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3/29/2011

Zerihun Alemayehu (AAiT-CED)

 Tools for quantitative understanding of the behavior of


environmental systems.
 For accounting of the flow of energy and materials into
and out of the environmental systems.

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Material Balance Energy Balance

Pollutant Energy
modeling
production, transport, and fate
Conservation of Matter

 The law of conservation of matter states that (without


nuclear reaction) matter can neither be created nor
destroyed.
 We ought to be able to account for the “matter” at any
point in time.
 The mathematical representation of this accounting
system is called a materials balance or mass balance.

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Conservation of Energy

 The law of conservation of energy states that energy


cannot be created or destroyed.
 Meaning that we should be able to account for the
“energy” at any point in time.
 The mathematical representation of this accounting
system we use to trace energy is called an energy
balance.

 The simplest form of a materials balance or mass balance

Accumulation = input – output

input
Accumulation output
Environmental System
(Natural or Device)

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Control Volume

Consumer Food to
goods Accumulation people

Solid
Waster

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Mass rate of accumulation =


Mass rate of input – Mass rate of output

Selam is filling her bathtub but she forgot to put the plug in.
if the volume of water for a bath is 0.350 m3 and the tap is
flowing at 1.32 L/min and the drain is running at 0.32 L/min,
how long will it take to fill the tub to bath level? Assuming
Selam shuts off the water when the tub is full and does not
flood the house, how much water will be wasted? Assume
the density of water is 1,000 kg/m3

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Vaccumulation
Qin = 1.32 L/min Qout = 0.32 L/min

We must convert volumes to masses.


Mass = (volume)(density)
Volume = (flow rate)(time) = (Q)(t)

 From mass balance we have


 Accumulation = mass in –mass out
 (Vacc)() = (Qin)()(t) - (Qin)()(t)
 Vacc = (Qin)(t) – (Qin)(t)
 Vacc = 1.32t – 0.32t
 350L = (1.00 L/min)(t)
 t= 350 min
 The amount of wasted water is
 Waste water = (0.32)(350) = 112 L

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Mass
Mass flow rate =  (concentra tion)(flow rate)
time
dM
Mass balance   cinQin  coutQout
dt
dM dt Cin Qin  Cout Qout
Efficiency of a system 
Cin Qout Cin Qin

mass in  mass out


OR   
mass in

The air pollution control equipment on a municipal waste incinerator


includes a fabric filter particle collector (known as a baghouse). The
baghouse contains 424 cloth bags arranged in parallel, that is 1/424 of the
flow goes through each bag. The gas flow rate into and out of the
baghouse is 47 m3/s, and the concentration of particles entering the
baghouse is 15 g/m3. In normal operation the baghouse particulate
discharge meets the regulatory limit of 24 mg/m3.
Calculate the fraction of particulate matter removed and the efficiency of
particulate removal when all 424 bags are in place and the emissions
comply with the regulatory requirements. Estimate the mass emission
rate when one of the bags is missing and recalculate the efficiency of the
baghouse. Assume the efficiency for each individual bag is the same as
the overall efficiency for the baghouse.

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Cout = 24 mg/m3
Qout = 47 m3/s
Baghouse
g/m3
Cin = 15
Accumulation =
Qin = 47 m3/s
particle
removal

Hopper

 kinetic reactions : reactions that are time


dependent.
 Reaction kinetics: the study of the effects
of temperature, pressure, and
concentration on the rate of a chemical
reaction.

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 The rate of reaction, ri, the rate of formation or


disappearance of a substance.
 Homogenous reactions. single phase reactions
 Heterogeneous reactions : multiphase reactions (between
phases surface)

 ri = kf1(T,P);f2([A],[B], …)

Rate constant
Concentration of reactant
Assuming that the pressure and temperature are constant
aA + bB cC

Rate of reaction  rA = - k[A]α[b]β = k[C]γ

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Rate of reaction  rA = - k[A]α[b]β = k[C]γ

order of reaction = α + β,
the order with respect to reactant A is α, to B is β, and to product C is γ.
rA = -k zero-order reaction
rA = -k[A] first-order reaction
2
rA = -k[A ] second-order reaction
rA = -k[A][B] second-order reaction

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batch reactors and flow reactors.

fill-and-draw
material flows into, through, and
out of the reactor
Unsteady state

IDEAL REACTORS REAL REACTOR

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 Conserved system: where no chemical or biological


reaction takes place and no radioactive decay occurs for
the substance in the mass balance.
 Steady-state:
Input rate = Output rate  Accumulation =0

Decay rate = 0
Accumulation rate = 0
Qs
Stream
Qm
Cs Mixture
Cm
Qw
Wastes Q = flow rate
Cw C = concentration

CsQs + QwCw = QmCm

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For non-conservative substances


Accumulation rate = input rate – output rare ±
transformation rate

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 With first-order reactions


Total mass of substance = concentration x volume
 when V is a constant, the mass rate of decay of the substance is

first-order reactions can be described by r = -kC=dC/dt,

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Decay

Sewage
Lagoon

Control volume

Accumulation=input rate – output rate – decay rate


Assuming steady-state condition, accumulation = 0
input rate = output rate + decay rate
CinQin = CeffQeff + (K)(Clagoon)(V)

d (in ) d (out )
dM/dt = ?  0
dt dt
dM
 kCV
dt
dM dC dC
 V  kC C  Co e  kt
dt dt dt

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Mass balance for each plug element

dM d (in ) d (out ) d (C )
  V
dt dt dt dt
No mass exchange occurs across the plug boundaries, d(in) and
d(out) = 0

dM dC dC
 V  kC Cout  Cin e  kt
dt dt dt

Cin  Coute  k Residence time

L=length
The residence time for each plug:
( L) ( A) V
 
(u ) ( A) Q
Cout ( L) V
ln  k  k  k
Cin (u ) Q

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Time (d) Waste Concentration (mg/L)


1 280
16 132

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 Using the 1st and 16th day, the time interval t= 16-1 = 15 d

132mg / L
Ct
 e  kt  e  k (15d )
Co 280mg / L
Solving for k, we have k = 0.0501 d-1
To achieve 99 % reduction the concentration at
Time t must be 1 – 0.99 of the original concentration
Ct
 0.01  e 0.05( t ) t = 92 days
Co
Concentration, Cin

0 0 0
Time Time Time
Step increase Step decrease pulse/spike increase

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Concentration, Cin

0 1/k 1/k
Time Time Time
Decay Formation
Ct
 e  kt
Co

C1 C1
Concentration, Cin

Concentration, Cin

-0.37C0 + 0.63C1

C0
C0

0 0 t=
Time Time
Influent concentration Effluent concentration
Concentration, Cin

Concentration, Cin

C0
C0

0.37C0

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 For balanced flow (Qin = Qout) and no reaction, the mass


balance becomes
dM
 cinQin  coutQout
dt
Where M = CV. The solution is
  t    t 
Ct  C0 exp     C1 1  exp   
       
Where  = V/Q

 Flushing of nonreactive contaminant from a CMFR by a


contaminant-free fluid
 Which means Cin = 0 and the mass balance becomes

dM
 coutQout
dt
Where M = CV. The initial concentration is C0=M/V
  t 
For time t  0 we obtain Ct  C0 exp   
   

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 For balanced flow (Qin = Qout) and first-order reaction the


mass balance becomes
dM
 CinQin  CoutQout  kCoutV
dt
Where M = CV. By dividing with Q and V we have

 Cin  Cout   kCout


dC 1
dt 

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For stead-state conditions dC/dt=0


Co Co
Cout  Cout 
1  k OR 1  k
Decay Formation
Co Co
Concentration, Cin

0 0
Time Time

A step decrease in influent concentration (Cin=O)


for non-steady-state conditions with first-order decay
dM
 0  CoutQout  kCoutV
dt
Where M = CV. By dividing with Q and V we have

dC  1    Co  
   k Cout Cout  Co exp   t 
dt     1  k  

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Concentration, Cin

Concentration, Cin
C0
C0

0
0 Time
Time
Effluent concentration
Influent concentration

A chemical degrades in a flow-balanced, steady-


state CMFR according to first-order reaction kinetics.
The upstream concentration of the chemical is 10
mg/L and the downstream concentration is 2 mg/L.
Water is being treated at a rate of 29 m3/min. The
volume of the tank is 590 m3. What is the rate of
decay? What is the rate constant?

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 For a first-order reaction, the rate of decay, r =-kC, thus we


have to solve for kC from
dM
 CinQin  CoutQout  kCoutV
dt
 For steady-state, dM/dt = 0 and for balanced flow, Qin =
Qout
CinQin  CoutQout (10mg / L  2mg / L)(29m3 / min)
r  kC  
V 580m3
 r=kC=0.4

 For a first-order reaction in a CMFR


Co
Cout 
1  k
 The mean hydraulic detention time is
V 580m3
   20 min
Q 29m3 / min
 Solving for the rate constant we get
(Co / Cout )  1 (10mg / L / 2mg / L)  1
k   0.20 min 1
 20 min

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Topics Presentation Date


Ground water pollution and remediation
Global warming and greenhouse gas effect
Recent climate change and its impact April 11
Noise Pollution and Control
Hazardous and Radioactive wastes
Automobiles and the environment
Product life cycle assessment April 18
A case study of a green building

Topics Presentation Date

Recycling, reuse and resource recovery


Investigate a renewable source of energy
Environmental Impact of Mining April 25
Effect of Climate change on Water Resource
and its mitigate measures
Water Quality and Treatment technologies
Wastewater treatment and reuse
Nanotechnology and the environment May 2
How to save our Environment

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Topics Presentation Date


Industrial Ecology and sustainable
Development
Urbanization and its Environmental
Impacts
May 9
Environmental Effects of Natural Hazards

visit
aaucivil.wordpress.com/enveng

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Report format
20 to 30 pages
Cover page: Title and Group member names
Table of content
References
Last Date of Submission: June 17, 2011

 Ground water pollution and remediation


 Hazardous and Radioactive wastes
 Noise Pollution and Control
 Explore some approaches to reduce the environmental
impacts of construction
 What can be done to make buildings more energy efficient?
 Product life cycle assessment (choose specific product, e.g.,
cars, computers, etc)
 Global warming and greenhouse gas effect
 A case study of a green building: what is green and what are
the interesting design approaches (consider materials, energy
efficiency, lighting, water use, etc.)?

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 Recent climate change and its impact


 Risk assessment and decision analysis
 Recycling, reuse and resource recovery
 Investigate a renewable source of energy (such as wind,
solar, geothermal), or a new technology that will reduce
greenhouse gas emissions due to energy consumption
(such as fuel cells or hydrogen fuel).
 Indoor air quality and models
 Automobiles and the environment
 Ecological Foot prints
 Air quality measurement and analysis

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