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 Sperm and egg= fertilization

 Gametes = reproductive cells

 Meiosis = nuclear division that ultimately leads to a halving of chromosome number and
ultimately to the production of sperm and egg
 “Why sex” = “Why meiosis” = “Why this textbook”


 Drosophila, our good ol’ friend in bio, has 8 chromosomes, but just 5 distinct types (3 are
paired, 2-4, and autosomal (non-sex); 2 are sex (X + Y))
 Homologous chromosomes (a.k.a. homologs) = chromosomes that are the same size and

 Also similar in content as well as in size and shape – carry the same genes
 Gene = section of DNA that influences some hereditary trait in an individual

 Allele = different versions of the same gene

 **Homologous chromosomes carry the same genes, but each homolog may contain different

 Karyotype = #, shape, and type of chromosomes present
 Diploid = each somatic (normal) cell contains two versions of each unique chromosome
 Have two alleles of the same gene

 Haploid = cells that contain just one of each chromosome (e.g. mushrooms!)
 Haploid number = n = the number of distinct types of chromosomes in a given cell

 Sex chromosomes = single type in haploid

 Humans: n = 23
 Ploidy = combination of the # of sets and n
 Humans: 2n = 46
 Diploid = 2n

 Maternal chromosomes = inherited from mum, paternal = inherited from pops

 Polyploid = 3 or more of each type of chromosome in each somatic cell
 Triploid (3n), tetraploid (4n), hexaploidy (6n), and so forth…
 An overview of meiosis

 The critical relationship between chromosomes and sister chromatids:

 Unreplicated and replicated chromosomes are both considered single
chromosomes – even though the replicated chromosome contains two sister

 Some neat vocab on page 240!
 Meiosis I
 Homologs in each pair separate from each other

 One goes to each daughter cell

 End: 2 haploid daughter cells, each chromosome still consists of two sister
chromatids  chromosomes are still replicated at the end of M1

 Meiosis II
 Sister chromatids from each chromosome separate

 Cells produced also have one type of chromosome, but now the daughter
chromosomes are no longer replicated

 Chromosome movements are organized by microtubules of the spindle apparatus

that attach to kinetochores located at the centromere of each chromosome

 Meiosis is a reduction division, unlike mitosis!

 Gametogenesis = haploid daughter cells eventually go on to form egg cells or sperm

cells through this process

 Zygote = cell that results from fertilization (a more extreme way of saying “fetus”!)
 Meiosis I
1. Early prophase I
a. Chromosomes condense, spindle apparatus begins to form, homologous
chromosome pairs come together!

i. End process = synapsis, requires breaking and reattaching DNA at

one of the spots along their length

ii. Bivalent/tetrad  resulting structure

iii. Chromatids from different homologs = non-sister chromatids
2. Late prophase I
a. Nuclear envelope breaks down and microtubules of spindle apparatus
attach to kinetochores
b. Non-sister chromatids separate at many points but stay joined at

chiasma, X-shaped structures

i. Marks where DNA was broken/rejoined
ii. Crossing-over, or exchange of parts of chromosomes between

paternal and maternal homologs, happens here!

3. Metaphase I
a. Kinetochore microtubules move the pairs of homologous chromosomes to
a region called the metaphase plate

b. Each bivalent moves to the metaphase plate independently of the other

tetrads, and the alignment on one side is random

4. Anaphase and telophase I

a. Sister chromatids remain together

b. Anaphase I: homologous chromosomes in each bivalent separate and

begin moving to opposite poles of the spindle apparatus

c. Telophase I: homologs finish moving to opposite sides of spindle

d. Cytokinesis: two haploid daughter cells are formed through the cleavage
of one cell into two

a. Chromosomes in each cell are a random assortment of maternal and

paternal chromosomes as a result of 1) crossing-over 2) the random

distribution of maternal and paternal homologs during metaphase

 Meiosis II: (cells are now haploid from meiosis I – only one member of each homologous pair
of chromosomes is present)
1. Prophase II
a. The spindle apparatus forms

b. If a nuclear envelope formed at the end of meiosis II, it breaks apart

2. Metaphase II

a. Replicated chromosomes, consisting of two sister chromatids, are lined up

at the plate
3. Anaphase II
a. Sister chromatids separate
b. The daughter chromosomes that result begin moving to opposite poles of

the cell’s spindle apparatus

4. Telophase II
a. Chromosomes finish moving

b. A nuclear envelope forms around each haploid set of chromosomes

5. YIELD: 4 daughter cells from original parent
 Mitosis vs. meiosis
o Key difference: homologous chromosomes pair early in meiosis but do not pair at all

during mitosis; since homologs pair through synapsis in prophase of meiosis I, they

can migrate to the metaphase plate together and then separate during anaphase I,
resulting in a reduction division

 Synapsis and crossing over

1. Sister chromatids are held together along their full length by cohesion proteins…

at prophase I, chromosomes begin to condense

2. Homologs pair, due to breaking of DNA segments  initiates crossing-over

3. A network of proteins forms the synaptonemal complex, which holds the two
homologs tightly together

4. Synaptonemal complex disassembles in late prophase I; the two homologs

partially separate and are held together only at chiasmata, and attachments that

are eventually broken to restore individual chromosomes


 Weismann’s hypothesis: a reduction division precedes gamete formation in animals

 Asexual reproduction: any mechanism of producing offspring that does not involve the
production and fusion of gametes

o In eukaryotes: based on mitosis

o Identical cells produced – genetic clones!

 Sexual reproduction: production of offspring through the production and fusion of gametes

o Results in offspring that have chromosome complements unlike those of their sibling
or their parents, meiosis
o Genetic variation created through:
 Separation and distribution of homologous chromosomes
 Crossing over

 The role of independent assortment

o When pairs of homologous chromosomes line up during meiosis I and the homologs
separate, a variety of combos of maternal and paternal chromosomes can result

o Each daughter cell gets a random assortment of m+p chromosomes

o Allows for appearance of new combos of alleles, or genetic recombination
 How does fertilization affect genetic variation?
o Crossing over and independent assortment of maternal and paternal chromosomes

ensure that each gamete is genetically unique, even if it’s through self-fertilization!

 However, this is pretty rare

o Typically, gametes from different individuals combine to produce offspring, a.k.a.


 Great factor for genetic diversity


 Down syndrome: extra copy (trisomy) of chromosome 21

 How do they occur?

o The chromosomes in each homologous pair must separate from each other during
meiosis I, so that only one homolog ends up in a daughter cell
o Sister chromatids must separate from each other and move to opposite poles of

dividing cell in meiosis I

 If both homologs (MI) or sister chromatids (MII) move to the same pole of the cell, products
will be abnormal  this is known as nondisjunction, since they fail to disjoin
 Gametes w/ extra chromosome = n+1
o n+1+n  2n+1 (trisomy)

 Gametes missing a chromosome = n -1

o n-1+n  2n-1 (monosomy)

 Both of these are aneuploids, or “without form”

 This happens often (25%!), and can be fatal  leading cause of miscarriage in humans 
 Why do mistakes occur?
o Trisomy is more common w/ small chromosomes, and c. 21 is the smallest human
o Not including trisomy-21, most trisomies and monosomies in humans involve sex

o Errors in meiosis leading to eggs are more common than in leading to sperm
o Maternal age: incidence of Down’s increases dramatically in babies born to mums >36

 Lots of unanswered questions, most come down to an unusual feature of oogenesis in
o Diploid precursors to eggs enter meiosis before birth and arrest in prophase I until


 This arrest can be over 40 years long!

 Spindle apparatus function declines after long wait, which is the root of these



 Why meiosis/sex?
 The pardox of sex

o Due to “two-fold cost of males”, who can’t produce children, asexual reproduction is

much more efficient than sexual b/c no males are produced

o If all other things are equal, in competition sexual organisms would die out since
much less efficient

 The purifying selection hypothesis

o If a gene is damaged or altered in a way that it causes a decline in function, an

asexual organism’s offspring will ALL have that gene alteration
 Deleterious allele
o But in sexual organism, it is likely that some offspring will lack the deleterious allele

present in the parent

 Natural selection against deleterious alleles = purifying selection – reduces

numerical advantage of asexual reprod.

 The changing environment hypothesis

o Offspring that are genetic clones of parents are unlikely to thrive if the environment
o If a new strain of a disease-causing agent evolves, then a population of genetically

identical asexual progeny are likely to be susceptible to strain, and the whole pop.
could die out!
o But if genetically varied, it is likely that at least some offspring will have combos of

alleles that enable them to fight off the new strain of pathogen or parasite and

continue making their own kin



 How does asexual reproduction occur?

o Budding: an organism begins to form within or on a parent, process is complete

when offspring (mini parent) breaks free and begins to grow on its own
o Fission: an individual simply splits into two or more descendants

o Parthenogesis: females produce offspring w/o fertilization by a male

 Eggs are typically produced via mitosis – offspring are, therefore, genetically
 Switching reproductive modes: a case history

o Daphnia produce only diploid, female offspring throughout spring and summer via

 Eggs develop in brood pouch and released when female melts her

o Late summer or early fall  begin producing unfertilized, sexually produced eggs,
some of which are male
 Once they mature, haploid sperm from males fertilize haploid egg and form

o This phenomenon can be explained by two levels:

 Proximate causation: addresses how a trait is produced; when researchers

identify the genetic, developmental, hormonal, or neural mechanisms
responsible for a phenotype, they are working at this level

 Ultimate causation: addresses why a trait occurs, in terms of its effect on

o Also sexual if crowded AND short day length and low food concentration (so basically

when everything is miserable AF)


 Genetics = branch of biology that focuses on the inheritance of traits


 Heredity = inheritance, or the transmission of traits from parents to offspring

 Trait = any characteristic of an individual, ranging from height to favorite kind of ice cream
 Two hypotheses at the time of Mendel

o Blending inheritance
o Inheritance of acquired characters

 Mendel tested these w/ Pisum sativum, or garden pea, plants

o Served as a model organism: a species used for research b/c it is practical + b/c
conclusions are applicable for other species

 Under normal conditions, garden peas self-fertilize (a flower’s pollen falls on a female

reproductive organ of the same flower)

o Could prevent this by removing male reproductive organs before any pollen formed
and transferring pollen from another plant w/ a brush

 Cross-fertilization, a.k.a. cross

 Phenotype: observable trait

 Pure line: individuals produce offspring identical to themselves when they are self-pollinated
or crossed
 Hybrids: offspring from matings between true-breeding parents that differ in one or more



 Parental generation
o F1 generation (first filial)

 Monohybrid cross: 3: 1 ratio

o Did not blend together
o Genetic determinant for wrinkled seeds gone?
 Planted F1 seeds + allowed them to mature

 Realized through F2 generation that wrinkled seed shape reappeared b/c of

dominant/recessive traits
 Dominant trait: (round seeds) not necessarily stronger or higher fitness

 Recessive trait: (wrinkled seeds) muffled by presence of dominant allele

 Reciprocal cross: (determining if gender influences inheritance of trait) a set of matings where
the M phenotype in cross 1 = F’s phenotype in cross 2, and the F phenotype in cross 1 = M’s
phenotype in cross 2

o Crosses were identical in pea plants, so gender didn’t matter here

 Particulate inheritance
o Competing hypothesis for existing ones, maintains that hereditary determinants

maintains their integrity from gen to gen; instead of blending together, they act as
discrete entities or particles

 Dominance and recessive-ness determine which phenotype appears in an individual when two
different alleles are present

 To explain 3:1 ratio, asserted that 2 members of each gene pair must segregate into different
gamete cells during meiosis **

o Principle of segregation
 Homozygous = two copies of the same allele

 Heterozygous = two different alleles for same gene


 Dihybrid cross: a mating between two heterozygous individuals

 Hypothesis of independent assortment: alleles of different genes don’t stay together when
gametes form

 Used a testcross to test this (9:3:3:1 ratio)

o RrYy x RrYy
o Useful when genetic contribution of recessive parent is known (rryy0

 Work founded a powerful conceptual framework for thinking about transmission genetics…
framework based on…
o Segregation of discrete, paired genes into separate gametes
o Independent assortment of alleles during gametogenesis

 Mendel’s work was overlooked until 1900, when three biologists, working w/ a variety of
organisms, independently “discovered” Mendel’s work and reached same conclusions
 Meiosis explains Mendel’s principles
o Explains principle of segregation and independent assortment
o Locus: a gene’s physical location on a chromosome

 The physical separation of alleles during anaphase I is responsible for

Mendel’s principle of segregation

 If alleles for different genes are located on a different chromosomes, they

assort independently of one another at meiosis I  physical basis for

Mendel’s principle of independent assortment

 Formalization of these observations  chromosome theory of inheritance (Sutton and Boveri)

o States that Mendel’s rules can be explained by the independent alignment and
separation of homologous chromosomes at meiosis I

 Testing the chromosome theory

o Drosophila melanogaster
o Most common phenotype = wild type
o Mutant = individual w/ phenotype due to a mutation

o Eye color: reciprocal crosses were NOT identical – thus, it is a sex-linked trait, not


 X-linked inheritance/X-linkage = gene on X chromosome

 Y “ – vice-versa

 Sex “ – general for aforementioned patterns


 Mendel discovered the most fundamental rules of inheritance using a simple system
 Once his work was rediscovered, researchers began to analyze traits and alleles whose
inheritance was more complicated than 2 alleles, dom or rec!

 Linkage- when genes are located near each other on the same chromosome, they tend to be
inherited together
 Linked genes do NOT assort independently, so they technically violate the principle of
independent assortment
o Recombinant: a new combination of alleles in organism is present in small

percentages, so alleles on the same chromosome don’t ALWAYS stay together

 Why? Crossing over during prophase I
 % of recombinant offspring can be used to estimated distance between genes

 can create genetic map

o Parental: non-recombinant, higher percentages of occurance
 Multiple allelism = existence of more than 2 alleles of the same gene
o ABO blood group

 Polymorphic trait (blood type): occurrence of over 2 distinct phenotypes of a

trait in a population
 IA and IB code for different enzymes that add different sugar at the end of a

core polysaccharide, i allele codes for non-functional form of enzyme  no

sugar is added

 The polysaccharide is on glycoprotein that is used as an ANTIGEN!

 Codominance in individuals w/ both IA and IB – simultaneous expression of

phenotype associated w/ each allele in a heterozygote (AB)

 Incomplete dominance

o Red and white flowers  pink offspring

o Heterozygotes have a phenotype that is in between the two different homozygous


 To sum it up, three possible dominance relationships: complete, incomplete, and

 Pleiotropic genes influence many traits
 Phenotype is influenced by more than just genotype – epigenetics!
o The environment is often as much a factor in the products as genetic material!

o Gene-by-gene interaction is very common

 Can Mendel’s principles explain traits that don’t fall into distinct categories?

o Mendel worked w/ discrete traits, or traits that are clearly different from each other
o Quantitative traits: greatly influenced by the environment (nutrition  height!)
 If many genes contribute small amount to value, a normal distribution
emerges for population
 Wheat and kernel color
 Independent assortment, but a, b, c don’t contribute to pigment

production compared to A, B, C which do, so this is a form of

incomplete dominance

 Polygenic inheritance – each gene adds a small amount to value of phenotype


 Mode of transmission: autosomal/sex-linked, dominant/recessive

 Pedigree – family tree
 Heterozygous – carriers

 How to rule out specific inheritance patterns:


 Anatomy = study of an organism’s physical structure

 Physiology = study of how the physical structures in an organism function


 Adaptations: heritable traits that allow individuals to survive and reproduce in a certain
environment better than individuals that lack those traits

 The role of fitness trade-offs

o Inescapable compromises between traits

o E.g. animals may devote more energy to reproduction at the expense of strong

immune function, or vice-versa, or both might be affected

 Case study in crickets regarding these two traits!

 Adaptations are genetic changes, while acclimatization is a phenotypic change in an individual
in response to short-term changes in the natural environment (reversible, unlike adaptations!)

 Acclimation = similar to acclimatization, but refers to changes that occur in organisms in a lab



 If structure is adaptive, size/shape/composition often correlates closely to function

 If mutation alters structure’s shape/size in a way that makes it function more efficiently,

individuals w/ that allele will make more babies  allele will increase in frequency in
population over time! (this is natural selection, bitches)
 Structure-function relationships at the molecular and cellular levels

o E.g. bone cell  lots of matrices in cell, contributes to rigidity

 Tissues are groups of cells that function as a unit
o Multicellular = bodies contain distinct types of cells that are specialized for different
reasons, animals are this and thus have tissues

 Embryonic tissues: ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm

 As an individual develops, embryonic tissue gives rise to 4 adult types:

o Connective tissue

 Cells are arranged in a jelly-like, liquid, or solid matrix with special

characteristics depending on type:

 Loose connective tissue

o Contains an array of fibrous proteins in a soft matrix

o Serves as a packing material between organ or padding under

the skin

o Examples: reticular, adipose/fat

 Dense connective tissue

o Found in tendons and ligaments

o Matrix is dominated by tough collagen fibers

 Supporting connective tissue
o Firm extracellular matrix
o Bone and cartilage – provides both structural support and
protective enclosures for the brain

 Fluid connective tissue

o Cells surrounded by a liquid extracellular matrix

o Blood – specialized extracellular matrix is also known as

o Nervous tissue
 Consists of neurons, or nerve cells, and several types of supporting cells
 Neurons transmit electrical signals, which are produced by changes in the

permeability of the cell’s plasma membrane to ions

 Two distinct types of projections from the cell body within the neuron:
 Dendrites – highly branched, relatively short processes

 Axon – relatively long structure

o Muscle tissue
 Functions include movements of the body, pumping of the heart, and mixing
of food in the gastrointestinal tract

 Three types:

 Skeletal muscle
o Attaches to the bones and exerts a force on them when it

o Responsible for most body movements

o Encircles the openings of the digestive and urinary tract and

controls swallowing, pooping, and peeing

 Cardiac muscle
o Makes up the walls of the heart  is responsible for pumping

blood throughout the body

 Smooth muscle

o Tapered at each end

o Forms a smooth muscle tissue that lines the walls of the

digestive tract
o Epithelial tissue
 Also known as epithelia (sing: epithelium)
 Covers outside of the body, lines surface of organs, and forms glands

 Organ = a structure that serves a specialized function and consists of several


 Gland = organ that secretes specific molecules or solutions like

hormones/digestive enzymes
 Form the interface between the interior of an organ/body and exterior
 Water, nutrients, and other substances are transported, often selectively,
across epithelia
 Primary function is to act as a barrier and protective layer  cells are packed

closely together
 Often joined by structures that hold them together tightly (tight
junctions and desmosomes! See Ch. 11!)

 Sidedness:
 Apical side: faces away from other tissues and towards the
 Basolateral side: faces interior of animal and connects to connective


o Connection made by layer of fibers, basal lamina

 Apical and basolateral sides have distinct structures and functions

 Short life spans! Tissue doesn’t erode because cells undergo mitosis and
cytokinesis often

 Organs and organ systems

o Organ system – consist of groups of tissues and organs that work together to

perform one or more functions

o B/c each level of organization is integrated w/ other levels, the organism as a whole is

greater than the sum of its parts


 Homeostasis – stability in the chemical and physical conditions within an animal’s cells,

tissues, and organs

 Although conditions may vary as an animal’s environment changes, internal chemical and
physical changes are usually kept at a tolerable range
 Two general approaches:

o Conformation

 Sock cod doesn’t actively regulate its body temperature; instead, its body
temperature remains constant because it conforms to the temperature of its

constant surroundings
 Physiological systems would not work properly outside of these conditions
o Regulation
 Based on internal mechanisms that adjust the internal state to keep it within

limits that can be tolerated

 Role of epithelium: responsible for helping with differentiation of internal/external

o Many epithelial cells have membrane proteins that regulate the transport of ions,
water, nutrients, and wastes
 Why is it important?
o Most enzymes work most efficiently within a fairly narrow range of conditions

o Departure from optimal speeds of reactions – fevers (increase in temp means greater

kinetic energy and therefore faster reaction speeds, can catch pathogens more quickly
through blood cell immune response)

 The role of regulation and feedback

o Most animals have regulatory systems that monitor internal conditions like

temperature, BP, blood pH, and blood glucose

o Set point = a normal/target range of values for controlled variable

 A homeostatic system:
o Sensor

 Structure that senses some aspect of external or internal environment

o Integrator

 Evaluates incoming sensory information and “decides” whether or not a

response is necessary
o Effector
 Any structure that helps restore the desired internal condition

 Homeostatic systems are based on negative feedback loops!


 For most unicellular species, the outside environment is teeming w/ other organisms
 Multicellular species have outside environments made up of OTHER cells, both neighboring

and distant
o An individual organism is actually an interdependent community of cells


 Membrane is studded with proteins that are integral (in bilayer) or peripheral (attached to

one surface)
 These proteins participate in the primary function of the plasma membrane – to create an
environment in cell that is different from conditions outside by regulating transport of

 The structure and function of an extracellular layer
o Most cells secrete products that are assembled into a layer or wall just beyond the

o Extracellular materials help define the cell’s shape and either attaches it to another

cell or acts as first line of defense against outside world

o Consists of cross-linked network of long filaments embedded in a stiff surrounding

material, or ground substance

 Effective at withstanding stretching and straining forces  rods/filaments in a

 Effective at withstanding pressing forces, a.k.a. compression  gel-forming

mixture of polysaccharides in stiff surrounding substance

 Together, these fiber composites are both flexible and strong!

 The cell wall in plants

o Virtually all plant cells are surrounded by a cell wall – fiber composite that is


o Cell walls are dynamic, and can be degraded/altered due to environmental changes
o Primary cell wall
 Long strands of cellulose are bundled into cable-like microfibrils and cross-
linked by other polysaccharide filaments
 Microfibrils are synthesized by a complex of enzymes in the plasma

 Space between microfibrils is filled with gelatinous polysaccharides such as

pectins – molecules used to thicken jams and jellies!

 Polysaccharides in pectin are polar/hydrophilic  attract and hold
large amounts of water to keep the cell wall moist
 Define the shape of a plant cell
 Turgor pressure – force against wall, erected when water enters cell through

osmosis, which increases the cell’s volume because of incoming water

 Expansins disrupt hydrogen bonds that cross-link the microfibrils in the wall,
allowing them to slide past one another

 Turgor pressure then forces the wall to elongate and expand  cell
 Hence, expansins are secrete into cell walls of young plant cells
o Secondary cell walls

 Additional layer of material between plasma membrane and primary cell wall

 Structure varies from cell to cell in plant and correlates with the cell’s function
 Lignin – complex polymer that forms an exceptionally rigid network in wood-

forming cells
 The extracellular matrix in animals

o Most animals secrete a fiber composite called the extracellular matrix (ECM)
o Structural function like other EC materials

o Follows same principles observed in cell walls of bacteria, algae, fungi, and plants, but
*Contains MUCH MORE protein relative to carbohydrate compared to cell walls

o Fibrous component of animal ECM is dominated by a cable-like protein, collagen

o Matrix that surrounds collagen and other fibrous components contains gel-forming

proteoglycans – consist of protein cores with many large polysaccharides attached to

 In some tissues, complexes of proteoglycans may also be produced
o Most ECM components are synthesized in rough ER, processed in Golgi, and secrete
from cell through exocytosis
 After secretion, proteins like collagen may then assemble into larger structures

such as fibrils
 Secreted proteoglycans may be attached to long polysaccharides synthesized

by cellular enzymes in extracellular space

 Responsible for rubber-like consistency of cartilage
o Amount of ECM/composition depends on tissue types
o Membrane proteins called integrins bind to EC proteins (like laminins, which in turn
bind to other components of the ECM by crosslinking)
o Intracellular portions of the integrins also bind to proteins that are connected to

cytoskeleton, effectively forming a bridge between two support systems

 Linkage between cytoskeleton and ECM is critical – besides keeping individual
cells in place, it helps adjacent cells adhere to each other via their common

connection to ECM

 Anchorage to the ECM is a matter of life and death


 Multicellularity is based on intercellular connections

 These physical connections between cells - either direct or indirect through ECM – are

particularly important in structure and function of tissues

 Cell-cell attachments in multicellular eukaryotes

o Materials and structures that bind cells together are particularly important in the
epithelium – tissue that forms external and internal surfaces

 Layers function as a barrier between the external and internal environments of

plants and animals

 Also form to separate organs to prevent mixing of solutions from adjacent

 Indirect intercellular attachments
o Extracellular space between adjacent plant cells comprises of three layers

 Primary cell walls of adjacent plant cells

 Middle lamella – central layer, which consists primarily of gelatinous pectins

 Layer is continuous with primary cell walls of adjacent cells, and serves
to glue them together
 Think of it like a Nutella sandwich!

 In many animal tissues, integrins connect the cytoskeleton of each cell to the

 Middle lamella-like layer of gelatinous polysaccharides and

proteoglycans runs between adjacent animal cells  holds cells

together in tissues
 Tight junctions are cell-cell attachments composed of specialized proteins in the plasma
membranes of adjacent animal cells – these proteins line up and bind to one another
 Resulting structure resembles quilting, where the proteins “stitch” the membranes of two clels

together to form a watertight seal  thus, they prevent solutions from flowing through the
space between two cells
 Tight junctions are commonly found in cells that form a barrier, such as the epithelial cells

that line your stomach and intestines

 Although they’re tight, they are variable too – the bladder is tighter than small intestine,
which allows small ions to pass through s.i. more readily to help with waste elimination
 Also dynamic – loosen to permit more transport between epithelial cells

o Can open and close in response to environmental changes

 Tight junctions are weak adhesions that can be easily broken, despite being very good at
holding cells close together

o Need other adhesins…

 Desmosomes

o Cell-cell attachments particularly common in animal epithelial cells and certain muscle

o Extremely sophisticated cell-cell connections

 Integral membrane attachment proteins that form bridges between anchoring

proteins inside adjacent cells

 Intermediate filaments help reinforce these connections by attaching to the

anchoring proteins in the cytoplasm

 These proteins demonstrate selective adhesion  only to one another

o Tested on antibodies (protein produced by an immune response)
 If treatment w/ a particular antibody prevents the cells from attaching to one
another, the antibody is probably bound to an adhesion protein
 Allowed biologists to identify eadhesins, the attachment molecules in

 Cells communicate via cell-cell gaps

o Signals may alter which proteins are produced and which are not, by regulating gene
o Signals may activate or deactivate particular proteins that already exist in the cell –
often those involved in metabolism, membrane transport, secretion, and the
o Gap junctions connect adjacent cells

 Key feature: specialized proteins that assemble in the membranes of adjacent

cells, creating interconnected pores between the cells
 Channels that can transport water, ions, and small molecules

 Communication portals
 Connections between adjacent cells = plasmodesmata in plant cells
o At these, plasma membrane + cytoplasm are continuous
o Plasma membrane separates most tissues into two independent compartments:

 Symplast – continuous network of cytoplasm connected by plasmodesmota

 Apoplast – region outside plasma membrane

o Gap junctions and plasmodesomata allow for adjacent cells to transmit info!

-Add pictures and connect meiosis to genetics more thoroughly

List of concepts to know for exam:

 meiosis (chapter 13) Whole chapter, with emphases on:

o knowing/defining terms in table 13.1

o understanding/identifying/naming phases of meiosis (figure 13.7and accompanying

text in chapter)
o tetrad (bivalent) formation and crossover (figure 13.9 and accompanying text in


o how meiosis leads to genetic diversity through three mechanisms (figure 13.11 and

accompanying text)
o nondisjunction and gene dosage-- why aneuploidy is lethal

o c. elegans experiment (as well as daphnia experiment, pg1014-1016) and what they
demonstrate about sexual vs. asexual reproduction
 mendel and the gene (chapter 14). Whole chapter, with emphases on:
o how mendel's laws arise through mechanisms of meiosis
o how to perform any monohybrid or dihybrid cross, and how to predict

the genotypic and phenotypic outcomes for any cross. (Using punnett squares or any
other method)

o sex linked traits (and concept of genetic linkage)

o how genotype leads to phenotype, including the common misconceptions covered in

lecture (ex: most phenotypes are NOT the result of the influence of only one gene,
but multiple genes)
o that any gene can have multiple alleles (because there are many ways to alter a

protein and different mutations can have different effects on protein function--
o you DO NOT have to know pg 274-276.
o identifying inheritance patterns from human pedigrees (including Y-linked,

discussed in class)

 You should know the three major types of cytoskeletal elements (chapter 7.6) for the purpose

o discussing mechanisms by which signals can cause cells to change shape

o understanding the mechanism by which vesicles travel inside cells

o learning about motor proteins (and their involvement in muscle contraction and

 You should know the major types of connections between cells (chapter 11.2) because these
aren't just passive connections; they carry vital information for the cells and have a role in

cellular signaling. We will discuss:

o cell surface proteins, particularly the ones with oligosaccharides attached

o integrins, which can connect internal cytoskeleton fibers to extracelllular matrix fibers

o tight junctions and how they make a lining "waterproof"

o How cells recognize each other, and how proteins like those in desmosomes also
serve as signals and receptors
 Chapter 42, section 2 and 4
o we go into great detail about structure-function relationships in tissues. You should

know the four main types, examples of each, and the structures covered in class.
o Also know/describe the idea of emergent properties

o read about homeostasis (why is it important and what is the purpose of having a
central point of control)
 Good concepts to review
o protein structure and function (including the types of proteins we've covered so far:
enzymes, membrane proteins, receptors)
o gene to protein, effects of mutations on protein primary structure and folding

o metabolic pathway diagrams (which are the substrates and which are the gene-
encoded enzymes)