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# Q = It = (3.6 A)(3)(3600 s) = 3.89 × 10 4 C.

## 25.1: Current is given by I = Q

= 420 C
= 8.75 × 10 −2 A.

25.2: a)
t 80 ( 60 s )

I = nqvd A
I 8.75 × 10−2 A
⇒ vd = =
nqA (5.8 × 1028 )(1.6 × 10−19 C)(π(1.3 × 10−3 m) 2 )

b) 1.78 × 10−6 m s .

I 4.85 A
vd = =
nqA (8.5 × 10 )(1.6 × 10 C)(π 4)(2.05 × 10− 3 m) 2 )
28 −19

## 25.3: a) = 1.08 × 10−4 m s

⇒ travel time = d
vd
= 1.08 0×.10
71 m
−4
ms
= 6574 s = 110 min

=
25.4: The cross-sectional area of
A = πr = π (2.06 × 10 m) 2 = 1.333 × 10−5 m 2 .
2 −3

I 8.00A
J=
= = 6.00 × 10 5 A m 2
A 1.333 × 10 −5 m 2

## b) If the diameter is now 4.12 m

We have vd = J ne ; Therefore
6.00 × 105 A m 2
The current density is
J electrons
n= = −5 −19
= 6.94 × 1028
vd e (5.40 × 10 m s)(1.60 × 10 C electron) m3

## or comparing the ratio of the areas,

J = n q vd , so J vd is constant.
c) The drift velocity depends on
25.5:
J1 vd 1 = J 2 vd 2 ,
vd 2 = vd 1 ( J 2 J1 ) = vd 1 ( I 2 I1 ) = (1.20 × 10−4 m s)(6.00 1.20) = 6.00 × 10−4 m s

relationship.
63.55 g mole, 8.96 g cm 3 .

## 25.6: The atomic weight of coppe 3

1.00 m is thus
(8.96 g cm 3 )(1.00 × 106 cm3 m3 )(6.023 × 1023 atoms mole )
63.55 g mole

## number of copper atoms in

= 8.49 × 10 28 atoms m 3
electrons m 3 copper m3

m3

25.7: Consider 1
density = 10.5 × 10 3 kg m 3 , so m = 10.5 × 10 3 kg
M = 107.868 × 10 −3 kg mol , so n = m M = 9.734 × 104 mol and
of silver.
N = nN A = 5.86 × 1028 atoms m 3
m 3 , there are 5.86 × 1028 free electrons m 3 .

25.8:
⇒I=
t
a)
Qtotal 0.0106 C

## Since there are the same number of

=
1.00 s
= 0.0106 A = 10.6 mA.

Na +

## (see Ex. 25.1), The number of free

If∫ there is one |free electron per
8 8
8 0.65 3 8
∫ |
Q = I dt = (55 − 0.65 t 2 ) dt = 55t +
0 3
t = 329 C.
0
0 0

25.9:
agrees witha) the value given in Exer
I = Q t = (329 C) (8 s) = 41.1 A.

## b) Current flows, by convention

J= I
= 3.6 A
= 6.81 × 10 5 A/m 2 .

25.10: a)
A ( 2.3 × 10 − 3 m ) 2

## flows with same charge

b) The toward would flow
E = ρJ = (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(6.81 × 105 A/m 2 ) = 0.012 V m .

t=
l
= =
the negativ
l nqA (4.0 m)(8.5 × 1028 m3 )(1.6 × 10 −19 C)(2.3 × 10 −3 m) 2
= 8.0 × 104 s
vd I 3.6 A

b)
= 1333 min ≈ 22 hrs!

ρL (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(24.0 m)

## c) Time to travel the wire’s leng

R=
A
=
(π 4)(2.05 × 10− 3 m) 2
= 0.125 Ω.

25.11:
ρL RA (1.00 Ω)(π 4)(0.462 × 10−3 m) 2
R= ⇒L= = = 9.75 m.
A ρ 1.72 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m

25.12:
25.13: a) tungsten: ρI (5.25 × 10−8 Ω m 3 )(0.820 A)
E = ρJ = = −3
= 5.16 × 10 −3 V m .
A (π 4)(3.26 × 10 m) 2

ρI (2.75 × 10 −8 Ω m 3 )(0.820 A)
E = ρJ = = = 2.70 × 10− 3 V m .
A (π 4)(3.26 × 10− 3 m) 2

2 2
ρ L ρ L πd πd ρCu
R Al = RCu ⇒ Al = Cu ⇒ A l = Cu ⇒ d Cu = d Al
AAl ACu 4 ρ Al 4 ρCu ρ Al

25.14:
b) aluminum:
⇒ d Al = (3.26 mm )
1.72 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m
2.75 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m
= 2.6 mm.

R=
ρL
A
so A =
ρL
R
and

## ρL2 1.72 × 10 −8 Ohm ⋅ m)(3.50m) 2

volume = AL = = = 1.686 × 10 − 6 mcb
R 0.125Ohm
m = (density )V = (8.9 × 10 kg m 3 )(1.686 × 10 −6 m 3 ) = 15 g
3

25.16:

3.5 cm
r1 = = 1.75 cm
2
3.25 mm
r2 = = 1.625 mm
2
A = 8.17 × 10 −3 cm 2

## 25.17: a) From Example 25.1, an

I = JA = (1.0 × 105 A/cm 2 )(8.17 × 10 −3 cm 2 ) = 820 A
A = I J = (1000 A) (1.0 × 106 A cm 2 ) = 1.0 × 10−3 cm 2
A = πr 2 so r = A π = (1.0 × 10−3 cm 2 π = 0.0178 cm
d = 2r = 0.36 mm

b)
25.18: Assuming linear variation o
ρ = ρ0 [1 + α(T − T0 )]
= ρ0 [1 + (4.5 × 10 −3 °C)(320 − 20)°C]
= 2.35 ρ0
ρ=E J,
E = (2.35)(0.0560 V m) = 0.132 V m
ρL ρL ρ 2.75 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m
R= = 2 = = = 1.53 × 10−8 Ω
A L L 1.80m

25.19: 20°C
25.20: The ratio of the current at
(0.860 A) (0.220 A) = 3.909.
ρ( ρ = E J ),

Since ρ
ρ0
Since
the electric field re
= 1 + α (T − T0 )
ρ
−1 3.909 − 1
proportional to the resistivity.The re
ρ0
T = T0 + = 20°C + = 666°C
Thusα 4.5 × 10 −3 °C

temperature.
R=
V ρL ρL
I
= =
A πr 2
⇒r=
IρL
πV
=
(6.00 A)(2.75 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(1.20 m)
π (1.50 V)
= 2.05 × 10 −4 m.

25.21: ρ=
RA VA (4.50 V)π (6.54 × 10 −4 m) 2
L
=
IL
=
(17.6 A)(2.50 m)
= 1.37 × 10 −7 Ω ⋅ m.

25.22:
EA (0.49 V m)(π 4 (0.84 × 10 −3 m) 2 )
I = JA = = = 11.1 A.
ρ (2.44 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)

## 25.23: a) IρL (11.1 A)(2.44 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m)(6.4 m)

V = IR =
A
=

V 3.13 V
(π 4)(0.84 × 10 −3 m) 2
= 3.13 V.

R= = = 0.28 Ω.
I 11.1A

LA = (2 L)( A 2)

25.24:
b) Because the density does no
R=
ρ( 2 L)
=4
ρL
= 4 R0 .
A2 A

## and the area is halved. So the resist

RAJ RI V 0.938 V
E = ρJ == = = = 1.25 V m .

c) a)
25.25:ρ=
RA V
L
= =
L L L 0.75 m
0.938 V
JL (4.40 × 10 A m )(0.75 m)
7 2
= 2.84 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m.

R − R0
= α (T f − Ti )

That
25.26:is, four times the original resis
R0

⇒α =
R − R0
=
1.512 Ω − 1.484 Ω
= 1.35 × 10 −3 °C −1 .

b)
(T f − Ti ) R0 (34.0 C − 20.0 C)(1.484 Ω)
 

## R f − Ri = Riα (T f − Ti ) ⇒ R f = 100 Ω − 100 Ω(0.0004°C −1 )(11.5°C) = 99.54 Ω.

25.27:a)
R f − Ri = Riα (T f − Ti ) ⇒ R f = 0.0160 Ω + 0.0160 Ω(−0.0005°C −1 )(25.8°C) =
0.0158 Ω.

b)
R f − Ri R f − Ri
T f − Ti = ; T f = Ti +
αRi αRi

25.28: =
215.8 Ω − 217.3 Ω
o −1
(−0.0005 C )(217.3 Ω)
+ 4 o C = 17.8o C.
25.29: a) If 120 strands of wire are
R = 5.60 × 10−6 Ω 120 = 4.67 × 10−8 Ω.

## area of the current carrier by 120. S

R = (5.60 × 10 −6 Ω)120 = 6.72 × 10 −4 Ω.

4 .0 Ω
12.6 V = (r + 4.0 Ω) I

## b) If 120 strands of wire are pla

∆VT = rI = 12.6 V − 10.4 V = 2.2 V

I=
2.2 V
r

length
Changeofinthe wire byvoltage:
terminal 120, and so  2.2 V 
12.6 V = ( r + 4.0 Ω)
 r 

r = 0.846 Ω

ρL 1.72 × 10 −8 Ωm)(100 × 10 3 m)
R= = = 0.219Ω
A π (0.050m) 2

25.31: a)
V = IR = (125A)(0.219Ω) = 27.4V
P = VI = (27.4 V)(125 A) = 3422 W = 3422 J/s
Energy = Pt = (3422 J/s)(3600 s) = 1.23 × 10 7 J

## Vr = ε − Vab = 24.0 V − 21.2 V = 2.8 V ⇒ r = 2.8 V 4.00 A = 0.700 Ω

25.32: a)
VR = 21.2 V ⇒ R = 21.2 V 4.00 A = 5.30 Ω.

b)
25.33: a) for
Substitute
b)
ε An I:
ideal voltmeter has in
2.0 Ω resistor.
Vab = = 5.0 V;

through the
b)Solve for r: since there
resistance.
c) The voltmeter reading is the
the terminal voltage of the battery.
ε = 24.0 V.
25.34: a) A voltmeter placed over Vr = 0.
Vs = 24.0 V.

## b) There is no current flowing,

I = 24.0 V 5.88 Ω = 4.08 A ⇒ Vab = 24.0 V − (4.08 A)(0.28 Ω) = 22.9 V.
Vr = IR = ( 4.08 A)(5.60 Ω) = 22.9 V.
Vs = 0,

## c) The voltage reading over the

Vs = IR = 0.

d)ε Having
25.35: closed
a) When theisswitch:
there
= 3.08 V.
no current
the battery:
V 0.11 V
Vr = 3.08 V − 2.97 V = 0.11 V ⇒ r = = = 0.067 Ω.
I 1.65 A
V R = 2.97 V = (1.65 A) R

## b) The voltage over the interna

2.97 V
R= = 1.8 Ω
1.65 A

25.36:
ε I=
since
a) Theallcurrent

=
the voltage has be
is counterclo
16.0 V − 8.0 V
= 0.47 A.

direction of current
so flow. Its magni
∑ R 1.6 Ω + 5.0 Ω + 1.4 Ω + 9.0 Ω

switch is zero
Vab = 16.0 V − (1.6 Ω)(0.47 A) = 15.2 V.
Vac = (5.0 Ω)(0.47 A) + (1.4 Ω)(0.47 A) + 8.0 V = 11.0 V.

c)

b)
c)
d)
25.37: ε a) Now the current flows c
I=

=
16.0 V + 8.0 V
∑ R 1.6 Ω + 5.0 Ω + 1.4 Ω + 9.0 Ω
= 1.41 A.

## Vab = −16.0 V + (1.6 Ω)(1.41 A) = −13.7 V.

Vac = −(5.0 Ω)(1.41 A) − (1.4 Ω)(1.41 A) + 8.0 V = −1.0 V.

b)
ε
c)
Vbc = 1.9 V ⇒ I = Vbc Rbc = 1.9 V 9.0 Ω = 0.21 A.

25.38: a)
∑ = ∑ IR ⇒ 8.0 V = ((1.6 + 9.0 + 1.4 + R)Ω)(0.21 A) ⇒ R =
5.48
= 26.1 Ω.
0.21

d)
b)
c)
25.39: a) Nichrome wire:

3.88 Ω.
25.40: a) Thyrite resistor:

## r = ε I = 1.50 V 14.8 A = 0.101 Ω.

25.41: a)
r = ε I = 1.50 V 6.8 A = 0.22 Ω.
r = ε I = 12.6 V 1000 A = 0.0126 Ω .

b)
P = V 2 R ⇒ R = V 2 P = (15 V) 2 327 W = 0.688 Ω.

25.42: V
V = IR ⇒ I = = a) 15 V
= 21.8 A.

c)
R 0.688 Ω

## b) The Thyrite is non-Ohmic s

P = VI = (650 V)(0.80 A) = 520 W.
25.43:
b)
c) Calculating the resistance a
W = Pt = IVt = (0.13 A)(9 V)(1.5)(3600 s) = 6318 J.
25.44:
P I 2 R J 2 A 2 R J 2 A( ρL A)
P = I 2R ⇒ p = = = = = J 2 ρ ⇒ p = JE since
vol AL AL L
E = ρJ .
25.45: a)
From (a) p = J 2 ρ .
Since J = E ρ, (a) becomes p = E 2 ρ.
I = ∑ ε Rtotal = 8.0 V 17 Ω = 0.47 A ⇒ P5Ω = I 2 R = (0.47 A) 2 (5.0 Ω) =

25.46: a)
1.1 W and P9 Ω = I 2 R = (0.47 A) 2 (9.0 Ω) = 2.0 W.
ε P16V = I − I 2 r = (16 V)(0.47 A) − (0.47 A) 2 (1.6 Ω) = 7.2 W.
P8V = εI + Ir 2 = (8.0 V)(0.47 A) + (0.47 A) 2 (1.4Ω) = 4.1 W.
( b ) = (a ) + (c)
b)
W = Pt = IVt = (60 A)(12 V)(3600 s) = 2.59 × 10 6 J.

m=
b)
25.47:
c) a)
2.59 × 10 6 J m
= 56.0 g ⇒ vol = =
0.056 kg
= 6.22 × 10 −5 m 3 = 0.062 liters.
46,000 J g ρ 900 kg m 3

b)
c) To release this much energy
t = (Wh) P = (720 Wh ) (450 W ) = 1.6 h.

d) a)
25.48:
I = ε ( R + r ) = 12 V 10 Ω = 1.2 A ⇒ P = εI = (12 V)(1.2 A) = 14.4 W.

## This is less than the previous value 14.4 W − 2.9 W = 11.5 W.

c) To recharge
ε
the battery:
b) The work dissipated in the
I = V R = 12 V 6 Ω = 2.0 A ⇒ P = I = (12 V) (2.0 A) = 24 W.

## This is less than 8 W, the amount fo

24 W − 4 W = 20 W.

b)
∑ ε The power dissipated in the
c) a)The net power output of the
I= / R = 3.0 V / 17 Ω = 0.18 A ⇒ P = I 2 R = 0.529 W.

## 25.50: W = Pt = IVt = (0.18 A)(3.0 V)(5.0)(3600 s) = 9530 J.

c)
16 W, The
the power
amount delivered
found in is then
Exampl
 3.0 V 
P = I R ⇒ 0.27 W = 
2
2

b)  17 Ω + R 

## c) Now if the power to the bulb

P = V 2 R ⇒ R = V 2 P = (120 V) 2 / 540 W = 26.7 Ω.

25.51: a)
I = V R = 120 V / 26.7 Ω = 4.5 A.
I = 4.13 A ⇒ P = VI = 454 W.

b) ρ=
m
.
ne 2 τ
c) IfFrom
25.52:m
⇒τ= 2 = the voltage
16
is just 110 V, t
Eq. (25.24),
−3
9.11 × 10 −31 kg
−19
ne ρ (1.0 × 10 m ) (1.60 × 10 C) (2300 Ω ⋅ m)
2
= 1.55 × 10 −12 s.

## d) Greater. The resistance will b

(8.5 × 10 28 m −3 )
(1.0 × 1016 m −3 ).

the power.
ρ=
RA (0.104 Ω) (π 4) (2.50 × 10 −3 m) 2
L
=
14.0 m
= 3.65 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m.

25.53: a)
I = JA =

J
EA (1.28 V m) (π 4) (2.50 × 10 −3 m) 2
ρ
E
=
3.65 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m
1.28 V/m
= 172 A.

vd = = =

## b) The number of free electron

nq ρnq (3.65 × 10 Ω ⋅ m) (8.5 × 1028 m − 3 ) (1.6 × 10 −19 C)
−8

= 2.58 × 10 −3 m/s.

pure silicon
b)
25.54: r = 2.00 cm
T = 0.100 mm
c) V V VA V (2πrT )
I= = = =
R ρl A ρl ρl
(12 V) (2π )(2.00 × 10 −2 m) (0.100 × 10 −3 m)
=
(1.47 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (25.0 m)
= 410 A
25.55: With the voltmeter connect R I
ε = 12.6 V.

ε − Ir − IR = 0
current through the battery and the
R2 = 2R1
R1 ;

## ε − I1r − I1R1 = 0; 12.6 V − (7.00 A) r − (7.00 A) R1 = 0

With a wire of resistance
ε − I 2 r − I 2 (2 R1 ) = 0; 12.6 V − (4.20 A)r − (4.20 A)(2 R1 ) = 0
R1 = 1.20Ω.
[1.20Ω /(20.0m)] (1.00m) = 0.060Ω

V V

I= =
R RCu + R Ag

## 25.56: a) ρCu LCu (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (0.8 m)

is .
RCu = = = 0.049 Ω,
ACu (π/4) (6.0 × 10 − 4 m) 2

## ρAg LAg (1.47 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m) (1.2 m)

RAg = = = 0.062 Ω
and AAg

⇒I =
(π/4) (6.0 × 10 − 4 m) 2
5.0 V
= 45 A.
0.049 Ω + 0.062 Ω

## Solving these two equations

ECu = JρCu =

E Ag = JρAg
LCu
IR
= Ag =
=
0.8 m
(45 A) (0.062 Ω)
= 2.76 V m .

= 2.33 V m .
LAg 1.2 m
resistance of 20.0 m, so the resistan
and V Ag = IR Ag = (45 A) (0.062 Ω) = 2.79 V.
25.57: a) The current must be the
E1.6mm = ρJ =
ρI (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (2.5 × 10−3 A)
= = 2.14 × 10 −5 V/m.

## thin end is 2.5 mA.

−3
A (π 4) (1.6 × 10 A) 2

ρI (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (2.5 × 10 −3 A)
E 0.8mm = ρJ = =
A (π 4) (0.80 × 10 −3 A) 2
8.55 × 10 −5 V/m ( = 4 E1.6mm ).

b)
V = E1.6 mm L1.6 mm + E 0.8 mm L0.8 mm
⇒ V = (2.14 × 10−5 V/m) (1.20 m) + (8.55 × 10−5 V/m) (1.80 m) = 1.80 × 10−4 V.

K 1 2
= n  mvd 
volume 2 

25.58:
c) a)

K
volume 2
1
= (8.5 × 10 28 m − 3 ) (9.11 × 10 − 31 kg) (1.5 × 10− 4 m/s) 2

= 8.7 × 10−10 J / m3 .
U = qV = ne( volume )V = (8.5 × 1028 m −3 ) (1.6 × 10−19 C) (10 −6 m 3 ) (1.0 V) =
1.0 cm 3 K = (8.7 × 10 −10 J/m 3 ) (10 −6 m) =
U 13600 J
8.7 × 10 −16 J. So = = 1.6 × 1019 .

=
K 8.7 × 10 −16 J

d)

b)
And the kinetic energy in
25.59: a)

ρL ρdx r −r 
dR = = 2 where r = r1 −  1 2  x.
A πr  h 
h r2
ρ dx ρh du
⇒R=∫ =− ∫
0 ( ( ) x)
π r1 − r1 − r2
h
2
π(r1 − r2 ) r1
u2
r2
ρh 1 ρh  1 
= ⇒R=  .
π (r1 − r2 ) u r π  r1r2 
1

ρh ρL
r1 = r2 = r , R = 2 = .
πr A

b b
ρdr ρ dr ρ 1 ρ 1 1
dR =
4πr 2
⇒R=
4π ∫a r 2 = − 4π r a = 4π  a − b .

25.60: a)
V V 4πab I Vab 4πab Vab ab
I = ab = ab ⇒J= = = .
R ρ (b − a ) A ρ(b − a )4πr 2
ρ (b − a ) r 2

ρ  1 1  ρ(b − a) ρL ρL
R=  − = ≈ 2
= , where L = b − a.
4π  a b  4πab 4πa A

E = ρJ and E =
b)
σ
= Q
⇒ ρJ = Q
⇒ AJ = I = Q
=

25.61:
Kε0 AKε 0 AKε0 Kε0 ρ

## c) If the thickness of the shells

I= V
⇒J= I
= V
= V
= V
.

25.62: a)
R A RA ( ρ L / A) A ρL

L = d.
d J MAX = V
ρd .

## maximum, we need the length betw I = VR = VA

ρL = JA

d
So the potential difference s d

Vd
ρ
.

## ρL (9.5 × 10−7 Ω ⋅ m) (0.12 m)

R= = = 0.057 Ω.
A (π 4) (0.0016 m) 2

## 25.63: a)ρ(T ) = ρ0 (1 + α∆T ) ⇒ ρ(60° C) = (9.5 × 10−7 Ω ⋅ m) (1 + (0.00088(C°) −1 ) (40°C)

⇒ ρ(60°C) = 9.83 × 10−7 Ω ⋅ m ⇒ ∆ρ = 3.34 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m.

## b) For a maximum current

(0.12 m) (40°C) ⇒ ∆L = 8.64 × 10 −4 m = 0.86 mm.

b) ∆ρL ρ∆L
is presented by the faces that are a
ρL
R= ⇒ ∆R = +
A A A
(3.34 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m) (0.12 m) (95 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m) (0.86 × 10−3 m)
⇒ ∆R = +

## greatest current density, so again, th

(π/4) (0.0016 m) 2
= 2.40 × 10−3 Ω.
(π/4) (0.0016 m) 2

( ) ( ) ( 0.057 Ω + 2.40 × 10 −3 Ω )

## apart. This maximum current is

α= 1
∆T
R
R0 −1 = 1
40° C 0.057 Ω −1 =
1.1 × 10 −3 (C°) −1.

c)

## constant. As the fluid expands the c

expansion due to surface effects.
I=
∑ ε = 8.0 V − 4.0 V = 0.167 A
∑R 24.0 Ω

25.64: a)
⇒ Vad = 8.00 V − (0.167 A) (8.50 Ω) = 6.58 V.

## Vbc = + 4.00 V + (0.167 A) (0.50 Ω) = + 4.08 V.

I=
∑ ε = 10.3 V − 8.0 V + 4.0 V = 0.257 A, and so
∑R 24.5 Ω

## b) The terminal voltage is

⇒ Vbc = 4.00 V − (0.257 A) (0.50 Ω) = 3.87 V.

## 25.65: a)⇒ 9.4 V = (8.4 V + (1.50 A)r ) + (3.50 A) r

⇒r=
9.4 V − 8.4 V
= 0.2 Ω.
5.00 A
ε = 8.4 V + (1.50 A) (0.20 Ω) = 8.7 V.

## c) a)Adding another battery at p

I = V / R = 14 kV / (10 kΩ + 2 kΩ) = 1.17 A.
25.66:
P = I 2 R = (1.17 A) 2 (10,000 Ω) = 13.7 kW.

14,000 V
R+r= = 1.4 × 107 Ω ⇒ R = 14 MΩ − 10 kΩ ≈ 14 MΩ.

b) 0.001 A

## b) If we want the current to be

c)
R=
ρL (5.0 Ω ⋅ m) (0.10 m)
A
=
π (0.050 m) 2
= 1000 Ω.

25.67: a)
V = IR = (100 × 10 −3 A) (1000 Ω) = 100 V.
P = VI = (100V) (100 × 10 −3 A) = 10 W.

b)
c)
V = 2.50 I + 0.360 I 2 = 4.0 V.

25.68: a)
I = 1.34 A or − 8.29 A,
I = 1.34 A.
I = 2.68 A,
⇒ V = (2.50 V / A) (2.68 A) + (0.36 V / A 2 ) (2.68 A) 2 = 9.3 V.
so t
V = IR + V ( I ) = IR + αI + βI 2 = (α + R ) I + βI 2

25.69:
⇒ βI 2 + ( R + α ) I − V = 0
⇒ (1.3) I 2 + (3.8 + 3.2) I − 12.6 = 0 ⇒ I = 1.42 A.

## b)ε If the current

ε 7.86 V 7.86 V
r= = = 0.85 Ω ⇒ I = = = 2.42 A.
I 9.25 A R + r 0.85 Ω + 2.4 Ω

25.70: a)
βI 2 + (α + r ) I − ε = 0 ⇒ 0.36 I 2 + ( 2.50 + 0.85) I − 7.86 = 0
⇒ I = 1.94 A

## Vab = ε − Ir = 7.86 V − (1.94 A) (0.85 Ω) = 6.21 V.

I=
b)
25.71:ε a)ε With an ammeter in the
⇒ = I A (r + R + R A ).
r + R + RA

I=
ε  r + R + RA 
= I A 

 = I A 1 +
RA 
.
r+R  r+R   r + R 

I 
c) The terminal voltage at this
= 1 +
RA 
 ≈ 1.01 ⇒
RA
≈ 0.01 ⇒ RA (0.01) (0.45 Ω + 3.8 Ω)
IA  r + R r+R

So with no ammeter:
= 0.0425 Ω.

b) We want:
25.72: a)ε With
ε aε voltmeter in the c
I=
r + RV
⇒ Vab = − Ir =

1 −
 r +
r 
R
 .
V 

Vab  r  r
= 1 −  ≈ 0.99 ⇒ ≈ 0.01
ε  r + RV  r + R V

r − 0.01r
⇒ RV ≈ = 99r = 99 ⋅ 045 Ω = 44.6 Ω.
0.01

b) We want:
25.73: a) The line voltage, current
P = VI ⇒ I =
P 4200 W
= = 35 A,

considered in household wi
V 120 V

## I 2 ρL (35 A) 2 (1.72 × 10−8 Ω ⋅ m) (42.0 m)

P = I 2R = = = 106 W.
A (π 4) (0.00326 m) 2

P=
A
b)
I 2 ρL (35 A) 2 (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (42 m)
=
(π 4) ) (0.00412 m) 2
= 66 W

## ⇒ ∆E = ∆Pt = (40 W ) (365) (12 h ) = 175 kWh

⇒ Savings = (175 kWh ) (\$0.11 kWh ) = \$19.25.

carry up to 40 A.
R0 = V I 0 = (120 V) (1.35 A) = 88.9 Ω.

25.74:
c) Initially:
Rf
This is the minimum resista
R f = V I f = (120 V) (1.23 A) = 97.6 Ω.
 Rf 1  1  97.6 Ω 
And
c)Finally:
R0

= 1 + α (T f − T0 ) ⇒ (T f − T0 ) =

## current flow and hence less  R0

− 1 =
α
⇒ T f − T0 = 217°C ⇒ T f = 217°C + 20°C = 237°C.
−4
 4.5 × 10 °C
−1

 88.9 Ω
− 1

## P0 = VI 0 = (120 V) (1.35 A) = 162 W

Pf = VI f = (120 V) (1.23 A) = 148 W

## d) If 6-gauge wire is used,

Σ ε 12.0 V − 8.0 V
I= = = 0.40 A.
ΣR 10.0 Ω

25.75: a)
Ptotal = I 2 Rtotal = (0.40 A) 2 (10 Ω) = 1.6 W.
ε1 , P = ε1 I = (12.0 V) (0.40 A) = 4.8 W.
ε 2 P = ε2 I = (8.0 V) × (0.40 A) = 3.2 W.
(c) = (b) + (d),

b)
ρ L (2.0 × 10 −7 Ω ⋅ m) (2.0 m)
Rsteel = = = 1.57 × 10 −3 Ω
c) Power generated in (π 4) (0.018 m) 2
A

25.76: a)
RCu =
ρL (1.72 × 10 −8 Ω ⋅ m) (35 m)
A
=
(π 4) (0.008 m) 2
= 0.012 Ω

## d) Rate of electrical energy tra

⇒ V = IR = I ( Rsteel + RCu ) = (15000 A) (1.57 × 10 −3 Ω + 0.012 Ω) = 204 V.
E = Pt = I 2 Rt = (15000 A) 2 (0.0136 Ω) (65 × 10 −6 s) = 199 J.

|q| a
Σ F = ma = | q | E ⇒ = .
m E

e) Note
25.77: a) and so Vbc = EL ⇒
| q | aL
=
m Vbc
.

a=
of dissipation.
Vbc | q | (1.0 × 10−3 V) (1.6 × 10−19 C)
= = 3.5 × 108 m/s 2 .
mL (9.11 × 10 −31 kg) (0.50 m)

## b) If the electric field is consta

b)
c) The free charges are “left be
while the right end is positively cha

d)
25.78: a) We need to heat the wate
Q = mc v ∆T = (0.250 kg ) (4190 J/kg °C) (80°C) = 83800 J

⇒P=
Q 83800 J
= = 233 W.
t 6(60 s)
V2 V 2 (120 V) 2
P= ⇒R= = = 61.8 Ω.
R P 233 W
ρ L ρ L2 R ⋅ vol (61.8 Ω) (2.5 × 10 −5 m 3 )
R= = ⇒L= = = 39 m.
A vol ρ 1.00 × 10 −6 Ω ⋅ m

vol 2.5 × 10 −5 m 3
vol = L(πr 2 ) ⇒ r = = = 4.5 × 10 −4 m.
πL π (39 m)

## Vab = ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (−10.0 A) (0.24 Ω) = 14.4 V.

25.79: a) But
E = Pt = IVt = (10 A) (14.4 V) (5) (3600 s) = 2.59 × 10 6 J.
E diss = Pdiss t = I 2 rt = (10 A) 2 (0.24 Ω) (5) (3600 s) = 4.32 × 10 5 J.

I=
b)
ε
r+R
⇒R=
ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (10 A) (0.24 Ω) = 0.96 Ω.
I 10 A
E = Pt = IVt = (10 A) (9.6 V) (5) (3600 s) = 1.73 × 106 J.

c)
b)
E diss = 4.32 × 10 5 J.

d) Discharged at 10 A:
Now the radius of the wire can be c

e)
f) Since the current through th
same energy dissipated as in (c):
Vab = ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (− 30 A) (0.24 Ω) = 19.2 V.

25.80: a)
E = Pt = IVt = (30 A) (19.2 V) (1.7) (3600 s) = 3.53 × 10 6 J.
Ediss = Pdisst = I 2 Rt = (30 A) 2 (0.24 Ω) (1.7) (3600 s) = 1.32 × 106 J.

b) I=
ε
r+R
⇒R=
ε − Ir = 12.0 V − (30 A) (0.24 Ω) = 0.16 Ω.
I 30 A
E = Pt = I Rt = (30 A ) (0.16 Ω) (1.7) (3600) = 8.81 × 10 5 J.
2 2

c) E diss = 1.32 × 10 6 J.

d) Discharged at 30 A:
1  dρ  n ndT dρ a
α=  =− ⇒ = ⇒ ln (T −n ) = ln ( ρ) ⇒ ρ = n .
ρ  dT  T T ρ T

25.81: a)
n = −α T = − (− 5 × 10 −4 (K ) −1 ) (293 K ) = 0.15.
a
ρ = n ⇒ a = ρT n = (3.5 × 10 − 5 Ω ⋅ m) (293 K ) 0.15 = 8.0 × 10− 5 Ω ⋅ m ⋅ K 0.15 .
T

e)
T = − 196°C = 77 K : ρ =
8.0 × 10 −5
(77 K ) 0.15
= 4.3 × 10 −5 Ω ⋅ m.

b)
T = − 300°C = 573 K : ρ =
8.0 × 10 −5

## f) Since the current through the

(573 K ) 0.15
= 3.2 × 10 −5 Ω ⋅ m.

same
25.82:energy
ε
a) dissipated as in (c):
= IR + IRd ⇒ 2.00 V = I (1.0 Ω) + V ⇒ 2 = I s [exp(eV kT ) − 1] + V.
I s = 1.50 × 10 −3 A, T = 293 K ⇒ 1333 = exp [39.6 V − 667] + 667 V .

V = 0.179 V.

## overc) the internal resistance. So the

Trial and error shows that
Then when discharging, even more the rig
1333 V, when The
left is dissipated over the external r
energy is lost over the internal resis
ρL ρ dx ρ 0 exp[ − x L] dx ρ L
R= ⇒ dR = = ⇒ R = 0 ∫ exp [− x L] dx
A A A A 0

25.83: a) ρ
A
∂V ∂ ( IR)
ρL
A
V
⇒ R = 0 [− L exp[ − x L]]0L = 0 (1 − e −1 ) ⇒ I = 0 =
V0 A
R ρ0 L(1 − e −1 )
∂  I ρ0 Le − x L  I ρ0e − x L
.

V e− x L
E ( x) = − =− =−   = = 0 −1 .
∂x ∂x ∂x  A  A L1− e( )
e− x L V0 − V0e −1
V ( x) = V0 + C ⇒ V ( 0 ) = V0 = + C ⇒ C =
(1 − e −1 ) (1 − e −1 ) L(1 − e −1 )
(e − x / L − e −1 )
⇒ V ( x) = V0 .
(1 − e −1 )
x = 0 to L.

b)

c)
I=
ε ⇒ P = εI − I 2 r ⇒
dP
= ε − 2 Ir = 0
r+R dI

25.84: a)
⇒ I P max =
1ε 1
= I short circuit .
2r 2
ε 1ε
I= = ⇒ + R = 2r ⇒ R = r.
r+R 2 r
ε ε .
2 2

## d) Graphs of resistivity, electri

P = I 2R =   r =
 2r  4r