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 To determine the critical Reynolds number of a fluid flowing through
the helical coil.
 To determine the friction factor for flow of water through helical coil.

 Helical coil experiment set up, Stop
watch, Vernier Caliper


Helical coils are used widely in processing industries for cooling and
heating applications since the centrifugal forces experienced by the fluid
acts to promote contact with the channel wall, thereby tending to insure
good contact with the wall, and an enhanced heat transfer Some of their
main advantages over straight tubes are high heat and mass transfer
coefficients, and space economy in terms of area per unit volume.

Helical coils are used for heating or cooling in process tanks. When a
fluid flows through a curved tube, centrifugal force acting upon the
various elements of fluid moving with different velocities causes
secondary circulation. Secondary flow results in higher heat transfer
characteristics. Further, secondary flow stabilizes the laminar flow
leading of a higher critical Reynolds number for transition from laminar
to turbulent flow.

The use of helically coiled exchangers continues to increase.

Applications include liquid heating/cooling, steam heaters, vaporizers,
cryogenic cooling and vent condensing. Listed below are the details for
standard services in which helical exchangers warrant consideration.
Seal Coolers, Condensers, Cryogenic Vaporizers, Compressor Inter- and

Experimental Procedure
1. With the discharge valve closed, switch ON the pump.
2. Slowly open the discharge valve and note down the manometer
3. Note down the time taken for 1 cm raise in the discharge tank.
4. Repeat the same procedure for different flow rates of water.


d = Inner diameter of helical pipe = 0.932×10-2 m

v = velocity of water in pipe (m/sec)
µ = dynamic viscosity of water at 25 oC (0.890 ×10-3 Ns/m2)
A = cross-sectional area of coil = m2
H1 = one side manometer reading. H2=other side manometer reading.
H2 – H1 = difference in manometer reading. V= volume of water
T= time in seconds

S. No H1 H2 H1-H2 3 T(sec) Q (m3/s)
V(m )


Volume collected is calculated by measuring tank,

V = l * b * height (Units in meter) = m3

Flow rate Q = V/T = m3 /sec
Velocity v = Q/A = m/sec

On the basis of velocity, we can find Reynolds number,

Re = ρ *v*d

ρ = density of water = 1000 kg/m3

v= velocity
d = inner diameter of coil
= dynamic viscosity of water

Calculation for fanning friction factor

F = (∆p/ ρ g) * (D/L) * (2g/v2)

∆p=pressure difference in manometer

g =9.81 m/s2
D = overall diameter of coil = 0.235 m
H = overall height of coil = 0.35 m
N = No. of turns = 14 R =D/2

9R + 10 H

Dinesh Scientific

Put the value of L in the above equation and find out value of friction
factor of helical coil.

Result and Conclusion

 The critical Reynolds number of the fluid flowing through the coil
was found to be .

 The friction factor for flow of water through helical coil was found to

Dinesh Scientific