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The Gohar Mahal is situated in the upper bank of lake. The first women ruler of Bhopal named
Gohar Begum in 1820 built it. It’s a magnificent example of blend of Hindu and Islamic

The splendid three storied structure, built on a contoured site having approach from road to the
building at every floor. The site has the entrance from the south-east direction, whereas
building has an entry from lake side i-e eastern corner of the Mahal. It is having two courtyards,
which divides it into three transverse mass. The total floor area of the Gohar Mahal is 650 sqm.
with massive load bearing wall of brick. The top floor is enclosed with wooden frame of
mansard roof covered with slate tile. The interior is finished with lath and plaster, and
verandhas all around the courtyards along with direct and indirect opening in the structure.

Courtyard- the breathing space: The Gohar Mahal is divided into three part with two central
courtyard. Courtyard is an affective technique of shading, and also allowing light to enter inside
the building. It helps in maintaining pressure difference between hot air and cool air, which
results in air flow. To humidify the air, water sprinkler was used, hence thermal comfort is
achieved. To minimize the heating of external wall verandhas were used, which helps in
attaining thermal buffer by cutting off the heat and glare. The arcade along the periphery of
courtyard helps in maintaining the inside temperature by cutting the direct sunlight to enter the
building. The parapet along the courtyard are of low height and roof slope inward, towards
courtyard for better Hence the courtyards act as prime area for air exchange and day light which
contributes in maintaining the temperature cooler with proper lighting of interior space.

Wall: The massive wall of Gohar Mahal is made up of adobe bricks with some space made of
stone. The mud construction is an indigenous technique adopted in central India. As availability
of mud is in abundant and responds to the climatic condition of the site, it was basicly used as
prime construction material. The thickness of walls of gohar Mahal varies from 1500cm to 60cm
depending upon the location and purpose on the space. The adobe construction is very energy
efficient being warm in winter and cool in summer. The thick solid adobe walls possess the
property of thermal mass, because of which the adobe brick are heated by sun light it holds heat
and decapitate it slowly at night which is preferred in winter. To prevent from vice versa, sun is
kept off from adobe wall by means of over hangs, shading device, verandas, and proper
orientation, so that they stay cool during the day and night of summer.

Openings: The openings are provided in form of door, window and ventilators for adequate

For better pressure difference for flow of air, hexagonal wind catchers are provided. Windows
are oriented according to prevalent wind direction. The window openings are placed in the
exterior as well as in the interior wall towards the verandahs and courtyards.
Building materials: The building material selected for the construction of building plays a vital
role. The material contributes in heat exchange and the thermal mass of building, which helps in
cutting down energy requirement as well as maintains indoor human comfort. The building
materials used in various building component of the Gohar Mahal are: Adobe sun dried
bricks, stone, timber, lime, surkhi. The materials are intelligently used according to its thermal
conductivity like massive adobe sun dried brick for walls, at some places stones are also used.
Timber is used for door and window frame, floor joist and roof joist as timbers is having low
thermal conductivity, good tensile strength and restrict no air and light to enter the space. To
attain smooth finish and acoustics plastering with mud and lime surkhi is done.

Roof and floor: The rooms placed at the lake side are double roof. The secondary roof or false
ceiling provided below the structural roof is provided by gap. This gap between the two ceilings
comprises of air, which is a non-conductor of heat, hence reduces the transmission of heat from
roof to interior of building. Few rooms are provided with high ceiling and small opening near
roof. As warm air rise up because of its light weight and escapes from the opening at the top, at
the same time cold air is replaced. The repetition of phenomenon results in good airflow within
the space. Hence the desired thermal comfort is achieved in interior.

The rooms closest to the upper lake had some interesting hints of just how elaborately these
rooms must once have been decorated, with mirrored ceilings and some quite elaborate wall
Glittery material named’abhrak’ was applied on the wals

Pale yellow sandstone
The vast eastern face of the palace which measures in 300 feet in length and about in 80 feet in
intervals by six round towers of pleasing design, crowned with domed cupolas.

Exterior walls

The wall is inlaid with enameled blue, green and yellow tiles, forming bands of mosaic
consisting chiefly of conventional figures of men, ducks, elephants, crocodiles, tigers and trees
giving the wall an unsurpassed charm and elegance.

Inside the fort are several palaces built by different dynasties. The most impressive is the Man
Singh Palace built by Raja Man Singh Tomar during his reign from 1486 to 1516. The exterior of the
palace is decorated with friezes of yellow and blue tiles, of which you can still see traces. There are
also impressive jhimili or stone lattice-screens, cornices, pendants, and mosaics with floral and
geometrical patterns

The door of the temple includes the idols of river goddesses on top and their attendants at the
lower part. From the door, devotees enter the garbha griha. It is said that previously the temple
was dedicated to Lord Vishnu and was later dedicated to Lord Shiva. The outer and inner part of
the door includes Shaiva and Shakta dvarpalas. The outer walls are carved with the statues of
many Hindu gods and goddesses. There is also a Garuda monument near the temple dedicated
to Lord Vishnu.

The exterior of the palace was decorated with tiles and the walls include carvings of ducks
floating in water.
The yellow stone walls interspersed with Lattice and Meenakari work is stunning. Meenakari,
derived from the word 'Mina' in Persian meaning 'azure colours of heaven' is seen across the
many walls of the palace. True to its name vivid shades of azure blue, yellow ochre and emerald
green invite visitors to spend hours in admiration.

Extensive use of chattris

Carved ceilings
Stone screen for ventilation

Highlighting opening if placed at the end of long pathway

Jhimli on projections
Carved lintels
Projections with view for cozy discussions

SAROD GHAR, gwalior

Placing statue or sculpture to create a focal point in courtyard

Sarod ghar, Gwalior

Plantation belt for privacy

Use of cool colors like white , salmon pink, blue etc.


Made of red stone, the mosque is situated by the lake referred to as the Motia
The Mosque has a pink facade topped by two 18-storey high octagonal minarets with marble
domes, an impressive main hallway with attractive pillars and marble flooring resembling Mughal
architecture the likes of Jama Masjid in Delhi and the huge Badshahi Mosque of Lahore. It has a
courtyard with a large tank in the center. It has a double-storied gateway with four recessed
archways and nine cusped multifold openings in the main prayer hall. The massive pillars in the hall
hold 27 ceilings through squinted arches of which 16 ceilings are decorated with ornate petaled

Last but not the least, visit Taj Ul Masjid – probably one of the largest mosques in
Asia, spread a little over 23,000 square feet. It’s a regal monument with its pink
façade, intricate carvings on the pillars and ceiling, the expansive courtyard and
smooth marble flooring. But it is the 18 storey high minarets that are the most
breath-taking feature of the mosque.

Bhojeshwar Temple, Bhojpur, MP

Built by the founder of Bhopal (Raja Bhoj) in 1010, this temple was never completed. Has one of the
largest lingams (2.5 meters). It is believed that this site is mentioned in the Mahabharatha as a location
visited by the Pandavas (5 brothers)
Vidisha, MP
Visited a museum in shambles. The first photograph is that of Krishna - found stacked in the corner, dirty,
dusty, and neglected. Blake seriously thought about stealing it but instead offered the security guard
money to purchase the statue. The security guard refused and Blake regretted not stealing it. Second
photograph of the Hanuman is thought to be 13th century. Fourth photograph a second century BC of
Kuber, treasurer to the gods. Finally the last picture is that of Lord Vishu in his boar avatar. The pillar that
you see - was close to the museum, called the Heliodorus Pillar. Erected in 140 BC by the Greek
Ambassador to present day Pakistan.
Chaman Mahal and Rani Mahal, Bhopal, MP

Located in Islamnagar, 11 km from Bhopal, these two palaces still show the remnants of Indian, Islamic,
and Bengali architecture. There exist ruins of a hammam (turkish bath) as well as beautiful fountains.
The Orchha Fort complex, which houses a large number of ancient monuments consisting of the
fort, palaces, temple and other edifices, is located in the Orchha town in the Indian state of Madhya
Pradesh. The fort and other structures within it were built by the Bundela Rajputs starting from early
16th century by King Rudra Pratap Singh of the Orchha State and others who followed him.
The fort complex, which is accessed from an arched causeway, leads to a large gateway. This is
followed by a large quadrangular open yard surrounded by palaces. These are Raja Mahal or Raja
Mandir, Sheesh Mahal, Jahangir Mahal, a temple, gardens and pavilions. The battlements of the fort
have ornamentation. Notable architectural features in the fort complex are projected balconies,
open flat areas and decorated latticed windows.

The fort complex is located in the Tikamgarh district of Madhya Pradesh in the erstwhile state of
Orchha. The fort complex is within an island formed by the confluence of the Betwa River and Jamni
River in Orchha town. Approach to the complex from the eastern part of the market in the town is
through a multiple arched bridge with 14 arches built in granite stones

The fort complex, accessed from an arched causeway, leads to a large gateway followed by a large
quadrangular open space which is surrounded by palaces such as Raja Mahal or Raja Mandir,
Sheesh Mahal, Jahangir Mahal, a temple, gardens and pavilions. The fort walls have battlements,
which have ornamentation.[3] Notable architectural features seen in the fort complex consist of
projected balconies, open flat areas and decorated latticed windows.