.1 dehumidifiers, S47.4
explanation on first page of index.) seeds, A23.12; R11.13 solar heating, A33.15
piping tanks, secondary coolant systems, R4.2 water chemistry, A4.7
distribution, S10.5 vegetables, R24.3 water heating for, A49.18
Hartford loop, S10.3 dried, R29.7 Swine
inlet orifices, S10.12 wine, R26.10 growth, F10.10
return, S10.3, 6 wood products, A24.2 heat and moisture production, F10.11
sizing, F36.12 Stoves, heating, S29.5 recommended environment, A22.7
supply, S10.3, 5, 12 Stratification reproduction, F10.11
terminal equipment, S10.6 of air Symbols, F37
temperature control, S10.13 in places of assembly, A4.2 Synthetic vitreous fibers (SVFs), F9.5
terminal equipment in plenums, A37.2 Tachometers, F14.25
forced-convection, S10.11 of water, in thermal storage tanks, A34.10 Tanks, secondary coolant systems, R4.2
natural convection, S10.11 Stroboscopes, F14.25 Television studios, A3.9
units, S32.1 Subcoolers Temperature
piping design, S10.6 condensers, S35 ambient, A53.1
radiant panel, S10.11 evaporative, S35.18 animal environments, F10.3
traps, S10.7 water-cooled, S35.5 changeover, S3.7, 9
turbines, S7.13 two-stage, R2.29 dew-point, F6.12, 13
two-pipe systems, S10.12 Subway environment simulation (SES) dry-bulb
unit program, A13.5 adjusted, A53.1
heaters, S31.4 Subway systems. (See also Mass-transit effective, A51.5; F8.19
ventilators, S31.1 systems) humid operative, F8.20
valves car air conditioning, A9.12 mean radiant, A53.1; F8.10; F14.29; S6.1
pressure-reducing, S10.9 station air conditioning, A13.20 measurement, F14.4
safety, S10.9 ventilation, A13.17 odors affected by, F13.2
temperature control, S10.13 Suction risers, R3.24 operative, A53.1
water, effects of, S10.2 Sulfur content, fuel oils, F18.6 plane radiant, F8.11; F14.29
Steam traps, S10.7 Superconductivity, diamagnetism, R38.5 plant environments, F10.15
Stefan-Boltzmann equation, F3.1, 8 Supervisory control, A41 radiant asymmetry, F8.11
Stevens’ law, F13.3 air-handling systems sensors, F15.8
Stirling cycle, R38.14 air distribution, A41.2 sol-air, F30.26
Stokers, S26.9 sequencing, A41.26 vertical differences, F8.14
types, S26.10 set point reset, A41.27 wet-bulb, F6.12, 13
Storage boilers, optimizing, A41.3 globe, F8.20
apples, A51.9; R22.1, 3 building temperature set point wet-globe, F8.21
controlled atmosphere, R22.1, 3 night setback recovery, A41.28 wind chill index, F8.21
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.36 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
Temperature-controlled transport, R30.1 design considerations, A37.1 central furnace, A34.16
Temperature index, S20.2 dual-duct systems, A37.3 heat pump boosters, A34.16
Terminal units, A46.9; S2.7; S17.7 duct design, F35.13 room units, A34.8, 15
air distribution, S2.7, 11 energy audit field survey, A37.17 underfloor heat, A34.17
boxes fluid flow measurement, A37.12 water heaters, A34.9, 16
reheat, A46.9; S2.11 HVAC systems, A37.1 heat storage, A34.1, 8, 15
variable-air-volume (VAV), A47.6 hydronic systems, A37.6 ice, R34.3
ceiling induction, S17.8 heat transfer vs. flow, A37.6, 7 ice storage, A34.1, 11
constant volume, S2.11 water-side balancing charging and discharging, A41.29
dual-duct, S17.8 instrumentation, A37.8 control optimization, A41.37
dump, S17.8 proportional method, A37.10 encapsulated ice, A34.13, 19
fan-coil, S3.2 rated differential method, A37.11 harvesting system, A34.13, 19, 20
fan-powered, A46.9; S2.11; S17.8 sizing balancing valves, A37.8 ice on coil, A34.11, 12, 18
humidifiers, S2.12 temperature difference method, A37.9 piping, A34.14
induction, A46.9; S2.11; S3.2 total heat transfer method, A37.11 slurries, A34.14
reheat, S17.7 induction systems, A37.5 tank insulation, A34.15
steam systems, S10.11 instruments, A37.3 industrial refrigeration, A34.7
throttling, S2.11 sound transmission problems, A37.20, 24 installation, A34.18
variable-air-volume (VAV), S2.11 steam distribution systems, A37.15 insulation, A34.11, 15, 19
Testing temperature controls, A37.16 latent energy change, A34.11
air cleaners, A45.12; S24.3 terminology, A37.1 maintenance, A34.18, 20
air conditioners, packaged terminal, S46.7 variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A37.5 media, A34.1, 9
air leakage, fan pressurization, F27.12 TETD/TA. See Total equivalent temperature off-peak
clean spaces, A16.5 differential method with time averaging air conditioning, A34.5
compressors (TETD/TA) heating, A34.8
centrifugal, S34.30 Textile processing plants, A19 operation, A34.4, 5, 18
positive-displacement, S34.4 air conditioning design phase-change materials, A34.14, 19
condensers, S35 air cleaning, A19.5, 6 piping, A34.19, 20
evaporative, S35.19 air distribution, A19.5 ice storage, A34.14
water-cooled, S35.7 collector systems, A19.5 process cooling, A34.7
cooling towers, A37.15; S36.15 health considerations, A19.6 refrigeration system, A34.5, 7, 19
desiccant dehumidification for, S22.10, 11 energy conservation, A19.6 retrofits, A34.7
duct efficiency, S9.11 fabric making, A19.3 solar energy systems, A33.11, 16, 25; A34.8;
fans, S18.4 fiber making, A19.1 S33.3, 11
filters, air, S24.3 yarn making, A19.1 terminology, A34.1
heaters, S29.7 TFM. See Transfer function method (TFM) water storage, A34.9, 18
heat pumps Theaters, A4.3 aquifers, A34.9
packaged terminal air conditioners Thermal performance, A34.10
(PTACs), S46.7 bridges, building envelopes, A43.8 tank insulation, A34.11; S33.13
water-source, S45.11 mass, of buildings, A43.11 temperature range, A34.9
industrial exhaust systems, A30.7 (See also Building thermal mass) thermal stratification, A34.10
radiant heating system, A53.7 Thermal and moisture control, F23.1; F24.1 water heaters, A34.9, 16
refrigeration systems Thermal and water vapor transmission data, water treatment, A34.20
leak detection, R45.4 F25.1 Thermistors, R44.4
performance testing, R45.5 Thermal bridges; F23.4 Thermocouples, R44.4
refrigerators, household, R48.9 Thermal comfort. See Comfort Thermodynamics, F1.1
smoke control systems, A52.17 Thermal control, F23 absorption refrigeration cycles, F1.13
solar collectors, S33.4 terminology, F23.1 bubble point, F1.5
sound Thermal diffusivity, F23.1 compressed liquid, F1.2
instrumentation, A37.18 Thermal emittance, F23.2 compression refrigeration cycles, F1.6
procedure, A37.19 Thermal properties of food, R9 cooling and freezing of foods, R10.1
transmission problems, A37.20, 24 Thermal resistivity, F23.1 cycle, F1.2
vibration Thermal storage dew point, F1.6
equipment, A37.22 water systems, medium/high temp., S14.9 dry saturated vapor, F1.2
instrumentation, A37.21 Thermal storage, A34 enthalpy, F1.4
isolators, A37.21; A47.49 applications, A34.3 entropy, F1.4
piping transmission, A37.24 benefits, A34.2 equations of state, F1.3
procedure, A37.21 building mass, A34.17 laws, F1.2
Testing, adjusting, and balancing. (See also cogeneration, S7.35 liquid, F1.2
Balancing) commissioning, A34.20 multicomponent systems, F1.5
air diffusers, A37.2 controls, A34.4, 20 phase equilibria, F1.5
air distribution systems, A37.3 sequence, A34.4 principles, F1.1
reporting results, A37.5 strategies, A41.29 process, F1.2
airflow measurement, A37.2 cool storage, A34.1, 5, 7; A41.2 properties, F1.2
balancing procedure, A37.5 district heating and cooling, A34.9; S11.3 calculation, F1.4
central plant chilled-water systems, A37.14 economics, A34.2 zeotropic mixture, F1.9
cooling towers, A37.15 electrically charged storage, A34.15 pure substance, F1.2
dampers, F35.15 brick storage heaters, A34.8, 15 refrigeration cycle analysis, F1.3
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.37
saturated dual-shaft, S7.9 sources, F14.3
liquid, F1.2 emissions, S7.13 systematic uncertainty, F14.3
vapor, F1.2 evaporative cooling applications, S7.11 statistical regression, A40.13
subcooled liquid, F1.2 exhaust gas systems, S7.10 Unitary systems, S5.3; S45
superheated vapor, F1.2 fuels, S7.9 floor-by-floor systems, S5.6
terminology, F1.1 heat recovery, S7.25 heat pumps, S5.2; S45.1, 8, 10
vapor, F1.2 inlet air cooling (CTIAC), S7.10 outdoor equipment, S5.7
Thermometers, F14.5 instruments, S7.11 room-by-room systems, S5.3
black globe, A53.7 lubrication, S7.10 self-contained, S5.6
error sources, F14.5 maintenance, S7.13 split systems, S5.5; S45.1
infrared noise control, S7.13 through-the-wall, S5.2
radiometers, A53.7; F14.9 performance, S7.12 window-mounted, S5.2
thermography, F14.10 single-shaft, S7.9 Unit heaters. See Heaters
liquid-in-glass, F14.5 split-shaft, S7.9 Units and conversions, F38.1
resistance starting systems, S7.10 Unit ventilators, S31.1
semiconductors, F14.7 thermal output, S7.20 Utility interfacing, electric, S7.28
temperature devices (RTDs), F14.6 engine test facilities, gas, A15.3 Vacuum cooling, of fruits and vegetables, R15.9
thermistors, F14.6 expansion, S7.38; S38.1 Validation, of airflow modeling, F34.9, 10, 17
thermocouples, F14.8 gas, S7.9 Valves, S42
Thermopile, F14.9; F15.4; R36.4; S26.12 evaporative cooling, A51.7 (See also Regulators)
Thermosiphons microturbines S7.8 actuators, S42.5
heat exchangers, S44.14 standards, S7.50 ammonia refrigeration systems
solar energy systems, A33.14 steam control, R3.8
Thermostats applications, S7.45 float control, R3.19
heater control, S29.2, 4 axial flow, S7.13 relief, R3.10
heating/cooling, F15.10 economics, S7.19 solenoid, R3.10
location, A46.19 heat recovery stop, R3.8
types, F15.10 extraction turbines, S7.26 authority, S42.8
Three-pipe distribution, S3.5 noncondensing turbines, S7.26 automatic, S42.5
Tobacco, drying, F11.14 maintenance, S7.19 actuators, S42.5
Tobacco smoke performance, S7.16 applications, S42.9
contaminants, A45.1; F12.2, 17 thermal output, S7.21 control, F15.4
environmental (ETS), F9.6 Turbochargers computerized, S42.6
Tollbooths heat recovery, S7.23 expansion, S21.2
air quality criteria, A13.8 supercharger engines, S7.6 flow characteristics, S42.7
ventilation, A13.9, 25 Turbulence sizing, S42.8
Trailers and trucks, refrigerated, R30. (See modeling, F34.3 types, S42.6
also Cargo containers) identification, F34.10 backflow-prevention devices, S42.13
Transducers, pneumatic pressure, F15.9 Turbulent flow, fluids, F2.3 balancing, S42.10
Transmittance, thermal, F23.1 Turkeys. (See also Animal environments; sizing, A37.8
of flat building component, F23.4 Poultry) body styles, S42.3
thermal bridging, F23.4 growth, F10.12 cavitation, S42.2
hot-box method, F23.4 heat and moisture production, F10.14 check, R44.20; S42.13
Transmitters, pneumatic pressure, F15.9 reproduction, F10.14 compressors, reciprocating, S34.7
Transpiration, R9.19 Turndown ratio, design capacity, S12.3 condensing-pressure-regulating, R44.14
Transportation centers Two-pipe systems, S3.8; S12.12 constant-pressure expansion, R44.13
commercial and public buildings, A3.9 air-to-transmission ratio, S3.8 control valves, F2.7
ventilation, A13.14, 17 central ventilation, S3.8 coefficient, F2.9
Transport properties of refrigerants, F20.1 changeover temperature, S3.9 discharge bypass, R44.15
Traps chilled-water, S12.12 expansion
ammonia refrigeration systems electric heat, S3.10 constant-pressure, R44.11, 13
liquid, R3.17 fan-coil systems, S3.5 electric, R44.10
liquid level indicators, R3.5 nonchangeover design, S3.10 thermostatic, R44.5
purge units, R3.5 steam convection heating, S10.12 float control, R44.16
suction accumulator, R3.4 zoning, S3.10 flow coefficient, S42.2, 9
vertical suction, R3.4 U-factor geothermal energy, A32.9
steam systems, S10.7 center-of-glass, F31.4 halocarbon refrigeration systems
thermostatic, S10.7 doors, F25.14; F31.11 equivalent lengths, R2.10
Trigeneration, S7 edge-of-glass, F31.4 float control, R2.26
Trucks, refrigerated, R30. (See also Cargo fenestration products, F31.6 hydronic systems
containers) frame, F31.4 control, S12.10
Tuning automatic control systems, F15.16 thermal transmittance, F31.4 safety relief, S12.13
Turbines, S7 windows, F25.14 manual, S42.3
codes, S7.50 Ultralow-penetration air (ULPA) filters, S24.7; selection, S42.3
combustion, S7.8, 45 S25.2 materials, S42.1
Brayton cycle, S7.9 Uncertainty analysis multiple-purpose, S42.10
components, S7.9 measurement, A40.11, 13 noise, S42.2
controls, S7.11 precision uncertainty, F14.3 pressure drop, F36.1, 7
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.38 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
pressure-reducing makeup water, S42.13 refrigeration, R24.1 wind effect on, F16.7
pressure relief, S42.11 storage, R24.3 Ventilators
safety, R44.21 thermal properties, R9.1 roof, A29.3
ratings, S42.1 transport, R24.2 unit, S31
refrigerant control, R44.5 Vehicles capacity, S31.1
regulating and throttling, R44.10 ac- or dc-powered, transit, A9.12 control, A46.11; S31.3
safety, S42.11 design, R30.1 location, S31.3
solar energy systems, A33.12 equipment attachment provisions, R30.3 selection, S31.3
solenoid, R44.17; S42.6 sanitation, R30.3 types, S31.1
steam system, S10.9, 13 temperature-controlled, R30.1 Venting
stop-check, S42.13 use, R30.9 furnaces, S28.2
suction pressure regulating, R44.14 Velocity, measurement, F14.15 gas appliances, S30.19
thermostatic, S10.13; S42.12 Vena contracta, F2.4 oil-fired appliances, S30.20
water hammer, S42.2 Vending machines, R47.5 Verification, of airflow modeling, F34.9, 10, 17
zone control, S10.13 Ventilation, F27 Vessels, ammonia refrigeration systems, R3.3
Vapor pressure, F39.2 age of air, F27.4 Vibration, F7.19
Vapor retarders, F26.8 air change effectiveness, F27.4 compressors
jackets, F26.8 aircraft, A10.1, 4 centrifugal, S34.32
all-service, F26.8 air exchange rate, F27.3, 10 positive-displacement, S34.3
Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems, A37.4 airflow, F27.2 scroll, S34.24
all-air animal environments, A22.5 single-screw, S34.16
dual-duct, S2.9 bus garages, A13.12 critical speeds, S18.8
single-duct, S2.8 bus terminals, A13.14 health effects, F9.13
versus constant air volume (CAV), A14.12 cargo containers, R30.5 measurement, F14.28
control, A41.2, 27 climatic infiltration zones, F27.16 accelerometer, F7.21
diversity, A37.4 dilution, A29.2; A45.4 instrumentation, A37.21
dual-duct systems, S2.9 displacement, F33.10; S2.10 testing, A37.21
duct static pressure control, A46.2 design, F33.11 Vibration control, A47
fan driving mechanisms, F27.10 air handlers, S2.7
selection, A47.5 effectiveness, F27.4 chillers, A47.12
sequencing, A46.3 engine test facilities, A15.1 clean spaces, A16.15
unstable operation, A46.3 forced, F27.1 cogeneration, S7.41
humidity control, S20.8 gaseous contaminant control, A45.4 criteria, A47.40
museums, libraries, and archives, A21.12 greenhouses, A22.13 data reliability, A47.1
pressure-dependent systems, A37.4 health care facilities, A7.1 ducts, A47.48
pressure-independent systems, A37.4 hospitals, A7.2 engines, S7.7
return fan static control, A46.3 nursing homes, A7.13 equipment vibration, A37.22
single-duct, S2.8 outpatient, A7.12 analysis, A37.23
sound control, A47.5 indoor air quality (IAQ), F27.9 fans, S18.9
static pressure control, A37.4 industrial environments, A29 floor flexibility, A47.49
static pressure reset, A41.27 exhaust systems, A30.1 isolators
system types, A37.5 in-room terminal systems, S3.5 noise, A47.39
terminal boxes, A46.9; A47.6 kitchens, A31 resonance, A47.50
testing, adjusting, balancing, A37.4 laboratories, A14.8 specifications, A47.41
variable-speed drives, S40.8 leakage function, F27.12 testing, A37.21; A47.49
Variable-speed drives, S40.8 mechanical, F27.1 piping
carrier frequencies mines, A27 connectors
effect on drive ratings, S40.11 natatoriums, A4.6 expansion joint or arched, A47.47
effect on motor noise, S40.10 natural flexible, A47.42
conductor impedance, S40.8 airflow, F27.1, 10 hose, A47.42
control, S40.8 guidelines, F27.11 noise, A47.42
harmonic disturbances, S40.11 stack effect, F27.11 resilient hangers and supports, A47.42
load side, S40.12 wind, F27.10 places of assembly, A4.1
motors, S40.10 nuclear facilities, A26.4 resonance, A47.49
impedance, S40.8 odor dilution, F13.5 seismic restraint, A47.48; A54.1
pulse width modulation, S40.8 parking garages, A13.9 standards, A47.50
transistors, S40.8 power plants, A25.3 troubleshooting, A37.23; A47.48
voltage waveform distortion, S40.11 railroad tunnels, A13.21 Virgin rock temperature (VRT), and heat
VAV. See Variable-air-volume (VAV) systems rapid-transit systems, A13.17 release rate, A27.3
Vegetables, R24 residential, F27.15 Viscosity, F2.1
air transport, R32.1 road tunnels, A13.1 fuel oils, F18.5
cooling, R15.1 roof ventilators, A29.3 lubricants, R7.5
deterioration rate, R11.1 ships, A11.1 modeling, F34.10
display refrigerators, R46.8 terminology, F27.1 moist air, F6.19
dried, storage, R29.7 thermal loads, F27.9 Volatile organic compounds (VOC), F9.8
frozen, R27.3 tollbooths, A13.8 contaminants, A45.1
misters and Legionella pneumophila control, unidirectional, F33.12 Voltage, A55.1
A48.7 warm/humid climates, F24.8 Volume ratio, compressors
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
Composite Index I.39
rotary vane, S34.11 Water heaters dual-temperature (DTW), S12.1, 12
single-screw, S34.14 blending injection, A49.3 equipment layout, S12.15
twin-screw, S34.18 boilers (indirect), A49.21 expansion tanks
VRT. See Virgin rock temperature (VRT) circulating tank, A49.3 functions of, S12.3, 7
Walls, A43.3 combination, A49.3 sizing equations, S12.4
acoustic insulation, F23.17 electric, A49.2 fill water, S12.13
airflow retarders, A43.5 gas-fired, A49.1, 2 four-pipe, S12.13
glass block, F31.40 heat pump, S45.3 freeze prevention, S12.15
insulation, exterior, A43.4 indirect, A49.2, 21 hot-water
masonry construction, A43.4; F24.2 instantaneous, A49.2, 3, 19 boilers, S27.1
moisture control, A43.4 oil-fired, A49.1 cogeneration distribution, S7.32
panelized, A43.4 placement, A49.8 district heating and cooling, S11.29
residential, A43.3 refrigeration heat reclaim, A49.3, 21 high-temperature (HTW), S12.1
roof interface semi-instantaneous, A49.3, 19 loads, S12.2
air leakage, A43.7 sizing, A49.9, 19, 21 low-temperature (LTW), S12.1
moisture control, A43.8 solar energy, A49.3 design considerations, S12.8; S32.3
steel frame construction, F24.2 storage, A49.1, 2, 9 heating systems, S12.10
window interface, A43.7 terminology, A49.6 loads, S12.2
wood frame construction, A43.3; F24.1 types nonresidential, S12.10
Warehouses, A3.11 oil-fired, A49. A49.2 terminal equipment, S32.1
Water usable hot-water storage, A49.8 medium- and high-temperature, S12.1
boiler thermal models, F32.14 waste heat recovery, A49.3 medium-temperature (MTW), S12.2
coils, S21.2 Water-source heat pump (WSHP), S45.10 loads, S12.2
air-heating, S23.2 Water systems loads, S12.2
coolers, R26.11 closed, S14.1 makeup, S12.13
distribution, S4.4; S12.5, S14.7 hot-water open, S12.1; S13.1
central plants, S11.4 medium/high-temperature, pipe sizing, S12.15
district heating and cooling, S11.18 air-heating coils, S14.8 piping, S12.8
fan-coil systems, S3.5 boilers, S14.2 water distributuion, S12.5
filtration, A48.7 cascade systems, S14.6 pressure drop determination, S12.15; S39.4
hammer, F36.6 circulating pumps, S14.7 pumps, S39.1
pipe stress, S11.6 control, S14.8 pump curves, S12.5; S39.3
heating design, S14.2 pumping
geothermal energy systems, A32.11 direct-contact heaters, S14.6 compound, S12.6
solar energy systems, A33.13 direct-fired generators, S14.2 distributed, S39.13
water treatment for, A48.10 distribution, S14.7 parallel, S12.6; S39.10
humidifier supply, S20.4 expansion tanks, S14.4 primary-secondary, S12.6; S39.12
properties, A48.1, S14.2 heat exchangers, S14.8 series, S12.6; S39.11
references, F6.19 piping design, S14.7 variable-speed, S39.12
refrigerant, F20.1, 36–37 pressurization, S14.4 standby pump, S12.6; S39.12
in refrigerant systems. See Moisture, in safety, S14.9 two-speed motors, S39.12
refrigerant systems space heating, S14.8 safety relief valves, S12.13
systems, pipe sizing, F36.5 thermal storage, S14.9 steam and, combined, S10.15
thermal storage systems, A34.9, 18 water treatment, S14.9 temperature classifications, S12.1
vapor. (See also Moisture) Water systems, S12 turndown ratio, S12.3
control, F23.2 air elimination, S12.14 two-pipe, S12.12
flow, F23.2, 7 antifreeze, S12.16 Water treatment, A48
and heat flow, F23.5 precautions, S12.17 air washers, A48.9; S19.8
pressure, saturation, F23.8 capacity control, S12.9 biological control, A48.5
resistance, F23.2 chilled-water, S12.1, 11 Legionella pneumophila, A48.6
retarders; F24.8 cogeneration distribution, S7.31 boilers, A48.10
condensation, S20.2 district heating and cooling, S11.19, 31 brine systems, A48.10
heating climates, F24.5 closed, S12.1 closed recirculating systems, A48.10
mixed climates, F24.7 components, S12.2 condensers, evaporative, S35.18
refrigerant piping insulation, R33.4 condenser water, S13.1 condenser water, S13.2
refrigerated facilities, R14.5, 12 closed, S13.3 cooling towers, A48.4, 8; S36.13
warm/humid climates, F24.8 once-through, S13.1 corrosion control, A48.2, 9
terminology, F23.2 open cooling tower, S13.1 evaporative coolers, S19.8
transmission, F25.1 air and vapor precautions, S13.2 filtration, A48.7
Water/lithium bromide absorption freeze protection, S13.3 fundamentals, A48.1
components, R41.1 piping, S13.2 heating systems, A48.10
control, R41.6 water treatment, S13.2 ice makers, A48.7, 9
double-effect chillers, R41.3 overpressure precautions, S13.3 medium/high-temperature systems, S14.9
maintenance, R41.7 systems, S13.1 once-through systems, A48.9
operation, R41.6 water economizer, S13.3 open recirculating systems, A48.9
single-effect chillers, R41.2 control valve sizing, S12.10 scale control, A48.4
single-effect heat transformers, R41.3 Darcy-Weisbach equation, S39.4 sprayed coil units, A48.9
terminology, R41.1 district heating and cooling, S11.3 steam and condensate systems, A48.11
R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications
I.40 2006 ASHRAE Handbook—Refrigeration (SI)
terminology, A48.11 Legionella pneumophila control, A48.7 minimum design wind load, A54.21
thermal storage, A34.20 service water heating, A49.19 Wineries
Water vapor retarders, F23.18 Wien’s displacement law, F3.8 refrigeration, R26.8
Water wells, A32.4 Wind. (See also Climate; Weather data) temperature control
Weather data. (See also Climate) data sources, F16.6 fermentation, R26.9
design conditions, F28.1 effect on storage, R26.10
calculation, F28.4 chimneys, S30.3, 27 wine production, R26.8
cooling, F28.5 smoke movement, A52.3 Wood construction, and moisture, F23.5
dehumidification, F28.5 system operation, F16.7 dimensional changes, F23.6
heating, F28.5 pressure, F16.3 Wood products facilities, A24.1
relationships, F28.4 Wind chill index, F8.21 evaporative cooling, A51.8
residential infiltration zones, F27.16 Windows. (See also Fenestration) process area, A24.1
sources, F28.3 air leakage, A43.7; F31.56 storage, A24.2
Welding sheet metal, S16.6 heat transfer, A43.6 Wood pulp, A24.2
Wet-bulb globe temperature (WBGT), heat moisture control, A43.7 Wood stoves, S29.5
stress, A29.4 solar gain, A43.6; F31.13, 36 World Wide Web (WWW), A39.16
Wheat, F11.13 U-factors, F25.14; F31.4, 6 WSHP. See Water-source heat pump (WSHP)
Wheels, rotary enthalpy, S44.10 wall interface, A43.7 WWW. See World Wide Web (WWW)
Whirlpools and spas Wind restraint design, A54.20 Xenon, R38.17

R = 2006 Refrigeration F = 2005 Fundamentals S = 2004 HVAC Systems and Equipment A = 2003 HVAC Applications