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1 The county director of education in your county has released a newsletter that
highlights intentions to invest an elaborate ICT system in all institutions. You have
been appointed to be part of the steering committee in this implementation for your

In light of this:
a) Discuss the importance of such investments in an educational institution, be particular
and clarify the context and scope based on the level of institution you are referring to (8
ICT is an abbreviation for information and communication technology, which refers to all
equipment, applications and services that involve communication. Computers, cellphones,
televisions, radios and satellite systems are all part of ICT.

1. Information and Communication Technology plays a vital role in supporting powerful,

efficient management and administration in education sector.
It is specified that technology can be used right from student administration to various
resource administration in an education institution such as a college or university within and
outside the county.
ICT in a college or university can be used in the following sectors/departments

a) Student Administration
-Usage of electronic media by students to apply for admissions
-Usage of computers for student registration / enrolment
-Availability of time table / class schedule in electronic form
-Usage of computers for maintenance of attendance of students
-Communication of academic details of students to their parents / guardians through e-media
-Usage of e-media for notifications regarding hostel accommodation
-Usage of e-media for notifications regarding transportation
b) Staff Administration
-Usage of computers for recruitment and work allotment of staff in the institution
-Automation of attendance and leave management of staff members in the institution
-Usage of electronic media for performance appraisal
-Communication with staff using e-media
-e-circulars from the institution regarding official matters
-e-kiosks are available in the institution

c) General Administration
-Usage of e-media for scheduling / allocation of halls for examinations
-Dissemination of information in the institution through e-kiosks
-Usage of e-media by students to apply for university examinations
-Usage of e-media for the processing and display of results of students
-Facility for students to make fee payments electronically

2. ICT plays a role in Record Keeping

Potential of ICT in Record Keeping
The following are the areas where there is ICT record keeping

The usefulness of keeping school records with Information and Communication Technologies
(ICT) is for the following reasons:
• Administrative Efficiency: One major setback in achieving the educational objective of the
secondary education is inefficiency of the principal in keeping some records. With the
introduction of information and communication technologies such as computers, digital
libraries, e-mail, internet and so on where information are stored and disseminated, principals
can do better in keeping records, and become effective and efficient in performing their
prescribed roles as administrators.
• Availability of Information: Information and Communication Technologies will help
maintain adequate and accurate records in our schools and make it available with ease.
• Easy Retrieval: It also leads to easy accessibility and dissemination of information on school
records, will become available for national planning, financial budgeting, effective
implementation of the educational programs and policies.
School record keeping is all about information collection, storage, retrieval, use, transmission,
manipulation and dissemination for the purpose of enriching communication, decision -making
and problem solving ability in the school system. It is therefore necessary that this process be
as accurate and accessible as possible. Using ICT in keeping school records will help to
facilitate and enhance the administration of the school towards achieving the goals of the
secondary education within the county and in the national government.
3. ICT helps in planning Scheduling school/college programs

ICT helps in school scheduling.

ICT helps Creating a schedule that will maximize instructional time, provide time to meet the
needs of the school's students, provide time for staff to meet and plan, organize various
curricular and co-curricular activities of the school is very important for any school. Use of
ICT helps to ensure that such scheduling happens smoothly.
Some of the important activities of the school that need to be planned and scheduled are
• School calendar, Teaching time table, Examination time table, Meetings including PTA

4. ICT in a school helps in Communicating with Parents

Communication is important to inform parents about school activities.
It is also a vehicle for developing awareness and understanding among parents of their role in
the learning and development of their children.
It is also an opportunity to learn about the children in your classrooms.
Communication between schools and families is essential for building trusting relationships
that foster parental involvement. Parental involvement in schools and social insti tutes is
necessary for youngsters to develop successfully and to make decisions that will have positive
outcomes for their future.
The role of new ICTs in improving parental involvement in schools and social institutes and
uncovers barriers that prevent usage of technology to promote communication
Both educators and parents are provided with access to electronic communication.
ICT helps to build home-school partnerships which are a powerful avenue for increasing the
satisfaction of parents and the community with schooling and for improving schools. Parents'
involvement in their child's education is a key factor in the child's scholastic success. Parental
participation ranges from paying little or no attention to too much attention. As the teacher,
he/she must help manage the parental participation so that students are accountable for their
own learning.

4ICT acts as a tool for School Management

ICT helps in Interactions sharing ideas and communications with teachers, parents, alumni and
community members and this makes them to become the major part of school management.
School management includes admission of students to various courses, assigning subjects and
classes to teachers, maintaining records, communicating with parents, preparing various
certificates, analyzing various data etc.
ICT helps all stake holders in participating actively in decision-making process.
Administration software helps in management of a school or college.

Going without school administration software could be costing your time and effort. Earlier
times school administration was run without software. But present day we are living in a
digital world and needs are changed.
Evaluate potential security challenges that are likely to affect the new system (8 marks)
1. Broken down computers

while a good number of schools have benefited from donated used computers, they have not
been adequately equipped with the same on maintenance and repair, hence its very common to
see a schools computer lab full of broken down computers, some repairable and some not.
This has actually been a major problem, and the government has now put strict measures on
any person, NGO or corporate bodies willing to donate 2nd hand computers. (It is seen as a
dumping ground); e-waste management.

2. Burglary

The fact that computers are still very expensive in Kenya, makes them a target for thieves
who usually have ready markets to another party at a much less figure. This has made many
schools to incur extra expenses trying to burglar proof the computer rooms. This extra expense
makes some schools shy away from purchasing computers for their students.

3. Obsolete computers lower the morale of both the teacher and the student; it is very
common to find some schools using very old computers running on win98 or win 95.

4. Increased moral degradation

Internet pornography, cyber bullying and other anti-social behaviours is a worrying emerging

5. Exposure to the threat of physical danger and abuse

This is the most worrying risk associated with the use of the internet. A criminal minority
make use of the internet and related services such as chat rooms to make contact with young
people. These techniques are known as ‘online enticement’, ‘grooming’ or ‘child
procurement’. The Sexual

Offences Act 2003, which came into force in May 2004, includes a grooming offence
specifically introduced to combat this misuse of the internet.
There is a risk that, whilst online, a young person may provide information that can identify
them, or arrange to meet someone they have communicated with online.

6. A new arena for intimidation and bullying

New methods of communication open up opportunities for intimidation and bullying, by text
message or instant messaging services, by email, or within chat rooms. Regrettably, there are also
abusive or discriminatory websites that target vulnerable children

7. Misuse of resources

Electronic access to a wealth of information and imagery brings with it the danger of assignments
and projects being copied from the internet or from a CD-Rom; at best, this may mean that
children have no real grasp of the material they are appropriating, at worst it may mean they are
guilty of plagiarism and cheating

8. Access to unsuitable and inappropriate materials

There is a risk that when using the internet, email or chat services as young people may be
exposed to inappropriate material which encourages activities that are considered unhealthy,
dangerous or even illegal.

Critically discuss how the identified challenges can be mitigated ( 6 marks)

1 .Increased moral degradation can be controlled by control use of ICT services
The contents and Use of ICT should be monitored by the school administrators and relevant
2. Exposure to the threat of physical danger and abuse
The governing body needs to ensure that every effort is made to educate pupils regarding these
issues. Often, of course, pupils are at most risk outside the school environs, so where possible,
advice should be supplied to parents and the local community
3. Firewall and virus protection to prevent unauthorized access to the school’s network. A
firewall cans prevent information about pupils and the school being seen by unauthorized
users and protect computer systems and files from viruses that can corrupt or destroy
important information. The governing body should ensure that a suitable firewall is in place

4. Software filters: different types of filters are available to restrict access to inappropriate
websites and some schools go further by subscribing only to collections of websites that have
been vetted and approved for access by children. Schools should monitor the use of ICT on a
regular basis, by keeping track of information accessed and/or downloaded from the internet to
check its suitability
5. Using an accredited ISP: Becta’s advice is for schools to only access the internet through an
accredited Internet Service Provider (ISP).
6. Awareness of wireless technology issues: an open access wireless system allows
‘eavesdroppers’ to select and copy any/all transmitted data. Simple encryption systems are
available which will maintain security against the majority of ‘hackers’
7. A clear policy on using personal devices: as increasing numbers of pupils and staff use
laptops, memory sticks and other portable storage devices on the school network, there needs
to be a policy regarding their use, to protect the school network from viruses and inappropriate
access to sensitive data

d Identify other relevant activities, processes and considerations that should be given
attention prior/during to the implementation to optimize the benefits (8 marks)
1 .First of all there should be a feasibility study to analysis the cost benefit analysis of the new
system, the dangers and possible solutions to dangers posed by the new system
2. The construction of the ICT laboratory which is securer to prevent Burglary where the ICT
equipment’s will be stored
3. Electricity which will ensure that all the ICT equipment’s work efficiently
4. There is needed to look for expert or the need of retraining of the staff on how to use the
new technology.
5. There should be a consideration on how to decompose the wastes as electronic as dangerous
to expose them when their use ends
6. The laid down rules of procurement processes and procedures should be followed to avoid
unnecessary commotions.
7. The laws about ICT should be studied so that all what is done is according to the
constitution and laws of the country
8. Proper consultations among stake holders to avoid any disagreement which may arise.
9. Proper testing of the ICT equipment’s to sustain their functionality and to ensure smooth
running without any interruptions .