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Reading comprehension test

Submitted by Pitchapa Jitsajjapong (Lookpeach) 1001

The phonograph was developed as a result of Thomas Edison's work on two


other inventions, the telegraph and the telephone. In 1877, Edison was working on a
machine that would transcribe telegraphic messages through indentations on paper
tape, which could later be sent over the telegraph repeatedly. This development led
Edison to speculate that a telephone message could also be recorded in a similar
fashion. He experimented with a diaphragm which had an embossing point and was
held against rapidly-moving paraffin paper. The speaking vibrations made
indentations in the paper. Edison later changed the paper to a metal cylinder with tin
foil wrapped around it. The machine had two diaphragm-and-needle units, one for
recording, and one for playback. When one would speak into a mouthpiece, the sound
vibrations would be indented onto the cylinder by the recording needle in a vertical
groove pattern. Edison gave a sketch of the machine to his mechanic, John Kruesi, to
build, which Kruesi supposedly did within 30 hours. Edison immediately tested the
machine by speaking the nursery rhyme into the mouthpiece, "Mary had a little lamb."
To his amazement, the machine played his words back to him.
Although it was later stated that the date for this event was on August 12, 1877,
some historians believe that it probably happened several months later, since Edison
did not file for a patent until December 24, 1877. Also, the diary of one of Edison's
aides, Charles Batchelor, seems to confirm that the phonograph was not constructed
until December 4, and finished two days later. The patent on the phonograph was
issued on February 19, 1878. The invention was highly original. The only other
recorded evidence of such an invention was in a paper by French scientist Charles
Cros, written on April 18, 1877. There were some differences, however, between the
two men's ideas, and Cros's work remained only a theory, since he did not produce a
working model of it.

(source:​https://www.loc.gov/collections/edison-company-motion-pictures-and-sound-r
ecordings/articles-and-essays/history-of-edison-sound-recordings/history-of-the-cylin
der-phonograph/​)

Summary

The passage explains the history of the cylinder phonograph. The idea
developed from a telegraph that Thomas Edison worked on before. The phonograph is
made of a metal cylinder and ​two diaphragm-and-needle units​ which used for
recording and reflecting the sound back. Nevertheless, the date of this event has been
argued by historians since then.
1.What is the main idea of this passage?

a. History of the cylinder phonograph


b. How the cylinder phonograph works
c. History of Thomas Edison
d. How to make the cylinder phonograph

2.Why don’t some historians believe that the date of phonograph was on August 12,
1877?
a. There is no evidence to prove that this invention already existed.
b. The invention was not significant.
c. There is no patent of Thomas Edison at that time.
d. Charles Batchelor fixed the work later to make it more complete.

3.Who built the phonograph by following Thomas Edison’s sketch?


a. Charles Cros
b. John Kruesi
c. Charles Batchelor
d. No one, he built it on his own

4. Why did Thomas Edison assume that a telephone message can also be recorded?
a. He found the document that supported this fact.
b. A telegraph that he worked on before could transcribe the message.
c. According to the theory that the voice can travel through air and solid.
d. He guessed it out.

5. The word “speculate” in line 5 is closest in meaning to


a. predict
b. describe
c. establish
d. demonstrate

6.The word “​patent” in line 18 is closest in meaning to


a. disqualify
b. anonymous
c. license
d. indistinct

7.The word “he” in line 24 refers to


a. Thomas Edison
b. Charles Batchelor
c. Charles Cros
d. John Kruesi
8.Which of the following statement is true?
a. A phonograph worked by using electricity.
b. Thomas Edison invented the phonograph by following ​Charles Batchelor’s
sketch​.
c. The phonograph was the first invention of Thomas Edison.
d. There is no exact date for this invention.

9.All of the following are the components of the cylinder phonograph EXCEPT
a. foil
b. diaphragm
c. metal cylinder
d. wire

10.What can be inferred about the first experiment of making the phonograph?
a. It totally failed.
b. It was used and adapted for making the complete phonograph.
c. It gave Thomas Edison the idea of making another new invention.
d. It was the complete work which now kept in the museum.

ANSWER KEY
1.a
2.c
3.b
4.b
5.a
6.c
7.c
8.d
9.d
10.b