This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

3. Free damped vibration In theory, the single degree-of-freedom spring-mass system described above, once set into motion, would continue to move up and down for ever. In practice all systems are damped, which means that energy is dissipated, and the amplitude of the motion gradually gets smaller and smaller until it stops altogether. Damping can be introduced from various sources, and is hard to model accurately. One model, known as viscous damping, is that of a force that is proportional to the velocity of the mass, and which opposes its motion. This is represented by a dashpot, which is given the symbol shown in Fig. 1.6.

L

k

c dashpot

e m x

Figure 1.6. A damped single degree-of-freedom system

The constant, c, is called the damping coefficient, and is the constant by which the velocity is multiplied to give the damping force. Thus, if the displacement from the equilibrium position is x, and the velocity x , the free body diagram of the weight is as shown in Figure 1.7. k(e+x) cx

.

**Applying Newton’s second law,
**

ΣFx = mg-k(e + x)- cx = ma

**The equation of motion is, therefore,
**

x

m

mx + cx + kx = 0

∴x +

mg

Figure 1.7. FBD of weight suspended by a spring, with damping

c k x+ x =0 m m

We can write this as: ∴ x + 2ζωx + ω 2 x = 0 where ζ = c 2 km (1.6) (1.7)

and. X0. Let X0 = 100 mm.8)). the system is heavily damped. If ζ < 1. (2) ζ = 1 This is known as a critically damped system. as before. The displacement gradually returns to its initial value. Let us return to the system in Figure 1. To summarise. solution in the form: Since e ix = cos x + i sin x . and ω d = ω 1− ζ 2 (1.11) ωd is the damped natural frequency.8) indicates that the displacement will vary exponentially with time. which can be shown to have the general solution: x = e −ζωt æ C1e ωt ç è (1) ζ > 1 In this case the square root of (ζ2 – 1) is a real number and equation (1. x = 100 mm. assume that the weight is given an initial displacement. the constants A and ε depend on the initial conditions. If ζ = 1. It can be shown that the solution in this case is: x = ( A + Bt )e −ωt where A and B are constants (3) ζ < 1 In this case the square root of (ζ2 – 1) is an imaginary number and can be written as ± i 1 − ζ 2 . and then released from rest.6) is another second order differential equation. as before. with no vibration. the system is critically damped. ÷ ø . if ζ > 1. it is possible to write the x = Ae −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) ζ 2 −1 + C 2 e −ωt ζ 2 −1 ö ÷ ø (1. ω 2 = k m Equation (1. and represents the case where the system is just non-oscillatory. Such a system is called an underdamped system and will vibrate when released. as before.and. and the damping is only just sufficient to prevent vibration.10) where. as it is in the majority of cases.9) (1. There will be no oscillatory motion – no vibration.8) We need to consider the three following cases: (1. and no vibration occurs. Therefore. and x = 0 .6. This is known as an overdamped system. there is insufficient damping in the system to prevent vibration and the motion is oscillatory. the initial conditions are that at t = 0. Case (1): Overdamped system with ζ = 2 The displacement is given by x = e −ζωt æ C1e ωt ç è ζ 2 −1 + C 2 e −ωt ζ 2 −1 ö (equ (1.

ω = 1 rad s-1.999 = 100.268C1 – 3.1 mm .74 mm and C2 = 107. then with ζ = 2. and the displacement gradually approaches zero.9): x = ( A + Bt )e −ωt Differentiating with respect to time: x = e −ωt (B − Aω − Bωt ) At t = 0. putting t = 0: [ ] where λ = ω ζ 2 − 1 x = C1 + C 2 = 100 mm x = [(λ − ζω )C1 + (− λ − ζω )C 2 ] = 0 (i) (ii) For simplicity. suppose that ω = 1 rad s-1.8(a).10): x = Ae −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) Differentiating with respect to time gives: x = Ae −ζωt ω d cos(ω d t + ε ) − ζωAe −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) At t = 0.74 mm. x = A = 100 mm x = B − Aω = 0 If. x = A sin ε = X 0 = 100 x = Aω d cos ε − ζωA sin ε = 0 (i) (ii) From condition (ii). The motion is shown in Figure 1. we obtain λ = 1.9 2 ω d + ζ 2ω 2 ε ( ) ∴ sin ε = ωd ω 2 = 1 − ζ 2 = 1 − 0.732 rad s-1 and condition (ii) becomes: –0.999 and A = 100/0. There is no oscillation. and B = 100 mms-1. The displacement is shown as a function of time in Figure 1.05 The displacement is given by equation (1.8(b). The damping force is such as to cause an “undershoot” after which the displacement gradually returns to zero. then these conditions yield A = 100 mm.9) sin ε = 2 But ω d = ω 2 1 − ζ 2 = ω 2 − ω 2ζ 2 2 ∴ ω d + ω 2ζ 2 = ω 2 ωd ζω ωd 2 ω d + ζ 2ω 2 ωd ζω Figure 1.Differentiating with respect to time can be shown to give (check it for yourself): x = e −ωt (λ − ζω )C1e λt + (− λ − ζω )C 2 e − λt Therefore.05 2 = 0. ζ = 1 The displacement is given by equation (1. Case (2): Critically damped system. we find that tan ε = Whence (see Figure 1. as before.732C2 = 0 Solving these two simultaneous equations yields: C1 = -7. Case (3): Underdamped system with ζ = 0.

8 The displacement of a freely vibrating system as a function of time for different amounts of viscous damping.05 t sin(0.ε = sin −1 (0. t (s) X 0 e-ωζ t (b) ζ = 0. x X 0 e-ωζ t .1e −0.05 (c) Figure 1. The effect of changing the amount of damping in an underdamped system. is therefore given by: x = 100. x (mm) 80 40 0 -40 -80 -120 Time. x (m m ) Displacem ent.8(c). x isplacem ent. The greater the damping the more quickly the vibrations die away.999 ) = 1. X 0 e-ωζ t isplacem ent. t (s) 30 40 ζ=2 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 ζ=1 Time. The system oscillates with an amplitude that decays exponentially with time.9 below.526) This is shown as a function of time in Figure 1. by changing the value of ζ is illustrated in Figure 1.526 rad The displacement x. x (m m ) 80 60 40 20 0 -20 0 10 20 Time.999t + 1. t (s) (a) 120 Displacement. 100 Displacem ent. The exponential constant (ζω) is sometimes called the damping factor.

the logarithmic decrement. therefore. the amplitude will be A1 = Ae −ζωt1 and after one more æ 2π cycle. known as the logarithmic decrement. ζ = . we have vibration at a frequency ω d = ω 1 − ζ 2 . at a time ç t 1 + ç ω 1− ζ 2 è A The ratio is. 1 = A2 Ae −ζω ç t1 + ö ç è ÷ it will be A = Ae ç ω 2 ÷ ø æ 2π 1−ζ 2 ö ÷ ÷ ÷ ø Ae −ζωt1 æ 2π −ζω ç t1 + ç ç ω 1−ζ 2 è ö ÷ ÷ ÷ ø ζω 2π 2πζ =e ω 1−ζ 2 =e 1−ζ 2 Taking the natural logarithm of this ratio.12) çA ÷ 1− ζ 2 è 2ø Rearranging to make ζ the subject: ζ = Summary δ 4π 2 + δ 2 (1. with viscous damping.13) For a simple spring-mass system.The rate at which the amplitude decays gives us another measurement of the damping in a system. ω . ζω = . therefore. and. . δ. This is defined as the natural logarithm of the ratio of any two successive amplitudes. æA ö 2πζ δ = lnç 1 ÷ = (1. The amplitude of the vibration is Ae-ζωt = ωd ω 1− ζ 2 At a time t1. therefore. the equation of motion of the mass is mx + cx + kx = 0 The displacement is x = Ae −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) for ζ < 1 c c k where ω 2 = m . 2m 2 km The frequency of the damped vibration is ω d = ω 1 − ζ 2 which is slightly lower than that of the undamped natural vibration. In general. so the time for one 2π 2π cycle is T = . The amplitude decays exponentially at a rate determined by ζω.

If there is excessive damping no vibration will take place. ζ (equation (1. the concepts are quite simple. and thereby calculating the logarithmic decrement. Determine the displacement as a function of time.7): ζ = 90 k = = 6 rad s-1 2 . This is related to the damping ratio. c =24 Nsm-1 2. the stiffness. but the motion will be damped out quite quickly. This may all seem very mathematical. while ζ > 1 produces an overdamped system. and estimate how long it will take for the amplitude of the motion to be reduced to less than 1 mm. Ex 4. The 2. The more damping in the system.12)). (equation (1. δ is the natural logarithm of the ratio of æA ö the amplitudes of successive cycles: δ = lnç 1 ÷ çA ÷ è 2ø Thus 3 parameters give a measure of the damping in the system: c the damping coefficient (N(ms-1)-1 or Nsm-1) the damping ratio (dimensionless) the logarithmic decrement (dimensionless) ζ δ Critical damping occurs when ζ = 1.5 m c 2 km = 24 2 90 * 2. A system which possesses mass and elasticity can vibrate. Damping in the system causes the amplitude of the vibrations to decrease with time. and the damping coefficient. but in practice.The logarithmic decrement.4): ω = (b) From equation (1. which in turn is a function of the mass.5 kg mass in Example 3 is released from rest at a distance 10 mm to the right of the equilibrium position.5 = 0 .7)) which are used to model the system. since ζ is not much less than 1. The damping in the system can be determined by measuring the rate at which the amplitude decays. δ.8 So the mass will oscillate if given an initial displacement and released.5 kg k = 90 Nm-1 Determine the value of (a) the natural frequency and (b) the damping ratio for the simple spring-mass-dashpot system shown. . Solution: (a) From equation (1. Examples Ex 3. c. the more rapidly the amplitude dies away.

0588 0.1 mm. the system is underdamped.6 cos ε − (0. having a mass of 2. after 0.6t + 0. therefore.9 o Putting this value for ε in (i): The displacement is. .836 ∴t = 0. then 0.017e-4.017e −4. is set into motion with viscous damping.75 4 .0588 ) = −2. x = 10 mm = 0. 3. The frequency of the oscillation is found to be 15 Hz and measurement of the amplitude of oscillation shows two successive amplitudes to be 5. The solution to the equation of motion is therefore given by equation (1. Determine the viscous damping coefficient.4 kg.001 = 0. the natural frequency ω = 6 rad s-1 ∴ ω d = 6 * 1 − 0.6 = 0.59 s The amplitude will become less than 1 mm.8t ∴ e − 4. putting in the initial conditions: For x: For x : 0.8 2 = 3.8t sin(3.01 = Asinε (i) 0 = A[ω d cos ε − ζω sin ε ] = A(3.644 ) The amplitude of the response is given by the exponential term Ae-ζωt = 0.59 seconds only.01 m and x = 0 From Example 3.6 cos ε = 4.8 t = 0.6 rad s-1 Differentiating with respect to time.01 = 0.10): x = Ae −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) where the damped frequency ω d = ω 1 − ζ 2 (equation (1. therefore. − 4.017 Taking the natural log of both sides of this equation. c.644 rad A= 0.8t = ln(0. Ex 5.017e-4.8 ∴ ε = 36. we find that x = A ω d e −ζωt cos(ω d t + ε ) − ζωe −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) [ ] So.9° = 0. if the amplitude is 1 mm = 0. x = Ae −ζωt sin(ω d t + ε ) = 0.5 mm and 5.017 m sin 36. A single degree of freedom system.001 m. and allowed to oscillate freely.Solution: Since ζ < 1.8 * 6) sin ε ) (ii) From (ii). ∴ tan ε = 3 .11)) The initial conditions are that at t = 0.8t So.8 sin ε because A does not equal 0.001 = 0.

∴ ω d = 2πfd = 2π * 15 = 94.11).0755 = 0.25 rad s-1 But from equ(1.13).43 Nsm-1 .4 * 94. the damping ratio is ζ = ∴ ζ = 0.4 = 5. from equ (1.25 rad s-1 To find k.012 2π δ 4π 2 + δ 2 ≈ δ for small δ 2π The damped natural frequency is given as 15 Hz.4) ω = k = mω 2 = 2.æA ö æ 5 .12) is δ = lnç 1 ÷ = lnç ÷ = 0.012 * 21319 * 2. ω d = ω 1 − ζ 2 ≈ ω for small ζ.1 ø è 2ø From equ (1.0755 çA ÷ è 5 .25 2 = 21319 Nm-1 k from which m By definition. ζ = c 2 km ∴ c = 2ζ km = 2 * 0. use the relationship in equation (1. ∴ ω = 94.5 ö The logarithmic decrement.

- Volumetric Flow Rate
- EMT Week 4 Wave Equations
- 17829_1_Assignments-2006
- Fluid 1
- 302RCTN_2014Fall
- V.A. Vladimirov, H.K.Moffatt, P.A. Davidson and K.I. Ilin- On the stability of a rigid body in a magnetostatic equilibrium
- EE2011 Electric-fields (YSP)
- Well Test Analysis Objective,Way
- Transient Heat Conduction ppt
- Fluid 1
- Material Balance Calculation
- CE533-ch1
- Lecture hydrodynamics
- Applications of Second Order Differential Equation
- FM-UII
- Student Handout 08 2014
- InTech-Microscopic Formulation of Fractional Theory of Viscoelasticity
- 1-s2.0-S0022460X0500194X-main
- Heat Chap02 094
- fluid
- sa-1
- Dear Antes e Oliveira
- MA1506TUT1
- SD Lecture07 Free Vibrational Systems
- Graetz Problem
- Turbulence generated by fractal grids.PDF
- Stresses in Liquids
- Notes in Applied Mathematics
- On the Use of Characteristic Orthogonal Polynomials in the Free Vibration Analysis of Rectangular Anisotropic Plates With Mixed Boundaries and Concentrated Masses
- Maths II_Tute 5

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd