RAJIV GANDHI UNIVERSITY OF HEALTH SCIENCES BANGALORE, KARNATAKA PROFORMA FOR REGISTRATION OF SUBJECTS FOR DISSERTATION
NAME OF THE CANDIDATE AND ADDRESS
MR. KHALFAN KHALID.K 1st YEAR M.SC. NURSING SRI LAKSHMI COLLEGE OF NURSING # 127/1 SRI GANDADA KAVAL, MAGDI MAIN ROAD, SUNKADAKATTE. BANGALORE- 560 091. SRI LAKSHMI COLLEGE OF NURSING # 127/1 SRI GANDADA KAVAL, MAGDI MAIN ROAD, SUNKADAKATTE. BANGALORE- 560 091. DEGREE OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN NURSING, PSYCHIATRIC NURSING.
NAME OF THE INSTITUTION
COURSE OF STUDY AND SUBJECT
DATEOFADMISSION 12-6-2009 TO COURSE TITLE OF THE TOPIC A STUDY TO DETERMINE THE PREVALENCE RATE OF DYSLEXIA AMONG CHILDREN STUDYING IN SELECTED PRIMARY SCHOOLS IN BANGALORE WITH A VIEW TO DEVELOP INFORMATION BOOKLET ON DYSLEXIA.
which means poor or inadequate and µlexia¶. It¶s as invisible handicap which can go undetected out of sheer ignorance. than the normal or average student in class. Dyslexia is a common school-age childhood disorder that is often associated with disorders of reading. Definition-Developmental Reading Disorder In DSM-III (R) it¶s described as a marked impairment in the development of word recognition skills and reading comprehension that is not explained by mental retardation or inadequate schooling and that is not due to a visual or hearing defect or
. The awareness of this ³hidden disability¶ is fast drawing. a proud heritage and a worthy asset´. writing and spelling. Children are the most vital human capital and every child has the right to be cared for and develop normally. stupid and those who seem to be bright and normal but a dunce in the classroom.which means verbal language. a term coined by Rudolf Berlin. Hence they show marked educational deficiency. BRIEF RESUME OF INTENDED WORK
INTRODUCTION ³A healthy child is nation¶s pride. Children with reading disorder are slow learners who need more time for learning. each has its own limitations. clumsy. Dyslexia. poor verbal language. Each child has its own talents and interests. Most of the children are labeled retarded or become school dropouts. is probably the most widely used term to describe a child who is unable to read. The problem of reading disorder has been highlighted by the developing need of humans to communicate via the written word.6. Most of the regular classroom teachers and parents are not even aware of this disability. The word µdyslexia¶ is made up of µdys¶. Other words frequently used are severe reading disabilities. They may complain of ³troublesome children´. lazy. primary reading disabilities and word blindness.
childhood neuropsychiatric disorders will increase by more than 50% internationally to become one of the five most common causes of morbidity and disability among children in the world. Dyslexia is not a disease which needs to be cured.
. The global burden of disease study indicates that by 2020. memory conceptualization and evaluation. and social-cultural value system that views reading as a basic to survival. It appears to be a skill that if given the right opportunities. perception. Their tendency is to blame the school. the teachers or the syllabus for their child¶s inability to read.neurological disorder. but a way of thinking and learning. rather than in maintaining defenses against. discrimination. The purpose of this study is to find out the prevalence related to dyslexia among primary school children. Reading is described as ³visual receptive language´ involving a complex integration of many processes such as attention. Hence. Statistics shows there are 3-15% of school children with near average to above average intelligence who have significant learning disabilities. These components include a neurological base that is mature and intact to integrate information. people acquire almost with effortless ease. spelling. It interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living requiring reading skills. more commonly in reading.1 Reading is a complex cognitive process. they react with dismay. Reading is an integral part of education and everyday life. when parents are confronted with a child who is unable to read. requiring a delicate balance among relevant components of a support system. the emotional maturity that is needed for the postponement of immediate gratification for long-term gain. also in writing. sufficient freedom from conflict to permit the investment of energy into the task.
5 Secondary emotional problems may be present. stated that as many as 6% of children have reading disorders. anxiety. When told their child could be dyslexic. somatic complaints. many parents think dyslexia to be some kind of mental retardation and
.6.3 Longitudinal studies confirmed that severely dyslexic readers continue to manifest severe reading problems as adults. conduct disorder. parents typically respond with ³Oh. All parents want their children to be better than them.3 A follow-up study showed that those with a low score on a measure of language structure at age 3 had a high rate of µneurotic deviance´ at age 8. Learning disabilities should be seen on a continuum from least disabling to the most disabling problem and parallel to this runs yet another continuum of emotional and school related problems which interacts and compounds the effects.5 Children with dyslexia frequently act out their frustrations by adopting an ³I don¶t care´ attitude or very sensitive children develop feelings of inferiority and regress.1 NEED FOR THE STUDY
India is having the second largest population of children in the world. anger.2 It is therefore becomes very important on the part of health administration to have proper insight into morbidity pattern of children suffering from various psychological disorders in order to prepare planning and implementation of health services in a more meaningful way. no! Is this another new fashionable term you educators have coined to make money?´ Worse. in children who have been subjected to parental or other pressure to perform at a level beyond them. truancy and low selfesteem. Reviewing the various studies reported since 1930. depression.4 Learning disabilities lead to behavior problems such as aggression.6 There exists a strong association between language delays and reading problems. Each family has fewer children these days. distractibility.
I think the ocean would be less because of that missing drop.
³Although the world is full of suffering It is also full of overcoming of it. what is still unknown and.´ -Mother Teresa Looking into the above mentioned reasons the researcher felt that it needs to explore the prevalence related to dyslexia among school children. what is untested.refuse to accept. we must come in close contact with him. which will aid in primary prevention by disseminating knowledge through the planned booklet so as to take steps to prevent them in future.8
. It helps to assess what is already known. we will be lost in the numbers. if that drop was not in the ocean.7 The review of literature helps in many ways.´ Helen Keller
³We ourselves feel that what we are doing is just a drop in the ocean. If we wait till we get the numbers.2 REVIEW OF LITERATURE
The primary purpose of reviewing relevant literature is to give a broad background. and throws some light on the feasibility of the study and problem that may encounter. I do not agree with the big way of doing things. To get love and accept the person.
6. However. knowledge or understanding of the information that is available related to research problem of interest. It also helps to cover promising methodology tools with shed light on ways to improve the efficiency of data collection and obtain useful information and on how to increase the effectiveness of data analysis. To us what matters is an individual. But. dyslexia is on the increase in India and its wide presence has to be acknowledged and dealt with. also it justifies the need for its replication.
a landmark federal legislation was passed with special funding to help learning disabled children has equal opportunities in educational system. but who.The review of literature for the present study has been organized under the following headings: 1. write. to read. is probably the most widely used term to describe a child who is unable to read. Dyslexia refers to intelligent children who have no limiting physical or emotional problems. omission. to describe distortions. µDyslexia¶. the term was coined by Rudolf Berlin of Stuggart. in 1967.
Hinshel wood in (1917) published a monograph describing problems of reading in children.
. spelling errors. 9
Medical reports about academic difference in otherwise intelligent children appeared first in British literature in early 20th century.
Eric Denhoft (1951) proposed the term ³cerebral dysfunction´ for such problems. 2. Germany.
Samuel Orton (1930) coined the term strephosymbolia¶ (twisted symbols). spell and
despite conventional class room experience. Dyslexia Prevalence of dyslexia
Introduction The term µdyslexia¶ simply means difficulty with words. mirror-writing that he observed. reversals. do not learn comprehend as expected.
The word ³cat´ written on a chalkboard can be perceived in 40 different ways by a child with dyslexia with the letters reversed. Delay in learning how to tie shoes. Difficulty remembering words. They have vivid imaginations. Creative Left/right confusion Slow reader or learning to talk. Develops negative emotional behavior due to academic performance. Able to fix or tear apart things at an early age. upside down and sideways. Seems intelligent but reads slowly. Wants to know how things work and can understand them. Uses analogies to talk and explain things. Highly aware of their environment but seem to be lost. Builds things or invents things.Portfolio of a child with Dyslexia10 Good at ³hands-on´ learning they seem almost intuitive at figuring out how to do things. Views the world from different point of view.
. Has family blood relatives who also experienced difficulty in acquiring text skills. months of year. Strong graphical skills. learning new words. Difficulty sequencing days of week.
even the great contributors to the world like Thomas Alva Edison. Low self-esteem due to past frustrations. Louis Pasteur and Winston Churchill all are considered as learning disabled. Albert Einstein. farmhands. Looking back to school days.-
Loses reading place. presidents. Transposes names of people or places. Learning disabled children can be the off springs of doctors. Leonardo Da Vinci.
. Albert Einstein¶s parents were so worried about his poor performance that they doubted his ability to make a living when he grew up. Slow in learning alphabets. not only a great artist but also one of the most inventive thinkers who ever lived wrote everything in Mirror-writing. but that those improved as one got older. One might remember self or a friend who had low averages in early grades. Difficulty expressing oneself. one might recall one or two subjects that were much difficult than others. lawyers.
Who has Learning Disability? 7 Any one can have learning disability. The famous personalities. Hesitant in speech. Mixes the order of letters/ numbers. street sweepers or factory workers. Difficulty organizing ideas to write a letter. Has difficulty finding appropriate words.
5 Children 3-15% of school age often with near average to above average intelligence.11 A study on population of 1. o Teaching word identification and discrimination. Instruction must suit individual needs of the learner. o Additions and insertions-Choral reading and having child read along with a taped reading can help.Management of Dyslexia 7 Planning of a remedial programme for reading disabled readers is an extremely difficult and challenging task. Prevalence of Dyslexia There are 15 categories of disability. Learning disabilities is the largest with 52 of the total.10 In a study of 481 primary school children.549 children in the age of 5-8 years and reported reading disorder in 11% of boys and 8% of girls. Reading disabilities affect 2-8% of elementary school children¶s marks. 17 had scholastic backwardness and 8 had reading disorder. o Reversals-Establish concepts of right and left using motor movements emphasize word by word reading. 15% of children beginning school each year have dysfunction in reading skills. o Repetitions and regressions-Child is made to listen to himself read so that he is repeating words.12
. o Substitution-Verify for poor auditory discrimination undetected hearing or vision defects and phonic skills. Types of reading problems and their corrections o Omissions-Child is thought to scan entire word. are estimated to have significant disabilities in reading and writing.
.55:1. 481 children on the Danish island of Bornholm were screened for sentence.374 adolescents found 18% to have reading disorder. 3 Children who acquire localized head injury. familial pattern in about 40% of individuals.11 312 patients who visited child guidance centers from January 1981 to October 1984.11 Variables Related to Dyslexia A lack of phonological awareness or limited phonological awareness may be a cause of reading disorder. reading. 13 Written language attainment is directly associated with oral language ability. Chandigarh. revealed specific reading retardation in 10% of 10 year olds. found nearly one third children to have reading problems from lower socio-economic status. especially on left cerebral hemisphere are likely to have reading difficulty.2 A study in inner London.2 In a study of 1.15 Speech production skills of nuclear family members of children with phonological disorders were impaired.4 Studies suggest that learning disorders have an inherited. and that deficits in oral language will be reflected in written language.In a group of 408 children between the ages of 8-12 years found 12% to have deficits in reading and spelling skills. where it was found that early language development and phonological awareness were predictors of reading problems.7 In a study of 110 children of 9 years of age.14 At the end of grade 4. Male-Female ratio in 6 to 10 years was 2. Mean age 11-14 years.
it cannot be on the basis of any single mode of inheritance.Children with a history of slow expressive language development were followed to second grade and showed reading problems. found that they had psychosocial stressors. 3 In a group of 408 children between the ages of 8-12 years from middle socioeconomic status.18 Social class and birth order are strongest correlates of reading attainment.12 Geneitic factors may be important in the etiology of spelling difficulties. 18 Families with learning disabled children have been found to be distinct from typical families in their degree of over protection.17 There is relationship between low birth weight and later reading difficulty. 21 Family patterning shows that if there is a genetic cause. rivalry with siblings and inadequate parental behavior. 19 Reading skills also vary with quality of education provided. rigidity and inability to resolve conflicts because of a tendency to avoid them and use ineffective strategies to deal with them. 20 The association between reading problems and delayed problems and delayed speech development suggests that there may be underlying biological deficits which may have genetic causes. maternal deprivation. 7
.16 Multiple birth children¶s early phonological skills and later literacy showed relationship.3 Weak association exists between maternal smoking during pregnancy and poor reading at age of 8 years. 10 Children with epilepsy show increased under achievement.19 Reading disorders are associated with poor marital relationship.
particularly interpersonal relationship between the parents and the child to be significantly related to reading problems.10 88 of families of dyslexic children showed similar learning problems. only one-third show both members being dyslexic and two-thirds had only one dyslexic member. 12 Occupational status of parents and classroom achievement was reported to be significantly related.7 Children with reading problems had disturbed relationship with 60% parents. 5 In a group of 408 children between the ages of 8-12 years from middle socioeconomic status. marital disharmony in 30% parents. 3 In a study of 178 children in a private English medium school found 17% to have specific reading disability and one-third of them had stressors at home.5 A sizeable number 40-50% of children with reading problems will not have any identifiable cause whatsoever. 21 In a study of 500 boys from 12 high schools found correlation between achievement and social class. fear of teachers 35% and battering of child by 33% parents.5 Dyslexia in twins reported of 12 sets of identical twins. but for 33 pairs of fraternal twins.21 Good learners differed from poor learners with difficulties in expressive language. adverse comparison with siblings 31 %.10 Nutritional deprivation is linked to poor biochemical functioning in the brain leading to difficulties in reading. All members were dyslexic.21
. found that they had psychosocial stressors.In a 5 year follow-up study confirmed that learning disabled children are neurologically immature. 21 Environmental variables.
3. 6.3. (1month)
6. 6.3.Approximately one-third of infants born with birth weights less than 1500 grams develop reading problems.4 To prepare an informational booklet on dyslexia for the primary school teachers and parents.
.3 To assess the relationship between dyslexia and selected demographic variables.2 To find out types of dyslexia of in children based on the severity.
6. refers to difficulty in reading or learning to read.1 To determine the prevalence of dyslexia in children of selected primary schools in Bangalore.3 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
6. of which four of 1000 have some learning problems or other.
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
A study to determine the prevalence rate of dyslexia among children studying in selected primary schools in Bangalore with a view to develop information booklet on dyslexia.21 Eight of 1000 children have some form of epilepsy. Prevalence: It is the existing number of children with dyslexia identified among the children studying between first and fifth standards of selected primary schools during the period of data collection. H1: There will be significant prevalence of dyslexia among school children. 6.5 HYPOTHESES
H0: There will be no significant prevalence of dyslexia among school children.3. accompanied by difficulty in writing and spelling in the school children as identified by the investigator and confirmed by a clinical psychologist.4 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS
Dyslexia disturbs the child¶s development and leads to various problems. 2. procedure for data collection and plan for data analysis. Dyslexia is rarely identified by parents and teachers.6 ASSUMPTIONS
Research variable: Emotional well being of children. 3. type of family.7 DELIMITATION 1.
7. The data collection period is delimited to 1 month. religion. 2. 5. sample. It further deals with development of tool. Dyslexia is prevalent among school children.1 SOURCE OF DATA
Data will be collected from children from selected primary schools in Bangalore. the population and sampling technique. The study is limited to children studying between 1st and 5th standards in selected primary schools in Bangalore. Demographic variable: Age. MATERIAL AND METHODS
The study includes the research approach.
. family. psychological
6. the setting. place of living and support from other family members. income. sex. 4. Dyslexia interferes with scholastic abilities. education.6.
6. The type of dyslexia varies from one child to another.
.1.1 SAMPLING TECHINIQUE
Phase I ± Total enumerative sampling technique will be used.1.22
7. Phase II ± Purposive sampling technique will be used.7. The aim of descriptive co relational research is to describe the relationship among variables rather than to infer cause and affect relationships.
Phase-II In this study descriptive co relational design will be used. Research approach is divided into two phases-Phase-I.3 SETTING OF THE STUDY
The study will be conducted in selected primary schools in Bangalore.2 RESEARCH APPROACH
This study is designed to determine the prevalence rate related to dyslexia among the students studying between 1st and 5th standards.2 METHODS OF DATA COLLECTION
Observational checklist will be used.
7. Phase-II Survey approach will be used in both phases.1 RESEARCH DESIGN
Phase-I A simple descriptive design was used.
y Parents of dyslexic children and teachers who were willing to participate in the study. 2.7.2. Tool to determine the demographic variables.
7. An observational checklist was used to elicit dyslexia among the school children.2 SAMPLE SIZE
The sample will be 60 children in selected schools in Bangalore who fulfill the inclusion criteria.3 SAMPLING CRITERIA
Inclusion criteria: Phase I School children who were studying between 1st and 5th standards. Phase II y Children with dyslexia identified by the investigator and confirmed by the clinical psychologist.2. Exclusion criteria: Phase I Students who had a visual or auditory deficit or any other major physical illness.4 DATA COLLECTION TOOL
The tools to be used for this research study are as follows: 1.2.
[ cited 2009 Oct 5].who.medindia.htm 3.asp
.in/e-journals. [ cited 2009 Oct 5].ac.p df 2.2. Available from: URL: http://www. Chi-square test will be used to find out the association between dyslexia and selected demographic variables.
7. LIST OF REFERNCES
1. Authorities of selected schools in Bangalore.net/health-resources/Dyslexia. Available from: URL: http://www.7.5 DATA ANALYSIS METHOD
Data would be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics.dodd.int/entity/mental_health/evidence/atlas/profiles_countries. Research committee of Srilakshmi College Of Nursing
8.3 DOES THE STUDY REQUIRE ANY INTERVENTION OR INVESTIGATION TO BE CONDUCTED ON SENIOR CITIZENS OTHER HUMAN OR ANIMALS?
7. Available from: URL:http://www.4 HAS THE ETHICAL CLEARANCE BEEN OBTAINED FROM YOUR INSTITUTION?
Ethical clearance had been obtained from: 1.cmcvellore. [ cited 2009 Oct 5].
Dyslexia 2000.. A study on learning disabilities.pdf
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.edu/psychology/whathap/ubnrp/dyslexia/hist1.nmlermed. Available from: URL: http:// www.ibrary.4.org/dyslexia.ucsc.com/categories/Learning-Disabilities/Dyslexia 6./literature-review 8. [ cited 2009 Oct 5]. 13.cfm
5.asp?menu=menu referral. Available from: URL: http://www.ca/advice/specific. Available from: URL: http://www. [ cited 2009 Oct 10]. [ cited 2009 Oct 6].in/people/fac/bkar/neuropsych%20deficits. 2(1). [ cited 2009 Oct 6].edu/help/howto/write-a-literature-review 9.
Mundhkar & Minna. The concept of specific reading retardation.P.E. 1985. 22. Dodd. Michael Rutter. 18.in/show_department.html 21. Available from: URL: http://www. Nandhini. Child and adolescent psychiatry. & Hungler B.indiaparenting. [ cited 2009 Oct 16].Available from: URL: http://www. Chicago. 17. Lippincott. 72 (3): 816±33. 94-95.B. Pennington BF.html?department_id=Psychology 20. 2nd ed.S. Lefly DL. [ cited 2009 Oct 16]. Early reading development in children at family risk for dyslexia. Nursing research principles and method. McGraw Hill.ac. Polit. Child Development 2001. 19. 2(1). Stassi. Mahadeviah. 16(2): 185-187.com/faqs/parentsofschoolgoers/dyslexia.16. 2004. 1999.du.. Journal of child psychiatry 2008.M. E. Lionel Hexon. J. Mc Mahon.
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