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Source: UNESCO. (1996). The four pillars of education described in

Chapter 4 of Learning: The treasure within: A report to UNESCO of
the International Commission on Education for the twenty-first
century. Retrieved 6 October 2013, from
3 The Four Pillars of Education, described in
4 Chapter 4 of Learning: The Treasure Within, are STATEMENT#1: The four
5 the basis of the whole report. These four pillars of pillars of education (or of
6 knowledge cannot be anchored solely in one phase learning or of knowledge)
7 in a person's life or in a single place. There is a are (1) learning to know;
8 need to re-think when in people's lives education (2) learning to do; (3)
9 should be provided, and the fields that such learning to be; and (4)
10 education should cover. The periods and fields learning to live together.
11 should complement each other and be interrelated The pillars should anchor
12 in such a way that all people can get the most out the learning not solely in
13 of their own specific educational environment all one phase or not solely in
14 through their lives. a single place of a
person’s life.

STATEMENT #2: Periods

and fields complement
each other and
interrelate in a way for
all people to get most out
of their contexts through
all their lives.

Student’s educational
environments are
specific, temporal, spatial,
and contextual.

mastery of learning tools
(aka, skills) is more about
the construction of
unstructured knowledge.


mastery of the learning
tools should at least
17 Learning to Know encompass competency
18 This type of learning is concerned less with the and proficiency of the
19 acquisition of structured knowledge than with the learning tools.
20 mastery of learning tools. It may be regarded as
21 both a means and an end of human existence. Definition of
COMPETENCE conceives
the needs for education
and training into skills,
knowledge, and attitudes.
EXPERTISE refers to
special skill or knowledge.
MASTERY encompasses
knowledge or skill in a
subject or
observed performance to
and the performance
knowledge with the
structural or static
elements. For instance,
information in a
spreadsheet contains
predefined columnar
structured knowledge.
arranged in a pre-defined
manner. It may contain
dates, numbers, and facts
that originate from
unstructured form.

23 Looking at it as a means, people have to learn to STATEMENT #6: The
24 understand the world around them, at least as learning to know pillar
25 much as is necessary for them to lead their lives prioritizes first the
26 with some dignity, develop their occupational proficiency of skill,
27 skills and communicate with other people. second the construction
28 Regarded as an end, it is underpinned by the of knowledge from
29 pleasure that can be derived from understanding, unstructured data second,
30 knowledge and discovery. and third the
31 construction of
knowledge from
structured data.


skill development is both
a means and an end.

means, skill development
is a learning process to
understand reality. It is
also a learning process to
learn to communicate, to
interact, and to
collaborate with people
and to live with dignity.

end, skill development
results in being proficient
with a skill but feeling


ultimate purpose of
learning to know is to
derive SELF-ESTEEM by
being proficient with the
skill developed and being
satisfied with the
knowledge constructed.

32 That aspect of learning [which refers to STATEMENT #11:
33 “understanding, knowledge, and discovery”] is Education is the teaching
34 typically enjoyed by researchers, but good and learning, more, of
35 teaching can help everyone to enjoy it. Even if dynamic unstructured
36 study for its own sake is a dying pursuit with so knowledge and, less, of
37 much emphasis now being put on the acquisition static structured
38 of marketable skills, the raising of the school- knowledge.
39 leaving age and an increase in leisure time should
40 provide more and more adults with opportunities STATEMENT #12:
41 for private study. Learning to know and to
42 construct dynamic
unstructured knowledge
requires being competent
and proficient with the
skill and the knowledge.


teaching is a pursuit of
happiness for everyone
engaging in the teaching
and learning.

STATEMENT #14. Youth

and adults should have
ample opportunities to
private study.

Definition of
facilitates students to
connect their synapses
and neurons and to form
thoughts and to
transform them
ultimately to be better
citizenry (Leblanc, n.d.).
the self-disciplined and
empowered approach
where the student does
not have a timetabled

43 The broader our knowledge, the better we can STATEMENT #15. Skill
44 understand the many different aspects of our development should be
45 environment. Such study encourages greater evidence-based and
46 intellectual curiosity, sharpens the critical faculties connected to the
47 and enables people to develop their own construction of know-
48 independent judgments on the world around them. how, know-when, know-
49 From that point of view, all children - no matter what, and know-why
50 where they live - must have a chance to receive an knowledge.
51 appropriate science education and become friends
52 of science throughout their lives. STATEMENT #16. The
53 construction of know-
54 However, since knowledge is multifarious and why knowledge is
55 capable of virtually infinite development, any science-based.
56 attempt to know everything becomes more and
57 more pointless. In fact, after the basic education STATEMENT #17.
58 stage, the idea of being a multi-subject specialist is Understanding the
59 simply an illusion. The initial secondary and science and perspectives
60 university curricula are therefore partly designed of reality enables the
61 around scientific disciplines with the aim of giving construction of broader
62 students the tools, ideas and reference methods knowledge.
63 which are the product of leading-edge science and
64 the contemporary paradigms. STATEMENT #18.
65 Lifelong learning
curricula should develop
students to be proficient
in interdisciplinary, and
not specialized,


curricula should develop
students with the tools,
ideas, and techniques so
that they have awareness
of science and
perspectives of the

capital T is a conception
of good education. Its
horizontal line
represents the broad
general education. Its
vertical line represents a
small number of subjects
studied in-depth.

66 Such specialization must not exclude general
67 education - not even for future researchers who Definition of
68 will work in specialized laboratories. A truly Terms
69 educated person nowadays needs a broad general GENERAL EDUCATION in
70 education and the opportunity to study a small arts and sciences
71 number of subjects in depth. This two-pronged provides a wide range of
72 approach should be applied right through basic, introductory, or
73 education. The reason is that general education, foundation skills and
74 which gives pupils a chance to learn other knowledge in areas such
75 languages and become familiar with other subjects, as English, Mathematics,
76 first and foremost provides a way of and the Social Sciences. It
77 communicating with other people. If specialists forges temporal and
78 rarely set foot outside their own scientific circle, spatial linkages between
79 they are likely to lose interest in what other people, organizations,
80 people are doing. Regardless of the circumstances, communities, and society.
81 they will find working with others a problem. On It triggers and motivates
82 the other hand, general education, which forges receptiveness of
83 spatial and temporal links between societies, branches of knowledge.
84 tends to make people more receptive to other MULTIFARIOUS means
85 branches of knowledge. While the history of having many different or
86 science is written by historians, scientists find it greatly diverse parts,
87 useful. By the same token, lawyers, sociologists elements, forms,
88 and political scientists increasingly need basic activities, etc. .
89 economics. Lastly, some breakthroughs in the PARADIGM is a set of
90 advancement of human knowledge occur at the patterns. A pattern is a
91 interface of different specializations. model of something; it is
92 a representation. In a
paradigm, the pattern is
accepted by the members
of a group as a coping
mechanism to resolve
uncertainty and to satisfy
needs of the group. A
paradigm is about the
experiences that reflect
the practice.


education includes
breakthroughs or
advances of

93 Learning to know implies learning how to learn by STATEMENT #22.
94 developing one's concentration, memory skills and LEARNING TO KNOW is
95 ability to think. From infancy, young people must LEARNING HOW TO
96 learn how to concentrate - on objects and on other LEARN (aka, learning to
97 people. This process of improving concentration learn). It is developing
98 skills can take different forms and can be aided by the skills to concentrate
99 the many different learning opportunities that (and to some extend to
100 arise in the course of people's lives (games, work memorize), to think and
101 experience programmes, travel, practical science to reflect, and to conduct
102 activities, etc.). self- evaluation.
104 The development of memory skills is an excellent STATEMENT #23.
105 tool for countering the overpowering stream of LEARNING TO LEARN
106 instant information put out by the media. It would requires the
107 be dangerous to conclude that there is no point in development of memory
108 people's improving their memory skills because of skills throughout the life.
109 the vast amount of information storage and This aspect of learning
110 distribution capacity available. While some should not be equated
111 selectivity is undoubtedly required when choosing with rote learning.
112 facts to be "learned by heart", there are numerous
examples of the human memory's ability to
114 outperform computers when it comes to
Definition of
115 establishing connections between memorized Terms
116 facts that apparently have very little to do with CRITICAL THINKING
117 each other. The specifically human ability of focuses toward desirable
118 associative memorization is not something that outcomes (Halpern, 1996)
119 can be reduced to an automatic process; it has to REFLECTIVE
120 be carefully cultivated. Furthermore, specialists in THINKING is a part of
121 this field agree that memory skills have to be critical thinking. It focuses
122 developed from infancy and that it is dangerous to on the process of making
123 discontinue various traditional exercises in judgments about what
124 schools simply because they are considered to be has happened. It is an
125 boring. active, persistent, and
126 careful consideration of
beliefs, grounds that
underlie the knowledge,
and conclusions to which
the thinking leads.
learning by repetition.
THINKING includes
thinking about
generating practical
solution, solving problem,
abstracting, reflecting,
and chaining of
(deductive and inductive)
127 Thinking is something children learn first from
128 their parents and then from their teachers. The Definition of
129 process should encompass both practical problem- Terms
130 solving and abstract thought. Both education and DEDUCTIVE
131 research should therefore combine deductive and REASONING deduces that
132 inductive reasoning, which are often claimed to be if something is true of a
133 opposing processes. While one form of reasoning class of things, it is also
134 may be more appropriate than the other, true for all members of
135 depending on the subjects being taught, it is that class.
136 generally impossible to pursue a logical train of INDUCTIVE
137 thought without combining the two. REASONING starts with
138 specific observation to
139 The process of learning to think is a lifelong one make broader
140 and can be enhanced by every kind of human generalization.
141 experience. In this respect, as people's work
142 becomes less routine, they will find that their STATEMENT #24. Learning
143 thinking skills are increasingly being challenged at to know develops thinking
144 their place of work. skills to generate solutions
145 to improve works,
especially the non-routine

STATEMENT #25. Learning

to know is not only learning
to learn. It is also learning
to think throughout the life
in order to enhance every
aspect of human experience.

STATEMENT #26. Thinking

skills are increasingly
important to face the less
certain and more uncertain
challenge of the work place.

Definition of
ADAPT is the process of
changing to suit different
ADOPT is the act of
accepting or beginning to
147 Learning to Do INNOVATION is
148 This question is closely associated with the issue something that is
149 of occupational training: how do we adapt perceived new.
150 education so that it can equip people to do the
151 types of work needed in the future? Here we STATEMENT #27. The
152 should draw a distinction between industrial industrial model of 20th
153 economies, where most people are wage-earners, century emphasizes
154 and other economies where self-employment or services over products.
155 casual work are still the norm. Also, it emphasizes
156 know-how and intangible
157 In societies where most people are in paid knowledge. The
158 employment, which have developed throughout emphases hinge on the
159 the Twentieth century based on the industrial ability to turn advances
160 model, automation is making this model of the knowledge into
161 increasingly "intangible". It emphasizes the innovations in order to
162 knowledge component of tasks, even in industry, generate new business
163 as well as the importance of services in the enterprises and new jobs.
164 economy. The future of these economies hinges on
165 their ability to turn advances in knowledge into STATEMENT #28.
166 innovations that will generate new businesses and Developing skill is more
167 new jobs. "Learning to do" can no longer mean than just imparting the
168 what it did when people were trained to perform a know-how knowledge to
169 very specific physical task in a manufacturing do a job. It is developing
170 process. Skill training therefore has to evolve and motivation to conduct
171 become more than just a means of imparting the active engagement.
172 knowledge needed to do a more or less routine job.
STATEMENT #29. A task
practitioner is not a
divided-labor element of
Taylor model but a team
member in the Japanese

174 From certified skills to personal competence
175 The major part played by knowledge and
Definition of
176 information in manufacturing industry renders Terms
177 obsolete the notion of specialist skills on the part PERSONAL
178 of the workforce. The key concept now is one of COMPETENCE is the
179 "personal competence". Technological progress traditional notion of
180 inevitably changes the job skills required by the competence and MORE.
181 new production processes. Purely physical tasks First, the competence is
182 are being replaced by tasks with a greater about conditions, needs
183 intellectual or cerebral content such as the (for skills and
184 operation, maintenance and monitoring of knowledge), and
185 machines and design and organizational tasks, as attitudes. Essentially
186 the machines themselves become more intelligent. about skills, knowledge,
187 There are several reasons for this increase in skill and attitudes, the
188 requirements at all levels. Instead of being competence is the mix of
189 organized to perform specified tasks in skills including certified
190 juxtaposition in accordance with Taylor's skills, knowledge, social
191 principles of scientific labour organization, behaviors, talents, traits
192 manufacturing workers are often divided into such as the willingness to
193 work teams or project groups on the Japanese take risks, and personal
194 model. This approach represents a departure from initiatives, and
195 the idea of dividing labour into similar physical motivators. Second, the
196 tasks which are essentially learned by repetition. competence requires
197 greater intelligence,
198 Furthermore, the idea of personalized tasks is intuitiveness (common
199 taking over from that of employee sense), trustworthiness,
200 interchangeability. There is a growing trend credibility, interpersonal
201 among employers to evaluate potential employees skill, communication skill,
202 in terms of their personal competence rather than and decision-making skill.
203 certified skills which they see as merely Third, the competence
204 demonstrating the ability to perform specific further requires
205 physical tasks. This personal competence is awareness of broad inter
206 assessed by looking at a mix of skills and talents, disciplines and
207 combining certified skills acquired through proficiency to relevant
208 technical and vocational training, social behaviour, skills set. The notion of
209 personal initiative and a willingness to take risks. proficiency is the
210 performance of the
intended learning
outcomes) and
assessment (preferably,
self-assessment). The
notion of proficiency
does not require greater
specialist skills. Fourth,
the competence should
include a personal
commitment for change.

If we add a demand for personal commitment on
the part of employees in their role as change
Definition of
213 agents, it is clear that this kind of personal Terms
214 competence involves highly subjective innate or CHANGE AGENT
215 acquired qualities, often referred to as "people embodies a personal
216 skills" or "interpersonal skills" by employers, commitment for change
217 combined with knowledge and other job skills. Of due to the growing
218 these qualities, communication, team and complexity of economies.
219 problem-solving skills are assuming greater The change agency
220 importance. The growth of the service industries involves highly subjective
221 has resulted in an increase in this trend. (innate or acquired)
222 qualities and combines
223 The shift away from physical work - the with solution generating,
224 service industries problem solving, and
225 In advanced economies there is a shift away from interpersonal skills and
226 physical work. The implications of this trend for knowledge.
227 education are even clearer if we look at the PRACTITIONER is
228 development of the service industries in both someone who engages in
229 quantitative and qualitative terms. Most of the a task with the personal
230 active population (60-80 per cent) of the competence.
231 industrialized countries is employed in the service
232 sector. The main defining characteristic of this
new form of personal
233 extremely broad category is that it covers
competence embodies
234 activities which are neither industrial nor
practices and theories
235 agricultural and which, despite their diversity, do
coupled with personal
236 not involve any tangible product.
dynamics, good solution-
generating, problem-
238 Many services are defined primarily in terms of
solving, decision-making,
239 the interpersonal relationship involved. Examples
innovative, and team
240 of this are found both in the rapidly expanding
241 private service sector which is benefiting from the
242 growing complexity of economies (every kind of STATEMENT #31. The
243 expertise imaginable, security services or high- trend in the twenty-first
244 tech consultancy services, financial, accounting century includes a shift,
245 and management services) and in the more away from physical work ,
246 traditional public sector (social services, health toward service-sector
247 and education services, etc.). activities which are
248 neither industrial nor
249 In both these cases, information and agricultural, which are
250 communication play a vital role. The key aspect complex and diversified,
251 here is the personalized acquisition and and which do not
252 processing of specific data for a clearly defined necessarily involve
253 project. In this type of service, both the provider tangible product.
254 and the user influence the quality of the
255 relationship between them. Clearly, people can no STATEMENT #32.
256 longer be trained for this sort of work in the same Another trend is the
257 way as they learned how to plough the land or importance of
258 make a sheet of steel. These new jobs are about information and
11 communication.
259 interpersonal relationships; workers' STATEMENT #33. The
260 relationships with the materials and processes above two trends in the
261 they are using are secondary. The growing service twenty first century
262 sector needs people with good social and trigger needs for
263 communication skills - skills that are not personalized acquisition
264 necessarily taught at school or university. and processing of specific
265 data for a clearly define
266 Lastly, in the ultra high-tech organizations of the task or project. The
267 future, where relational inadequacies might cause quality to satisfy the need
268 serious dysfunctions, new types of skills will be relies on the quality of
269 required, with an interpersonal rather than the relationship between
270 intellectual basis. This may provide an opportunity the service provider and
271 for people with few or no formal educational the user of the service
272 qualifications. Intuition, common sense, and data.
273 judgement and leadership skills are not confined
274 to highly qualified people. How and where are
275 these more or less innate skills to be taught? The STATEMENT #34. The
276 problem is akin to that raised by the idea of quality of the relationship
277 vocational training in developing countries. between the service
278 Educational content simply cannot be inferred provider and the user of the
279 from a statement of the skills or abilities required service and data relies
280 for specific tasks. more on the trust and
281 credibility developed while
they interact with each
other and less on the
interactions between
people and materials or
between people and

STATEMENT #35. People

with high personal
competence are highly
qualified people. They can
be people with few or no
formal educational


assessment or certification
of skills developed and
knowledge acquired should
include adequate evidence
and statements of the skills
and abilities required for
specific tasks.

282 Work in the informal economy STATEMENT #37. Good
283 The nature of work is very different in the curriculum design should
284 economies of developing countries where most fit the economies of the
285 people are not wage-earners. In many sub-Saharan country ; should not simply
286 African countries and some Latin American and be copied from other
287 Asian countries, only a small proportion of the economies; should meet the
population is in paid employment. The vast requirements of the
community; and should
289 majority works in the traditional subsistence
meet the wider aim of
290 economy, where specific job qualifications are not achieving formal and
291 required and where know-how is the fruit of tacit informal participation in
292 knowledge. For this reason, education cannot development. The skills to
293 simply be modelled on the types of education that be developed should
294 seem to fit the bill in post-industrial societies. involve both social skills
295 Besides, the function of learning is not confined to and occupational skills.
296 work; it should meet the wider aim of achieving
297 formal or informal participation in development. STATEMENT #38. Good
curriculum design should
298 This often involves social skills as much as
inspire students to learn to
299 occupational skills. act appropriately in an
300 uncertain situation.
301 In other developing countries, a thriving unofficial Moreover it should inspire
302 modern economy based on trade and finance may students to become
303 exist alongside a small official economic sector and involved in shaping the
304 agriculture. This parallel economy indicates the future.
305 existence of business communities capable of
306 meeting local requirements. STATEMENT #39. The good
307 curriculum design should
308 In both these cases, there is no point in providing embrace endogenous
development, strengthen
309 the population with high-cost training (since the
local potential, empower
310 teachers and the educational resources have to and inspire active learning.
311 come from abroad) either in conventional
312 industrial skills or in advanced technology. On the
313 contrary, education should be brought into Definition of
314 endogenous development by strengthening local
315 potential and the spirit of empowerment. Terms
316 ENDOGENOUS is a term
317 We then have to address a question that applies to in economics to describe
318 both developed and developing countries: how do something that is inside a
319 people learn to act appropriately in an uncertain particular system.
320 situation, how do they become involved in shaping
321 the future?

323 How can people be prepared to innovate? STATEMENT #40. Good
324 This question is being asked in developing and curriculum design should
325 developed countries. It basically comes down to ultimately develop personal
326 knowing how to develop personal initiative. competence which includes
327 Paradoxically, the richest countries are sometimes development of personal
328 restrained in this respect by the excessively coded initiative skill and
329 and formal way they are organized, particularly as integrates near-authentic
330 regards their educational systems, and by a certain (sport, club membership,
artistic, cultural, and study
331 fear of risk-taking which may be engendered by
and travel) activities
332 the rationalization of their economic model.
through small groups,
333 Undoubtedly, sport, club membership and artistic networking , collaborations,
334 and cultural activities are more successful than the and intensive applications
335 traditional school systems at providing this kind of of information, knowledge,
336 training. The discovery of other societies through and creativity.
337 study and travel may encourage such behaviour.
338 From this point of view in particular, a great deal
339 may be learned by observing the economies of
340 developing countries.
342 In all countries, lastly, the growing importance of
343 small groups, networking and partnerships
344 highlights the likelihood that excellent
345 interpersonal skills will be an essential job
346 requirement from now on. What is more, the new
347 working patterns, whether in industry or in the
348 service sector, will call for the intensive
349 application of information, knowledge and
350 creativity. All things considered, the new forms of
351 personal competence are based on a body of
352 theoretical and practical knowledge combined
353 with personal dynamism and good problem-
354 solving, decision-making, innovative and team
355 skills.

Definition of
both of self-knowledge
and on relationships with
people. It refers to the
totality of mind, body,
358 Learning to be intelligence, sensitivity,
359 At its very first meeting, the Commission aesthetic appreciation
360 powerfully re-asserted a fundamental principle: and spirituality from
361 education should contribute to every person's childhood and onward.
362 complete development - mind and body, The development covers
363 intelligence, sensitivity, aesthetic appreciation and the person’s own
364 spirituality. All people should receive in their independent and critical
365 childhood and youth an education that equips way of thinking and
366 them to develop their own independent, critical judgment to be able to
367 way of thinking and judgement so that they can make up own minds on
368 make up their own minds on the best courses of the best courses of action
369 action in the different circumstances in their lives. in the different
370 circumstances in life.
371 In this respect, the Commission embraces one of
372 the basic assumptions stated in the STATEMENT #41. Good
373 report Learning to Be: ‘the aim of development is curriculum design should
374 the complete fulfilment of man, in all the richness ensure that the education
375 of his personality, the complexity of his forms of contribute to every
376 expression and his various commitments - as person’s complete human
377 individual, member of a family and of a community, development.
378 citizen and producer, [change agent,] inventor of
379 techniques and creative dreamer.'
381 This human development, which begins at birth curriculum design should
382 and continues all through a person's life, is a make the education a
383 dialectic process which is based both on self- highly individualized
384 knowledge and on relationships with other people. process; should
385 It also presupposes successful personal experience. maximize interactive
386 As a means of personality training, education social experience; should
387 should be a highly individualized process and at develop the imperative of
388 the same time an interactive social experience. owning responsibilities;
and should enhance
solution- generating, and
decision-making skills.

390 In its Preamble, the report Learning to Be (1972) STATEMENT #43. Good
391 expressed the fear of dehumanization of the world, curriculum design should
392 associated with technical progress and one of its enhance the realization
393 main messages was that education should enable that “everyone always
394 each person ‘to be able to solve his own problems, has the personal
395 make his own decisions and shoulder his own resources and intellectual
396 responsibilities.' Since then, all progress in tools needed to
397 different societies, particularly the staggering understand the world
398 increase in media power, has intensified those and behave as a fair-
399 fears and made the imperative that they underpin minded responsible
400 even more legitimate. This dehumanization may person.”
401 increase in the twenty-first century. Rather than
402 educating children for a given society, the
403 challenge will be to ensure that everyone always
curriculum design should
404 has the personal resources and intellectual tools
also ensure everyone the
405 needed to understand the world and behave as a
opportunity to enjoy the
406 fair-minded, responsible human being. More than
freedom of thought,
407 ever before, the essential task of education seems
judgment, feeling, and
408 to be to make sure that all people enjoy the
imagination; to develop
409 freedom of thought, judgement, feeling and
his or her talents; and to
410 imagination to develop their talents and keep
keep control of as much
411 control of as much of their lives as they can.
of his or her life as
413 This is not simply a cry for individualism. Recent
414 experience has shown that what could appear
415 merely as a personal defence mechanism against STATEMENT #45.
416 an alienating system or a system perceived to be Individualism is good. It
417 hostile, also offered the best opportunity for offers the best
418 making social progress. Personality differences, opportunity for social
419 independence and personal initiative or even a progress. Personal
420 task for upsetting the established order are the difference, personal
421 best guarantees of creativity and innovation. The initiative, independence,
422 rejection of imported high-tech models, the and non-conformance of
423 harnessing of traditional implied forms of established order are the
424 knowledge and empowerment are effective factors best guarantee of
425 in endogenous development. New methods have creativity and innovation.
426 evolved from experiments at local community
427 level. Their effectiveness in reducing violence or
428 combating various social problems is widely
429 recognized.

431 In a highly unstable world where one of the main STATEMENT #46. Good
432 driving forces seems to be economic and social curriculum design should
433 innovation, imagination and creativity must foster empowerment
434 undoubtedly be accorded a special place. As the and freedom of
435 clearest expressions of human freedom, they may expression, through
436 be threatened by the establishment of a certain innovation, imagination
437 degree of uniformity in individual behaviour. The and creativity, to the
438 twenty-first century will need a varied range of extend of disconformity.
439 talents and personalities even more than
440 exceptionally gifted individuals, who are equally
441 essential in any society. Both children and young
curriculum design should
442 persons should be offered every opportunity for
offer every opportunity
443 aesthetic, artistic, scientific, cultural and social
for aesthetic, artistic,
444 discovery and experimentation, which will
scientific, social
445 complete the attractive presentation of the
discovery and
446 achievements of previous generations or their
447 contemporaries in these fields. At school, art and
448 poetry should take a much more important place
449 than they are given in many countries by an
450 education that has become more utilitarian than
451 cultural. Concern with developing the imagination
452 and creativity should also restore the value of oral
453 culture and knowledge drawn from children's or
454 adults' experiences.

curriculum design should
offer every opportunity
for students to reflect on
questions, such as: How
can we do better? How
can we educate ourselves
to avoid conflict or to
resolve it peacefully?
457 Learning to live together
458 Violence all too often dominates life in the STATEMENT #48. Good
459 contemporary world, forming a depressing curriculum design should
460 contrast with the hope which some people have offer every opportunity
461 been able to place in human progress. Human for students to construct
462 history has constantly been scarred by conflicts, the positive perspective
463 but the risk is heightened by two new elements. of competition and
464 Firstly, there is the extraordinary potential for competitiveness to
465 self-destruction created by humans in the sustain state, societal,
466 twentieth century. Then, we have the ability of the community-based,
467 new media to provide the entire world with organizational, or
468 information and unverifiable reports on ongoing individual affair.
469 conflicts. Public opinion becomes a helpless
470 observer or even a hostage of those who initiate or
471 keep up the conflicts. Until now education has
472 been unable to do much to mitigate this situation.
473 Can we do better? Can we educate ourselves to
474 avoid conflict or peacefully resolve it?
476 While the idea of teaching non-violence in schools
477 is certainly praiseworthy, it seems quite
478 inadequate if we look at what is really involved.
479 The challenge is a difficult one since people have a
480 natural tendency to overestimate their own
481 abilities or those of the group to which they belong
482 and to entertain prejudices against other people.
483 Moreover, the general climate of competition that
484 prevails in both domestic and international
485 economies tends to turn competitiveness and
486 personal success into modern values. In fact, this
487 competitiveness is nowadays translated into a
488 relentless economic war and a tension between
489 rich and poor that breaks apart nations and the
490 world and exacerbates historic rivalries.
491 Regrettably, with its incorrect interpretation of
492 what is meant by competition, education
493 sometimes helps to sustain this state of affairs.

495 How can we do better? Experience shows that it is STATEMENT #49. Good
496 not enough to set up contacts and communication early childhood
497 between people who are liable to come into curriculum design should
498 conflict to reduce this risk (for example, in inter-
offer every opportunity
499 racial or inter-denominational schools). If the for students on the
500 different groups are rivals or if they do not have discovery of other people;
501 the same status in the same geographical area, the realization of the
502 such contact may have the opposite effect to that interdependence of
503 desired - it may bring out hidden tensions and people regardless of the
504 degenerate into an opportunity for conflict. If, onaspects of similarities
505 the other hand, this kind of contact is organized in
and differences; the
506 an egalitarian setting and common aims and awareness to understand
507 projects are pursued, the prejudices and latent people’s reactions and
508 hostility may give way to a more relaxed form of their perspectives; and
509 co-operation, or even friendship. the emphasis of
510 geography, foreign
511 The conclusion would seem to be that education languages, and foreign
512 should adopt two complementary approaches. literature.
513 From early childhood, it should focus on the
514 discovery of other people in the first stage of
515 education. In the second stage of education and in
516 lifelong education, it should encourage
517 involvement in common projects. This seems to be
518 an effective way of avoiding conflict or resolving
519 latent conflicts.
521 Discovering other people
522 One of education's tasks is both to teach pupils
523 and students about human diversity and to instil
524 in them an awareness of the similarities and
525 interdependence of all people. From early
526 childhood, the school should seize every
527 opportunity to pursue this two-pronged approach.
528 Some subjects lend themselves to this - human
529 geography in basic education, foreign languages
530 and literature later on.
532 Moreover, whether education is provided by the
533 family, the community or the school, children
534 should be taught to understand other people's
535 reactions by looking at things from their point of
536 view. Where this spirit of empathy is encouraged
537 in schools, it has a positive effect on young
538 persons' social behaviour for the rest of their lives.
539 For example, teaching youngsters to look at the
540 world through the eyes of other ethnic or religious
541 groups is a way of avoiding some of the
542 misunderstandings that give rise to hatred and
543 violence among adults. Thus, teaching the history
544 of religions or customs can provide a useful
545 reference tool for moulding future behaviour.
547 Lastly, recognition of the rights of other people
548 should not be jeopardized by the way children and
549 young people are taught. Teachers who are so
550 dogmatic that they stifle curiosity or healthy
551 criticism instead of teaching their pupils how to
552 engage in lively debate can do more harm than
553 good. Forgetting that they are putting themselves
554 across as models, they may, because of their
555 attitude, inflict lifelong harm on their pupils in
556 terms of the latter's openness to other people and
557 their ability to face up to the inevitable tensions
558 between individuals, groups and nations. One of
559 the essential tools for education in the twenty-first
560 century will be a suitable forum for dialogue and
561 discussion.

563 Towards common goals STATEMENT #50. Good
564 When people work together on exciting projects secondary and post-
565 which involve them in unaccustomed forms of secondary curriculum
566 action, differences and even conflicts between design should encourage
567 individuals tend to pale and sometimes disappear. involvement in
568 A new form of identity is created by these projects collaborative projects
569 which enable people to transcend the routines of and social activities, in
570 their personal lives and attach value to what they “unaccustomed forms of
571 have in common as against what divides them. In action, differences and
572 sport, for example, the tensions between social even conflicts between
573 classes or nationalities can eventually be welded individuals,” and enable
574 into a spirit of solidarity by the commitment to a students “to transcend
575 common cause. In the world of work, too, so many the routines of their
576 achievements would not have been possible if personal lives and [to]
577 people had not successfully moved beyond the attach value to what they
578 conflicts that generally arise in hierarchical have in common as
579 organizations through their involvement in a against what divides
580 common project. them.”
582 Formal education should therefore set aside
583 sufficient time and opportunity in its curricula to
584 introduce young people to collaborative projects
585 from an early age as part of their sports or cultural
586 activities. But this approach should also get them
587 involved in social activities: the renovation of slum
588 areas, help for disadvantaged people,
589 humanitarian action, senior citizen help schemes
590 and so on. Other educational organizations should
591 take over these activities from the schools.
592 Another point is that, in everyday school life, the
593 involvement of teachers and pupils in common
594 projects can help to teach a method for resolving
595 conflicts and provide a valuable source of
596 reference for pupils in later life.
598 References
599 Halpern, D. F. (1996). Thought and Knowledge: An
600 Introduction to Critical Thinking (3rd ed.).
601 Mahwah, NJ: L. Erlbaum Associates.
602 Leblanc, R. (n.d.). Good teaching: The top ten
603 requirements. Retrieved 8 October 2013,
604 from
605 /pages/GoodTeaching.aspx
606 The Nielson Group. (n.d.). List of competencies.

Dr. Francisco Cua CPA, ACA
PhD (Otago), MEntr (Otago), MSBA (FEU), PGDipTerT (Otago), GradCertMgt (TOPNZ),
BSC (FEU, Summa Cum Laude),

Chief Executive Officer

FCC Consultants, Inc.

11A Scout Madriñan Street
South Triangle, Quezon City, Philippines 1103
Skype: francisco_cua
Phone: +63-2-371-1640
Fax: +63-2-371-1641

Mission, Vision, and Core Values

My mission is to generate innovative solutions and implementation plans for people in
business, employment, education, and training to be productive and successful. I envision a
world where people can respond to uncertainties in their endeavors. I collaborate with like-
minded people and work together to execute solutions. My commitment to working in teams
is based on openness and honesty to create and sustain trust and respect in the communities of

Associate Editor/Member of Editorial Board/Peer Reviewer

 Associate Editor, European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), 2012 and
2013, IS Innovation, Adoption, and Diffusion Track
 Member of Editorial Board, International Journal of Data Science
 Peer Reviewer, Encyclopedia of Information Science and Technology, 3rd edition
 Peer Reviewer, European Journal of Marketing
 Peer Reviewer, Journal of International Entrepreneurship

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