Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

1.7K views

Column Base Plate Design

Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

- Bolted Connection EvroSY
- Steel base plate design
- Practical Design and Detailing of Steel Column Base Plates
- Column base plate [Eurocode] - .ods file
- Base Plate - fixed
- Base Plate Design
- Base Plate Design - BS Code
- Design of Base Plate
- Base Plate
- Design of Base Plate
- Thickness of Base Plate
- Pinned base plates
- base plate anchor bolt design
- Structural Connections according to Eurocode 3.pdf
- Base Plate
- Column Base
- Column Base Plate
- Beam Column Base Plate Design
- Beam Column Base Plate Design
- 82155927 Base Plate Design

You are on page 1of 9

STRIP METHOD

KEVIN COWIE

CLARK HYLAND

NANDOR MAGO

ABSTRACT

Kevin Cowie is a Structural

Engineer in the Steel Structures Finite element analyses of column base plates show

Analysis Service at the New that neither the Thornton model, recommended by

Zealand Heavy Engineering American Institute of Steel Construction, nor the

Research Association. Eurocode 3 Annex L model adequately reflects the

bearing stress distribution. Finite element analysis

shows a concentration in bearing stress occurs

where the flanges of an H section meets the web.

Kevin Cowie This paper presents an improved design procedure

incorporating this observation. Uniform bearing

Clark Hyland is a Structural stress distributions under the web and flanges are

Engineer and the manager for superimposed to give an increased bearing stress in

the Steel Structures Analysis the region where the flanges meet the web.

Service at the New Zealand

Heavy Engineering Research

Association.

Clark Hyland

Research Engineer – Finite

Element Analyst at NZ Heavy

Engineering Research

Association (HERA) in 1999.

His primary role is to support

with FEA the wide range of

HERA’s Structural Steel and NZ

Welding Centre research

activities. He is a user of Nastran

Nandor Mago

for Windows and ABAQUS/

Standard/ CAE.

1. INTRODUCTION

A review of literature and codes for column pinned

base plates shows there are various different design

procedures and that not one covers the whole

spectrum of column pinned base plates.

Assumption of bearing pressure under the base

plates also varies.

In this paper a brief description of literature Figure 2: Cantilver Model – collapse mechanism

reviewed is presented along with their various

assumptions. The procedure developed by the As the cantilever extension reduces the predicted

authors, called the Lapping Strip method approach, capacities becomes increasingly unconservative.

is then presented including a description of Finite

Element Analysis, (FEA), testing. The Lapping 2.2. Fling Model

Strip method for base plate design is used in HERA

The Fling model is a modification to the cantilever

Report R4-100:2003 Structural Steelwork

model. It is only applicable to H shaped sections.

Connections Guide.

This model recognized limitations of bare plate

stiffness on load capacity by introducing a

serviceability check.

2. Literature Review

Ranzi and Kneen made a comprehensive review of For base plates where sizes are similar to the

column base plate procedures and a summary is column, Fling recommended a strength check based

presented below. (Rabzi, G and Kneen, P., 2002) on yield line theory with a pattern as shown in

Figure 3. The support conditions assumed for the

2.1. Cantilever Model

plate are fixed along the web, simply supported

The cantilever model was the first available along the flanges and free on the edges opposite to

approach to design of column pinned base plates. the web.

This model is appropriate for design of large base

plates where the dimensions of the base plate are

much larger than that of the column.

the underside of the base plate. For an H-section

the loaded area on the base plate is assumed to be

concentrated over an area of 0.95dc x 0.80bfc. As

shown in Figure 1 and 2. This results in the base

plate bending as a cantilever about the edges of this

area. This approach leads to a conservative design Figure 3: Fling Model – Yield line pattern

for large base plates.

2.3. Murray-Stockwell Model

The Murray-Stockwell model is applicable to

“lightly’ loaded base plate for H section columns.

The definition of a lightly loaded base plate is that

of a relatively flexible plate approximately the same

size as the outside dimensions of the connected

column. The Murray-Stockwell model assumes

that the pressure distribution under a base plate is

not uniform but is assumed to be an H shaped area

inside the H section. The Murray-Stockwell model

assumes that the pressure acting over the H shaped

bearing area is uniform and equal to the maximum

bearing capacity of the concrete. Refer to Figure 4.

significant improvement in bearing capacities over

the Thornton Model and uses a uniform approach.

However finite element analysis shows that the

method over predicts the base capacities due to the

overly simplified stress distribution assumed.

Therefore the authors have developed an improved

procedure called the Lapping Strip Method.

3.1. Introduction

The Lapping Strip Method modifies the equivalent

rigid area concept and the “T” stub model used in

Annex L of Eurocode 3. The Lapping Strip

Figure 4: Murray-Stockwell Model – Assumed Method is developed for an H-section by

shape of pressure distribution. considering the flange and web separately and then

combining the bearing pressures giving an

increased bearing stress in the vicinity where the

2.4. Thornton Model

flanges meet the web.

The Thornton Model is a combination of the

Cantilever, Fling and Murray-Stockwell models. 3.2. T-Stub model

The derived compact formula is suitable for only

The T-stub model is a unit length column with a

H-shaped columns. The Cantilever model is used

uniform axial load over its length. The bearing area

for extended base plates. Otherwise the Murray-

on the underside of the base plate is represented by

Stockwell model governs. However the crossover

an equivalent rigid area over which the stress is

between the two approaches is not consistent.

uniform. Refer to the Figure 6. The length of the

equivalent rigid area from the face of the column, c,

2.5. Eurocode 3 Model

can be calculated by equating bearing capacity of

the concrete with the bending capacity of the steel

Annex L of Eurocode 3, 1993, gives another

base plate.

procedure for the design of a column base plate.

This model utilizes the concept of rigid areas used

in the Murray-Stockwell model, but extends the

rigid areas outside the section perimeter. For an H- F

section the bearing area is assumed to be uniform

c c

over an H shaped bearing that extends inside and

outside the H-section. Refer to Figure 5.

Rigid Area

tw

ti

σb

Figure 6: “T” stub model assumed stress

distribution

given by the equation:

Column Base Plate 1

M* = σb c 2 (1)

2

Figure 5: Eurocode 3 assumed bearing pressure

σb Concrete bearing stress

The development of the procedure is based on the

T-stub approach. The Eurocode method gives a c Effective cantilever length

The elastic flexural capacity of the steel base plate The equivalent rigid area is increased to take

is given by equation: account of welds by measuring the rigid cantilever

1 length, c, from 80% of the weld leg length.

M = t i2 fyi (2) Therefore the rigid area and the axial connection

6

capacity of a plate section is increased and given by

ti Base plate thickness

equation:

fyi Base plate yield stress φNbp = φσb ( t w + 1.6t wi + 2c )( d + 1.6t wi + 2c ) ≤ φNs

The elastic rather than the plastic capacity is used to t wi Weld web leg length (6)

maintain consistency with the rigid area approach

applied. Equations 1 and 2 are combined to

determine the effective cantilever length, c. 3.3. H section

fyi This approach is applied to an H section shown in

c = ti (3) Figure 8 by considering the web and flange

3σb

separately and then superimposing the stress

Inserting material reduction factors, according to distributions on each other, to give an increased

the New Zealand Steel Structures Standard: bearing pressure in the vicinity where the flanges

NZS3404:1997 and the New Zealand Concrete meet the web.

Structures Standard NZS3101:1995 the equation

becomes:

φs fyi

c = ti (4)

3φσb

can take is equal to the equivalent rigid area

multiplied by the concrete bearing capacity. Under

a single vertical plate section the maximum

capacity is

φNbp = φσb ( t w + 2c )( d + 2c ) ≤ φNs (5)

d Depth of plate section

tw Web thickness of plate section

φNs Axial capacity of vertical plate

d Figure 8: Development of H section rigid bearing

area.

tw is set equal to the design concrete bearing capacity.

c Therefore the flanges and web bearing stress

outside the lapping zones is half the concrete

bearing capacity.

and web including allowance for welds is

A rf = ( bf + 1.6t wi + 2c )( t f + 1.6t wi + 2c )

(7)

A rw = ( dw + 1.6t wi + 2c )( t w + 1.6t wi + 2c )

Rigid Area

(8)

A rf Effective flange rigid plate area

A rw Effective web rigid plate area

bf Flange width

dw Web depth

ti tf Flange thickness

tw Web thickness

φσb The total effective bearing area is then equal to

A r = 2A rf + A rw (9)

Figure 7: Unit plate rigid bearing area

λ ey = 14 Welded, HW, flange

λ ey = 35 Welded, HW, web

The flange and web slenderness is

b −t fy

λ ef = f w Flange slenderness

2t f 250

(11)

d − 2t f f

λ ew =

y

Web slenderness

tw 250

(12)

The effective flange width and web depth is

λ ey

b ef = b f ≤ bf (13)

Figure 9: H section rigid bearing area λ ef

λ ey

The design bearing capacity of the connection is dew = ( d − 2t f ) ≤ ( d − 2t f ) (14)

1

φNbp = φc A r σb (10) λ ew

2 The effective flange width is developed

symmetrically about the flange mid point. The

3.4. Slenderness Limits effective web depth is split and extends evenly

from the flange/web intersections. Refer to Figure

Slender elements of columns will not develop the

11.

full section capacity and will alter the stress

distribution in the base plate. Where the slenderness A rf = ( bef + 1.6t wi + 2c )( t f + 1.6t wi + 2c ) (15)

yield limits of the web and flange are not met, then A rw = ( dew + 2t f + 1.6t wi + 2c )( t w + 1.6t wi + 2c )

the axial load distribution is not uniform at the (16)

design load. Studies of slender elements have

found that slender plates develop post-buckling

capacities by shedding load to locations close to the

edge restraints (AS/NZS 4600:1996). The ‘effective

design width’ approach used in AS/NZS 4600:1996

approximates the non-uniform distribution of stress

over the entire length of the plate to a reduced

effective length of uniform distributed stress. Refer

to Figure 10. This same approach has been used in

the Lapping Strip Method.

and dew < d – 2tf

3.5. Channel Section Columns

section columns as shown in Figure 12. The

effective rigid areas of the flanges and web are

assessed in a similar way to the H section procedure

above.

(AS/NZS 4600:1996)

used for H-sections are:

λ ey = 16 Hot Rolled, HR, flange

λ ey = 45 Hot Rolled, HR, web

Figure 12: Channel section rigid bearing area

d

2

do

2

3.6. Rectangular Hollow Section Columns Arout = π o

+ 0.8t wi + c − + 0.8t wi

2 2

For rectangular hollow, RHS, and square hollow, (23)

SHS, section columns, two sides are treated as

webs and the other two sides as flanges. The

effective flange and web widths are given by

equations

λ ey

b ef = ( b − 2t w ) ≤ b − 2t w (17)

λ ef

λ ey

dew = ( d − 2t w ) ≤ d − 2t w (18)

λ ew

Element slenderness is calculated using equations

b − 2t w fy

λ ef = f (19)

2t f 250

λ ew = (20)

tw 250

From NZS3404:1997 the slenderness yield limits

for cold formed hollow sections is 4.1. Introduction

λ ey = 40

The Lapping Strip Method assumptions were

verified by a series of non-linear static finite

element analyses. The models were built and

analyzed in ABAQUS version 6.3-1. Elastic

perfectly plastic material properties were assumed

for the steel columns and base plates. Incompatible

mode solid, C3D8I, and reduced integration,

C3D8R, elements with finer mesh in the vicinity of

the base plate were assigned to the steel and

concrete members. ABAQUS concrete smeared

cracking material model was assigned to the large

plain concrete foundation block. Contact between

the base plate and concrete was modeled. The

properties of this interaction were frictionless in

tangential direction, while the normal behavior of

pressure-overclosure was assumed in the shape of

exponential decay. No investigation was performed

Figure 13: SHS/RHS section rigid bearing area on how the interaction properties influence the

results, but negligible variations in the bearing

stresses are expected.

3.6. Circular Hollow Section Columns

For circular hollow section, CHS, columns the

Two columns with two different sized base plates

effective rigid bearing pressure is based on the

were analyzed. The two sizes of base plates for

assumption that bearing pressure inside the CHS

each column were selected for two situations. The

increases conservatively up to twice the bearing

first where the base plate size extended beyond the

pressure outside for small diameter sections.

regions of rigid bearing area calculated using the

A r = 2A rin + A rout (21) Lapping Strip Method. The second where the base

d

2

d

2 plate area was minimum, i.e. extending just beyond

Arin = π o + 0.8t wi − o − t w − c the column depth and breadth. The two columns

2 2

analyzed were 1200WB455 and 500WC440. The

(22) FEA models did not include any modeling of

welds.

4.2. Finite Element Analysis Models

No Section Flange Web Flange Column Web Flange Base Concrete Base Plate Dimensions

Yield Yield Width depth thickness thickness Plate Strength

Yield

fyf fyw bf d tw tf fyi fc' Breadth Depth Thickness

mm mm mm mm

MPa MPa mm mm mm MPa MPa

1 1200WB455 280 300 500 1200 16 40 240 30 840 1540 115

3 500WC440 280 280 500 480 40 40 240 30 730 710 75

Table 1: Extended Base Plates

No Section Flange Web Flange Column Web Flange Base Concrete Base Plate Dimensions

Yield Yield Width depth thickness thickness Plate Strength

Yield

fyf fyw bf d tw tf fyi fc' Breadth Depth Thickness

mm mm mm mm

MPa MPa mm mm mm MPa MPa

2 1200WB455 280 300 500 1200 16 40 240 30 720 1220 115

4 500WC440 280 280 500 480 40 40 240 60 520 520 90

Table 2: Minimum Area Base Plates

FEA results are presented in Table 3 and 4 and the contact pressure distribution is shown in Figures 15 to 17.

The maximum stress and the average stress in the stress block area based on Lapping Strip Method are

presented. This is compared to the predicted stress for the area in the vicinity of where the web meets the

flanges. The first predicted pressure is calculated using idealised material properties with no material reduction

factors applied. The second predicted pressure uses material properties with reduction factors applied. The

design concrete bearing capacity, accounting for confinement of the concrete, is calculated in accordance with

New Zealand Concrete Structures code NZS 3101:1995. The equation being

A2

φσb = φc 0.85fc' , φc 0.85fc' 2 (24)

A1 min

fc' 28 day concrete cylinder strength

A1 Base plate foot print area

A 2 Design effective concrete bearing area

kN MPa

2 9366 42.0

4 10200 65.0

Table 3: Minimum Sized Area Base Plates

Model No. Axial load Finite Element Analysis Lapping Strip Method Prediction

kN

Max Stress Ave Stress in Stress Ideal material Material Reduction

MPa Block MPa Factors Applied

MPa MPa

1 14913 26.9 21.5 38.0 30.9

3 14112 46.4 40.9 60.0 50.4

Table 4: Predicted Stress verus FEA Stress in Lapping Areas

The minimum area base plate FEA shows stress

concentration on the concrete immediate below the

edge of the base plate on the concrete. Some local

crushing of the concrete and redistribution of

bearing pressure will be necessary. Further

investigations of this effect in minimum area base

plate are required. Currently the Lapping Strip

Method is therefore limited to base plates sized to

extend beyond the rigid base plate area. For lightly

loaded columns, the thickness required is small and

thus the rigid area extensions from the faces of

Figure 15: No 1 1200WB455 bearing stress columns are also small.

distribution

5. CONCLUSION

Literature review shows that there are a number of

different models for column pinned base plates.

Each model has different assumptions for bearing

pressure area under the base plate. Finite element

analysis shows that that the bearing pressure

increases in the vicinity of where the flanges meets

the web. The Lapping Strip Method presented in

this paper reflects the distribution of bearing stress

more accurately. Further investigated on minimum

sized base plates and what values to use for

Figure 16: No 4 500WC440 base plate bearing concrete bearing capacity is required.

stress distribution

6. NOTATION

φ Reduction factor

φc Concrete capacity reduction

factor

φs Steel capacity reduction factor

Ar Total effective rigid bearing area

A rf Effective flange rigid plate area

Figure 17: No 3 500WC440 minimum sized base

plate bearing stress distribution A rw Effective web rigid plate area

c Effective cantilever length

4.3. Discussion of Finite Element Analysis bf Flange width

The finite element analysis shows that for extended d Section depth

base plates the maximum bearing pressures occurs dw Web depth

on the underside of the base plate in the vicinity of fyi Base plate yield stress

where the flanges meets the web. The Lapping

M* Applied Moment

Strip Method shows a similar but simplified

M Moment Capacity

pressure distribution. The Lapping Strip Method

conservatively over predicts the stresses when φNbp Base Plate Design Axial Capacity

compared to finite element analysis. φNs Axial design capacity of column

tf Flange thickness

The current allowance for confining effects in

concrete bearing capacity in foundations is limited ti Base plate thickness

to a factor of 2 in equation 24. If improvements in tw Web thickness

prediction of confined bearing capacity of the t wi Weld web leg length

concrete could be made then greater base plate

λ ef Flange slenderness ratio

bearing capacity could be accommodated in the

Lapping Strip Method. λ ew Web slenderness ratio

λ ey Plate element slenderness ratio

yield limit

REFERENCES

1. AS/NZS 4600:1996. Cold-formed steel

structures. Standards New Zealand/ Standards

Australia

2. ABAQUS/Standard. Finite Element Analysis

Program. 2001. HKS Inc, Pawtucket RI, USA.

3. Eurocode 3: Design of steel structures DD Env

1993-1-1 Part 1.1 General rules and rules for

buildings, 1992

4. Hyland, C., HERA Report R4:100:1999

Structural Steework Connections Guide, 1999,

HERA, Manukau, New Zealand

5. Hyland, C., Cowie, K., Clifton,. C., HERA

Report R4:2003 Structural Steework

Connections Guide, 2003, HERA, Manukau,

New Zealand

6. Joints in Steel Construction Moment

Connections. 1997, The Steel Construction

Institute, England

7. NZS 3101:1995. Concrete Structures

Standard. Wellington: Standards New

Zealand.

8. NZS 3404:1997. Steel Structures Standard.

Wellington: Standards New Zealand.

9. Ranzi, G and Kneen, P Design of Pinned

Column Base Plates. Steel Construction, Vol

36 No 2 September 2002, Australian Steel

Institute, Australia.

- Bolted Connection EvroSYUploaded byselcukx
- Steel base plate designUploaded byanser_ti68400
- Practical Design and Detailing of Steel Column Base PlatesUploaded byameensderaj
- Column base plate [Eurocode] - .ods fileUploaded by_at_to_
- Base Plate - fixedUploaded bybhaskardharani
- Base Plate DesignUploaded byGautam Sharma
- Base Plate Design - BS CodeUploaded bymicheleling6696
- Design of Base PlateUploaded byBenjun Balbin
- Base PlateUploaded byabdul karee
- Design of Base PlateUploaded byAnonymous ciKyr0t
- Thickness of Base PlateUploaded byyunuswsa
- Pinned base platesUploaded byHomero Silva
- base plate anchor bolt designUploaded byVivek Anandan
- Structural Connections according to Eurocode 3.pdfUploaded byZoran Vlašić
- Base PlateUploaded byMuhammed Ali
- Column BaseUploaded byvisvisvisvis
- Column Base PlateUploaded bySudathipTangwongchai
- Beam Column Base Plate DesignUploaded bySPUD1
- Beam Column Base Plate DesignUploaded byraveeleo
- 82155927 Base Plate DesignUploaded byManoj Kumar
- Column Base Plates Prof Thomas MurrayUploaded byandre2008chipo
- Column Base Plate DesignUploaded by_jesseca
- Pinned Base PlateUploaded byNaresh Babu
- Pages de AISC Design Guide 01 - Base Plate And Anchor Rod Design 2nd Ed.pdfUploaded byfarhadmrt6923
- Base Plate DesignUploaded byOlusegun S. Ajibola
- BASEPLT9Uploaded byHomero Silva
- Elena Papadopoulos_Design of Column Base PlatesUploaded byDom Tsang
- Base Plate and anchor bolt designUploaded byShaikh Muhammad Ateeq
- Base Plate With Moment & Axial CompressionUploaded byAnonymous b3NKZUb
- Base Plate Design Fixed RevisedUploaded byEngDbt

- NONLINEAR ANALYSIS OF REINFORCED CONCRETE FRAMES.pdfUploaded bycatalinx2014
- dddddUploaded bySathish Kumar
- 11-Stability of ColumnsUploaded byali381
- UC Bracing Gusset - LRFDUploaded bykalpanaadhi
- Documents Rules Naval Ships 2015 Naval Volume 1 15 Naval v1 p6Uploaded byjonathan
- Laboratory Handout Semester 1Uploaded byTaras Gorevoi
- Cacbon Steel - Mechanical PropertiesUploaded byMatteo
- Material & Processes for NDT part 5Uploaded byAnonymous gFcnQ4go
- Body Vivek Mishra 20 FebUploaded byNawaz Khan
- A706Uploaded bysramaelango
- 30 Good Rules for Connection Design - MSC - May 2004Uploaded byJSweda
- BEHAVIOR CONCRETE 3.pdfUploaded byludwing
- 02_Materials Used in RefiningUploaded byFranklin Revill
- Hybrid Post-Tensioned Precast Concrete Walls for Use in Seismic RegionsUploaded bygiri
- Young's ModulusUploaded byImmanuel Lashley
- MAESTRO.pdfUploaded bytouhid82
- Characterisation of Fibre–Polymer Interactions and Transcrystallinity in Short Keratinfibre–PolypUploaded byTOUFIK
- 07collins Shear Stresses CsaUploaded byandyhr
- Ductile Iron Pipe vs PVCO PipeUploaded bymagdyeng
- Supra Rule Book 2012Uploaded byShubham Singla
- 349.1R_07.pdfUploaded byJoão Carlos Protz Protz
- 30120140506002Uploaded byIAEME Publication
- Comparison Between DI & HDPE Pipes 30AprilUploaded bypraetor3
- Ollgaard Design of StudsUploaded byvennila-puvi
- Properties of RS5 Superalloy SolidificationUploaded bynaderbahrami
- NZS 4671 (2001) - Steel Reinforcing Materials.pdfUploaded byChris Evans
- Manual Emm 3108 - Revised - 150224Uploaded byRahimah Shafie
- Comparison of Ansi Aisc 360-05 to 1989 Asd SpecificationUploaded byRicardo MG
- Impact TestUploaded byRashid Mehmood
- DisadvantagesofBRBsUploaded bykguse2b