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= 420 C

= 8.75 × 10 −2 A.

25.2: a)

t 80 ( 60 s )

I = nqvd A

I 8.75 × 10−2 A

⇒ vd = =

nqA (5.8 × 1028 )(1.6 × 10−19 C)(π(1.3 × 10−3 m) 2 )

b) 1.78 × 10−6 m s .

I 4.85 A

vd = =

nqA (8.5 × 10 )(1.6 × 10 C)(π 4)(2.05 × 10− 3 m) 2 )

28 −19

⇒ travel time = d

vd

= 1.08 0×.10

71 m

−4

ms

= 6574 s = 110 min

=

25.4: The cross-sectional area of

A = πr = π (2.06 × 10 m) 2 = 1.333 × 10−5 m 2 .

2 −3

I 8.00A

J=

= = 6.00 × 10 5 A m 2

A 1.333 × 10 −5 m 2

We have vd = J ne ; Therefore

6.00 × 105 A m 2

The current density is

J electrons

n= = −5 −19

= 6.94 × 1028

vd e (5.40 × 10 m s)(1.60 × 10 C electron) m3

J = n q vd , so J vd is constant.

c) The drift velocity depends on

25.5:

J1 vd 1 = J 2 vd 2 ,

vd 2 = vd 1 ( J 2 J1 ) = vd 1 ( I 2 I1 ) = (1.20 × 10−4 m s)(6.00 1.20) = 6.00 × 10−4 m s

relationship.

63.55 g mole, 8.96 g cm 3 .

1.00 m is thus

(8.96 g cm 3 )(1.00 × 106 cm3 m3 )(6.023 × 1023 atoms mole )

63.55 g mole

= 8.49 × 10 28 atoms m 3

electrons m 3 copper m3

m3

25.7: Consider 1

density = 10.5 × 10 3 kg m 3 , so m = 10.5 × 10 3 kg

M = 107.868 × 10 −3 kg mol , so n = m M = 9.734 × 104 mol and

of silver.

N = nN A = 5.86 × 1028 atoms m 3

m 3 , there are 5.86 × 1028 free electrons m 3 .

25.8:

⇒I=

t

a)

Qtotal 0.0106 C

=

1.00 s

= 0.0106 A = 10.6 mA.

Na +

If∫ there is one |free electron per

8 8

8 0.65 3 8

∫ |

Q = I dt = (55 − 0.65 t 2 ) dt = 55t +

0 3

t = 329 C.

0

0 0

25.9:

agrees witha) the value given in Exer

I = Q t = (329 C) (8 s) = 41.1 A.

J= I

= 3.6 A

= 6.81 × 10 5 A/m 2 .

25.10: a)

A ( 2.3 × 10 − 3 m ) 2

b) The toward would flow

E = ρJ = (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(6.81 × 105 A/m 2 ) = 0.012 V m .

t=

l

= =

the negativ

l nqA (4.0 m)(8.5 × 1028 m3 )(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(2.3 × 10 −3 m) 2

= 8.0 × 104 s

vd I 3.6 A

b)

= 1333 min ≈ 22 hrs!

ρL (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(24.0 m)

R=

A

=

(π 4)(2.05 × 10− 3 m) 2

= 0.125 Ω.

25.11:

ρL RA (1.00 Ω)(π 4)(0.462 × 10−3 m) 2

R= ⇒L= = = 9.75 m.

A ρ 1.72 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m

25.12:

25.13: a) tungsten: ρI (5.25 × 10−8 Ω m 3 )(0.820 A)

E = ρJ = = −3

= 5.16 × 10 −3 V m .

A (π 4)(3.26 × 10 m) 2

ρI (2.75 × 10 −8 Ω m 3 )(0.820 A)

E = ρJ = = = 2.70 × 10− 3 V m .

A (π 4)(3.26 × 10− 3 m) 2

2 2

ρ L ρ L πd πd ρCu

R Al = RCu ⇒ Al = Cu ⇒ A l = Cu ⇒ d Cu = d Al

AAl ACu 4 ρ Al 4 ρCu ρ Al

25.14:

b) aluminum:

⇒ d Al = (3.26 mm )

1.72 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m

2.75 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m

= 2.6 mm.

R=

ρL

A

so A =

ρL

R

and

volume = AL = = = 1.686 × 10 − 6 mcb

R 0.125Ohm

m = (density )V = (8.9 × 10 kg m 3 )(1.686 × 10 −6 m 3 ) = 15 g

3

25.16:

3.5 cm

r1 = = 1.75 cm

2

3.25 mm

r2 = = 1.625 mm

2

A = 8.17 × 10 −3 cm 2

I = JA = (1.0 × 105 A/cm 2 )(8.17 × 10 −3 cm 2 ) = 820 A

A = I J = (1000 A) (1.0 × 106 A cm 2 ) = 1.0 × 10−3 cm 2

A = πr 2 so r = A π = (1.0 × 10−3 cm 2 π = 0.0178 cm

d = 2r = 0.36 mm

b)

25.18: Assuming linear variation o

ρ = ρ0 [1 + α(T − T0 )]

= ρ0 [1 + (4.5 × 10 −3 °C)(320 − 20)°C]

= 2.35 ρ0

ρ=E J,

E = (2.35)(0.0560 V m) = 0.132 V m

ρL ρL ρ 2.75 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m

R= = 2 = = = 1.53 × 10−8 Ω

A L L 1.80m

25.19: 20°C

25.20: The ratio of the current at

(0.860 A) (0.220 A) = 3.909.

ρ( ρ = E J ),

Since ρ

ρ0

Since

the electric field re

= 1 + α (T − T0 )

ρ

−1 3.909 − 1

proportional to the resistivity.The re

ρ0

T = T0 + = 20°C + = 666°C

Thusα 4.5 × 10 −3 °C

temperature.

R=

V ρL ρL

I

= =

A πr 2

⇒r=

IρL

πV

=

(6.00 A)(2.75 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(1.20 m)

π (1.50 V)

= 2.05 × 10 −4 m.

25.21: ρ=

RA VA (4.50 V)π (6.54 × 10 −4 m) 2

L

=

IL

=

(17.6 A)(2.50 m)

= 1.37 × 10 −7 Ω ⋅ m.

25.22:

EA (0.49 V m)(π 4 (0.84 × 10 −3 m) 2 )

I = JA = = = 11.1 A.

ρ (2.44 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)

V = IR =

A

=

V 3.13 V

(π 4)(0.84 × 10 −3 m) 2

= 3.13 V.

R= = = 0.28 Ω.

I 11.1A

LA = (2 L)( A 2)

25.24:

b) Because the density does no

R=

ρ( 2 L)

=4

ρL

= 4 R0 .

A2 A

RAJ RI V 0.938 V

E = ρJ == = = = 1.25 V m .

c) a)

25.25:ρ=

RA V

L

= =

L L L 0.75 m

0.938 V

JL (4.40 × 10 A m )(0.75 m)

7 2

= 2.84 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m.

R − R0

= α (T f − Ti )

That

25.26:is, four times the original resis

R0

⇒α =

R − R0

=

1.512 Ω − 1.484 Ω

= 1.35 × 10 −3 °C −1 .

b)

(T f − Ti ) R0 (34.0 C − 20.0 C)(1.484 Ω)

25.27:a)

R f − Ri = Riα (T f − Ti ) ⇒ R f = 0.0160 Ω + 0.0160 Ω(−0.0005°C −1 )(25.8°C) =

0.0158 Ω.

b)

R f − Ri R f − Ri

T f − Ti = ; T f = Ti +

αRi αRi

25.28: =

215.8 Ω − 217.3 Ω

o −1

(−0.0005 C )(217.3 Ω)

+ 4 o C = 17.8o C.

25.29: a) If 120 strands of wire are

R = 5.60 × 10−6 Ω 120 = 4.67 × 10−8 Ω.

R = (5.60 × 10 −6 Ω)120 = 6.72 × 10 −4 Ω.

4 .0 Ω

25.30: With the load, where

12.6 V = (r + 4.0 Ω) I

∆VT = rI = 12.6 V − 10.4 V = 2.2 V

I=

2.2 V

r

length

Changeofinthe wire byvoltage:

terminal 120, and so 2.2 V

12.6 V = ( r + 4.0 Ω)

r

r = 0.846 Ω

ρL 1.72 × 10 −8 Ωm)(100 × 10 3 m)

R= = = 0.219Ω

A π (0.050m) 2

25.31: a)

V = IR = (125A)(0.219Ω) = 27.4V

P = VI = (27.4 V)(125 A) = 3422 W = 3422 J/s

Energy = Pt = (3422 J/s)(3600 s) = 1.23 × 10 7 J

25.32: a)

VR = 21.2 V ⇒ R = 21.2 V 4.00 A = 5.30 Ω.

b)

25.33: a) for

Substitute

b)

ε An I:

ideal voltmeter has in

2.0 Ω resistor.

Vab = = 5.0 V;

through the

b)Solve for r: since there

resistance.

c) The voltmeter reading is the

the terminal voltage of the battery.

ε = 24.0 V.

25.34: a) A voltmeter placed over Vr = 0.

Vs = 24.0 V.

I = 24.0 V 5.88 Ω = 4.08 A ⇒ Vab = 24.0 V − (4.08 A)(0.28 Ω) = 22.9 V.

Vr = IR = ( 4.08 A)(5.60 Ω) = 22.9 V.

Vs = 0,

Vs = IR = 0.

d)ε Having

25.35: closed

a) When theisswitch:

there

= 3.08 V.

no current

the battery:

V 0.11 V

Vr = 3.08 V − 2.97 V = 0.11 V ⇒ r = = = 0.067 Ω.

I 1.65 A

V R = 2.97 V = (1.65 A) R

2.97 V

R= = 1.8 Ω

1.65 A

25.36:

ε I=

since

a) Theallcurrent

∑

=

the voltage has be

is counterclo

16.0 V − 8.0 V

= 0.47 A.

direction of current

so flow. Its magni

∑ R 1.6 Ω + 5.0 Ω + 1.4 Ω + 9.0 Ω

switch is zero

Vab = 16.0 V − (1.6 Ω)(0.47 A) = 15.2 V.

Vac = (5.0 Ω)(0.47 A) + (1.4 Ω)(0.47 A) + 8.0 V = 11.0 V.

c)

b)

c)

d)

25.37: ε a) Now the current flows c

I=

∑

=

16.0 V + 8.0 V

∑ R 1.6 Ω + 5.0 Ω + 1.4 Ω + 9.0 Ω

= 1.41 A.

Vac = −(5.0 Ω)(1.41 A) − (1.4 Ω)(1.41 A) + 8.0 V = −1.0 V.

b)

ε

c)

Vbc = 1.9 V ⇒ I = Vbc Rbc = 1.9 V 9.0 Ω = 0.21 A.

25.38: a)

∑ = ∑ IR ⇒ 8.0 V = ((1.6 + 9.0 + 1.4 + R)Ω)(0.21 A) ⇒ R =

5.48

= 26.1 Ω.

0.21

d)

b)

c)

25.39: a) Nichrome wire:

3.88 Ω.

25.40: a) Thyrite resistor:

25.41: a)

r = ε I = 1.50 V 6.8 A = 0.22 Ω.

r = ε I = 12.6 V 1000 A = 0.0126 Ω .

b)

P = V 2 R ⇒ R = V 2 P = (15 V) 2 327 W = 0.688 Ω.

25.42: V

V = IR ⇒ I = = a) 15 V

= 21.8 A.

c)

R 0.688 Ω

P = VI = (650 V)(0.80 A) = 520 W.

25.43:

b)

c) Calculating the resistance a

W = Pt = IVt = (0.13 A)(9 V)(1.5)(3600 s) = 6318 J.

25.44:

P I 2 R J 2 A 2 R J 2 A( ρL A)

P = I 2R ⇒ p = = = = = J 2 ρ ⇒ p = JE since

vol AL AL L

E = ρJ .

25.45: a)

From (a) p = J 2 ρ .

Since J = E ρ, (a) becomes p = E 2 ρ.

I = ∑ ε Rtotal = 8.0 V 17 Ω = 0.47 A ⇒ P5Ω = I 2 R = (0.47 A) 2 (5.0 Ω) =

25.46: a)

1.1 W and P9 Ω = I 2 R = (0.47 A) 2 (9.0 Ω) = 2.0 W.

ε P16V = I − I 2 r = (16 V)(0.47 A) − (0.47 A) 2 (1.6 Ω) = 7.2 W.

P8V = εI + Ir 2 = (8.0 V)(0.47 A) + (0.47 A) 2 (1.4Ω) = 4.1 W.

( b ) = (a ) + (c)

b)

W = Pt = IVt = (60 A)(12 V)(3600 s) = 2.59 × 10 6 J.

m=

b)

25.47:

c) a)

2.59 × 10 6 J m

= 56.0 g ⇒ vol = =

0.056 kg

= 6.22 × 10 −5 m 3 = 0.062 liters.

46,000 J g ρ 900 kg m 3

b)

c) To release this much energy

t = (Wh) P = (720 Wh ) (450 W ) = 1.6 h.

d) a)

25.48:

I = ε ( R + r ) = 12 V 10 Ω = 1.2 A ⇒ P = εI = (12 V)(1.2 A) = 14.4 W.

c) To recharge

ε

the battery:

b) The work dissipated in the

I = V R = 12 V 6 Ω = 2.0 A ⇒ P = I = (12 V) (2.0 A) = 24 W.

24 W − 4 W = 20 W.

b)

∑ ε The power dissipated in the

c) a)The net power output of the

I= / R = 3.0 V / 17 Ω = 0.18 A ⇒ P = I 2 R = 0.529 W.

c)

16 W, The

the power

amount delivered

found in is then

Exampl

3.0 V

P = I R ⇒ 0.27 W =

2

2

b) 17 Ω + R

P = V 2 R ⇒ R = V 2 P = (120 V) 2 / 540 W = 26.7 Ω.

25.51: a)

I = V R = 120 V / 26.7 Ω = 4.5 A.

I = 4.13 A ⇒ P = VI = 454 W.

b) ρ=

m

.

ne 2 τ

c) IfFrom

25.52:m

⇒τ= 2 = the voltage

16

is just 110 V, t

Eq. (25.24),

−3

9.11 × 10 −31 kg

−19

ne ρ (1.0 × 10 m ) (1.60 × 10 C) (2300 Ω ⋅ m)

2

= 1.55 × 10 −12 s.

(8.5 × 10 28 m −3 )

(1.0 × 1016 m −3 ).

the power.

ρ=

RA (0.104 Ω) (π 4) (2.50 × 10 −3 m) 2

L

=

14.0 m

= 3.65 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m.

25.53: a)

I = JA =

J

EA (1.28 V m) (π 4) (2.50 × 10 −3 m) 2

ρ

E

=

3.65 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m

1.28 V/m

= 172 A.

vd = = =

nq ρnq (3.65 × 10 Ω ⋅ m) (8.5 × 1028 m − 3 ) (1.6 × 10 −19 C)

−8

= 2.58 × 10 −3 m/s.

pure silicon

b)

25.54: r = 2.00 cm

T = 0.100 mm

c) V V VA V (2πrT )

I= = = =

R ρl A ρl ρl

(12 V) (2π )(2.00 × 10 −2 m) (0.100 × 10 −3 m)

=

(1.47 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (25.0 m)

= 410 A

25.55: With the voltmeter connect R I

ε = 12.6 V.

ε − Ir − IR = 0

current through the battery and the

R2 = 2R1

R1 ;

With a wire of resistance

ε − I 2 r − I 2 (2 R1 ) = 0; 12.6 V − (4.20 A)r − (4.20 A)(2 R1 ) = 0

R1 = 1.20Ω.

[1.20Ω /(20.0m)] (1.00m) = 0.060Ω

V V

I= =

R RCu + R Ag

is .

RCu = = = 0.049 Ω,

ACu (π/4) (6.0 × 10 − 4 m) 2

RAg = = = 0.062 Ω

and AAg

⇒I =

(π/4) (6.0 × 10 − 4 m) 2

5.0 V

= 45 A.

0.049 Ω + 0.062 Ω

ECu = JρCu =

E Ag = JρAg

LCu

IR

= Ag =

=

0.8 m

(45 A) (0.062 Ω)

= 2.76 V m .

= 2.33 V m .

LAg 1.2 m

resistance of 20.0 m, so the resistan

and V Ag = IR Ag = (45 A) (0.062 Ω) = 2.79 V.

25.57: a) The current must be the

E1.6mm = ρJ =

ρI (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (2.5 × 10−3 A)

= = 2.14 × 10 −5 V/m.

−3

A (π 4) (1.6 × 10 A) 2

ρI (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (2.5 × 10 −3 A)

E 0.8mm = ρJ = =

A (π 4) (0.80 × 10 −3 A) 2

8.55 × 10 −5 V/m ( = 4 E1.6mm ).

b)

V = E1.6 mm L1.6 mm + E 0.8 mm L0.8 mm

⇒ V = (2.14 × 10−5 V/m) (1.20 m) + (8.55 × 10−5 V/m) (1.80 m) = 1.80 × 10−4 V.

K 1 2

= n mvd

volume 2

25.58:

c) a)

⇒

K

volume 2

1

= (8.5 × 10 28 m − 3 ) (9.11 × 10 − 31 kg) (1.5 × 10− 4 m/s) 2

= 8.7 × 10−10 J / m3 .

U = qV = ne( volume )V = (8.5 × 1028 m −3 ) (1.6 × 10−19 C) (10 −6 m 3 ) (1.0 V) =

1.0 cm 3 K = (8.7 × 10 −10 J/m 3 ) (10 −6 m) =

U 13600 J

8.7 × 10 −16 J. So = = 1.6 × 1019 .

=

K 8.7 × 10 −16 J

d)

b)

And the kinetic energy in

25.59: a)

ρL ρdx r −r

dR = = 2 where r = r1 − 1 2 x.

A πr h

h r2

ρ dx ρh du

⇒R=∫ =− ∫

0 ( ( ) x)

π r1 − r1 − r2

h

2

π(r1 − r2 ) r1

u2

r2

ρh 1 ρh 1

= ⇒R= .

π (r1 − r2 ) u r π r1r2

1

ρh ρL

r1 = r2 = r , R = 2 = .

πr A

b b

ρdr ρ dr ρ 1 ρ 1 1

dR =

4πr 2

⇒R=

4π ∫a r 2 = − 4π r a = 4π a − b .

25.60: a)

V V 4πab I Vab 4πab Vab ab

I = ab = ab ⇒J= = = .

R ρ (b − a ) A ρ(b − a )4πr 2

ρ (b − a ) r 2

ρ 1 1 ρ(b − a) ρL ρL

R= − = ≈ 2

= , where L = b − a.

4π a b 4πab 4πa A

E = ρJ and E =

b)

σ

= Q

⇒ ρJ = Q

⇒ AJ = I = Q

=

25.61:

Kε0 AKε 0 AKε0 Kε0 ρ

I= V

⇒J= I

= V

= V

= V

.

25.62: a)

R A RA ( ρ L / A) A ρL

L = d.

d J MAX = V

ρd .

ρL = JA

d

So the potential difference s d

Vd

ρ

.

R= = = 0.057 Ω.

A (π 4) (0.0016 m) 2

⇒ ρ(60°C) = 9.83 × 10−7 Ω ⋅ m ⇒ ∆ρ = 3.34 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m.

(0.12 m) (40°C) ⇒ ∆L = 8.64 × 10 −4 m = 0.86 mm.

b) ∆ρL ρ∆L

is presented by the faces that are a

ρL

R= ⇒ ∆R = +

A A A

(3.34 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m) (0.12 m) (95 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m) (0.86 × 10−3 m)

⇒ ∆R = +

(π/4) (0.0016 m) 2

= 2.40 × 10−3 Ω.

(π/4) (0.0016 m) 2

( ) ( ) ( 0.057 Ω + 2.40 × 10 −3 Ω )

α= 1

∆T

R

R0 −1 = 1

40° C 0.057 Ω −1 =

1.1 × 10 −3 (C°) −1.

c)

expansion due to surface effects.

I=

∑ ε = 8.0 V − 4.0 V = 0.167 A

∑R 24.0 Ω

25.64: a)

⇒ Vad = 8.00 V − (0.167 A) (8.50 Ω) = 6.58 V.

I=

∑ ε = 10.3 V − 8.0 V + 4.0 V = 0.257 A, and so

∑R 24.5 Ω

⇒ Vbc = 4.00 V − (0.257 A) (0.50 Ω) = 3.87 V.

⇒r=

9.4 V − 8.4 V

= 0.2 Ω.

5.00 A

ε = 8.4 V + (1.50 A) (0.20 Ω) = 8.7 V.

I = V / R = 14 kV / (10 kΩ + 2 kΩ) = 1.17 A.

25.66:

P = I 2 R = (1.17 A) 2 (10,000 Ω) = 13.7 kW.

14,000 V

R+r= = 1.4 × 107 Ω ⇒ R = 14 MΩ − 10 kΩ ≈ 14 MΩ.

b) 0.001 A

c)

R=

ρL (5.0 Ω ⋅ m) (0.10 m)

A

=

π (0.050 m) 2

= 1000 Ω.

25.67: a)

V = IR = (100 × 10 −3 A) (1000 Ω) = 100 V.

P = VI = (100V) (100 × 10 −3 A) = 10 W.

b)

c)

V = 2.50 I + 0.360 I 2 = 4.0 V.

25.68: a)

I = 1.34 A or − 8.29 A,

I = 1.34 A.

I = 2.68 A,

⇒ V = (2.50 V / A) (2.68 A) + (0.36 V / A 2 ) (2.68 A) 2 = 9.3 V.

so t

V = IR + V ( I ) = IR + αI + βI 2 = (α + R ) I + βI 2

25.69:

⇒ βI 2 + ( R + α ) I − V = 0

⇒ (1.3) I 2 + (3.8 + 3.2) I − 12.6 = 0 ⇒ I = 1.42 A.

ε 7.86 V 7.86 V

r= = = 0.85 Ω ⇒ I = = = 2.42 A.

I 9.25 A R + r 0.85 Ω + 2.4 Ω

25.70: a)

βI 2 + (α + r ) I − ε = 0 ⇒ 0.36 I 2 + ( 2.50 + 0.85) I − 7.86 = 0

⇒ I = 1.94 A

I=

b)

25.71:ε a)ε With an ammeter in the

⇒ = I A (r + R + R A ).

r + R + RA

I=

ε r + R + RA

= I A

= I A 1 +

RA

.

r+R r+R r + R

I

c) The terminal voltage at this

= 1 +

RA

≈ 1.01 ⇒

RA

≈ 0.01 ⇒ RA (0.01) (0.45 Ω + 3.8 Ω)

IA r + R r+R

So with no ammeter:

= 0.0425 Ω.

b) We want:

25.72: a)ε With

ε aε voltmeter in the c

I=

r + RV

⇒ Vab = − Ir =

1 −

r +

r

R

.

V

Vab r r

= 1 − ≈ 0.99 ⇒ ≈ 0.01

ε r + RV r + R V

r − 0.01r

⇒ RV ≈ = 99r = 99 ⋅ 045 Ω = 44.6 Ω.

0.01

b) We want:

25.73: a) The line voltage, current

P = VI ⇒ I =

P 4200 W

= = 35 A,

considered in household wi

V 120 V

P = I 2R = = = 106 W.

A (π 4) (0.00326 m) 2

P=

A

b)

I 2 ρL (35 A) 2 (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (42 m)

=

(π 4) ) (0.00412 m) 2

= 66 W

⇒ Savings = (175 kWh ) ($0.11 kWh ) = $19.25.

carry up to 40 A.

R0 = V I 0 = (120 V) (1.35 A) = 88.9 Ω.

25.74:

c) Initially:

Rf

This is the minimum resista

R f = V I f = (120 V) (1.23 A) = 97.6 Ω.

Rf 1 1 97.6 Ω

And

c)Finally:

R0

= 1 + α (T f − T0 ) ⇒ (T f − T0 ) =

− 1 =

α

⇒ T f − T0 = 217°C ⇒ T f = 217°C + 20°C = 237°C.

−4

4.5 × 10 °C

−1

88.9 Ω

− 1

Pf = VI f = (120 V) (1.23 A) = 148 W

Σ ε 12.0 V − 8.0 V

I= = = 0.40 A.

ΣR 10.0 Ω

25.75: a)

Ptotal = I 2 Rtotal = (0.40 A) 2 (10 Ω) = 1.6 W.

ε1 , P = ε1 I = (12.0 V) (0.40 A) = 4.8 W.

ε 2 P = ε2 I = (8.0 V) × (0.40 A) = 3.2 W.

(c) = (b) + (d),

b)

ρ L (2.0 × 10 −7 Ω ⋅ m) (2.0 m)

Rsteel = = = 1.57 × 10 −3 Ω

c) Power generated in (π 4) (0.018 m) 2

A

25.76: a)

RCu =

ρL (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (35 m)

A

=

(π 4) (0.008 m) 2

= 0.012 Ω

⇒ V = IR = I ( Rsteel + RCu ) = (15000 A) (1.57 × 10 −3 Ω + 0.012 Ω) = 204 V.

E = Pt = I 2 Rt = (15000 A) 2 (0.0136 Ω) (65 × 10 −6 s) = 199 J.

|q| a

Σ F = ma = | q | E ⇒ = .

m E

e) Note

25.77: a) and so Vbc = EL ⇒

| q | aL

=

m Vbc

.

a=

of dissipation.

Vbc | q | (1.0 × 10−3 V) (1.6 × 10−19 C)

= = 3.5 × 108 m/s 2 .

mL (9.11 × 10 −31 kg) (0.50 m)

b)

c) The free charges are “left be

while the right end is positively cha

d)

25.78: a) We need to heat the wate

Q = mc v ∆T = (0.250 kg ) (4190 J/kg °C) (80°C) = 83800 J

⇒P=

Q 83800 J

= = 233 W.

t 6(60 s)

V2 V 2 (120 V) 2

P= ⇒R= = = 61.8 Ω.

R P 233 W

ρ L ρ L2 R ⋅ vol (61.8 Ω) (2.5 × 10 −5 m 3 )

R= = ⇒L= = = 39 m.

A vol ρ 1.00 × 10 −6 Ω ⋅ m

vol 2.5 × 10 −5 m 3

vol = L(πr 2 ) ⇒ r = = = 4.5 × 10 −4 m.

πL π (39 m)

25.79: a) But

E = Pt = IVt = (10 A) (14.4 V) (5) (3600 s) = 2.59 × 10 6 J.

E diss = Pdiss t = I 2 rt = (10 A) 2 (0.24 Ω) (5) (3600 s) = 4.32 × 10 5 J.

I=

b)

ε

r+R

⇒R=

ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (10 A) (0.24 Ω) = 0.96 Ω.

I 10 A

E = Pt = IVt = (10 A) (9.6 V) (5) (3600 s) = 1.73 × 106 J.

c)

b)

E diss = 4.32 × 10 5 J.

d) Discharged at 10 A:

Now the radius of the wire can be c

e)

f) Since the current through th

same energy dissipated as in (c):

Vab = ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (− 30 A) (0.24 Ω) = 19.2 V.

25.80: a)

E = Pt = IVt = (30 A) (19.2 V) (1.7) (3600 s) = 3.53 × 10 6 J.

Ediss = Pdisst = I 2 Rt = (30 A) 2 (0.24 Ω) (1.7) (3600 s) = 1.32 × 106 J.

b) I=

ε

r+R

⇒R=

ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (30 A) (0.24 Ω) = 0.16 Ω.

I 30 A

E = Pt = I Rt = (30 A ) (0.16 Ω) (1.7) (3600) = 8.81 × 10 5 J.

2 2

c) E diss = 1.32 × 10 6 J.

d) Discharged at 30 A:

1 dρ n ndT dρ a

α= =− ⇒ = ⇒ ln (T −n ) = ln ( ρ) ⇒ ρ = n .

ρ dT T T ρ T

25.81: a)

n = −α T = − (− 5 × 10 −4 (K ) −1 ) (293 K ) = 0.15.

a

ρ = n ⇒ a = ρT n = (3.5 × 10 − 5 Ω ⋅ m) (293 K ) 0.15 = 8.0 × 10− 5 Ω ⋅ m ⋅ K 0.15 .

T

e)

T = − 196°C = 77 K : ρ =

8.0 × 10 −5

(77 K ) 0.15

= 4.3 × 10 −5 Ω ⋅ m.

b)

T = − 300°C = 573 K : ρ =

8.0 × 10 −5

(573 K ) 0.15

= 3.2 × 10 −5 Ω ⋅ m.

same

25.82:energy

ε

a) dissipated as in (c):

= IR + IRd ⇒ 2.00 V = I (1.0 Ω) + V ⇒ 2 = I s [exp(eV kT ) − 1] + V.

I s = 1.50 × 10 −3 A, T = 293 K ⇒ 1333 = exp [39.6 V − 667] + 667 V .

V = 0.179 V.

Trial and error shows that

Then when discharging, even more the rig

1333 V, when The

left is dissipated over the external r

energy is lost over the internal resis

ρL ρ dx ρ 0 exp[ − x L] dx ρ L

R= ⇒ dR = = ⇒ R = 0 ∫ exp [− x L] dx

A A A A 0

25.83: a) ρ

A

∂V ∂ ( IR)

ρL

A

V

⇒ R = 0 [− L exp[ − x L]]0L = 0 (1 − e −1 ) ⇒ I = 0 =

V0 A

R ρ0 L(1 − e −1 )

∂ I ρ0 Le − x L I ρ0e − x L

.

V e− x L

E ( x) = − =− =− = = 0 −1 .

∂x ∂x ∂x A A L1− e( )

e− x L V0 − V0e −1

V ( x) = V0 + C ⇒ V ( 0 ) = V0 = + C ⇒ C =

(1 − e −1 ) (1 − e −1 ) L(1 − e −1 )

(e − x / L − e −1 )

⇒ V ( x) = V0 .

(1 − e −1 )

x = 0 to L.

b)

c)

I=

ε ⇒ P = εI − I 2 r ⇒

dP

= ε − 2 Ir = 0

r+R dI

25.84: a)

⇒ I P max =

1ε 1

= I short circuit .

2r 2

ε 1ε

I= = ⇒ + R = 2r ⇒ R = r.

r+R 2 r

ε ε .

2 2

P = I 2R = r =

2r 4r

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