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The music created by Rabindranath Tagore is unique by style,form and class.Many literatures are available,written by famous laureates of the subject matter.So,to write something on Rabindranath Tagore and his musical talent is bound to be some repeatation or the other but still remains a lure for anyone.Hence,this article. To begin with,a small introduction of Rabindranath Tagore’s grooming is necessary. The body of music had been created by Rabindranath Tagore in the 64 years between 1877 and1941. Tagore grew up in the classical tradition of Hindustani classical music(‘raaga sangeet’). His autobiographical sketches reveal the musical training he went through in his childhood. Though he had not followed a very strict method of learning the classical music,yet he was the disciple of Sri Jadunath Bhatta (18401883),the famous Pundit of Vishnupur Gharana. Rabindranath followed this tradition and later on used it with mastery without abiding to its strictures. He experimented with dhrupad tunes using various rhythms(such as, ‘Jortal’, ‘Jhanptal’, ‘Sur Phanktal’ and ‘Teora’ – usually known only to the connoisseurs of Hindustani classical music) and composed more than100 songs. Tagore used the classical form of khayal and thumri to create many songs, encompassing all the styles of the classical traditions.He used the ‘tappa’ style in his music,where the song-text is very short and not as elaborately structured as a khayal or a thumri. There have been two different styles of Tappa, one that evolved in Punjab, in the tradition of Shori Miyan, and the other, adapted by Ramnidhi Gupta, better known as Nidhubabu in Bengal.Tagore from his early age was exposed to both styles. Tagore adapted ‘tappas’ from both the styles, he relinquished the Punjabi ‘tappa’ but when he wrote in his mother tongue the songs became soft and sweet. Tagore also was influenced by Sri Bishnu Chandra Chakravarty and Sri Srikantha Sinha.He spent a considerable period in association with Sri Radhika Prasad Goswami and composed a number of songs with assistance from him. Rabindranath Tagore started writing songs and Geeti kavyas right from the age of 11(eleven) years and continued till the age of 80(eighty).But the maximum no. of songs he composed from 19 years onwards.
2 There are difference in opinions about the no. of songs composed by Tagore.As far as possible,research has been carried out and it revealed he composed more than 2000 original songs.But in the opinion of authorities in the subject,the no.of songs are about 2178.A no.of songs written earlier were extended or changed by him.Hence,the difference.Also,a no. of compositions are there in Dhrupad and Dhamar.There are a no.of unpublished songs also,which did not have the notations and the classifications as per Indian classical tradition. If these are classified ,as given below, according to the Hindustani classical raga/ragini or the type,we may have some idea about the depth of his talent: 1.Bhairavi—268 2.Yaman—147 3.Piloo—143 4.Khamaj—142 5.Bihag—138 6.Bhairav that(other than Kalingada)—118 7.Kalingada—57 8.Kafi—104 9.Desh—96 10.Kedara—69 11.Malhar—69 12.Bahar—54 13.Chayanat—47 14.Sahana—47 15.Asavari—36 AND 16.Baul—187 17.Kirtan—151 While composing the songs,Tagore did not mention the names of the ragas neither he desired it.Smt Indira Devi Choudhurani constantly persuaded Tagore to do this but he was unwilling and also abstained others to do this.In a letter in 1935 he stated to Smt Indira Devi about his fear of being criticized by the Ustads or Pundits of classical gharana.But with persistent pursuation by Smt Indira Devi,in 1936 he permitted her to identify the ragas used for composition of the songs as well as to create the notations(Swaralipi) for future generation.It is due to Smt Indira Devi Choudhurani that almost all the songs of Tagore are classified and notations made.A no. of persons like Smt.Indira Devi Choudhurani,Sri Jyotirindranath Tagore,Sri Kangali Charan Sen,Sri Surendranath Bandopadhyay,Smt Sarala Devi Choudhurani,Smt.Pratibha Devi Choudhurani,Sri Dinendranath Tagore,Tagore himself,Sri Bhimrao Shastri,Sri Anadi Kumar Dastidar,Sri Santidev Ghosh,Sri Sailaja Ranjan Majumdar and many others made the notations of Tagore’s songs. A classification list is given below with some selected songs of Tagore with the associated raga.The list is not comprehensive in this article due to limited space allowed by the Editor.However,all the songs with respective raga are available with the author.
CLASSIFICATION TABLE TIMINGS AS PER TRADITIONAL CLASSICAL MUSIC 10 P.M. to 12 Midnight
All Shudh or natural notes
9 A.M. to 12 P.M.
Durga Nat Narayan Shankara
9 P.M. to 12 A.M. 12 A.M. to 3 A.M. 6 P.M. to 9 P.M.
SOME SELECTIVE COMMONLY KNOWN RABINDRA SANGEETS (Corrsponding or near to corresponding RAGAS) i)Adhara madhuri dharechi chando bandhane ii)Antare jagiche antarayami iii)Akash jure suninu oi baje iv)Aj jyotsna rate sabai geche bone v)Aj srabaner purnima te vi)Aji godhuli lagane ei badal gagane vii)Aji tomai abar chai sunabare viii)Aji bijan ghare nishith rate ix)Amar ange ange ke bajay x)Amar nishith rater badal dhara xi)Amar bhanga pather ranga dhulay xii)Ami kebol e swapan korechi bapan xiii)Eki sudha rasa ane xiv)E pathe ami je gechi bar bar xv)Elem notun deshe xvi)Ogo sono ke bajay xvii)Ke bale jao jao xviii)Keno jagen jagena xix)Chirasakha more cherona xx)Jagarane jae bibhabari xxi)Jage nath jyochchana rate xxii)Jiban maraner simana xxiii)Jiban jakhan chchilo phuler xxiv)Jwaleni alo andhakare xxv)Tarite pa diy ni ami xxvi)Tumi rabe nirabe xxvii)Trishnar shanti sundara xxviii)Tomra ja balo tai balo xxix)Tomar ashime pran man xxx)Darao amar ankhir age xxxi)Dariye acho tumi amar ganer xxxii)Diye genu basanter ei xxxiii)Deep nive geche momo xxxiv)Dujone dekha holo xxxv)Pramode dahlia dinu mon xxxvi)Boli o amar golapbala xxxvii)Bajilo kahar bina xxxviii)Biraho madhur holo aji xxxix)Bhara thak smriti sudhay xxxx)Momo dukhero sadhan xxxxi)Megh boleche jabo jabo xxxxii)Mor hridayer gopon bijon xxxxiii)Rodan bhara e basanta xxxxiv)Shiter hawae laglo nachan xxxxv)Sudhu jaoa asa xxxxvi)Shrabaner dharar mato xxxxvii)Sakhi bhabona kahare bale xxxxviii)Saha na jatona xxxxix)Hae go byathay katha jae jadi xxxxx)Himer rater oi gaganer deep i)Aji heri sansar amritamay ii)Aha aji e basante iii)Oi pohailo timiro rati iv)Kache chile dure gele v)Jagate ananda jagye vi)Base achi hey vii)Bahe nirantara ananta anandadhara viii)Sakha hey ki diye ix)Sakhi bahe gelo bela x)Hridaye chile jege i)Hridaye rakho go i)Shok tap gelo durey i)Puri hate paliyeche
ii)Hey mor chitta i)Aji ei gandha bidhur samirane ii)O re bhai phagun legeche iii)Nil digante oi iv)Bakul gandhe banya elo i)Puspa bane puspa nahi ii)Praner pran jagiche i)Subhra asane birajo ii)Tomar name nayan melinu iii)Ratri ese jethay meshe iv)Dao he hriday bhare dao v)Dhora diyechi go ami i)Abar jadi ichcha karo ii)Amra bendechi kasher guchcho iii)Ami chahite esechi iv)Ek tuku choyan lagey v)Gopon kathati rabena gopone vi)Gharete bhramar elo gunguniye vii)Tomae sajabo jatane viii)Bado bedanar mato ix)Boli go sajani x)Jadi jantem amar kiser byatha i)Amal dhabal pale legeche ii)Oi bhuban mohini iii)Aj aloker ei jharna dharay iv)Amay kshamo he kshamo v)Amar andhar bhalo vi)Amar je gan tomar paras pabe vii)Amar rat pohalo sarad prate viii)Amar hriday tomar apon hater ix)Ami chanchal hey x)Ami tomar preme habo xi)Etodin je bosechilem xii)Esechile tobu aso nai xiii)O je manena mana xiv)Oi mahamanaba ase xv)O ke dharile to dhara debena xvi)O re notun yuger bhore xvii)Kal rater belay gan elo mor xviii)Keno jamini na jete xix)Charan dharite diyogo xx)Jibone param lagan xxi)Tumi mor pao nae parichay xxii)Tomar dware keno asi xxiii)Daya diye habe je mor xxiv)Pralay nachan nachle jakhan xxv)Prangane mor sirish sakhay xxvi)Prem esechilo nishabda charane xxvii)Badhu kon alo laglo chokhe xxviii)Barisho dhara majhe shantir xxix)Bhengecho duar esecho xxx)Madhu gandhe bhara xxxi)Mor bina othe xxxii)Jakhan bhanglo milan mela xxxiii)Joubana sarasi nire xxxiv)Shyamal chaya nai ba gele xxxv)Sakarun benu bajaye ke jae xxxvi)Sansar jabe monk ere loi xxxvii)Sur bhule je ghure berai xxxviii)Hinsay unmatta prithi xxxix)Hey kshaniker atithi xxxx)Hey nabina i)Ananda dhara bohiche bhubane i)Aj dhaner khete roudra chchayay ii)Ami kan pete roi i)Ami hethay thaki sudhu ii)Hridaye tomar daya jeno pai i)Asru nadir sudur pare
re as Komal & ma as Teevra
3 A.M. to 6 A.M.
Lalit 3.BHAIRAV With re,dha as komal Bhairav
3 A.M to 6 A.M. 6A.M. to 9A.M.
6A.M. to 9 A.M.
With re,ga,dha,ni as komal
6 A.M. to 9 A.M./any time
With re,dha,as komal and Ma as Teevra
Malkauns Bibhas(Also in Marwa&Bhairav That) Paraj Poorvi
9 P.M. to 12 A.M. 3 P.M. to 6 P.M
2A.M.to4A.M. 3 P.M.to 6 P.M.
ii)Nivrita praner debata i)Kar Milan chao birahi i)Din jadi holo abosan ii)Nai raso nai i)Prabhate bimal anande ii)Rajanir sesh tara i)Mandire momo ke i)Ami swapane rayechi bhor ii)Tabo amal paras rasa i)Tumi ki kebol e chchabi ii)Megh chchaye sajal baye i)Amra sabai raja ii)Ghor dukha jaginu i)Arup tomar bani ii)Akash amar bharlo alloy iii)Ami bahu basanay pranpone chai iv)O jonaki ki sukhe oi dana v)Godhuli gagane meghe vi)Tomarei koriyachi jibaner vii)Prane gan nai viii)Jadi baran karo ix)Ray je kangal x)seema r majhe asim tumi i)Aguner parasmoni ii)Badal baul bajay re i)Shopney amar mone holo ii)Kato ajanare janaile tumi i)Se kon boner harin i)Khelaghar bandhte legechi ii)Prabhu amar priya amar i)Maha biswe…ami manab ki lagi i)Rakho rakho re i)Amar matha nato kore ii)Amar sakal raser dhara iii)Ashard sandhya ghoniye elo iv)E monihar amay v)Ei udasi hawar pathe pathe vi)Ekhono tare chokhe dekhini vii)Klanti amar kshama karo prabhu viii)Khara bayu boy bege ix)Chokher alloy dekhechilem x)Janaganamana adhinayaka hey xi)Tumi sndhyar meghomala xii)Dhire dhire dhire bao ogo utal xiii)Phul bale dhanya ami xiv)Baje baje ramya bina xv)Mone ki dwidha rekhe chole gele xvi)Maya bano biharini xvii)Mor sandhyay tumi sundar xviii)Sundar bate taba angad khani xix)Hriday amar nachere ajike xx)Hey mor debota i)Amar din phuralo ii)Amar je sab ditey habe iii)Ami jene sune bish korechi iv)Utal dhara badal jhare v)Ei lovinu sanga tabo vi)Emon dine tare bola jae vii)Eso shyamal sundar viii)Jibon jakhan sukhaye jae ix)Jhare jae ure jae go x)Tar hatey chilo i)Aji sraban Ghana gahan mohe ii)Mor bhabonare ki hawae i)Ki ghor nishithe i)Gaganer thale rabi Chandra dipak jwale i)Chchinna patae sajai tarani ii)Ananda loke mangalaloke(Mysore)
With re,ga,dha as komal and ma as Teevra With ga,dha,ni as komal
Shree Multani Todi Adana Asavari Suddha Kanara
3 P.M.to 6 P.M. 3 P.M.to 6 P.M. 9A.M. to 12P.M. 12 A.M. to 3 A.M 9 A.M.to 12 P.M. 3 A.M. to 6 A.M 6 P.M. to 9 P.M. 9 P.M. to 12 A.M.
With ma as Teevra only
Gaud Sarang Hameer Hemant Kedar Suddha Kalyan Shyam Kalyan Yaman
12 P.M. to 3 P.M. 9 P.M. to 12 A.M. 6 P.M. to 9 P.M. 9 P.M. to 12 A.M. 9 P.M. to 12 A.M. 6 P.M. to 9 P.M. 6 P.M. to 9 P.M.
With ni as komal
6 P.M. to 9 P.M.
Gaud Malhar(Also in Kafi That) Gara Jayjayanti Jhinjhoti
12 A.M. to 3 A.M. 12 A.M. to 3 A.M 6 P.M. to 9 P.M. 9 P.M. to 12 A.M.
Khamaj 6 P.M. to 9 P.M. i)Aji jato tara tabo akashe ii)Amar bela je jae iii)Ami tomay jato suniyechilem iv)Ami pathbhola ek pathik v)Ei kathati mone rekho vi)Ore chitrarekha dorey bandhilo vii)Kusume kusume charan chinha viii)Chale jae mori hae ix)Nrityero tale tale x)Purna chander mayay aji xi)Pran bhoriye trisha horiye xii)Bhalobasi bhalobasi xiii)Rup sagare dub diyechi xiv)Sarat tomar arun alor anjali xv)Sei bhalo sei bhalo i)Shanti karo barishano ii)Madhuro rupe birajo iii)Jatobar alo jwalate jae i)Nisith sayane bhebe rakhi mone ii)Je rate mor duar guli i)Aji kamal mukul dal khulilo ii)Aji basanta jagrata dware iii)Aji bahiche basanta paban iv)E ki akulata bhubane v)E ki karuna vi)Ek mone tor ektarate vii)O hey sundara mori mori viii)Premer joware bhasabe ix)Madhur basanta eseche x)Laho laho phire laho i)Tar biday belar malakhani ii)Bipul taranga re i)Chakhe amar trishna ii)Dur desi sei rakhal chele i)Hey nikhil bhar dharan i)Acho antare chirodin ii)Amay bolona gahite bolona iii)E parabase rabe ke iv)E pare mukhar holo keke oi v)Keno bajao kankan vi)Charan dhwani suni tabo nath vii)Nahi nahi nidra ankhi pate viii)Phire jao keno phire phire jao ix)Momo chitte niti nritye x)Jodi e amaro,hridaya duaro i)Nil anjanaghana punja chayay ii)Pinakete lage tankar i)Kotha je udhao holo i)Amar paran jaha chay ii)Amar hiyar majhe iii)Ami jakhan tar duare bhikha nite iv)Oi malatilata dole v)Ogo nadi apon bege pagal vi)Chander hasir bandh bhengeche vii)Chaya ghanaiche bone bone viii)Badal dhara holo sara ix)Jete dao jete dao gelo jara x)Se din dujone dulechinu bone i)Jadi prem dilena prane ii)Ki gabo ami ki sonabo iii)Megher pare megh jameche iv)Sudhu tomar bani nay go i)Baje karun sure
6 P.M. to 9 P.M.
With ga,ni as komal
12 A.M. to 3 A.M NIGHT
Bhimpalasi Brindavani Sarang Gaud Kafi
3 P.M.to 6 P.M. 12 A.M. to 3 A.M. 12 A.M. to 3 A.M ANY TIME/6 P.M. to 9 P.M.
Megh Mian Ki Malhar Piloo
12 A.M. to 3 A.M MONSOON ANY TIME
12 A.M. to 3 A.M.
3 P.M. to 6 P.M
If the list is scruitinised,it will be observed that,as per tradition of Hindustani classical,each raga has a timing for rendition.But,Tagore did not impose any such
7 condition for his songs.He allowed the songs to be performed any time of the day.He rather made the classification of his songs in terms of Prem,Puja,Prakriti,Seasons etc. Apart from the above table,Tagore composed a no. of songs which comprise of more than two or more ragas/raginis,of which a few samples are given below: 1.Ache Dukhya,ache mrityu—Lalit+Bibhas+Jogiya+Asavari 2.Prakhar tapan tapey—Todi+Multani+Bhimpalasi 3.Moru bijayer ketan—Kedara+Hameer+Kirtan 4.Amar praner pare chale gelo—Piloo+Kalingada+Paraj 5.Eso eso basanta—Sohini+Pancham+Bhairav+Bahar 6.Oi ase oi oti—Malhar+Piloo+Yaman Kalyan+Khamaj There are other instances also.However,difference in opinion still prevails about the classification as Tagore used many ragas in broken form in composition which may have resemblence to varieties of ragas in addition to the mentioned one and some may not resemble to a particular raga/ragini. Tagore songs are deeply influenced by classical music.Although he himself did not learn CLASSICAL MUSIC formally, the family atmosphere of cultivating this form of music enabled him to compose many of his songs in the Hindustani classical style.On the occasion of Brahmo Samaj’s Magh festival, he composed many devotional songs in the Hindustani classical style. The Tagore songs composed in this tradition are treasures of our music. Many of his songs abound in the classical forms of sthayi, antara, sanchari and abhog. The influence of the classical style is also manifested in the tunes, words and articulation of the songs. The RAGAs and raginis heard in his childhood managed to cast long shadows on his songs. To him, theme was more important than ragas. Even in folk tunes he experimented with a mixture of ragas to create a genre of his own TAPPA is yet another form that has enriched Tagore songs. The use of tappa in giving expression to Bengali emotions has been noteworthy. Tagore always emphasized that an ideal song is a perfect marriage of lyric and melody,where they go hand in hand.Tagore’s songs present a smooth blend of melody and lyrics where these two are inseparable,and evolve together in a unique musical language The article will remain incomplete if something is not mentioned about the Talas created by Tagore. Tal or beat is one of the important aspects of a song.Tagore experimented with the existing beats like Dhamar – a 14-beat taal and composed many tunes using this type. He also created some new beats or Tals. One of this is Shasti-taal which has 6 counts, but unlike the standard 6 beat where Dadra divided in 3/3 it is divided in 2/4 or 4/2. Nava-taal is another such beat created for ‘pakhwaj’. Rabindranath has used many tals in composing songs. These included chautal, ada chautal, dhamar, adatheka, surfanktal, yat, jhanptal, trital, ektal, teoda, dadra, kaharba and adkhemta. He has utilized some tals which are new to North Indian music; these include sasthi,jhampak, rupkada, navatal, ekadashi and navapanchatal. In poetic measures too, Rabindranath showed some distinctiveness,especially in using multiple times. He has occasionally used multiple tempos in a single song and has skillfully mixed times and tempos to create a very unusual musical form.Usually songs have a preponderance of
8 tunes and measures but Tagore songs are essentially poetic and therefore their poetic themes are as important as their tunes.
At the last,one submission is made from my end.As per traditional Hindustani classical music,2 or more ragas and raginis are required to create another ragini.There are many instances where the creator/composer of the ragini gave a new name to the newly created ragini.but the same thing did not happen in case of Tagore.He many a times used multiple ragas/raginis to compose a song,sometimes,more than 4 but not a single ragini has been named linking the name of Tagore.He had used&made the vadi,vivadi,samvadi&anuvadi notes so seamlessly compatible that when the song is sung,no discrepancy is observed.This is a great quality of a composer using Hindustani classical base. May the readers forum take it up so that in this 150th birth anniversary year of Tagore,atleast one ragini is marked in his name and adopted in the main stream of Hindustani classical music form to offer him the greatest honor in this year of celebration.The raga form followed in the song—ACHE DUKHYA,ACHE MRITYU—may be denoted as’RAVI RANJANI’ and be adopted in the main stream classical form for rendition. I leave this entirely to the readers who really love SRI RABINDRANATH TAGORE AND HIS CREATIONS. REFERENCES AND SUGGESTED READING:1.Swarabitan,Geetabitan,Geetanjali—Sri Rabindranath tagore 2.Swaralipi-Geetimala—Sri Jyotirindranath Tagore 3.Shata gan—Smt.Sarala Devi Choudhurani 4.Sangeet Geetanjali—Sri Bhim Rao Shastri 5.RabindraSangeet—Sri Sudhir Chanda 6.Understanding Indian Classical music---Prabir Datta 7.Understanding Karnatik Classical music---Prabir Datta 8.Rabindra Sangeet Mahakosh—Sri Prabir Guhathakurta 9.Geetabitaner Jagat—Sri Subhas Chowdhury 10.Akhanda Rabindrasangeet—Dr.Pabitra Kumar Sarkar 11.Rabindra Rachanabali—Viswa Bharati & Government of West Bengal 12.Brahma sangeet—Swaralipi—Sri Kangali Charan Sen 13.Sangeet Prakashika—Sri Jyotirindranath Tagore 14.Ananda sangeet Patrika—Smt.Pratibha Devi &Smt.Sarala Devi—Editors 15.Rabindra Sangeetey Triveni Sangam—Smt.Indira Devi Choudhurani 16.Rabindra Jibani—Sri Prabhat Kumar Mukhopadhyay 17.Rag Sangraha—Sri Rabindra Kumar Das Etc.