AN

INVESTIGATION OF THE APPLICABILITY OF
WALKER AND FETSKO INK TRANSFER EQUATION ON
AND THE INFLUENCE OF INK VISCOSITY ON
HEAT SET INK USED ON THE WEB OFFSET PROCESS
by
Dein
Wang
A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the degree of Master of Science in the
School of
Printing
in the College of Graphic Arts and
Photography
of the Rochester Institute of
Technology
September,
1986
Thesis Advisor: Dr. Julius L. Silver
School of Pri nt i ng
Rochester I ns ti t ut e of Technology
Rochester , New York
CERTIFICATE OF APPROVAL
MASTER 'S THESIS
Th is i s to cert ify that the Master's Thesis of
De in Wang
with a major in Printing Technology has been
approved by the Thes is Committee as
satisfactory fo r the thesis requirement fo r
t he Master of Science degree at the
convocation of
January 1987
Thesis committee:
Julius L. silver
Thes is Adv isor
Joseph Noga
Graduate Adv isor
Miles Southworth
Di rector Designate
'1tle of Thesia AYl T>\ v« hr !j' M af 14 1
ts 0 1-rck rIO " t o' <rI\ fh,. cv.-I . 7Yl k
1m Hoe ,u -r",k.. U-,./ e»: fA< w'Lb a f y"o<,£SS
_______________________ (grAnt,
1I!!iV) permis.ion to the WAllace MemoriAl Library, of R.I '-T., to
epr oduce my the.i. in whole or in pArt. Any reproduction will
>t be for cOllllllerciAl use or profit.
Or
_______________________ prefer to be
eAch time A request for reproduction is mAde. I CAn be
,Ache d at the following Address.
te _
TABLE OF CONTENTS
page
LIST OF
TABLES
iv
LIST OF FIGURES
v
ABSTRACT 1
CHAPTER I
-
INTRODUCTION
1
Significance and Background of Ink Transfer in
the
Printing
Process
1
Statement of the Problem
3
Footnotes for Chapter I
6
CHAPTER I I
-
BACKGROUND OF THEORY
7
Walker and Fetsko Ink Transfer Equation 8
1 . Low Ink Film Thickness 8
2. High Ink Film Thickness
12
3.
Transfer Constants
k,
b and f 14
i . Constant k
14
ii. Constant k
15
iii .
Constant f
16
Viscosity
17
1.
Definition
17
Footnotes for Chapter II
21
11
CHAPTER III
-
LITERATURE REVIEW 23
Walker and Fetsko Ink
Transfer Equation 23
Rheology
of
Printing
Inks 24
Footnotes for Chapter III 25
CHAPTER IV
-
METHODOLOGY
27
Hypothesis
27
Experiment Design 27
1 .
Preliminary
Test 28
i. Test of the Effect of Solvent
Evaperation Rate 28
ii. Test of the Ink Transfer
Consistancy
29
2 . The Experiment 30
CHAPTER V
-
DATA
ANALYSIS 32
Viscosity
Measurement 32
Calculation 33
CHAPTER VI
-
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS 45
CHAPTER VII
-
CONCLUSION AND SUMMARY 54
Summary
57
CHAPTER VIII
-
RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER STUDY 58
BIBLIOGRAPHY 59
APPENDIX
A . How to Use Viscometer 61
in
LIST OF
TABLES
1.
Viscosity
of
Printing
Inks 18
2.
Viscosity
Measurement of the Two Inks Used 33
3. Regression Data of the Unadjusted Ink-Coated
Paper
35
4. Regression Data of the Unadjusted Ink-Oncoated
Paper
35
5. Regression Data of the Adjusted Ink-Coated
Paper
35
6. Regression Data of the Adjusted Ink-Uncoated
Paper 35
7. List of
b,
f and R-square Value of the Linear
Regression Model 36
8. Unadjusted Ink-Coated Paper Calculation 37
9. Unadjusted Ink-Uncoated Paper Calculation 38
10. Adjusted Ink-Coated Paper Calculation 39
11. Adjusted Ink-Uncoated Paper Calculation 40
12. List of Parameter
b,
f and k Values 50
IV
LIST OF FIGURES
1. Percent Ink Transfer for a Coated Paper 8
2. Fraction Contact as a Function of Ink Film
Thickness 10
3. Ink Transfer per Unit of Contact Area as a
Function of Ink Film Thickness 11
4. The Amount of Ink Transferred as a Function of Ink
Film Thickness 12
5. Linear Relation of
y
vs. x at High Ink Film
Thickness 13
6. Change in k with
Printing
Pressure 14
7. Typical Flow Curve for Pseudo-Plastic Ink System 19
8. Percent Transfer Plot Comparison Between
Experiment and Transfer Equation of Unadjusted
Ink-
Coated Paper
41
9. Percent Transfer Plot Comparison Between
Experiment and Transfer Equation of Unadjusted
Ink-
Uncoated Paper
42
10. Percent Transfer Plot Comparison Between
Experiment and Transfer Equation of Adjusted
Ink-
Coated Paper
43
11. Percent
Transfer Plot Comparison Between
Experiment and Transfer Equation of Adjusted
Ink-
Uncoated Paper
44
12. Linear Model of Unadjusted Ink-Coated Paper 46
13. Linear Model of
Unadjusted Ink-Uncoated Paper ... 47
14. Linear Model of
Adjusted
Ink-Coated Paper 48
15. Linear Model of Ajusted
Ink-Uncoated Paper 49
v
ABSTRACT
The Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation is the most
used ink transfer equation to predict the ink and paper
behavior on the ink transfer
step
in the
printing
process.
All previous studies have shown that this equation is
mostly
applicable in the three major
printing processes, letterpress,
lithography
and gravure.
A
study by Schaeffer,
Fisch and Zettlemoyer reported
extensive measurements for several oil-base ink and paper
combination over a range of proof-press
printing
conditions. Yuri
Bery
did a series of studies for
modifying
the Walker and Fetsko equation in gravure inks for
Weyerhaeuser Company.
All the studies showed that although
generally
the Walker
and Fetsko ink transfer equation can be applied to all three
major
printing processes,
there are always some modifications
needed for different rheological characteristics and
printing
conditions .
The trends for the lithographic process is toward Web Offset
printing. The components of Web Offset ink is quite different
from conventional sheetfed
lithographic ink in the pigment
and vehicle used.
This paper is to find out if the Walker and Fetsko ink
transfer equation can be also applied to the Web Offset ink.
By investigating
the effect of
viscosity
-
one of the most
important characteristics in
rheology
of ink
-
on the
transfer
parameters,
the ink transfer mechanism model can be
examined to see whether it is the same for oil base ink as
for the heat-set Web Offset ink.
The result of this experiment showed there is a
significant different absorption behavior between coated
paper and uncoated paper. This difference is
effecting
the
applicability
of the Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation
in this particular type of ink and paper combination.
CHAPTER I
INTRODUCTION
Significance and Background of Ink Transfer in the
Printing
Process
The main goal of the Graphic Arts
Industry
is to produce
consistent
quality
prints
by transferring
ink from plate to
paper or
any
other substrates. In the attempt to gain better
control of
quality consistency
of final
prints,
the transfer
of ink onto paper is a critical step. Such transfer can be
much improved if we have a better
understanding
of the
behaviors of
inks,
the characteristics of
papers,
and the
mechanism of ink transfer to paper in the
printing
process.
The first attempt to set a mathematical model for the
ink transfer process was done
by
Pilh and Olsson in the
early
1950 's.
They
introduced the "transfer
number"
as the ratio
of the amount of ink on the paper to the amount of ink on the
plate after printing. This transfer number is
only
constant
for large amounts initial ink on the plate.
The
research in ink transfer done at the National
Printing
Ink Institute
by
William. C. Walker and Jacqueline M.
Fetsko in
19551
tried to identify
the major
printing
solids
using
the
letterpress process.
They
also tried to
identify
the
variables of the
quality
of prints
being
produced. The
variables studies in this experiment were the
characteristics of inks and
papers,
ink film
thickness,
printing
pressure and
printing
speed. From the data obtained
from this
experiment,
a concept of ink transfer mechanism
during printing
was introduced
by
the authors.
The contact of the ink with the paper is
incomplete at
very
low ink film thickness
but improves
rapidly
with
increasing
ink
film thickness. The paper surface has a
definite
capacity
for
taking up
or
immobilizing
a given amount of ink
during
impression. Aconstant fraction
of the
remaining
or free ink is
transferred to the paper.
^
The data obtained from the experiment gave the authors
a best-fit
curve,
from which an equation was derived. In the
equation the authors defined three constants which were the
printing
smoothness of the
paper,
the immobilization
capacity
of the
ink,
paper combination and the fraction of
3
free ink transferred. The equation is as follows:
Y=(l-e"kx){b(l-e"x/b)+f(x-b(l-e"x/b))}
where Y
=
amount of ink
transferred,
x
=
initial amount of ink on the
plate,
e
=
base of natural logarithms, approximately
2.718,
k
=
(paper smoothness
parameter)
a constant
related to the
printing
smoothness of the
paper,
b
=
(immobilization
parameter)
the immediate
immobilization or acceptance
capacity
of the
paper surface for
ink,
f
=
fraction of free ink transferred to paper.
The equation is reduced to a simple form at high ink
film thickness as follows:
y
=
b +
f(x-b)
This Walker-Fetsko ink transfer equation has been
generally
accepted
by
the
industry
although there are a
number of studies on the parameters in the equation and on
the modifications of the equation. The modifications allow
us to have a better fit to the particular
printing
process
4
condition. Of all the studies done in ink transfer in the
past
years,
there has been no major achievement in a new
quantitatively
defined ink transfer mechanism. The Walker and
Fetsko ink transfer equation is still the most
applicable,
quantitative and most referred to mathematical model in all
5
of the three major
printing
methods.
Statement of Problem
The Walker and Fetsko equation is composed of two
dominant
factors which are the coefficient
(k)
of how
rapidly
printing
contact area reaches
100%,
and the rate of
immobilization
(b) by
the paper. The coefficient k is
determined
by
the
characteristics of the substrate used and
should be an indicator of
printing
smoothness. A large k
value stands for high
printing
smoothness. The transfer
constant b
indicates the maximum amount of ink which can be
absorbed or
immobilized
by
the substrate
during
the
impression time the pressure is applied. It is determined
by
the ink
properties that are used. In the Walker and
Fetsko experiment
,
the vehicle
viscosity
of the ink used
apparently
has a greater effect on the transfer constant b
than
any
other ink
properties. Another observation made in
the Walker and Fetsko experiment
regarding
vehicle
viscosity
is that with the
decreasing
vehicle
viscoisty,
the fraction
of free ink split factor f increases.
The interest of this experiment lies in how well the
Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation fits a heat set
type ink and the effects of different ink viscosity. As we
know,
heat set ink is a solvent type ink. The vehicle of
heat set type ink is composed of different kinds of solvent
compared to the varnish used in the oil base letter press and
sheetfed offset lithographic ink where the
drying
mechanism
and ink
property
are quite different from each other.
The question
arises,
can the well known Walker and
Fetsko ink transfer equation be applied to a heat set solvent
type
ink,
with the knowledge that the equation is derived
from data yielded
by
experimentation oil base letterpress inks?
If the Walker and Fetsko equation is applicable to the heat set
Web offset
ink,
will the ink
viscosity
have the same dominant
effect on the immobilization parameter b and the factor of
how free ink
splits, f,
as in the oil base ink? If
so,
can
the ink
viscosity
effect in the Walker and Fetsko ink
transfer equation be
quantitatively
defined? Or will there
be no visible effect at all?
The author hopes to find the answers for the above
questions in this experiment.
FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I
J.M. Fetsko and W.C.
Walker,
"Measurement of Ink
Transfer in the
Printing
of Coated
Paper,"
TAGA
Proceeding,
TAGA, 1955,
pp.
130-137.
2
W.C. Walker and J.M.
Fetsko,
"A Concept of Ink
Transfer in
Printing,"
TAGE
Proceeding, TAGA, 1955,
pp.
134-
149.
3Ibid.
4
W.C.
Walker,
"Determination of Ink Transfer
Parameters,
"
Tappi,
Vol.
64,
No.
5, 1981,
pp. 71-75.
5
Y.
Bery,
"An Ink Transfer
Equation,"
TAGA
Proceeding,
TAGA, 1978,
pp. 172-191.
6W.C. Walker and J.M.
Fetsko,
"A Concept of Ink
Transfer in
Printing,"
TAGA
Proceeding, TAGA, 1955,
pp.
134-
149.
7Ibid.
8Ibid.
CHAPTER II
BACKGROUND OF THEORY
The Walker and Fetsko Ink Transfer Equation
By examining
the prints at various film
thicknesses,
Walker and Fetsko had three findings:
1. When
initially
small amount of ink was
used,
the ink
film was thin and had incomplete contact to paper.
Such condition would not
satisfy
the ink absorption
by
the paper.
2. When ink film thickness
increases,
the ink absorption
by
the paper increased to a maximum capacity.
3. The
remaining
ink between the plate and the paper
would split between the plate and paper at a certain
constant ration.
4. typical ink transfer curve shown in Figure 1 is the
3
"Percent Ink Transfer Curve for Coated
Paper."
Figure 1
-
Percent Ink Transfer for
Coated Paper
1. Low Ink Film Thickness
The Walker and Fetsko equation is derived from low ink
film thickness which is much more complicated compared to the
high ink film thickness.
At low ink film thickness
condition,
the ink film is
not continuous due to incomplete contact of ink to paper.
Hence,
there is not enough ink to
satisfy
the absorbance
4
capacity
of the paper. The equation for this condition is:
y
=
F . Y
(D
where
y
=
amount of ink transferred to the
paper,
F
=
fraction of area of paper contacted
by ink,
Y
=
amount of ink transferred to the paper where
the ink and paper have actual contact.
In this condition of incomplete
contact, y
is determined
by
the fraction of contact area F. When F reaches 100%
that
is the contact is
complete, y
=
Y. The fraction F is
the fraction constant that tells us when ink film and paper
reach a
100% contact. Walker and Fetsko analyzed
many
functions to find the one to express the increase in contact
with increase in ink film thickness. In
general,
Figure 2
shows a general shape of the curve for this relationship.
The function that corresponds to the curve in Figure 2
is as follows :
F
=
1
-
(2)
where F
=
contact
fraction,
e
=
base of natural
logarithms, approximately
2.718,
k
=
coefficient that shows how fast F reaches
one,
x
=
initial amount of ink on the plate.
10
Figure 2
-
Fraction Contact as a
Function of Ink Film Thickness
The
"k"
value is the
printing
smoothness of a particular
5
paper under specified
printing
condition.
Since the amount of ink immobilized
by
the paper is
smaller than the maximum absorption
capacity,
b'
is used to
describe the function of the maximum immobilization or
absorption.
b'
is the function of b. The
relationship
between
b'
and b is illustrated in Figure 3.
The
Y,
the total ink
transferred,
can be written as:
Y
=
b'
+ f
(x-b'
) (3)
where
b'
=
function of maximum
absorption,
b
11
f
-
the fraction of excess or free ink film split
between plate and paper.
r
x-
>
r
zy^
b
'(*-?!>)
Figure 3
-
Ink Transfer per Unit of Contact
Area as a Function of Ink Film
Thickness
When Walker and Fetsko examined the total transfer
curve shown in Figure
4, they
selected a function which
represented
b'
most adequately.
b'
=
b(l-e
x/b) (4)
12
16
12
y
0
0
0
O
O
f'
SLOPC
b=
INTCRCCPT/Vf
%1
a
12
X
16 20 24
Figure 4
-
The Amount of Ink Transferred
as a Function of Ink Film Thickness
From equations
(3)
and (4):
Y
=
b(l-e
x/b)
+
f
[x-b(l-e~x/b)]
(5)
Substituting
equations
(2)
and
(5)
into
(1),
we have
the well known ink transfer equation:
(l-e"kx){b(l-e
x/b)
+
f[x-b(l-e
x/b)]}
(6)
2. High Ink Film Thickness
Using
equation
(6),
in high ink film thickness condition
where the initial amount of ink on the
plate,
x is
large,
e
-x
-x
approaches
zero,
and 1-e approaches 1.0.
Hence,
when x is
13
large, equation
(6)
is
reduced to:
y
=
b +
f(x-b)
(7)
or
rearranged as:
b(l-f)
+
fx
(8)
Since equation
(8)
is a linear
equation,
and if
y
is
plotted
against
x,
the slope of the straight line plotted
will be f. The intercept of the straight line is equal to
b(l-f). This relation is illustrated in Figure 5.
y=
b( 1-f)
+ fx
'b( 1-f)
Figure 5
-
Linear Relation of
y
vs x
at High Ink Film Thickness
14
3. Trnasfer
Constants
k,
b and f
i. Constant k
The value of k was solved
by
Walker and Fetsko
by using
data obtained at low ink film thickness with the values of b
and f from
equation (8).
Substituting
equation
(8)
into
equation
(6),
we have:
i
-2.303 . ,,
y
.
k
=
x
log
(1
"
T
} (9)
where Y
=
b'+f (x-b
'
)
b'
=
b(l-e~x/b)
The transfer constant k indicates how fast the full
contact between ink film and paper.
Therefore,
k should be
an index of
printing
smoothness.
200
*oo
600
PRINTING
PRESSURE
-
PLI
600
Figure 6
-
Change in k
with
Printing
Pressure
15
The
following statement is shown in Figure 6.
The
amount of increase
ink is dependent
upon the
paper;
papers differ in
mechanical properties such as compress
ibility,
and the order in which a series
of paper is ranked for smoothness
may
change with
printing
pressure.
6
ii. Constant b
Constant b is the immobilization parameter. It
indicates the maximum amount of ink that can be immobilized
or absorbed
by
the paper
during
the brief time of impression,
The result of Walker and
Fetsko'
s experiment shows that b is
not
directly
related to those of paper
absorbancy
7
measurements such as
setting
time or final hold-out. Their
result also shows that b is
greatly
influenced
by
the ink
viscosity
.
Despite the different pigment to vehicle
ratio,
the
mixing
of varnishes and the
different ink
viscosities,
the vehicle
viscosity
of the ink lined
up remarkably
well with the b values obtained on a
particular stock.
The
relationship
between ink
viscosity
and the b value is
that as the
viscosity
of ink
increases,
the b value decreases.
This
relationship
is true for a series of inks similar in
components .
16
iii.
Constant f
The
factor f was discovered to increase with
decreasing
speed and
decreasing
viscosity.9
This ink film
splitting
mechanism was
studied
by
Zettlemoyer and
very
thoroughly.
They
discovered that the ink film
splitting
of
the excess free ink was ocrrelated with the function of the
yield
value. The yield value describes the state of the ink
film when the rates of shear approach zero. The Zettlemoyer
study
observed an inverse
relationship
between the
splitting
behavior of an ink film and the shortness of the ink. The
shortness of the ink was expressed as the ratio of yield
value to plastic viscosity.
They
also observed that the
physical and chemical properties of the vehicle and the
pigment-vehicle interface would influence the level of
splitting.
The mechanism of ink film
splitting
suggested
by
Zettlemoyer is as follows:
The level in the film at which ultimate
rupture occurs must depend upon the growth
of these cavities to macroscopic bubbles.
.... the cavities can
probably
grow best in
regions of lowest pigment
loading
or low
viscosity.
Thus,
expansion of the bubbles
from the upper to middle or lower half of
the free ink film might be expected to
occur more
readily
in the lower
viscosity
vehicles,
and lead to the higher average
split
observed.12
17
Viscosity
1.
Definition
All
fluids
possess a
definite resistance to change of
form and
many solids show a
gradual
yielding
to forces that
tend to
change
their
forms. This
property,
a sort of
internal
friction,
is called
viscosity
which is expressed in
dyne-seconds per cm or poises with a dimension of
1 1 1 3
fm 1
t
]
The flow of liquids through a
tube,
the
volume
escaping
per
second is:
v -
P
r4
V
"
8 1 n
(10)
where 1
=
the length of the
tube,
r
=
tube
radius,
p
=
difference of pressure at the
ends,
n
=
the coefficient of
viscosity.
3
The volume can be given in cm /second if 1 and r are in
2 14
cm, p
in dynes/cm and n in poise.
Viscosity
is the most important character of
printing
ink. It also describes
printing
ink dispersion. Since
printing
ink is composed of solic pigment particles in
different kinds of
vehicles,
different types of ink have
quite different pigment concentrations and
viscosities as
15
shown in Table 1.
18
Table 1
Viscosity
of
Printing
Inks
Type
Percent pigment V
iscosity (poise)
Gravure
10-30 0.5-10
Flexographic 10-40 1-100
Letterpress 20-80 10-500
News ink 8-12 2-10
Lithographic 20-80 100-800
As stated in Zettlemoyer
'
s
paper,
the rheological flow
curve of letterpress and lithographic inks are similar to
flow
curve,
in Figure 7.
The
following
statement explains how to measure the
rheology property
of the
"pseudo-plastic"
system as shown in
*>
n
16
Figure 7.
The slope of the linear portion is a
measure of the plastic
viscosity,
u.
The intercept on the
ordinate,
obtained
by
extrapolating
to zero rate of
shear,
is the yield
value, SQ ,
and represents
a
hypothetical stress which causes flow
to begin. The
quantities are related
by
S
=
S
+
UD'
(H)
o
where S
=
stress
applied to
pseudo-plastic
film,
17
D'
=
rate of shear
produced
by
S.
19
SO 100
SHEAR,
D(itc-0
ISO 200
Figure 7
-
Typical Flow Curve for
Pseudo-Plastic Ink System
In the case of the pseudo-plastic
system,
there are
18
three mechanisms in dispersion of the
rheology
aspect.
I. The interaction between particle and liquid
The interaction between particle and liquid is found at
low
shearing
stress applied which can cause the increase of
immobilization or absorption or can lead to anomalies of the
system in an opposite direction.
II. The interaction between particle and particle
The vehicle is held in the interstices of the particle
clusters. The
pseuod-plasticity
is shown when these clusters
are broken
by
the shear stress.
III. The disturbances
20
When the
particles are not in sphere or rigid
shape,
they
could be
distorted or re-aligned
by
the shear stress.
Such distortion would cause the disturbance in the system.
There are four factors recognized
regarding
the
disturbance,
"the response of relative
viscosity
to
temperature;
the
reversibility
of the flow
curve,
the existence of a lower
limit of
nonlinearity
and the relation of inherent
viscosity
at zero rate of shear to that at infinite shear as the
19
concentration of pigment is
increased."
21
FOOTNOTES FOR
CHAPTER II
W.C.
Walker and
J.M.
Fetsko,
"A Concept of Ink Transfer
in
Printing,"
TAGA
Proceeding, TAGA,
1955,
pp. 139-149.
2
Y.
Bery,
"An Ink
Transfer
Eauation,"
TAGA
Proceeding,
TAGA, 1978, pp.
172-191.
-
3
W.C. Walker and J.M.
Fetsko,
"A Concept of Ink Transfer
in
Printing,"
TAGA
Proceeding.
TAGA, 1955,
pp. 139-149.
4Ibid.,
p. 141.
5Ibid.
,
p. 141.
Ibid.,
p. 145.
7Ibid.
,
p. 145.
8Ibid.
,
p. 146.
9Ibid.,
p. 147.
A.C.
Zettlemoyer,
R.F. Scarr and W.D.
Schaeffer,
"Influence of Ink Properties on Transfer
During
Printing,"
International Bulletin for the
Printing
and Allied
Trades,
No.
13, 1958,
pp. 88-94.
11T. ..
Ibid.
12Ibid.,
p. 94.
13R.C.
Weast,
M.J. Astle and W.H.
Beyer,
CRC Hand Book
of
Chemistry
and
Physics,
CRC
Press, Inc.,
64th
Edition,
F
-
36,
1983-1984.
14T. . .
Ibid.
15A.C. Zettlemoyer and R.R.
Myers,
"The
Rheology
of
Printing
Inks,"
Rheology Theory
and
Applications,
Vol.
3,
1960,
p. 146.
16A.C.
Zettlemoyer,
R.F. Scarr and W.D.
Schaeffer,
Influence of Ink Properties on Transfer
During
Printing,"
International Bulletin for the
Printing
and Allied
Trades,
No.
13, 1958,
pp. 88-94.
Ibid.
22
A.C. Zettlemoyer and R.R.
Myers,
"The Rheology
of
Printing
Inks,"
Rheology Theory
and Applications,
Vol.
3,
1960,
p. 146.
1 9
Ibid.
,
p. 164.
23
CHAPTER III
LITERATURE REVIEW
The Walker and Fetsko Ink Transfer Equation
The single most important
finding
in this subject can
be found in the two research papers
by
William C.
Walker and
Jacqueline M.
Fetsko,
the "Measurements of Ink Transfer in
the
Printing
of Coated
Papers"
and "A Concept of Ink
Transfer in
Printing."
Walker and Fetsko received the
concept of
Pihl3
and Olsson and Pihl
'
who created the first
mathematical model for the ink transfer mechanism and
introduced the concept of the "transfer
number"
as the ratio
of the amount of ink on the paper to the amount of ink on the
plate after printing. Several
articles were published after
the
initial studies done
by
Olsson and Pihl
concerning
the
immobilized ink and the split of
excess ink.
The Walker and Fetsko
equation
generated a number of
studies and
discussions on its
transfer parameters, y, x, k,
b and f.
One of the
interests to the
authors is the
Q
"Influence of Ink
Properties on
Transfer
During
Printing."
In
Zettlemoyer's paper,
a
more
detailed splitting
has been
discussed,
relating
to the
yeild
value and
viscosity
in the
rheology
aspect.
Zettlemoyer also
explained the ink film
splitting
mechanism from the
rheological
point of
view which is quite
24
complicated but can
help
us gain more
understanding
in the
mechanism of ink
transfer from plate to One of the
most
extensive
studies is done
by
Schaeffer and
who have done
very extensive measurements for three types of
inks and four
kinds of paper over a range of proof-press
printing conditions. In their
study,
the dependence of the
transfer
parameters on the
paper-ink-pressure-speed has been
determined.
There are quite a few studies done to propose a new ink
transfer equation or to
modify
the Walker and Fetsko
equation. Some of the notable works are of
ANPA11,
Rupp
and Rieche
,
Laraignon
, Ichikawa14,
and
Bery15
of
Weyerhaeuser Company. But none of them is enough to
overpower the Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation.
Rheology
ov
Printing
Inks
The publication most
frequently
referred to on
printing industry
in the
rheology theory
is the
Rheology
Theory
and Application. "The
Rheology
of
Printing
Inks"
by
Zettlemoyer and Myers in
Rheology Theory
and Application
states the
necessary
concept of
rheology theory
in the
printing
industry.
25
FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER III
J.M. Fetsko and W.C.
Walker,
"Measurement of Ink
Transfer in the
Printing
of Coated
Paper,"
TAGA
Proceeding,
TAGA, 1955, pp.
130-137.
2
W.C. Walker and J.M.
Fetsko,
"A Concept of Ink Transfer
in
Printing,"
TAGA
Proceeding, TAGA, 1955,
pp. 139-149.
3
L.
Pihl,
"The Ink Transfer to Paper in
Printing,"
Svensk
Papperstidning,
No.
10,
1952.
4
I. Olsson and L.
Pihl,
"The Ink Transfer to Newsprint
at
Printing
under
Varying
Conditions,"
Svensk
Papperstidning,
No.
12,
1952.
5
I. Olsson and L.
Pihl, "Printing
Studies at the Swedish
Graphic Arts Research
Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden,
Tappi
,
Vol.
37,
No.
1, 1954,
p. 42.
6
, "Testing
Method for
Printability
of
Paper,"
Progress Report
Seven,
ANPA Technical Report No.
11,
1953.
7
, "Testing
Method for
Printability
of
Paper,"
Progress Report
Ten,
ANPA Technical Report No.
17,
1954.
8A.C.
Zettlemoyer,
R.F. Scarr and W.D.
Schaeffer,
"Influence of Ink Properties on Transfer
During
Printing,"
International Bulletin for the
Printing
and Allied
Trades,
No. 13, 1958,
pp. 88-94.
9Ibid.
,
p. 94.
10W.D.
Schaeffer,
A.B. Fisch and A.C.
Zettlemoyer,
"Transfer and Penetration Aspects of Ink
Receptivity,"
Tappi,
Vol.
46,
No. 6, 1963,
pp. 359-375.
11
, "Testing
Method for
Printability
of
Paper,"
Progress Report
Seven,
ANPA Technical Report No.
11,
1953.
12E.
Rupp
and K.
Rieche,
"Bertrage zur Bedruckbarkiet
von Papier und
Folien,"
Institute fur Grafische
Technik,
Leipzig, Germany,
1959.
13R.
Laraignou,
Asso . Tech. Ind. Papetiere
Bull,
No.
6,
1960,
pp. 217-226.
26
I.
Ichikaira,
K. Sato and G.
Ito,
"A New
Concept of
Ink Transfer
Equation,"
Res. Bull. Gov. Printing Bureau,
Japan,
No.
1,
1962.
15Y.
Bery,
"An Ink Transfer
Equation,"
TAGA Proceeding,
TAGA, 1978,
pp. 172-191.
16A.C. Zettlemoyer and R.R.
Myers,
"The Rheology
of
Printing
Inks,"
Rheology Theory
and Applications,
Vol. 3,
1960,
p. 165.
27
CHAPTER IV
METHODOLOGY
To
reiterate,
the
purpose of this paper is to find out
if the Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation is applicable
to the heat set type Web offset ink and what are the effects
of
different ink
viscosities of the same kind of heat set
ink in ink transfer
parameters.
Hypothesis
The hypotheses of this experiment are as follows:
1. The Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation can be
applied on heat set Web offset ink as well as other oil base
letterpress and lithographic ink.
2. The transfer parameters b and f in the Walker and
Fetsko equation increase as the ink
viscosity
in the same
kind of ink decreases.
Experiment Design
The instruments used in this experiment are IGT
Printability Tester,
viscometer and a balance.
The IGT
Printability
Tester can give a better control on
the thickness of ink layer and cylinder
covering,
and
keep
the
printing
speed and
pressure in a constant or change it
with little difficulty. There is
only
a
very
small amount of
ink and paper needed and the IGT
Printability
Tester is
28
fairly easy
to
operate. This will allow the test to be
accomplished in a
reasonable time.
The IGT
Printability
Tester can provide the means of
applying
ink film to paper under a set of controlled
conditions. The IGT
Printability
Tester is designed to
stimulate a
mechanical abstraction or
rotary printing
press.
A
Brookfield Viscometer model RV is used to do the
rheology
measurement.
By placing
different spindle in
size in different rotation
speeds,
we can measure the
shear force of the ink fluid. The measurement is recommended
to be taken 15 seconds after each
rotating
speed
change,
the
reading
can be of 1 percent
accuracy
and can be reproduced
in 2 percent
accuracy by
the manufacturer.
1.
Preliminary
Test
Two
preliminary
tests will be conducted before the
experiment .
i. Test of the Effect of Solvent Evaporation Rate
Since heat set ink is a solvent type
ink,
the
solvent evaporation effect should be investigated first
The concern is if the amount of solvent evaporates in a
time period is
significant to the ink in
quantity
and
rheology property
aspect.
The procedure is as follows for the two
measurements :
a.
Rheology
measurement:
Take the readings of the
viscometer in five time
29
intervals to see if there are
any
changes
taking
place. The times are
30, 60, 90,
120
seconds,
and 3
minutes.
b.
Weight measurement:
1.
Distribute ink
evenly
on a
clean, dry printing
disc.
2. Weight the inked disc in four time
intervals,
1
minute, 2, 3,
and
-
minutes.
3. Check if there is
any
weight difference in
these four measurements.
ii. Test of the Ink Transfer
Consistency
This test can
help
us decide if the experiment
needs to be repeated more than once to achieve an
accurate measurement. The procedure is as follows:
a. Distribute the ink
evenly
on the
printing
disc.
b. Measure the disc weight.
c. Put the disc on an IGT
Printability
Tester of a
set
printing
speed and
pressure,
then print it.
d. Weigh the disc after printing.
e. Clean the
disc, apply
ink on the disc and
try
to
control the ink film thickness as the previous
one.
f. Print the disc,
weigh the disc.
g. Repeat steps 5 and 6 again.
h. Check the
difference
among
the three
measurements .
30
2. The
Experiment
i. Measure the
viscosity
of a heat set Web offset ink.
ii. Weigh a
clean, dry
disc.
iii.
Apply
a
controlled
amount of ink on the
printing
disc.
iv. Weigh the disc on the
balance.
v. Put the disc on the IGT
Printability Tester,
put
paper on the
cylinder,
print it.
vi. Take the disc off the IGT
Printability
Tester and
weigh on the balance.
vii. Repeat steps 2 to 5 a number of
times,
as needed
with different amounts of ink.
'iii. Calculate the percentage of transfer.
x
=
weight of inked disc before
printing
-
weight of
clean disc
y
=
x
-
(weight of inked disc after
printing
-
weight of clean
disc)
percentage of ink transferred
=
ix. Plot percentage of ink transferred vs x on a piece
of graph paper.
x. Repeat steps 1 to 9 with another ink viscosity. To
change the ink
viscosity,
add more solvent into ink.
xi. Calculate transfer parameters
b, f,
and k. Plot
y
against x on a piece of graph paper.
In the high ink film thickness
portion,
the straight
v:
31
line,
y
=
b +
f (x
-
b),
the slope is equal to
f,
and the
intercept
equals b(l
-
f)
since
y
=
b(l
-
f)
+
fx.
To
calculate k from equation (9):
_
2.303 . ..
y N
K
~
log (1--^-)
where Y
=
b'
+
f(x
-
b')
b'
=
b(l
-
e~x/b)
xii. Use the x value of the experiment and the calculated
b,
f and k values to calculate the
y
value
by using
the Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation.
xiii. Use both measured and calculated
y
values to
calculate percent transfer and plot percent transfer
vs x value on the same piece of graph paper.
xiv. Plot ink transfer curve of 2 different ink
viscosities on the same piece of graph paper to see
the differences.
xv. Calculate
b,
f and k values of both viscosities of
inks,
compare the
b,
f and k values.
xvi . Analyze the differences of the
y
values measured
from the experiment and the
y
values calculated from
the Walker and Fetsko equation.
32
CHAPTER V
Data Analysis
The ink used in the
experiment is a (Arroweb Process
Black), a black web offset ink made
by
Flint Ink Co. The
thinner used to reduce ink
viscosity
is a solvent type with
low
evaporation rate which is made
by IPI,
Interchemical
Corporation,
Print Ink Division. Two kinds of paper were
used in the experiment.
They
were ARDOR offset 3 85 Regular
#60 coated and ARDOR offset 3 Regular 85 undcoated. The
printing
pressure
setting
of IGT
Printability
Tester was 40
on the scale which is normal for various testing.
The adjusted ink was made
by mixing
5 percent solvent
by
weight with unadjusted black web offset ink. There were
four ink-paper combinations
being
tested.
They are,
1. Unadjusted ink on coated paper.
2. Unadjusted ink on uncoated paper.
3. Adjusted ink on coated paper.
4. Adjusted ink on uncoated paper.
Viscosity
Measurement
To make sure the
viscometer was
functioning well,
a
calibration measurement was
performed on a known
viscosity
oil. Two measurements were
conducted on both adjusted ink
and
unadjusted ink. The
viscosity
readings are as follows:
33
INK
unadjusted
adjusted
VISCOSITY
(POISE)
3900
1680
Table 2.
Viscosity
Measurement of the Two Inks Used
Calculation
1. Parameter b and f
The calculation of b and f was done
by applying
equation
(8) using
data points in the thick ink film region.
The high ink film region is defined as the region with
maximum absorption which is the region after the peak of the
curve. A linear regression model was set on the
MINITAB'
subroutine in R.I.T.'s
VAX/
VMS
computer system. The model
is as follows:
y
=
b(l-f)
+ fx
Tables 2 to 5 are the results of all four ink-paper
combination groups from the linear regression model. Table 6
is a list of
b,
f and the R-square values of all four
ink-
paper groups.
2.
Parameter k
From the
complete equation
(6),
we can get
F
=
y/Y
then
l-e"kx
=
y/Y
34
-kx
=
-ln(l-y/Y)/x
where,
Y
=
b'
+
f(x-b'),
b'
=
b(l-e~x/b)
To calculate
k,
we need to obtain the
b',
Y and
x,
f from
calculation. Tables
7, 8,
9 and 10 are the data lists of
each
group. The column initials are explained as follows:
INIT: x value of the
experiment
data,
in mg.
TRANS:
y
value of the experiment
data,
in
mg
.
PERT:
percent of transfer in weight based on experiment
data.
Y: Y value from the calculation.
k: calculated k value from experiment data.
F: calculated F value from experiment data.
y: calculated value from the transfer equation.
CAL. PERT: calculated percent transfer value from the
transfer equation.
b: b value obtained from the linear regression model.
f: f value obtained from the linear regression model.
AVG k: average k value of the experiment data which is
used in calculation of the transfer equation.
A set of graphic
illustrations from Figures 8 to 11 is
presented. These plottings show the differences between the
percent transfer curve of the
experiment data and the curve
of the calculated data from the Walker and Fetsko transfer
equation .
35
Table 3.
Unadjusted Ink
-
Coated Paper Regression Data
The
regression
equation is
C3
=
0.00303
+
0.516 C2
Predictor
Coef
Stdev
t-ratio
Constant
0.0030312
0.0009029
3.36
C2
0.51564
0.01663 31.00
s
=
0.0006403
R-sq
=
99.8%
R-sq(adj)
=
99.7%
Table 4.
Unadjusted Ink
-
Uncoated Paper Regression Data
The
regression equation is
C3
=
0.00367 +
0.712 C2
Predictor Coef
Stdev t-ratio
Constant 0.0036721 0.0009118 4.03
C2
0.71242 0.01873 38.04
s
=
0.0004681
R-sq
=
99.7%
R-sq(adj)
=
99.7%
Table 5. Adjusted Ink
-
Coated Paper Regression Data
The regression equation is
C3
=
0.000085
+
0.596 C2
Predictor Coef Stdev t-ratio
Constant 0.0000855 0.0002423 0.35
C2 0.59579 0.01867 31.91
s
=
0.0003696
R-sq
=
98.6% R-sq(adj)
=
98.5%
Table 6. Adjusted Ink
-
Uncoated Paper Regression Data
The regression equation is
C3
=
0.00333
+
0.807 C2
Predictor Coef Stdev t-ratio
Constant
0.003333
0.002047 1.63
C2
0.80746
0.02627
30.74
s
=
0.001282
R-sq
=
99.5% R-sq(adj)
=
99.4%
36
Table 7. Value of
b,
f and R-square of the
Linear Regression Model
b f R-sq(adj)
Unadjusted Ink
-
Coated Paper 0 0063 0. 5160 99
7%
Unadjusted Ink
-
Uncoated Paper 0 0127 0 7120 99 7%
Adjusted Ink
-
Coated Paper 0 0002 0 5960 98 5%
Adjusted Ink
-
Uncoated Paper 0 0173 0 8070 99 .4%
37
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45
CHAPTER VI
Discussion of
Results
The
linear
regression
model of the high ink film region
which the
constants b and f were
obtained from have a
very
high
R-square
value.
This
result also can be observed on the
plottings in
Figure 12 to
15,
which
showed all the data
points fell on a
straight line
except a couple of bad data
points in the
adjusted ink
-
coated paper
group.
The
graphic
comparison of
experiment data and calculated
transfer equation
values in Figures 8 to 11 showed the data
and values
correlate
very
well on the two uncoated paper
groups .
In the coated paper
groups,
the experiment and
calculated data do not correlate
very
well
especially
in the
low ink film thickness region. The difference between the
experiment and calculated data is most obvious in the
adjusted ink
-
coated paper group.
The linear models which transfer parameters b and f are
derived
from,
have a
very
high degree of confidence for all
four groups.
b f k
unadjusted
ink-
-coated 0 0063 0 5160 166 .1913
unadjusted
ink-
-uncoated 0 0127 0 7120 83 .9721
adjusted ir
ik-coated 0 0002 0 5960 287 .2918
46
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50
adjusted
ink-uncoated
0.0173
0.807
59.9039
Table
12.
Transfer
Parameters
b,
f and k
The
relationship
that
Walker and
Fetsko observed between
the
immobilization
parameter b and the ink
viscosity
was that
when the
viscosity
decreases, parameter b
increases. This
observation
exists
only
in the
uncoated paper group. The
coated
paper
group
showed a reverse
result in which the
parameter b
decreases
sharply
when the
viscosity
decreases.
The
transfer
parameter f
behaved as Walker and Fetsko
predicted;
the
decrease of
viscosity
would cause the
parameter f
increases in both
uncoated and coated paper.
We can see that the b and f value is higher in the
uncoated paper groups than those in the coated paper groups
in both ink
viscosity. This result showed that the uncoated
paper has a higher absorptace
capacity
than the coated paper
and the uncoated paper also has a higher ink film
splitting
ratio than the coated paper. This high immobilization and
splitting
ratio of the uncoated paper
may
suggest that the
uncoated paper has a better ink
trapping
mechanism than the
coated paper in ink transfer. A logical assumption would be
that this
trapping
mechanism has
something
to do with the
porosity
of the substrate surface.
Parameter k is an indicator of how fast the ink film
reached full
contact with the substrate. This parameter k
can
only
be
significant to the equation in the low ink film
51
thickness region where the partial contact between the ink
film and the paper happened.
Therefore,
only
the k value of
the low ink film region will be counted when
calculating
the
average k value. The data points in the high ink film
region have been discarded in that region. In some
cases,
the k cannot be calculated due to Y is greater than the
y
value of the experiment since k
=
-ln(l
-
y/Y) /
x. This
may
be caused either
by
the operation error or the improper
approximation of the k value in the ink transfer equation.
Since k is a
printing
smoothness factor we can assume the
coated paper has a higher k value than the uncoated paper
when
applying
the same type of ink. The k value increases
when
viscosity
decreases. But this is reversed in the
uncoated
paper;
the k value decreases when the
viscosity
decreases .
Two types of substrate were used in the experiment;
the
coated paper and the
uncoated paper in both ink viscosities.
A good
correlation between the
experimental and
calculated
data has been observed in the
uncoated paper groups on the
graphic
comparison
illustration.
There is less
correlation
between the
experimental and
calculated data in the low ink
film
thickness region of
the
unadjusted
ink-coated paper
group
although the data
points in the
high ink film
thickness
region
matched well. In the low ink film
region of the
unadjusted ink-coated paper
group
we
observed the
calculated
rve
reaches the peak faster and
sharper
than
the
cu
52
experimental
curve.
This
result
suggested the calculated k
value
from the
equation is
higher than the actual coefficient
of the
experiment
data. The
almost
perfect match in the high
ink
film
region can be the evidence of a reliable parameter
b and f
value of the
experiment.
The data of
parameter k of the
adjusted ink-coated
paper is a
reverse of the
unadjusted
ink-coated paper group.
The
calculated
transfer curve from the equation arose
slowly
to a
constant. A
sharp
rise to the peak then decreased to a
constant for the
experiment data curve. The comparison of
the experiment transfer curve and the calculated transfer
curve is plotted in Figure 10. We observed the calculated
transfer curve arise much slower than the actual experimental
transfer curve. This graduate arise of the calculated curve
is caused
by
the smaller parameter k value than the
coefficient of the actual experiment condition.
Again,
the
high ink film region of the experiment data and calculated
data correlate
very
well in this adjusted ink-coated paper
group
.
The plots of the unadjusted ink-uncoated paper and
adjusted ink-uncoated paper are on Figure 9 and Figure 11.
The plots showed a
very
good correlation between the
experiment data and calculated
value,
although we can still
observe a higher peak value of the experiment data than the
calculated data in both uncoated paper groups. This could
suggest there is a higher actual parameter b value than the
53
b value
derived from the
transfer equation
54
CHAPTER VII
Summary
and
Conclusions
Two
hypotheses were to be examined in this experiment.
1. The Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation can be applied
on heat set web
offset ink as well as oil base letterpress
and
lithographic ink.
2. The transfer parameters b and f in Walker and
Fetsko'
s
equation increases as the ink
viscosity
decreases.
When we compared the data points that had been obtained
from the experiment and the calculation values of the Walker
and Fetsko ink transfer
equation,
we can conclude that the
equation is applicable to the heat set web offset ink used in
this experiment. The Walker and Fetsko equation predicts the
transfer behavior
successfully
in the high ink film thickness
region and matches the experiment data points
very
well.
Overall,
the Walker and Fetsko equation performs
remarkably
successfully
in
predicting
the ink transfer behavior on the
uncoated paper. The calculated transfer curve from the
equation matched the transfer curve from the experiment
very
well. There were some
differences between the calculated
values and the experiment data in the low ink film
region
with the coated paper groups of both ink
viscosities. These
differences
may
be due to the improper
parameter k value
being
supplied to the equation. This
improper k value caused
the
calculated transfer curve to peak earlier than the
55
experiment
transfer
curve in the
unadjusted ink-coated paper
group. A
reverse
result was
taking
place in the adjusted
ink-coated paper
group. The
calculated transfer curve failed
to arise and peak as
quickly
as the
transfer curve obtained
from the
experiment.
Fluctuated k
values were noticed in the transfer data
tables in all four ink-paper groups. But the paper
porosity
has a definite
influence on the parameter k. A much higher
k value is observed in the coated paper
group
than in the
uncoated group. Since this parameter k is a dominate factor
in
predicting
the low ink film transfer behavior and it was
fluctuating
in this
experiment,
some further
study
is
recommended in order to better understand this parameter.
Overall,
the Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation
performed a
very
accurate prediction of the ink transfer
behavior of the particular heat set web offset ink used in
this experiment.
However,
further
study
of the parameter k
and its
relationship
to substrate
porosity
is needed in order
to predict low ink film transfer behavior of certain
substrates .
The second hypothesis predicts that
viscosity
decreases
and the parameters b and f
increase. This
hypothesis is
true in the uncoated paper groups where a
noticeable increase
of b and f values occurred as the ink
viscosity
decreased
sharply. In the coated paper groups
only
the
parameter f
increases when ink
viscosity
decreases.
Parameter b
56
decreases
significantly
when a lower
viscosity
ink was
applied on the
coated
paper. This
phenomenon is contradic
tory
to the
Walker and
Fetsko
observation and the hypothesis
of this
experiment. A logical
assumption is that in a high
solvent ink
system,
more vehicle would be immobilized when
stress is
applied. This can explain the increase of immobil
ization
parameter b when ink
viscosity
decreases.
Apparently
this is not the case in the adjusted ink-coated paper
group
of which parameter b decreased
sharply
as the
viscosity
decreased. One possible explanation for this
sharply
decreased parameter b in the adjusted ink-coated paper is
that paper
coating
material somehow interfered with the
paper absorption mechanism and unstablized the ink transfer
process. This unstable transfer condition was evidenced
by
the
scattering
experiment data points of adjusted ink-coated
paper
group
in Figure 10.
Parameter f behaved as
predicted;
f increases when ink
viscosity
decreases in all four ink-paper test groups. The
free ink
splitting
mechanism suggested
by
Zettlemoyer is
that film splits at the level of ultimate rupture occurrence
and this rupture grows best in the lower viscosity. There
fore,
an expansion of the rupture from the upper to middle
or
lower half of the free ink film is expected in the lower
viscosity
ink. The expansion of the rupture with in the free
ink
film would give a higher
splitting
ratio f.
57
Summary
The Walker and Fetsko ink
transfer equation is applic
able on the web
offset heat set type ink. More modification
is needed to
approximate
parameter k in order to better
predict ink film transfer behavior in the low ink film
thickness
condition. The equation performed an accurate
prediction of ink transfer behavior in the high ink film
condition. An unstable ink transfer situation was noted
when the high solvent ink was applied to the coated paper
condition .
Immobilization of parameter b and
splitting
parameter f
increases when ink
viscosity
decreases. An exception of this
phenomena was noticed in the adjusted ink-coated paper
group
where immobilization parameter b decreased with the decrease
of ink viscosity.
A fluctuated parameter k was also noticed in all four
test groups.
58
CHAPTER VIII
Recommendation for Further
Study
There are three
parameters, b;
f and k in the Walker
and Fetsko ink
transfer
equation. The free ink film
splitting
mechanism
suggested
by
Zettlemoyer explained the
relationship
between the parameter f and ink viscosity. The immobiliza
tion parameter b behaved as predicted in three of the four
test groups. The exceptional result came from the high
solvent ink and coated paper group. Due to the unstable
transfer condition of this
group,
a further replica test in
this ink-paper combination is recommended to determine the
variables which caused
instability
in the ink transfer
process .
Parameter k is still the least understood factor in the
Walker and Fetsko equation and the k value fluctuated so much
in all four test groups. Some further
study
of the parameter
k is
highly
recommended since this parameter seemed to be a
dominate factor in
predicting
the ink transfer behavior at
low ink film thickness
situations.
Because of the instabil
ity
of the k value in the experiment,
this author suggests
the
future
study
would be best
conducted on a large
sample
size to obtain a reliable finding. To
isolate the k
parameter a non-absorbtive
substrate
may
be used to
eliminate
the
influenceof the other two
parameters.
59
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Bery,
Y. "An Ink
Transfer
Equation."
TAGA
Proceeding. TAGA
1978.
-
Fetsko,
J.M. and
W.C. Walker.
"Measurement of Ink Transfer
in the
Printing
of Coated
Paper."
TAGA
Proceeding;.
TAGA,
1955.
Ichikaira, I.,
K. Sato and G. I to. "A New Concept of Ink
Transfer
Equation."
Res. Bui. Gov.
Printing
Bureau.
Japan: No.
1,
1962.
~
"
Laraignou,
R. Asso. Tech. Ind. Papetiere
Bull.,
No.
6,
1960.
Olsson,
I. and L. Pihl. "The Ink Transfer to Newsprint at
Printing
under
Varying
Conditions."
Svensk
Papperstiding,
No.
12,
1952.
Olsson,
I. and L. Pihl.
"Printing
Studies at the Swedish
Graphic Arts Research
Laboratory, Stockholm,
Sweden."
Tappi,
Vol.
37,
No.
1,
1954.
Pihl,
L. "The Ink Transfer to Paper in
Printing."
Svensk
Papperstidning,
No.
10,
1952.
Rupp ,
E. and K. Rieche. "Bertrage
zuy
Bedruckbarkiet von
Papier und
Folien."
Institute fur Grafische Technik.
Leipzig,
Germany: 1959.
Shaeffer, W.D.,
A.B.
Fisch,
and A.C.
Zettlemoyer. "Transfer
and Penetration Aspects of Ink
Receptivity."
Tappi
,
Vol.
46,
No.
6,
1963.
Walker,
W.C. and J.M. Fetsko. "A Concept of Ink Transfer in
Printing."
TAGA
Proceeding, TAGA,
1955.
Walker,
W.C.
"Determination of Ink Transfer
Parameters."
Tappi,
Vol.
64,
No.
5,
1981.
Weast, R.C.,
M.J.
Astle,
and W.H.
Beyer. CRC Hand Book of
Chemistry
and Physics. CRC
Press, Inc.,
64th
Edition,
F-36,
1983-1984.
60
Zettlemoyer, A.C., Scarr, R.F.,
and W.D. Shaeffer.
"Influence of Ink Properties on Transfer
During
Printing."
International Bulletin for the
Printing
and
Allied
Reades,
No.
13,
1958.
Zettlemoyer,
A.C. and R.R. Myers. "The
Rheology
of
Printing
Inks."
Rheology Theory
and
Applications,
Vol.
3,
1960.
.
"Testing
Method for
Printability
of
Paper."
Progress Report
Seven,
ANPA Technical Report No.
11,
1953.
"Testing
Method for
Printability
of
Paper."
Progress Report
Ten,
ANPA Technical Report No. 17.
1954.
APPENIX
61
How to use the
viscometer:
The
Brookfield has two forms of set
up
which must be
completed prior to use.
Step
#1 is to level the
mounting
stand.
Leveling
of the stand is done
using
the thumb screws
at the bottom. The bubble in the level must be in the
center of the black
circle.
Step
#2 is the
leveling
of the
viscometer on the stand. This set
up
is performed the same
way
as
step
#1.
Conditions Which Reduce the Unit's
Accuracy
1)
When
using
RV spindles the guard should be attaced.
Using
the unit without the guard would cause a slight
reduction in the readings.
2)
Spindles which rotate too close to the container's walls
would
slightly
increase the
viscosity
readings.
3)
Dried ink on spindles would increase contact area. There
fore,
the shear force increases.
Viscosity
readings would
increase a small amount .
4)
Improper depth of spindles could cause an increase or
decrease in readings.
Formula for RV
spindles:
V
=
D x F
V
=
viscosity
D
=
dial
reading
F
=
factor
To
find the factor chart A is used. Looking
on the
chart,
a
value
of 1 was determined for
spindle #1 . Knowing
both D
62
and F
values,
a
viscosity
of 21 cps was calculated,
Formula for RVT
spindles:
V=DxKxF
v
=
viscosity
K
=
0.01
F
=
factor
\=u7
rn
RV SP TUPLES
left hand thread
-
shaft under cut
( depth indicator
)
63
left hand thread
coupling
If
RVT SPINDLES
spindle chuck
we ight
RVT
spindle
RV
Spindles
64
""~^--\^sp
indie #
rpm
-~^
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
0.5
200 800 2m 4m 8m 20m 80m
1
100 400 lm 2m 4m 10m 40m
2
50 200 500 lm 2m 5m 20m
2.5 40 160 400 800 1.6m 4m 16m
4 25 100 250 500 lm 2.5m 10m
5 20 80 200 400 800 2m 8m
10 10 40 100 200 400 lm 4m
20 5 20 50 100 200 500 2m
50 2 8 20 40 80 200 800
100 1 4 10 20 40 100 400
table A
RVT Spindles
m=l,000
rpm
^^
A B C D E F
0.5 400m 800m 2mm 4mm 10mm 20mm
1 200m 400m 1mm 2mm 5mm 10mm
2.5 80m 160m 400m 800m 2mm 4mm
5 40m 80m 200m 400m 1mm 2mm
m=1,000
mm=l,000,000
table B

Schoo l of Pri n t i n g Rochester I n s ti t u t e of Technology Rochester , New York

CERTIF ICATE OF APPROVAL

MASTER 'S THESIS

Th is i s to cert ify that the Maste r's Thesis of

De in Wang with a major in Printing Technology has been approve d b y the Thes is Committee as sa tisfacto ry fo r the thesis requirement fo r t h e Master of Science deg ree at the convocation of January 1987 Thesis committee:

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Thes is Adv iso r

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Graduate Adv iso r

Miles Southworth
Di rector Designa te

'1tle of Thesia

AYl
0

T >\ v« hr !j' M
Tr"",, ~ . rIO

ts
1m

1-rck

Hoe

,u

-r",k.. U-,./ e»: fA< w'Lb a

14 Afr'~~'1z " t o' <rI\ fh,. cv.-I . 1~ (fl

af

1
7 Yl k

f

y"o<,£SS

_______________________

hereb~.

(grAnt,

1I!!iV) permis.ion to the WAllace MemoriAl Library, of R.I '-T., to
epr oduc e my the.i. in whole or in pArt. >t be for cOllllllerciAl use or profit.

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eAch time A request for reproduction is mAde. I CAn be

,Ache d at the following Address. te _

Low High Film Film 2. b and f 14 14 15 16 17 17 i . Viscosity 1. Constant k k f ii. Ink Transfer Constants k. Definition Footnotes for Chapter II 21 11 . 3.TABLE OF CONTENTS page LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES ABSTRACT CHAPTER I - iv v 1 INTRODUCTION and 1 of Significance the Background Process Problem Ink Transfer in 1 Printing of Statement the 3 6 7 Equation Footnotes CHAPTER I I - for Chapter OF Ink I THEORY Transfer Thickness Thickness BACKGROUND and Walker Fetsko Ink 8 8 12 1 . Constant Constant iii .

Preliminary i. Test of Effect Rate Ink of Solvent Evaperation ii. How to Use Viscometer 61 in . 2 The 28 Transfer Test of the Consistancy 29 . Experiment 30 32 CHAPTER V - DATA ANALYSIS Viscosity Measurement Calculation CHAPTER VI CHAPTER VII - 32 33 RESULTS SUMMARY DISCUSSION OF - 45 54 CONCLUSION AND Summary CHAPTER VIII BIBLIOGRAPHY - 57 RECOMMENDATION FOR FURTHER STUDY 58 59 APPENDIX A .CHAPTER III - LITERATURE REVIEW Fetsko Ink 23 23 24 25 27 27 Walker and Transfer Equation Inks III Rheology Footnotes CHAPTER IV - of Printing Chapter for METHODOLOGY Hypothesis Experiment 1 Design Test the 27 28 .

Regression Unadjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Adjusted R-square Value of the Linear 36 Model Ink-Coated Paper 8. 2. Calculation 37 38 39 40 50 9. List of b. Viscosity of Printing Inks of 18 Viscosity Measurement Regression Paper Regression Paper the Two Inks Used 33 Data of the Unadjusted Ink-Coated 35 Data of 4. 12. Regression Paper Data of the Adjusted Ink-Coated 35 Data of 6. Ink-Uncoated Paper Calculation Ink-Coated Paper Calculation Calculation k Values 11. Ink-Uncoated Paper List of Parameter b. 3. Regression Paper the Adjusted Ink-Uncoated 35 f and 7. f and IV . the Unadjusted Ink-Oncoated 35 5.LIST OF TABLES 1. 10.

Linear Linear Model Model Model Model Ink-Coated Paper 46 47 of Ink-Uncoated Paper . Experiment Transfer Plot Comparison Equation and Transfer Paper Transfer and Unadjusted Ink- 42 10. Linear Linear of Adjusted Ink-Coated Paper Paper 48 49 15. of Ajusted Ink-Uncoated v .LIST OF FIGURES 1. Change Typical in k with Printing for Pressure Ink 14 Flow Curve Pseudo-Plastic System 19 Percent Transfer Plot Comparison Experiment and Transfer Equation Coated Paper Percent Uncoated Between of Unadjusted Ink- 41 Between of 9. 2. 7. Percent Plot Comparison Equation Between of Experiment Transfer Adjusted Ink- Coated Paper 43 Plot Comparison Equation Between of 11. 8. Percent Ink Transfer as for a a Coated Paper of 8 Fraction Contact Thickness Ink Function Ink Film 10 3. 14. Transfer of per Function 4. 13.. x 5.. The Ink Unit of Contact Film Thickness Transferred as Area as a 11 a Amount of Ink Film Thickness Linear Relation Thickness of Function of Ink 12 y vs. at High Ink Film 13 6. Percent Uncoated Transfer and Experiment Transfer Adjusted Ink- Paper of 44 Unadjusted Unadjusted 12.

Yuri and Bery did a series of studies for modifying for the Walker Fetsko equation in gravure inks Weyerhaeuser Company. studies showed All and the that although generally the Walker to all Fetsko ink transfer equation can be applied three major printing processes. study by Schaeffer. trends for the lithographic process is toward Web is in quite Offset The components of Web Offset ink ink different from conventional sheetfed lithographic the pigment and vehicle used.ABSTRACT The used Walker and Fetsko ink to transfer predict equation is the most ink transfer on equation the the this ink and paper behavior All the ink transfer step in printing equation process. lithography A and gravure. letterpress. The printing. . previous studies have shown that is mostly applicable in the three major printing processes. for Fisch and Zettlemoyer reported extensive measurements several oil-base ink and paper combination over a range of proof-press printing conditions. there are always some modifications needed for different rheological characteristics and printing conditions .

. to see the mechanism model be whether it is for oil base ink as for the heat-set result Web of Offset ink.This transfer paper is to can find out if the Walker to the and Fetsko Offset the ink equation be also applied Web of ink. By investigating important transfer examined the effect of viscosity of - one most characteristics in ink rheology transfer the same ink - on the can parameters. showed The this experiment there is a significant different absorption behavior difference between is coated paper and uncoated paper. This and effecting the applicability of the Walker of Fetsko and ink transfer equation in this particular type ink paper combination.

They of also identify produced. research in ink transfer done at the National Jacqueline Printing Fetsko solids Ink Institute by to William. the variables of the quality prints being were The variables studies in this experiment the . 19551 in using the tried identify major printing tried to letterpress process. transfer can be much improved of if have the a better understanding of of the the behaviors mechanism inks. Walker the and M. Such the transfer of ink onto is we a critical step. the attempt gain better control quality paper consistency final prints. printing model and of transfer to paper in the process. ink characteristics papers. This transfer the number is only constant for large The amounts initial ink on plate. of They amount introduced "transfer number" the ratio the of ink on paper to the amount of ink on the plate after printing. C. The ink first attempt to set a mathematical for the the transfer process was done the the by Pilh and Olsson as in early 1950 's.CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION Significance and Background of Ink Transfer in the Printing Process The main goal of the Graphic Arts Industry is ink from to to produce consistent quality other prints by transferring In of plate to paper or any of substrates.

e = base of natural logarithms.characteristics of inks and and papers. of the remaining or free ink transferred to the paper. The equation is as follows: 3 Y=(l-e"kx){b(l-e"x/b)+f(x-b(l-e"x/b))} where Y x = amount of ink transferred. of = initial amount ink on the plate. . From the data transfer obtained printing from this pressure printing a speed. ^ is The a data obtained from which the an experiment gave the authors best-fit curve. The contact of the ink with the paper is incomplete at very low ink film thickness but improves rapidly with increasing ink film thickness. was concept of ink the mechanism during printing introduced by authors.718. ink film thickness. which were In the the equation the authors defined of three constants printing capacity smoothness the paper. approximately 2. The paper surface definite capacity for taking up or has a immobilizing a given amount of ink Aconstant fraction during impression. k = (paper related smoothness parameter) a constant of to the printing smoothness the paper. from equation was derived. the immobilization and of the ink. experiment. paper combination the fraction of free ink transferred.

and the rate immobilization (b) by the the paper.b = (immobilization parameter) the immediate immobilization or acceptance capacity of the paper surface for ink. Walker and Fetsko ink transfer equation is still the most applicable. model quantitative and most referred to mathematical in all 5 of the three major printing methods. studies done in ink transfer in new the past years. modifications allow us to have 4 a better Of all fit the to the particular printing process condition. ink transferred f = fraction of free to paper. there has been ink no major achievement in The a quantitatively defined transfer mechanism. Statement of Problem and The dominant Walker factors Fetsko are equation is composed of two which the coefficient (k) of how of rapidly printing contact area reaches 100%. The equation is reduced to a simple form at high ink film thickness as follows: y = b + f(x-b) This generally number of Walker-Fetsko accepted ink transfer equation has been are by on the the industry parameters although there a studies in The the equation and on the modifications of the equation. The of coefficient k is and determined by characteristics the substrate used .

experiment The Walker type and interest Fetsko the this lies in how a well the ink transfer equation fits heat set ink and effects of different type ink viscosity. In Walker the Fetsko experiment . will ink viscosity have the same dominant . data with the knowledge that the equation derived from yielded by experimentation oil base letterpress to the inks? set If Web the Walker and Fetsko the equation is applicable heat offset ink. the fraction free ink f increases. The Fetsko type question arises. The ink transfer constant b or indicates maximum amount of which can be absorbed immobilized by the time the pressure substrate during It the the impression is applied. the known a Walker set and ink transfer equation be applied to heat is solvent ink. As of we know. Another observation made Walker that and Fetsko experiment regarding vehicle viscosity is of with the split decreasing factor of vehicle viscoisty. A large k value stands printing the smoothness. the vehicle viscosity on of ink used apparently than the has a greater effect the transfer constant b in any other ink properties. is determined and by the ink properties that are used. heat heat set set ink ink is a solvent ink.should be an indicator for high of printing smoothness. The vehicle type is composed of different the oil kinds of solvent compared to the varnish used in base the letter press and sheetfed offset lithographic are quite ink where drying each mechanism and ink property different can from well other.

can viscosity equation effect in the Walker ink will transfer be quantitatively at all? defined? Or there be no visible effect The questions author hopes to find the answers for the above in this experiment. as in the oil base and ink? Fetsko If so.effect on the immobilization splits. parameter b and the factor of how the free ink ink f. .

FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER I Transfer J." "Measurement of Ink TAGA Proceeding.M. 4 W. .C. pp. 5." J. and 6W." TAGA Proceeding. Transfer Equation. TAGA. 7Ibid. pp.M. Bery. Transfer Walker in Printing. "An "Determination of Ink Transfer pp. TAGE Fetsko. 1955. TAGA Fetsko.C. Y. 3Ibid. 172-191. 8Ibid. Walker Transfer 149. "A Concept of Ink pp. 71-75. TAGA. 134- Proceeding. 1978. "A Concept of Ink Proceeding. TAGA. Tappi. in Printing. Ink 64. No. 134- 149. and W." J. Vol.C. " Parameters. and Paper. 1981. in Fetsko the pp. Coated Printing 130-137. 5 Walker. TAGA. of Walker. 1955. 1955.C. 2 W.M.

to the ink thin and had incomplete not contact paper. typical ink Ink transfer curve shown in Figure 1 is the "Percent Transfer Curve for Coated Paper. remaining split between the the plate and the paper would between plate and paper at a certain constant ration. condition would satisfy the ink absorption by 2.CHAPTER II THEORY BACKGROUND OF The Walker and Fetsko the Ink Transfer at Equation By examining Walker and prints various film thicknesses. When film Such initially was small ink was used." 3 . 4. the paper. Fetsko had three findings: amount of 1. When ink film thickness increases. The the paper increased ink capacity. to a maximum the ink absorption by 3.

= fraction area of paper contacted by ink. Hence. there is the enough satisfy for the this absorbance capacity of paper.Figure 1 - Percent Ink Transfer Coated Paper for 1. The equation condition is: 4 y = F . ink film to thickness condition. . Y (D where y F = amount of ink of transferred to the paper. Low Ink Film Thickness Walker and The film high Fetsko is much equation is derived from low to ink the thickness which more complicated compared ink At film low thickness. contact of the ink to film is not continuous due not incomplete ink to ink paper.

that y Y. natural = base of logarithms. The function : that corresponds curve in Figure 2 is as follows F = 1 - (2) where F e = contact fraction.Y = amount of ink transferred to the paper where the ink and paper have actual contact. k x = coefficient that of shows how on fast F reaches one. = When F reaches 100% that F and the is complete. area y is determined by is the the fraction contact of contact F. the curve In Figure 2 shows general for to this the relationship. = initial amount ink the plate.718. us The when fraction ink is paper fraction a constant tells and film reach 100% to contact. . Walker one Fetsko the analyzed many functions with find in the to express increase general. In this condition of incomplete contact. approximately 2. in contact increase a ink shape film of thickness.

relationship between b' and illustrated in Figure 3. can Y = b' + f (x-b' ) (3) where b' = function of maximum absorption. Since smaller the the amount ink immobilized by the b' paper is to than the maximum absorption capacity.10 Figure 2 - Fraction Function Contact of as a Ink Film Thickness The paper "k" value is the printing smoothness of a particular 5 under specified printing of condition. b . the total ink transferred. is b is the function of b. is used describe function b' of the maximum immobilization The or absorption. be written as: The Y.

r r xzy^ b '(*-?!>) > Figure 3 - Ink Transfer Area as a Thickness per Unit Function of of Ink Contact Film When curve Walker and Fetsko examined the total transfer which shown in b' Figure most 4.11 f - the fraction plate of excess or free ink film split between and paper. they selected a function represented adequately. b' = b(l-e x/b) (4) .

12 16 12 0 y 0 0 O O a f' SLOPC b= INTCRCCPT/Vf %1 12 X 16 20 24 Figure 4 - The as a Amount of Function Ink of Ink Transferred Film Thickness From equations (3) and (4): Y = b(l-e x/b) + f [x-b(l-e~x/b)] (5) Substituting the well equations (2) and (5) into (1). and 1-e approaches 1. High Ink Film Thickness Using where equation (6). we have known ink transfer equation: (l-e"kx){b(l-e x/b) + f[x-b(l-e x/b)]} (6) 2. is large.0. Hence. is . in of high ink on ink the film thickness x condition -x the initial amount plate. when x e -x approaches zero.

equation (6) is reduced to: y = b + f(x-b) (7) or rearranged as: b(l-f) + fx (8) Since plotted equation (8) is a linear of equation. straight and if y is against x. This relation illustrated in y= b( 1-f) + fx 'b( 1-f) Figure 5 - Linear at Relation Ink of y vs x High Film Thickness .13 large. equal to b(l-f). the slope the line plotted will be f. The intercept is of the straight line Figure is 5.

(9) where Y b' = b'+f (x-b ' ) = b(l-e~x/b) The contact transfer constant k indicates paper. how fast k the full between of ink film and Therefore. Trnasfer i. Constants k. x log (1 " T } y . should be an index printing smoothness. we have: i k -2.303 = . . 200 PRINTING *oo PRESSURE - 600 PLI 600 Figure 6 - Change in Pressure k with Printing .. Substituting equation (8) into equation (6). k of b and f Constant The value k was solved by Walker and Fetsko the by using of data and obtained at low ink film thickness with values b f from equation (8).14 3.

and is dependent ink differ in such as compress mechanical properties ibility. 7 Their result also shows that b is greatly influenced by the ink viscosity . Despite ratio. that The not result Walker related and experiment shows b is directly to those of paper absorbancy measurements such as setting time or final hold-out. a series b value decreases. It the maximum amount ink the s that can be immobilized of absorbed by of the paper during Fetsko' brief time impression. of the order in which a series paper is ranked for smoothness change with printing pressure. . in This relationship is true inks similar components . 6 may ii.15 The following statement is shown in Figure 6. The upon amount of increase papers the paper. Constant b b Constant indicates or is the immobilization of parameter. The that relationship between ink viscosity the of and the b value is as the viscosity of ink for increases. the the different pigment to vehicle different viscosity well with particular mixing of varnishes ink viscosities. the of and the vehicle the ink lined up remarkably on the b values obtained a stock.

to film expansion middle low bubbles of from the occur the upper lower half to free ink might be expected more vehicles. the excess They discovered free ink was ink film splitting function state of of of ocrrelated with the the the yield value. They also observed that the physical and chemical properties of the vehicle and the pigment-vehicle interface would influence the level of splitting.. The yield value describes approach the ink film when the rates of shear zero. Thus. The mechanism of ink film splitting suggested by Zettlemoyer is as follows: The of level these the in the film to can at which upon ultimate rupture occurs must depend the growth cavities cavities macroscopic . best in or regions of lowest pigment loading the or viscosity.9 This film splitting very mechanism studied by Zettlemoyer that the and thoroughly..16 iii. Constant factor f f was The speed and discovered to increase ink with decreasing decreasing was viscosity.12 . split readily lead and in to the the lower higher viscosity average observed. The Zettlemoyer study observed an inverse film was relationship the between of the splitting behavior shortness of an ink and shortness the ink. probably of grow bubbles.. of The of the ink expressed as the ratio yield value to plastic viscosity.

= coefficient of viscosity. different types and of ink have as different in pigment concentrations viscosities shown Table 1.17 Viscosity 1. the volume escaping second r4 v V " - 8 P 1 n (10) where 1 r = the tube length of the tube. which sort internal friction. The cm. of p n = difference the pressure at the ends. printing different quite ink pigment particles kinds of vehicles. p in volume can be n given in 3 cm /second if 1 and r are in dynes/cm 2 and in 14 poise. It also is the most important ink character of printing Since in describes is composed printing of solic dispersion. per cm viscosity with a is expressed in dyne-seconds fm 1 or poises dimension a of 1 1 t ] 13 The per flow of liquids is: through tube. called This property. Viscosity ink. = radius. 15 . Definition All fluids many possess a definite a resistance to change of form tend and solids show gradual yielding a to forces of that to change their is forms.

5-10 1-100 10-500 Flexographic Letterpress News ink 20-80 8-12 2-10 100-800 Lithographic 20-80 As curve of stated in Zettlemoyer and ' s paper. flow value. SQ . 17 . = rate of shear produced by S. The quantities are related by S = S o + UD' (H) where S D' = stress applied to pseudo-plastic film. rate of intercept the yield ordinate.18 Table 1 of Viscosity Type Printing Percent Inks pigm ent V iscosity (poise) Gravure 10-30 10-40 0. measure the plastic viscosity. and hypothetical stress which represents causes to begin. the rheological flow to letterpress in lithographic inks are similar flow curve. The rheology *> Figure 7. The The slope of of the on linear the portion is a u. zero obtained by is a extrapolating to shear. explains following property 16 of statement how to measure the the "pseudo-plastic" system as shown in Figure n 7.

are mechanisms in dispersion of the 18 rheology and I. disturbances . by The the shear stress. D(itc-0 Figure 7 - Typical Flow Curve Ink for Pseudo-Plastic System In three the case of the pseudo-plastic system. there aspect. an opposite direction. The low The interaction between particle liquid interaction stress between particle and liquid the is found of at shearing applied which can cause increase of immobilization system or absorption or can lead to anomalies the in II.19 SO 100 ISO 200 SHEAR. vehicle is held interstices of the these particle The pseuod-plasticity is shown when clusters are broken III. The interaction between in the particle and particle The clusters.

There "the four factors of recognized disturbance. the response relative viscosity curve. stress. the temperature.20 When the particles are not in sphere or rigid shape." . of reversibility limit at of of the flow and existence a lower viscosity nonlinearity rate of shear the that relation of inherent shear as zero to at infinite 19 the concentration of pigment is increased. they Such could be distorted would or re-aligned by the shear distortion are cause the disturbance regarding to in the the system.

in Printing. Properties on Transfer During Printing.C.M. 145. R. Fetsko.C. p. TAGA. 13.R. 88-94. pp." Bulletin for the Printing and Allied Trades. Beyer. 1955.. pp." TAGA Proceeding. 94. 14T. 13. A. F 36.C. Chemistry - Weast. Ibid. R. Ink pp. .21 FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER II W. pp. Ibid. p.C. Eauation. in Printing. p.C. Scarr and W. . 64th Edition. Bery. Inc.D. 1958." Walker and J. p. "The Rheology of Applications. Printing. Zettlemoyer.F. 8Ibid. 2 TAGA. 12Ibid. Inks. 147. 145. 172-191. M. Ibid. Fetsko. 11T." Properties Transfer During and International Bulletin for the Printing Allied Trades. p. . .. 139-149. 146. Vol. 1958. Ibid. 9Ibid. "A Concept pp.. "Influence of p.." Rheology Theory and Myers." Walker TAGA and J. CRC Hand Book CRC Press. 7Ibid.D. - W. 16A.F. Ink International No.J. . 141. 3. of Ink Transfer 139-149.C. Astle and W. Proceeding. Schaeffer.. 146. 1983-1984. 141. No. . 5Ibid. TAGA.. "An Ink Transfer 1978. 3 Y. . 4Ibid. Printing 1960. 15A. 13R. Schaeffer. 88-94.M. of p. Zettlemoyer and R. and Physics. of Ink Transfer 1955. Influence of Zettlemoyer. "A Concept TAGA Proceeding.H. p. on Scarr and W.

"The Rheology Vol. p. 1 9 Ibid. Inks. 164. p.22 A. . . Myers. 146. Zettlemoyer and R.C. of Printing 1960." Rheology Theory and Applications.R. 3.

a number The Walker and Fetsko on equation generated of studies and discussions its transfer parameters. of the "Measurements of Transfer in Printing in of Coated Papers" and "A Concept of Ink the the Transfer concept Printing. Fetsko. a more detailed splitting has been in the discussed. Several articles were published after the initial studies done the by Olsson of and Pihl concerning the immobilized ink and split excess ink. rheology relating to the yeild value and viscosity aspect. One of of the interests to the authors is the Q Printing. y. b and f. k. x. Walker and Jacqueline the M.23 CHAPTER LITERATURE III REVIEW The Walker The and Fetsko most Ink Transfer Equation single important finding in this subject can be found in the two research papers by William Ink C." Walker and and Fetsko ' received Pihl3 and Olsson the Pihl who created first mathematical model for ink the transfer mechanism and introduced the the concept of "transfer number" as the ratio of amount of ink on the paper to the amount of ink on the plate after printing. Zettlemoyer also explained the ink of film view splitting which mechanism from the rheological point is quite ." "Influence Ink Properties on Transfer During In Zettlemoyer's paper.

are quite a few studies done Walker works to propose a new ink equation or to the modify the and Fetsko of Some of notable are ANPA11. the dependence of the the paper-ink-pressure-speed has been determined. There transfer equation. Bery15 Rupp and Rieche . Ichikawa14. Rheology The printing ov Printing Inks most publication frequently referred to on industry in the rheology theory of is the Rheology Inks" Theory and Application. Laraignon But and .24 complicated mechanism most but ink can help us gain more understanding to and in of the the of transfer is from done plate One extensive studies by Schaeffer who have and done very extensive of measurements for of three types of inks four kinds paper over a range proof-press printing conditions. transfer parameters on In their study. Walker none them is enough to the Fetsko ink transfer equation. of and of Weyerhaeuser overpower Company. and "The in Rheology Printing and by Zettlemoyer states Myers Rheology Theory of Application the the necessary concept rheology theory in printing industry. .

25

FOOTNOTES FOR CHAPTER

III

Transfer

J.M. in

Fetsko
the
pp.

and

W.C.
of

Walker,
Coated

"Measurement
Paper,"

of

Ink

Printing
130-137.

TAGA

Proceeding,

TAGA,

1955,
2

W.C.

in

Printing,"

Walker TAGA

and J.M. Fetsko, Proceeding, TAGA,

"A

Concept
pp.

of

Ink

Transfer

1955,
Paper

139-149.
Printing,"

3

L.

Pihl,

"The

Ink

Svensk
4
at

Papperstidning,
I.

Transfer to No. 10, 1952.

in

Olsson
under

and

L.

Pihl,

"The

Ink

No.

Printing 12, 1952.
5 I.

Varying

Conditions,"

Transfer to Newsprint Svensk Papperstidning,

Olsson

and

L.

Graphic Arts Vol. 37, No.
6
Progress 7 Progress

Research

Pihl, "Printing Studies at the Swedish Laboratory, Stockholm, Sweden, Tappi
,

1,

1954,
,

p.

42.
Paper,"

"Testing Method for Printability of Report Seven, ANPA Technical Report No. 11, 1953.
"Testing Method for Printability of Report Ten, ANPA Technical Report No. 17, 1954.
,

Paper,"

8A.C.
"Influence

Zettlemoyer,
of

R.F.
the

Scarr
on

and

W.D.
and

Ink

Properties for

Transfer

Schaeffer, During
Allied

Printing,"

International

Bulletin
pp.

Printing

Trades,

No.

13,

1958,
,

88-94. 94.
A.B.
pp.

9Ibid.
10W.D.
"Transfer

p.

Schaeffer,
6,

Fisch

and of

A.C.
Ink

Zettlemoyer,

and

Penetration

Aspects

Receptivity,"

Tappi,

Vol.

46,
11

No.

1963,
,

359-375.
Paper,"

Progress

Report

"Testing Method for Printability of Seven, ANPA Technical Report No. 11, 1953.
and

12E.
von

Rupp
und

K.

Rieche,

"Bertrage

zur

Bedruckbarkiet

Papier

Folien,"

Institute

fur

Grafische

Technik,

Leipzig,

Germany,

1959.

13R.
1960,
pp.

Laraignou,
217-226.

Asso

.

Tech.

Ind.

Papetiere

Bull,

No.

6,

26

I. Ink

Ichikaira,

K.

Sato Res.

and

G.

Ito,

"A

New

Concept

of

Transfer

Equation,"

Bull.

Gov.

Printing

Bureau,

Japan,

No.

1,

1962.
"An
Ink

15Y.
TAGA, 1978,

Bery,
pp.

Transfer

Equation,"

TAGA

Proceeding,

172-191.
and

16A.C.
Printing 1960, p. 165.

Zettlemoyer

R.R.

Myers,

Inks,"

Rheology Theory

and

Rheology Applications, Vol.
"The

of

3,

27

CHAPTER

IV

METHODOLOGY

To

reiterate,
and

the

purpose

of

this

paper

is

to

find

out

if
to
of

the

Walker

Fetsko
Web

ink

transfer

equation

is

applicable

the

heat

set

type

offset

ink
the

and

what

are

the

effects

different
in
ink

ink

viscosities

of

same

kind

of

heat

set

ink

transfer

parameters.

Hypothesis
The 1.
applied

hypotheses
The
Walker
set

of

this

experiment

are

as

follows:
can

and

Fetsko
offset

ink
ink

transfer
as well

equation

be

on

heat
and

Web

as

other

oil

base

letterpress 2. Fetsko kind
of

lithographic

ink.
b
ink
and

The

transfer

parameters

f

in

the

Walker
the

and

equation

increase

as

the

viscosity

in

same

ink

decreases.
Design

Experiment The

instruments

used

in

this

experiment

are

IGT

Printability Tester,
The
the
the

viscometer

and

a

balance.
give

IGT

Printability Tester
of

can

a

better

control

on

thickness

ink

layer

and

cylinder

covering,
or

and

keep
it
of

printing little
and

speed

and

pressure

in
is

a

constant

change

with

difficulty.
needed and

There
the

only

a

very

small

amount

ink

paper

IGT

Printability Tester is

The is as follows for the two measurements : a. evaporation effect should be investigated evaporates first in and a The time concern is is if the amount of solvent period significant to the ink in quantity rheology property procedure aspect. Rheology Take the measurement: readings of the viscometer in five time . stimulate a mechanical rotary is printing to A Brookfield Viscometer model RV used do the rheology measurement. Test of the Effect set of Solvent Evaporation type Rate the Since solvent heat ink is a solvent ink. Preliminary Test Two preliminary tests will be conducted before the experiment . the reading be of 1 percent accuracy can be reproduced in 1.28 fairly easy to operate. size By placing different we can spindle in in different of rotation speeds. i. This will allow the test to be accomplished in a reasonable time. Printability abstraction Tester or is designed to press. can provide The IGT Printability film to The IGT paper Tester under a the means of applying ink set of controlled conditions. The each measure the shear force taken can the ink fluid. 2 percent accuracy by the manufacturer. after measurement is recommended to be 15 seconds rotating and speed change.

printing. . Weight 1 the inked disc and - in four time intervals. 120 seconds. ink apply ink on the disc the and try to control the film thickness as previous one. Test This of the Transfer Consistency if the experiment test can help us decide than needs to be repeated more once to achieve an accurate measurement. f. the disc an IGT and Printability Tester pressure. 3. minute. Check these if there is any weight difference in four measurements. c. 90. ink evenly on a clean. 60. b. 5 weigh the disc. b. The ink procedure is the as follows: a. see if there are any changes taking The times are 30. h. Weigh disc after Clean disc. 3. Weight 1. and 3 minutes. Repeat Check steps and 6 again. 2. Print the disc. of a printing the the speed then print it. dry printing 2. minutes. e. d. Ink ii. measurement: Distribute disc.29 intervals to place. the disc on weight. g. Distribute Measure Put set the evenly on printing disc. the difference among the three measurements .

30 2. clean. a controlled ink on the printing iv. off it. Calculate against x transfer parameters b. Take weigh the on disc the the IGT Printability balance. iii. the disc the the IGT Printability Tester. Repeat with steps 5 a number of times. as needed different amounts of ink. Repeat change steps 1 to 9 with another ink viscosity. dry disc. In the high ink film thickness portion. 2 to vii. amount of Apply disc. Plot of percentage ink transferred vs x on a piece graph paper. x. the straight . add more solvent into Plot xi. - weight of inked disc before printing weight of clean disc of y = x - (weight of inked disc after printing - weight clean disc) = percentage of ink of transferred ix. Weigh Put the disc on on the balance. on a piece of graph paper. of v: 'iii. and k. Measure Weigh a the viscosity of a heat set Web offset ink. To ink. The Experiment i. Tester and vi. ii. v. print put paper on cylinder. f. y the ink viscosity. Calculate the x = percentage transfer.

Use the to experiment and the value calculated b. Use both calculate measured calculated y values to transfer percent transfer same and plot percent vs x value on the piece of graph paper. xiv. and y = b + f (x - b).303 ~ . .31 line. f and k values calculate the y by using Walker and Fetsko and ink transfer equation. Plot ink transfer on curve of 2 different of graph ink paper viscosities the same piece to see the xv. Calculate b. calculate To k from y equation (9): K _ 2. xvi . log (1--^-) = N where b' Y b' + f(x - b') = b(l the x - e~x/b) value of xii. Analyze from the the the differences of the y values measured experiment and the y values calculated from Walker and Fetsko equation. the slope is equal to b(l f. - the intercept equals b(l - f) since y = f) + fx.. the xiii. compare the b. f and k values of both viscosities of inks. f and k values. . differences.

Two measurements were conducted on both adjusted ink and unadjusted ink. Two kinds Interchemical of Corporation. used Print Ink Division. Viscosity To Measurement the viscometer make sure was functioning on well. printing on pressure setting is ink of Printability various Tester 40 the scale which normal for testing. type The with used reduce ink viscosity solvent evaporation rate which is made by IPI. a calibration measurement was performed a known viscosity oil. ink ink coated paper. They 1.32 CHAPTER V Data Analysis The ink used in the experiment is a (Arroweb Ink Process Black). tested. 3. The viscosity readings are as follows: . paper were in the experiment. 4. There are. The adjusted was made by web mixing offset 5 percent solvent by weight with unadjusted black ink. were four ink-paper combinations being paper. thinner low a black to web offset ink made by Flint is a Co. 2. They 3 were ARDOR 85 offset 3 85 Regular The was #60 coated and ARDOR offset Regular IGT undcoated. Unadjusted ink ink on on coated Unadjusted Adjusted Adjusted on uncoated paper. on uncoated paper.

6 is a list of b. The high film region is defined the region with maximum absorption which is region after the the peak of the curve. Parameter The b and f of calculation b and f in was done by applying equation (8) using data ink points the as thick the ink film region.T. A linear regression model was set on MINITAB' subroutine in R. 2.I. f the R-square values of all four paper groups.33 INK unadjusted VISCOSITY (POISE) 3900 1680 adjusted Table 2. Viscosity Measurement of the Two Inks Used Calculation 1. The model is as follows: y = b(l-f) + fx Tables combination 2 to 5 are the the results of all four ink-paper Table ink- groups from and linear regression model.'s VAX/ VMS computer system. we can get F = y/Y then l-e"kx = y/Y . Parameter k complete From the equation (6).

to b' = b(l-e~x/b) b'. TRANS: PERT: y value of experiment mg on . Tables The x 7. Y = b' + f(x-b'). data. . A set of graphic illustrations from Figures differences 8 to 11 is the presented. value obtained regression model. 9 and 10 are are the data as lists each group. calculated value from from experiment data.34 -kx = -ln(l-y/Y)/x where. f from of calculation. Y and To calculate k. percent of transfer in weight based experiment data. b: f: b f value obtained from from of the the linear linear regression model. These plottings show the between the percent transfer curve of the experiment data and curve of the calculated data from the Walker and Fetsko transfer equation . column initials the the explained follows: INIT: value of experiment data. in in mg. data. we need obtain the x. Y: k: Y value from k F the calculation. PERT: calculated percent value from the transfer equation. AVG k: average k value the of experiment data which is used in calculation the transfer equation. 8. equation. F: y: calculated value experiment calculated value from the transfer transfer CAL.

0003696 R-sq 98.00 = 0.0004681 R-sq 99. Adjusted equation Ink - Uncoated Paper Regression Data The regression = is C3 0.63 30.00333 + 0.0036721 0.74 = C2 s = 0.03 38.01867 = t-ratio Constant C2 s = 0.35 Table The C3 3.7% Table The 4.4% .003333 0.51564 3. Unadjusted equation Ink - Uncoated Paper Regression Data regression = is C3 0.596 Coef C2 Predictor Stdev 0.0000855 0.04 = 0.5% R-sq(adj) 99.71242 Stdev 0.0009029 0.0009118 0.00367 + 0.02627 t-ratio Predictor Constant 0.01873 = t-ratio 4.002047 0.5% Table 6.7% Table The C3 = 5.8% R-sq(adj) 99.0002423 0.36 31.0030312 0.59579 0. Adjusted Ink - Coated Paper Regression Data regression equation + is 0.807 Coef C2 Stdev 0.91 = 0.80746 1.35 31.712 Coef C2 Predictor Constant C2 s = 0.00303 + 0.0006403 R-sq = 99.7% R-sq(adj) 99.000085 0.01663 t-ratio Predictor Constant C2 s = Coef 0.516 C2 Stdev 0.6% R-sq(adj) 98.001282 R-sq = 99. Unadjusted equation Ink - Coated Paper Regression Data regression = is 0.

4% - Uncoated 0 0 0 99 98 99 Ink Ink - Coated Paper Uncoated Paper 0 0 Adjusted - .36 Table 7. Value Linear of b. f and R-square of the Regression b Model f R-sq(adj) 99 Unadjusted Unadjusted Adjusted Ink Ink - Coated Paper Paper 0 0063 0127 0002 0173 0. 5160 0 7120 5960 8070 7% 7% 5% .

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b ink- f k unadjusted -coated 0 0 0 0063 0127 0002 0 0 0 5160 7120 5960 166 83 287 . In the coated paper groups.2918 . The derived four linear models which transfer parameters b and f are from. The transfer and graphic comparison of experiment data 11 and calculated equation values in Figures on 8 to two showed the data values correlate very well the uncoated paper groups . the well experiment and calculated data do not correlate very especially in the low ink film thickness region. The is difference between obvious the experiment and calculated data most in the adjusted ink - coated paper group. the high ink film a region the b and f were obtained from have very on high R-square in This 12 to result also can be all observed the plottings Figure on a 15.45 CHAPTER VI Discussion The which of Results model of linear regression constants value.9721 adjusted irik-coated . have a very high degree of confidence for all groups. line - which showed the of data points fell in straight except a couple bad data points the adjusted ink coated paper group.1913 unadjusted ink- -uncoated .

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49 OJ d ? o ^ 0 a oi D ft TJ 0 -P r- cn o cd O O 3 ? a P X 3 HH Q W TJ 0 P H < O a a CD CO 3 H SZ iz. P o i % n d q rH HH i TJ < <H S hh CO co SZ pq PS o H Eh a s w pq OS 0 TJ > J o CO D tf o o s 5h cd 0 3 H D J ? IN m o d 0 rH ? 3 to H a ft " " 1 OJ 1 00 UJ 1 in "I tf o ro 1 CJ 1 1 cJ o o O O o o Cj a o O O O o o o o o o SNVHI .

This parameter k film can only be significant to equation in the low ink . Parameter is an indicator the the of how fast the ink film reached full contact with substrate.50 adjusted ink-uncoated 12.9039 and Table Transfer Parameters b. 0. We uncoated can that groups f value is higher in the groups paper than those in the coated paper in both ink a viscosity. This result showed that the the uncoated paper has higher absorptace capacity a than coated paper and the uncoated paper also has higher high ink film splitting and ratio than the coated paper. group. assumption would be that this trapping of mechanism something to do with the porosity the k substrate surface. parameter the f decrease in the viscosity uncoated cause increases see both b and and coated paper. Fetsko the The transfer f behaved of and predicted. k The the when relationship that Walker parameter and Fetsko ink b observed between that immobilization the b and the viscosity was viscosity exists decreases. This The the observation coated the uncoated paper paper group showed reverse result in which parameter b decreases sharply parameter when the as viscosity Walker would decreases.807 f 59. This immobilization may suggest splitting uncoated ratio of the uncoated paper that than the the paper has ink a better ink A has trapping logical mechanism coated paper in transfer.0173 0. only in a parameter increases.

Since coated k is a printing has the a smoothness factor than we can assume the paper higher same k value the uncoated paper when applying type of ink. this The is k value increases when viscosity paper. Two coated types of substrate were used in the experiment. decreases. the low ink we region the unadjusted ink-coated the peak paper group observed the calculated cu rve reaches faster and sharper than the . be counted only when k value low film region calculating the average k value. some the k be due k Y is greater than y value of the experiment since = -ln(l - y/Y) or / x. the paper and the uncoated paper in both ink and viscosities. the region have been cannot discarded calculated in that to region.51 thickness region where the partial contact between the the ink of film the and the ink paper happened. will Therefore. This improper may be caused either by k the value operation error the approximation of the in the ink transfer equation. There is less correlation between film the experimental and calculated data in the low paper ink thickness region of the unadjusted ink-coated group region although the data In points in the high film ink film of thickness matched well. the But reversed in the uncoated k value decreases when the viscosity decreases . A good correlation between the the experimental calculated data has been observed in uncoated paper groups on the graphic comparison illustration. The data points in the high In ink film cases.

slower We observed the transfer transfer curve arise than the of actual experimental curve. Again. be The the perfect match in the high ink b film f can evidence of a reliable parameter and value of the experiment. The the experiment transfer in curve the calculated transfer calculated curve is plotted Figure much 10. The paper data a of parameter k of the adjusted ink-coated paper is reverse of the unadjusted ink-coated equation group. The to a calculated transfer A curve from to the arose slowly to of constant. The adjusted plots of the unadjusted ink-uncoated on paper and ink-uncoated paper are Figure 9 and Figure the 11. This is result suggested the calculated k from the equation higher than almost the actual coefficient of the experiment region data. The plots showed a very good correlation between we experiment data and calculated value.52 experimental value curve. This graduate arise the calculated curve is caused by the of smaller parameter k value than the coefficient the actual experiment condition. sharp rise the peak then decreased comparison a constant for the experiment data and curve. the although can still observe a higher data is peak value of experiment data than the calculated in a both uncoated paper groups. This could suggest there higher actual parameter b value than the . the high ink film region of the experiment data and calculated data group correlate very well in this adjusted ink-coated paper .

53 b value derived from the transfer equation .

There and were some differences between the low the calculated values the experiment data of in ink film region with the coated paper groups both ink viscosities. to the we can conclude that ink equation applicable heat and set web offset in the this experiment. These differences may be to due the to the improper parameter k value being the supplied equation. Walker heat set Fetsko offset ink ink transfer as equation can be applied web well as oil base letterpress and lithographic transfer ink.54 CHAPTER VII Summary Two 1. The Walker Fetsko the equation predicts transfer behavior matches successfully the and in high ink film thickness region and experiment data points very well. had been of obtained When we the data that from and the experiment and the calculation values the Walker the used Fetsko is ink transfer equation. The parameters f in Walker and Fetsko' s equation increases compared as the ink viscosity points decreases. This peak improper k value caused calculated transfer curve to earlier than the . Overall. The on and Conclusions were hypotheses and to be examined in this experiment. The the calculated transfer curve the equation matched transfer curve from the experiment very well. b and 2. the Walker in Fetsko the equation performs remarkably on successfully uncoated predicting ink transfer behavior from the paper.

In the coated paper groups only the parameter f increases when ink viscosity decreases. A much value observed the this coated paper group than in uncoated group. to further study of the parameter and its relationship substrate porosity behavior is of needed in order to predict low ink film transfer certain substrates . performed a the Walker accurate Fetsko ink of transfer the equation very the prediction ink transfer behavior this of particular heat set web offset ink used in k experiment. This a hypothesis true in and the uncoated paper groups where noticeable of b f values occurred as the ink viscosity decreased sharply. porosity higher the has k a definite is influence in the parameter k.55 experiment transfer reverse curve in was the unadjusted ink-coated the paper group. Parameter b . However. The calculated transfer curve failed and peak as quickly as the transfer curve obtained from the experiment. to further study is in order better and understand this parameter. A result taking place in adjusted ink-coated to arise paper group. The and second hypothesis predicts that viscosity decreases is increase the parameters b and f increase. Fluctuated k tables values were noticed in But the the transfer paper data in all four ink-paper on groups. Since low parameter k is a dominate and factor it was in predicting in the ink film transfer behavior some fluctuating recommended this experiment. Overall.

is the contradic tory of to the Walker and Fetsko logical observation and hypothesis in a this experiment. This b when can explain the increase of immobil ization this of parameter ink the viscosity adjusted decreases. f increases test when ink viscosity decreases splitting splits at all four ink-paper groups. A assumption is that high when solvent ink is system. There middle fore. decreased that paper paper One possible explanation for this parameter b in the adjusted ink-coated is coating material somehow interfered the was with the transfer absorption mechanism and unstablized ink process.56 decreases applied on significantly the coated when a lower viscosity This phenomenon ink was paper. The is free that and ink film this mechanism suggested by Zettlemoyer rupture the level of ultimate occurrence rupture grows best the in the lower from viscosity. as Parameter behaved in predicted. or an expansion of rupture the upper to lower half ink. would of the free ink film of is expected in the lower the viscosity The give expansion the rupture with in free ink film a higher splitting ratio f. This unstable transfer condition evidenced by the scattering group experiment data points of adjusted ink-coated paper in Figure f 10. more vehicle would be immobilized stress applied. Apparently group is not the case in ink-coated as paper which parameter b decreased sharply the viscosity sharply paper decreased. .

An unstable situation when the high solvent ink was applied to the coated paper condition . performed accurate of ink transfer behavior ink transfer in the high ink was film noted condition.57 Summary The able on Walker the to web and Fetsko heat ink set transfer type k in equation is applic offset ink. in More to modification is needed approximate parameter order better film predict ink film transfer behavior The equation the low an ink thickness prediction condition. adjusted exception of this was in the ink-coated with paper group where immobilization viscosity. Immobilization of parameter b and splitting An parameter f increases phenomena when ink viscosity noticed decreases. . parameter b decreased the decrease of ink A test fluctuated parameter k was also noticed in all four groups.

The immobiliza of parameter b behaved as predicted in came three the four groups. a further to replica test in ink-paper which combination is recommended determine transfer the variables caused instability in the ink process . author suggests future to study a would be best conducted on a large the sample size obtain reliable finding. f and parameters.58 CHAPTER VIII Recommendation There and are for Further three Study b. Parameter Walker k is still the least the understood factor in so the much and Fetsko test equation and k value fluctuated of in all four groups. The and exceptional result from to the the high unstable solvent ink coated paper group. k in the Walker splitting Fetsko ink transfer The free ink the film mechanism suggested by Zettlemoyer f and explained relationship between tion test the parameter ink viscosity. . equation. substrate To isolate k eliminate parameter a non-absorbtive may be used to the influenceof the other two parameters. Some since further this study the parameter k is highly recommended parameter seemed to be at a dominate factor in predicting the ink transfer behavior the low ink of film the thickness situations. Due transfer this condition of this group. Because this of instabil ity the k value in the experiment.

Vol. Tech.C. ~ "A New Concept of Ink Gov. No. 46. Coated "Measurement Paper. Ink Transfer 1981. 1954. I. 12. Olsson." Svensk Papperstidning. F-36.C. Ink Zettlemoyer.C. "The Ink Transfer to Newsprint at Printing under Varying Conditions. to "The Transfer Paper 1952. Aspects A." Svensk Papperstiding." "Bertrage Institute Papier zuy Bedruckbarkiet von fur Grafische Technik. Shaeffer. TAGA Fetsko. Vol. and of W. Walker. Japan: I. "Determination Tappi. J.C. Pihl.M. and K. Book of R. Concept of Ink Transfer in Printing. and Germany: 1959.C. Arts Pihl. L. 1960. Fisch. No. E. 1983-1984. " 1. Papetiere Laraignou. No." Proceeding. Ink 37. Olsson. CRC Press. - TAGA 1978." Walker." TAGA of Ink Transfer Proceeding. Sato and Transfer Equation..B. Ind. 1. No. K. Folien. 1962. 64. Sweden. No. Weast. Chemistry and Physics. 1952. W. in Printing. Printing Bureau. Astle. "An Ink Transfer Equation.D. Beyer. "A Walker. 6. TAGA. R. Leipzig. Receptivity." Tappi. of TAGA." G. No.. 5. Penetration Vol. No. Fetsko. Bui. M.J.M.. Parameters. Stockholm.. the and W." TAGA Proceeding. Y. W. 10. 1955. Res. I. and W.59 BIBLIOGRAPHY Bery. Bull. "Printing Studies at the Swedish Research Laboratory... in J. and L. I to. of Printing 1955. and 1963. Inc. Pihl.H. A. Ichikaira. 6. and Graphic L. Asso. CRC Hand 64th Edition. Rupp . und Rieche." "Transfer Tappi . .

for Printability of ANPA Technical Report No. Inks. 3. "The Rheology of Printing Applications. Shaeffer.C. and During Printing and Zettlemoyer. Paper. 13. A. "Testing Progress Method Report Ten.C. the "Influence Printing.D. Myers.R. Vol. "Testing Report Method Progress 1953." Properties Transfer for Allied International Bulletin Reades. 11. for ANPA Printability Technical of Paper." Report No..60 Zettlemoyer." 17. No. A." R. 1954. and Rheology Theory . Seven. of Scarr. . 1960.F. 1958. Ink R. and on W..

APPENIX .

on the chart. 2) Spindles would which rotate too close to the container's walls slightly increase the viscosity readings. shear force increases. of the is the done using level must the at the The bubble circle. There fore.61 How to use the viscometer: The completed Brookfield has prior two forms of set up which must be to of use. Step #1 stand is to level the mounting thumb screws stand. in be in the center the black the Step #2 is set the leveling of the viscometer on stand. 4) depth of spindles could cause an increase or decrease in readings. Formula for V RV = spindles: D x F V D F = viscosity = dial reading = factor To find the factor was chart A is used. Looking #1 . 3) Dried ink the on spindles would increase contact area. Leveling bottom. This up is performed the same way as step #1. Which Conditions Reduce the the the Unit's Accuracy be attaced. Viscosity readings would increase Improper a small amount . a value of 1 determined for spindle Knowing both D . 1) When using the RV unit spindles guard should Using without guard would cause a slight reduction in the readings.

01 factor = = .62 and F values. a viscosity of 21 cps was calculated. Formula for RVT spindles: V=DxKxF v K F = viscosity 0.

63 RV SP TUPLES left hand thread \=u7 - shaft under cut ( rn depth indicator ) left hand thread RVT SPINDLES spindle chuck coupling we ight RVT spindle If .

5 4 800 500 400 25 250 200 100 5 10 20 50 100 20 10 80 40 2m lm 500 200 100 8m 4m 200 100 40 5 2 1 20 50 20 10 200 80 40 2m 800 400 8 4 20 m=l.64 RV Spindles ""~^--\^sp indie rpm # 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -~^ 0.000.5m 80m 40m 20m 16m 10m 2m lm 200 160 100 500 400 2m 1.000 table A RVT Spindles A rpm B C D E F ^^ 0.5 2mm 800m 400m 5 mm 2 mm 1mm 10mm 4mm 2mm 80m 40m 5 80m m =1.6m lm 800 400 2.5 1 2 200 100 50 40 800 400 2m lm 4m 8m 4m 20m 10m 5m 4m 2.5 400m 200m 800m 400m 160m 2mm 1mm 400m 200m 4 mm 10mm 20mm 1 2.000 mm=l.000 table B .

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