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Running Head: IT’LL COST YOU

It’ll Cost You:

The Credibility of News Sources

Elizabeth A. Woolery & Brian P. Moritz

SI Newhouse School of Public Communications, Syracuse University


Candidates, Media Studies Master’s Degree

Author contact information:

Media Studies Program


215 University Place
Syracuse, NY 13244-2100

816-863-3623

eawooler@syr.edu bpmoritz@syr.edu
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Abstract

This study examines whether consumers view higher-cost news sources as more credible

than lower-cost ones; print news as more credible than online; and whether there is an

interaction between cost and platform in regard to credibility. The study used an

experiment with a 2X2 factorial design. The study showed a relationship between

platform and credibility and an interaction between cost and platform, such that high-cost

online news was viewed as the most credible.

Keywords: Economics, Cost, Print News, Online News, Credibility, Newspaper


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It’ll Cost You:

The Credibility of News Sources

It is a tough time for the newspaper industry.

Circulation numbers for newspapers continue to fall. From 2008 to 2009,

circulation among American newspapers fell by seven percent over the previous year,

with 24 of the 25 largest newspapers in the country posting declines in circulation,

according a report by the Audit Bureau of Circulations1.

While newspaper circulation numbers are down, that on its own should not be

viewed as an indicator of a disinterest in news. Increasingly, consumers are going online

for their news. According to a 2009 study conducted by Nielsen for the Newspaper

Association of America, more than 73 million unique visitors visited newspaper websites

in the first quarter of 2009, a 10.9 percent increase over a similar time frame one year

earlier2.

Using the 2009 data from both the Audit Bureau of Circulations and the

Newspaper Association of America shows that, in increasing numbers, people are getting

their news online instead of from printed newspapers3.

One of the major differences between traditional newspapers and their online

counterparts is cost to the consumer. Traditional newspapers cost money to buy each day,

whereas there is not an easily discernable per-use cost for an online edition (though, as

will be examined in this paper, there is an associated cost to online news, in the form of
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computer hardware and Internet access).

Studies over the last decade have sought to define credibility and compare the

perceived credibility of traditional newspapers and online news platforms4 5. However,

the link between a platform’s cost and its credibility has not yet been established. That is

the goal of this study.

Theory

One of the primary and most easily identified differences between the online news

platform and the printed newspaper platform is the immediate cost to a consumer. As

news organizations struggle to figure out how best to use the Internet platform as a viable

revenue source competing with (or potentially replacing) its paper form, this distinction is

made even clearer. Much of the Internet's content – be it news or otherwise – is free and

easily accessible6 to anyone with computer access, be it at home, school, work or the

public library. Despite this, there have not yet been consistent findings regarding

consumer perceptions of credibility as they relate to the traditional printed news platform

versus the Internet news platform7.

Platform
There is no shortage of news sources, both in traditional and online platforms.

There are the mainstream news sources, such as The New York Times, The Wall Street

Journal, USA Today and the Chicago Tribune in their traditional printed formats. There

are online versions of these same mainstream newspapers – many of which are free,

though not all. The Wall Street Journal has charged for its online content for several
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years. In January 2010 The New York Times announced plans to start charging regular

readers of its website starting in 20118. In 2009, Newsday put its online content behind a

pay wall – though reports indicated that after three months, the newspaper had less than

three dozen Internet subscribers9. There is also an increased number of blogs and personal

websites used by people who would otherwise be traditional news consumers. These

online opportunities provide consumers with an option to follow and write about both

mainstream and niche issues and events that interest them in a way that has not routinely

been afforded by the printed newspaper.

Applying both the uses and gratifications theory10 and the theory of the niche11, it

can be established that both the online news platform and the printed news platform are

competing for similar, but not entirely the same, readers. In this sense, online news

platforms are competitively displacing traditional news sources, such as printed

newspapers12.

Uses and gratification theory holds that consumers actively select media that suits

their own wants and needs13. Under this theory, consumers would want to read the news

source (and, by extension) the news platform they deem the most credible. If consumers

are looking for news, it stands to reason that they are looking for information they think

is fair, accurate, believable, complete and well written.

While the content of online news platforms has, in the past, been shown to be

complementary to that organization’s print edition, particularly when it comes to

expanding into an international audience14, the authors of this study believe there is a
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difference in the consumers' perception of the credibility of a printed edition versus an

online one. That difference is due in part to the associated cost, or lack thereof, for these

two platforms.

Cost

A newspaper in its printed format has a direct and immediate cost to the

consumer. That cost can come in the form of a daily expense (anywhere from 25 cents

for an afternoon edition of one of the tabloids in New York City to $6 for the national

Sunday edition of The New York Times outside of the New York City) or a weekly,

monthly or annual expense in the form of a subscription (anywhere from $5.50 a week to

$75 a month, plus a $20 tip for the paperboy at Christmas). There is not an immediate

financial investment a reader must make before reading a newspaper online. Historically

(at least, in the relatively brief history of Internet news), a reader does not have to pay to

directly read each day’s online edition of their local, regional, metropolitan or even

national newspaper. With rare exceptions, such as much of The Wall Street Journal's

content, consumers do not pay for access to a specific day’s online newspaper, as long as

the computer hardware, software and Internet access are in place.

Brand as Power

Part of what gives print newspaper companies an economic advantage (that

allows for a per-use cost) over online news producers is that newspapers, due to their

long-running history in the United States, have a brand power with “must-have
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information”15. The online equivalent is not yet fully developed for even the largest or

greatest of online news sources. For newspapers, this brand power can translate to

readership16. As with most products, brand power is also tied to financial strength, which

can represent, to consumers, credibility17.

Credibility as Power

Credibility is one of the cornerstones of journalism. Reporters and editors at

news-gathering organizations strive to be fair and accurate with their stories, columns and

overall presentation, including photography and design. Codes of ethics adopted by

major news organizations stress the need for media professionals to act in a manner that

accentuates the traits that maximizes the credibility of the publication18.

Credibility is typically a cognitive construct. Past research has indicated that it is

an aggregate perception of information made and held by individual consumers of news

and not a property of the actual information19. While the actual credibility of a

publication itself is not something that can be measured, what can be measured is this

aggregate of consumer perceptions that make up a publication’s credibility. News

consumers’ perceptions of newspapers’ credibility have been studied often, dating back to

the 1950s and earlier20. Researchers have explicated credibility in a number of different

ways, using a variety of factors to define the variable.

Gaziano and McGrath developed a 12-variable scale for evaluating the credibility

of news platforms, with variables ranging from fairness and accuracy to patriotism and
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concern for the well being of the community.21 Newhagen and Nass, in their study

comparing the credibility of newspapers and television news, used 10 variables to

construct the scale for newspaper credibility, with variables ranging from fairness,

accuracy and factual nature of the story to patriotism, morality and sensationalism.22 For

the most part, since the Gaziano and McGrath study, the number of factors used to define

credibility has evolved and been condensed in subsequent studies, with some of those

variables being combined to eliminate what researchers believed to be duplication23.

Scholars have used different factors to define and measure the credibility of a news

source. Johnson and Kaye defined credibility by the aggregate measures of believability,

accuracy, bias and depth/completeness.24 Another study used the aggregate of six

variables to define credibility – accuracy, believability, unbiased, fairness, objectivity and

sensationalism25.

As opposed to other media, most notably personality-driven media like television,

newspaper credibility is often thought of in terms of the institution – meaning that

credibility is assigned to the news organization itself, rather than the individual

representatives of the source, such as TV anchors or newspaper columnists26.

Over the last 15 years, the Internet has emerged as an important source of news

for consumers. During that time, the research on credibility has expanded to include

online news sources; specifically, studies have compared the credibility of traditional

news sources and online news sources27. Much of the literature has revolved around the

notion of credibility of online news sources themselves, or comparing the credibility of


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traditional and online media in the examination of a single issue or event or region28.

Consumers generally find information from established news organizations relatively

credible, in both its online and print formats29. In addition, the literature has shown that

similar variables and definitions can be used in studying the credibility of traditional

newspapers and their online versions.

The ease of access to news sources on the Internet has been reported to lessen that

medium's role as a credible news platform due to the lack of “professional and social

pressures” that traditional news platforms face when presenting objective, factual

information30. Past research on this topic has shown that online news platforms were

viewed just as credibly as TV news but not as credible as newspapers31.

Hypotheses

Our study relates the costs (real and perceived) associated with news platform

access and people’s perceptions of those platforms’ credibility. Do news consumers

“trust” one form of news – printed or Internet – over another? Or, does the cost alone

affect media consumers' perception of news? Examining the link between a publication’s

cost and how much credibility readers give to the publication's content, we propose three

hypotheses:

H1. News distributed on the print platform is more credible than online news.

H2. More expensive news is more credible than less expensive news.

H3. There is an interaction between platform and cost on news credibility, such

that expensive print news will be viewed as the most credible and that inexpensive
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online news will be viewed as the least credible.

The publication’s cost is one of the independent variables, meaning the amount of

money paid by the user for the news platform and news articles. Platform is a second

independent variable and refers to the physical (for example, paper) or electronic (for

example, the Internet) means by which news travels from the news organization to the

audience. News credibility is the dependent variable and is operationalized as a

composite index of these factors: accuracy, believability, bias/objectivity,

depth/completeness and the quality of the writing.

We believe that the more money consumers spend on a news platform, the more

likely they are to find that platform credible. News is a product, much like clothing or

technology, and so, as its cost increases, its perceived value increases. On the other hand,

the nature of the platform can also affect credibility, with much speculation32 that people

believe online media to be less credible than paper. Further clarification of consumer’s

perception of credibility of online journalism and online news is needed. Because of the

complexities of the Internet as a vast news platform, for purposes of this study we will

limit the definition of news to include organized news outlets, specifically major news

companies, as much of the previous research as done33.

Methods

Determining the relationship between cost and platform on news’ perceived

credibility can be explored through an experiment, which offers flexibility in gathering


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participants’ experiences and perceptions of credibility of different news formats.

Sampling

Participants in the experiment were undergraduate students taking an introductory

communications course at a mid-sized northeastern university in the United States.

Students took part on a voluntary basis and in exchange for their participation in the

study received extra credit in a communications course, a decision made by the

professors of these courses. This population of communications students could be

representative of future news producers and news consumers alike. Some students were

reading the news in order to fulfill a class requirement, rather than for personal interest;

this is akin to readers of a newspaper like the Wall Street Journal, who turn to news

sources in order to gain an edge with financial- or business-related matters, rather than

for personal interest.

Participants were randomly assigned to one of four experiment groups: Internet

news, high cost; Internet news, low cost; Hardcopy/newsprint news, high cost; and

Hardcopy/newsprint news, low cost. The two hardcopy/print groups had 20 participants

each, and the two Internet groups had 19 participants each (N=78).

Cost and platform

In this experiment, the cost of accessing news content from organizations on both

paper and online platforms was manipulated. The design is a 2X2 factorial, meaning

platform has two values: paper and online, and that cost has two values: low cost ($1.00)

and high cost ($10.00).


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Each group was given a series of news articles, and one of two monetary values

(either a high cost or a low cost) was assigned to each platform. The articles are

fabricated news stories written by the study’s authors, both of whom have worked for

university and professional newspapers. Content for the articles was chosen so as not to

be local to the university where the study took place; the articles were also written to

avoid subjects that could instigate prior negative or positive associations with the content.

The hardcopy/print stories were designed to look like actual newspaper clippings with

appropriate typesetting, fonts, layout and design. The Internet news stories were read on a

laptop computer and made to resemble a typical online news website, also with

appropriate layout and typefaces. Each participant, whether in one of the online or

hardcopy/print treatment groups, was randomly assigned to read three articles.

Additionally, each participant was given a, “dummy” article, also designed and laid out to

look like a professional news article.

Measuring credibility

After reading the articles, participants were asked to evaluate the credibility of

their assigned publication based on several dimensions: accuracy, believability,

bias/objectivity, depth/completeness and quality of the writing of the story via a five-

point Likert Scale (1=strongly disagree, 5=strongly agree). The scores from the five

individual characteristics were combined to create a credibility index (Cronbach’s alpha =

.84). Subjects were also asked to provide demographic information and their experience

with, exposure to and use of news media. In addition, subjects were asked if the cost
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provided for the news source they read was high, low or fair relative to their perceptions

of the articles’ content and credibility.

Results

Seventy-eight subjects’ responses were analyzed. Demographically, the average

age of the subjects was 18.65 years old (see Table 1), and a majority of them were female

(69 percent), Caucasian (82 percent) and from the United States (86 percent) (see Table

2).

Eighty-five percent of the subjects said they read news regularly. They use online

news sources more frequently than printed newspapers. On average, they read online

news four days a week and average nearly 30 minutes per day reading online news. By

contrast, they read a newspaper just three days a week and spend approximately 22

minutes a day reading newspapers (see Table 1).

There was no effect of cost on news credibility, contrary to our first hypothesis.

In addition, the effect of platform was the opposite of what had been hypothesized (see

Table 3), with online news perceived as more credible than news on the paper platform.

Our interaction hypothesis was supported, but not exactly in the way we anticipated (see

Figure 1). We found that high-cost online news was viewed as the most credible,

followed in order by low-cost online news, low-cost-print news and high-cost print news.

We had expected to find that high-cost print news would be viewed as the most credible –

in fact, it was seen as the least credible.

The results indicate partial support for the hypothesis when credibility was
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studied across high-cost news sources. When it was indicated to participants that their

articles were from high-cost online sources, participant perceptions of the credibility of

those articles was elevated. The same was not found for high-cost printed news, leaving

the hypothesis partially supported. The data had a between-subjects significance of .005.

Discussion

The results of our experiment were surprising and should be of interest to news

practitioners. The highest credibility score was given to high-cost online news, but cost

did not impact subjects’ credibility ratings. The least credible combination was the paper

platform and high cost. This suggests that traditional, paper-platform newspapers and

magazines may not be able to attract readers by re-packaging their publications into more

expensive versions. This is interesting in light of several high-profile recent newspaper

redesigns, including those at the Chicago Tribune in 2008, the Orlando Sentinel in 2008,

and the Washington Post in 2009.

This goes against conventional wisdom, that more expensive, paper-platform

news carries with it prestige, that would make the news seem more credible. This is a

situation in which face validity has no statistical support.

This could have profound implications for the journalism business. The current

economic model for online news is free distribution, whereas people pay either per day or

per subscription for newspapers. While consumers do have to pay to access the Internet

in general, they do not pay for the news source itself. However, this study shows that, a

newspaper could charge more for its online edition than for its paper edition and still
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retain high news credibility. In fact, the data show that a newspaper that charges more for

its online content had its stories viewed as more credible than other news sources. From a

credibility standpoint, newspapers would benefit from charging a higher cost for their

online content.

At the same time, many newspapers are raising their newsstand prices, due to a

combination of falling profits and rising production costs. From a credibility standpoint,

this would be one of the worst things a newspaper could do. High-cost print news ranked

as the least credible in this study, behind lower-cost print source.

It should be noted that of the 19 people in the high-cost online control group, 16

answered that they felt the cost of the news articles provided was high (or too expensive)

– 84 percent of the control group. One area for further research would be a survey of

news consumers to see how much they would be willing to pay for news, both online and

in print.

Certainly, a group of 78 undergraduate students at a large, private northeastern

university is a somewhat heterogeneous population base – especially since they are all

students in a communications class and a majority of them are beginning a path toward

being a communications major and a career in media. It is noteworthy that the mean age

of the participants was 18.65, and they used online news an average of 4.5 days a week

for an average of nearly 30 minutes per day (compared with 3.2 days a week and 21.7

minutes per day for print news). These numbers suggest that the sample population is

familiar with using the Internet as a news platform. The authors believe this familiarity is
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likely due to participants having grown up with access to computers and the Internet both

in the home and at school. This is an important population to study because they are the

future of news consumption. A way to extend this study would be to reach beyond the

college’s borders and draw a sample from a larger population base. The study could also

be extended among control groups of different socioeconomic status to see if there are

differences in perceived credibility along socioeconomic lines. Likewise, a study could

be done among control groups of participants living in different locations (i.e. comparing

the credibility opinions of those who live in urban areas vs. suburban vs. rural).

Future application of our research findings could be useful in establishing much-

needed norms and ethics of online newsrooms, a place where norms and ethics have not

yet fully been established34 (Melican & Dixon, 2008). Much of the discussion regarding

the shift from newsprint journalism to online journalism has focused on cost analysis and

availability. Combining those two concepts is not enough to fully evaluate the success

(or pitfalls) of online journalism and its older brother, newsprint journalism. A third

factor, credibility in the news, should be more visible in studies on the future of

journalism. Bringing in news consumers' perceived credibility adds a new, but easily

forgotten, element to the discussion on the future of newspapers and journalism.

In addition, this study could have an impact on future business models for the

journalism industry. It provides newspapers a model for charging for online content –

either partially or completely. From a credibility standpoint, it would be more beneficial

for newspapers to charge for their news online rather than give it away for free.
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Lastly, the credibility of print and online journalism is an important indicator of

the public's perception of journalism as a whole, particularly as it relates to the press'

First Amendment rights35. In order to best serve in their role as a public watchdog, the

media must be viewed as a credible source of information. Therefore, all factors

regarding a news source’s credibility – including cost – must continue to be studied.

Credibility is a considered by journalists to be among their most important

attributes. At a time when print newspaper circulation is falling, the online news model

has yet to yield across-the-board profitability, news organizations need to do everything

they can to maximize their credibility. Every aspect of a news source needs to be

examined – including its cost. Further study is needed in this field, but this study showed

one thing: If you are looking for high-credibility news, particularly online, it’ll cost you.
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Table 1 Means and standard deviations for credibility measures,


media use, and demographic variables

Variables Mean SD N

Credibility
The story you read was accurate*** 12.51 1.58 78
The story you read was believable* 12.96 1.46 78
The story you read was objective and free of bias* 11.10 2.18 78
The story you read was deep and complete* 11.03 2.01 78
The story you read was well written* 10.87 2.09 78
On average, how many days a week do you read a newspaper** 3.29 1.91 78
On average, how many days a week do you read news online** 4.52 2.08 78
On average, how many minutes per day do you spend reading a newspaper?* 21.79 13.72 78
On average, how many minutes per do you spend reading news online?* 29.87 28.80 78
Age (in years) 18.65 1.54 78

***Responses were coded 15 = strongly agree, 12 = agree, 9 = neutral, 6 = disagree, 3 = strongly disagree
**Responses were coded from 0 to 7 days a week.
*Responses were coded in intervals of 15 minutes
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Table 2 Percentages for gender and demographic variables

Variables %

Gender
Male 30.8
Female 69.2
100.0%
(N = 78)

Ethnicity
Caucasian 82.1
Black 5.1
Latino 6.4
Asian 5.1
Other/Prefer not to answer 1.3
100.0%
(N = 78)

Do you regularly read the news (print or online)?


Yes 85.6
No 15.4
100.0%
(N = 78)
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Table 3 Two-way analysis of variance for the effects of cost and news platform on credibility

Credibility*

Main effects and interaction Mean SD F df Significance

Main effect of cost .010 1,74 ns


High 58.51 7.66
Low 58.44 7.20

Main effect of news platform 9.67 1, 74 p < .01


Print 56.10 7.27
Online 60.97 6.74

Interaction between cost & platform 4.06 1, 74 p < .050


High and Online 62.63 6.69
High and Print 54.60 6.48
Low and Online 59.32 6.54
Low and Print 57.60 7.86

* Additive index of five variables ranging from 15 (low) to 75 (high)


a. p < .05.
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High cost
Figure 1 Two-way analysis of variance of cost and type of news platform on credibility. category

Low cost
category
High

Credibility

Low

Print Online

Platform

Main effect of cost : F = .010, df = 1,74, ns

Main effect of platform: F = 4.56, df = 1,74, p < .01

Interaction of cost and credibility: F = 4.06, df = 1,74, p < .05


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Notes
Running Head: IT’LL COST YOU
1
Aragon, T. (2009, April 28). Fall in newspaper sales accelerates to pass 7%. The New
York Times. Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com.
2
Ibid.
3
Ibid.
4
Thomas J. Johnson and Barbara K. Kaye, “Cruising is Believing?: Comparing Internet and
Traditional Sources on Media Credibility,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75,
no. 2 (summer 1998): 325-340.
Spiro Kiousis, "Public Trust or Mistrust? Perceptions of Media Credibility in the Information Age,"
Mass Communication & Society 4, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 381-403.
5

6
Jack Herbert and Neil Thurman, “Paid Content Strategies for News Websites. Journalism
Practice 1, no. 2 (June 2007): 208-226.
7
Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility,”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77, no. 3 (autumn 2000): 515-540.
8
Richard Perez-Pena, “The Times to Charge for Fequent Access to Its Web Site, “The New York
Times, January 20, 2010, http://www.nytimes.com/2010/01/21/business/media/21times.html
9
John Koblin, “After Three Months, Only 35 Subscriptions for Newsday's Web Site,” New York
Observer, January 26, 2010, http://www.observer.com/2010/media/after-three-months-only-35-
subscriptions-newsdays-web-site
10
Alan M. Rubin, “ Uses & Gratifications: An Evolving Perspective of Media Effects,”. In The
Sage Handbook of Media Processes and Effects, eds. Robin L. Nabi & Mary Beth Oliver
(Thousand Oaks, C.A.: SAGE Publications), pp. 147-159.
11
John Dimmick, Media Competition and Coexistence: The Theory of the Niche (Mahwah, N.J.:
Lawrence Erlbaum, 2002)
12
John Dimmick, Chen Yan, and Li Zhan, "Competition Between the Internet and Traditional
News Media: The Gratification-Opportunities Niche Dimension," Journal of Media Economics
17, no. 1 (January 2004): 19-33.
13
Alan M. Rubin, “ Uses & Gratifications: An Evolving Perspective of Media Effects,”. In The
Sage Handbook of Media Processes and Effects, eds. Robin L. Nabi & Mary Beth Oliver
(Thousand Oaks, C.A.: SAGE Publications), pp. 147-159
14
Emily Bell, “End of the Offline?” British Journalism Review 16, no. 1 (March 2005): 41-45.
15
Kate Maddox, “No. 1 Wall Street Journal,” B to B, November 22, 2004
16
Jennifer W. Adams, “Striking it Niche - Extending the Newspaper Brand by Capitalizing in
New Media Niche Markets: Suggested Model for Achieving Consumer Brand Loyalty,” Journal
of Website Promotion 2, no. 1 and 2 (April 2008): 163-184.
17
Tülin Erdem and Joffre Swait, "Brand Credibility, Brand Consideration, and Choice." Journal
of Consumer Research 31, no. 1 (June 2004): 191-198.
18
Reuters, “Standards and Values,” Reuters Handbook of Journalism,
http://handbook.reuters.com/index.php?title=Standards_and_Values, 2009, (20 October 2009)
Associated Press Managing Editors, “Statement of Ethical Principles,” http://www.apme.com/ethics,
2004 (20 October 2009)
19
Krisandra S. Freeman and Jan H. Spyridakis, “An Examination of Factors that Affect the
Credibility of Online Health Information,” Technical Communication 51, no 2 (May 2004):
239-263.
20
Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “The Role of Site Features, User Attributes, and
Information Verification Behaviors on the Perceived Credibility of Web-Based Information,”
(paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, San
Diego, California, May 2003)
21
Cecilie Gaziano and Kristin McGrath, “Measuring the Concept of Credibility,” Journalism
Quarterly 63, no. 3 (autumn 1986): 451-462.
22
John Newhagen and Clifford Nass, "Differential Criteria for Evaluating Credibility of
Newspapers and TV News," Journalism Quarterly 66, no. 2 (Summer 1989): 277-284.
23
Philip Meyer, "Defining and Measuring Credibility Of Newspapers: Developing an Index,"
Journalism Quarterly 65, no. 3 (Fall 1988): 567-588.
24
Thomas J. Johnson and Barbara K. Kaye, “Cruising is Believing?: Comparing Internet and
Traditional Sources on Media Credibility,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75,
no. 2 (summer 1998): 325-340.
25
Shyam S. Sundar, "Effect of Source Attribution on Perception of Online News Stories,”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75, no. 1 (Spring 1998): 55-68.
26
John Newhagen and Clifford Nass, "Differential Criteria for Evaluating Credibility of
Newspapers and TV News," Journalism Quarterly 66, no. 2 (Summer 1989): 277-284.
27
Thomas J. Johnson and Barbara K. Kaye, “Cruising is Believing?: Comparing Internet and
Traditional Sources on Media Credibility,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75,
no. 2 (summer 1998): 325-340.
28
Daekung Kim and Thomas J. Johnson, “A Shift in Media Credibility: Comparing Internet and
Traditional News Sources in South Korea,” International Communication Gazette 71, no.4
(June 2009): 283-302.
Debra B. Melican and Travis L. Dixon, “News on the Net: Credibility, Selective Exposure, and Racial
Prejudice, Communication Research 35, no. 2 (April 2008): 151-168.
Spiro Kiousis, "Public Trust or Mistrust? Perceptions of Media Credibility in the Information Age,"
Mass Communication & Society 4, no. 4 (Fall 2001): 381-403.
Krisandra S. Freeman and Jan H. Spyridakis, “An Examination of Factors that Affect the Credibility of
Online Health Information,” Technical Communication 51, no 2 (May 2004): 239-263.
Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility,”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77, no. 3 (autumn 2000): 515-540.
29
Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility,”
Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 77, no. 3 (autumn 2000): 515-540.
Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “The Role of Site Features, User Attributes, and
Information Verification Behaviors on the Perceived Credibility of Web-Based Information,”
(paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Communication Association, San
Diego, California, May 2003)
30
Thomas J. Johnson and Barbara K. Kaye, “Cruising is Believing?: Comparing Internet and
Traditional Sources on Media Credibility,” Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly 75,
no. 2 (summer 1998): 325-340.
31
Andrew J. Flanagin and Miriam J. Metzger, “Perceptions of Internet Information Credibility,”
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