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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2

Volume 4, Issue 2 September 2008


Man Mound Commemoration 1 OF THE BOARD
Very Special Thank You 3
For Mr. Cowles, life started n a farm near
Area Student's Senior Project 6 Waverly, NY, in 1897. This rural setting pro-
George Catlin: Artist, Writer….. 7 vided a wealth of outlets for his active youthful
SRAC in Local Schools 10 curiosity. Thus nurtured in youth, his curiosity
continued to grow throughout his life, leading
SRAC Around the Community 11
him to gain extensive knowledge in many ar-
Drumbeats Through Time 2008 12 eas. As a boy he became fascinated with
Wampum & Beadwork Roundup 13 some Indian artifacts found in an apple or-
chard. This fascination would lead to thou-
Revolutionary Double Feature 14 sands of hours spent working with local and
Orlandini Book Available 14 regional archaeologists and historians.
Thank You Tom! 15 Mr. Cowles became known throughout the
An Incredible Membership 15 northeast for major archaeological digs, in-
cluding the Spanish Hill site in south Waverly,
Special Thanks 15
PA, the Merrill Cottage site Sayre, PA, the
Sponsorship Form 16 Brennan and Murray farm sites in Athens, PA,
SRAC Collections Grow 17
the Dann site in Erwin, and the Frank Wood Ellsworth and son, Dick Cowles 1933
farm site at Lake Lamoka. Here in 1922 he be-
came convinced of the unusual significance of the site on the shores of Lake Lamoka
(Continued on page 2)
SRA o to
Join G g/join
e nter.or DIRECTOR, SRAC
.SRA day!
www to
In July 2008, I received a letter in
the mail that was an invitation to
participate in a ceremony com-
memorating the last known Man
Mound, by the Sauk County His-
torical Society, in Wisconsin. Satur-
day, August 9th, 2008 was officially
declared to be "Man Mound Day"
and the event occurred just outside
Baraboo, in Greenfield, Sauk
County, Wisconsin. Fellow Board
• Our Vision member Susan Fogel and I were
The Susquehanna River Ar- proud to represent SRAC at this
chaeological Center of Native very important event.
Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is dedi-
cated to education, research and The Man Mound is a huge effigy
mound in the shape of a man with horns. made by a culture referred to as “Fort An-
preservation of the Native cient.” The Fort Ancient native American
American archaeological, cul- While I am sure it was known for quite a
while by locals, the first time that the culture flourished from 1000-1600 among
tural and historical assets of the a people who predominantly inhabited a
Twin Tier Region of Northeast- mound was surveyed was in 1859 by Wil-
ern PA and Southern NY. liam H. Canfield. Effigy Mounds were (Continued on page 4)

The Susquehanna
BecomeRiver Archaeological
a member of Center
SRACof today!
Native Indian
See Studies
back ~
page for more ~ email
Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 1) letin and two, yet to be published, re- All this work with and for the local area
search works: The History of the Che- was a love and avocation carried
mung Valley and The Grand Detour. alongside an active professional life.
The latter being a new account of the Mr. Cowles worked for Curtis Aircraft
strange two missing years of the Corp. in Hammondsport before volun-
French explorer La Salle’s travels, dur- teering in the Air Corps in World War I.
ing which he reportedly used the Sus- Following the war, as member of a mili-
quehanna-Chemung waterway to dis- tarized Red Cross relief unit in the Bal-
cover the Ohio and the Mississippi Riv- kans, he was decorated by King Alex-
ers. He prepared maps for several ander of Serbia. Upon returning to “the
other publications. He gave numerous States,” he worked as a designer with
talks and lectures to school children, American La France Corporation in
historical societies, and many other Elmira. Then he joined Ingersoll-Rand
groups. In 1976 as part of the great Company in Painted Post from which
American bicentennial celebration, co- he retired in 1962 as chief design engi-
directed and narrated a series of video neer in their Portable Compressor
tapes on the Indian History of the Che- Product line. Mr. Cowles married his
mung Valley, Indian Ghost towns of high school sweetheart, the former
Chemung Valley, and the Sullivan Charlotte May Harding of Waverly.
Campaign. These have been used in They had three children and seven
the schools and on local television pro- grandchildren.
Mr. Ellsworth Cowles grams.

and persuaded NY Sate archaeologist Mr. Cowles also put together the finest Afterword by Ted Keir
Dr. William Ritchie to launch a profes- personal collection of indigenous In- I was fortunate early in my Native
sional dig of the site. Richie’s work re- dian artifacts in this area, which was American artifact collecting career, and
sulted in the identification of the donated to SRAC in 2006. His exten- developing an extensive educational,
Lamoka culture, which has become a sive research on many topics resulted non-profit museum in our home, to
benchmark study in modern anthropol- in a number of detailed notebooks. In have met Ellsworth Cowles. We be-
ogy and won Ritchie state, national 1939 Mr. Cowles founded the Town of came very close friends and over the
and international recognition. He Erwin Museum, and operated it until years I considered him the most knowl-
played a key role in saving Spanish Hill 1973. He served as Town of Erwin His- edgeable archaeologist and historian in
from destruction as a borrow pit during torian and the assistant curator of the both New York and Pennsylvania.
construction of Route 17. Tioga Point Museum in Athens. In We were able to spend some time to-
1923 he was one of the founders of the gether at Spanish Hill, the Wildwood
As an author, he produced The An- Chemung County Historical society. Merrill site and at his home at Rey-
daste Trail, The Sullivan Campaign, a His associations include active partici- nolds Ave. in Corning, NY. On one
History of the First Baptist Church in pation in the Corning-Painted Post His- memorable occasion, I took James
Painted Post, several articles for the torical Society, the Sons of the Ameri- Herbstritt from Pennsylvania Historical
Pennsylvania Archaeology Society Bul- can Revolution, the New York State Museum Commission and Charles
Archaeological Association, Secretary Lucy of Athens, both prominent ar-
of the Society of Pennsylvania Archae- chaeologists who authored many arti-
Volunteers Needed! ology and Scoutmaster of a Boy Scout cles to various publications, to his
troop in Elmira. He served on the Corn- home where many questions were
Like History? ing-Painted Post School Board and asked and opinions given. Cowles
SRAC is looking for volunteers to
was a board member of the Prattsburg
work at our events on some Migrant Center. Mr. Cowles
weekends and evenings as well also filled various offices in
as in our gift shop during the day Painted Post’s First Baptist
at 345 Broad Street Waverly. Church and was a past
Master of the Montour Ma-
If you are interested in volunteer- sonic Lodge. When Steu-
ing, please call Deb Twigg at
ben County founded its Hall
(607) 565-2536!
of Fame he was one of the
first five living inductees. 37 N. Chemung St., Waverly
(Continued on page 3)

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 2) a couple digs

and was con-
background with many years working sidered an au-
on excavations and research was truly thority on the
amazing concerning the cultures of Lamoka culture.
both states. When several
I remember making one sad trip to the historians wrote
Cowles home to see Ellsworth and his articles saying
wife, following the terrible flooding of Brule never
the Chemung River in June 1972, from reached Brad-
Hurricane Agnes. Artifacts throughout ford County so
the home and garage were a mess, could not possi-
covered with river mud. A beautiful bly have been Trenches and post molds at the ancient village site discovered by
glass covered coffee table in the living the first white Cowles below Spanish Hill in 1933
room, full of some great artifacts ap- man here, I
peared to be ruined. Ellsworth had told sent Cowles the stories and requested
me there was a small Owasco site in he give his opinion and refute some of of. He and Lou Gore, topographer on
his back yard he had kept putting off the false information. I think he took the digs, did the art work for the cover
excavating. some of the published works as a chal- of several publications. They were re-
sponsible for creating great public in-
The Cowles had a cottage at Kolz lenge and I received 23 pages of great
terest in further study of Indian tribes
Kove on the north end of Waneta Lake historically significant information
which I hope we will be able to publish that once inhabited the Susquehanna
and once they moved in they liked to
for the public to read and digest. and Chemung River valleys.
spend the summer there, but several
times they would visit friends and fam- Cowles commented there are people
The Susquehanna River Archaeologi-
ily members in Barton and the valley, that simply have to disagree with his- cal Center is indebted to the entire
and he would give me a call from Wav- torical evidence to gain recognition, but Cowles family for all they have contrib-
erly. I enjoyed several letters from the he concluded we need people like that uted in donations, artifact collections,
lake country where he had worked on to keep the rest of us on our toes. programs and volunteer labor to make
Cowles animal effigy he un- the SRAC a success story.
covered at the foot of Spanish
911 Earth Hill with a ryolite blade near
Goods for healing self and planet the heart became so famous To learn more about
that thousands visited the Spanish Hill, visit
404 N. Main St., Athens, PA 18840
valley from several states.
570-888-3297 Cowles had talent as an art-
ist that many were not aware


As many have come to realize, SRAC has
a wide assortment of historical books in
our gift shop; and frankly, more than we
could ever afford to stock our shelves with.
We do publish some of our own works
such as books on Spanish Hill by Deb
Twigg, “The Sullivan Campaign” by Ells-
worth Cowles and even "Why Sullivan
Marched" by Dick Cowles and a few oth-
ers. We also have some books on con-
signment from the Bradford County His-
torical Society and other authors who have spoken at SRAC, such as John
Ron and Kris Wenning with Ted at the Wampum Orlandini. But our shelves are stocked far beyond what we could have done
and Beadwork Roundup with these sources alone. We were blessed to have special friends like Ron
and Kris Wenning, owners of the WennaWoods Publishing, who have do-
nated many books to us over the past year. In addition, they’ve sold books to SRAC at drastically reduced prices! We
are honored to have them as SRAC members and supporters, and our lives have been enriched by our friendship.

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 1) beasts with horns

like an ox, and a
region that stretches from as far as Wisconsin to Ken- tail indefinitely
tucky. The Fort Ancient culture was once thought to be an long, but with
expansion of the Hopewell and or Mississippian cultures, nearly human
but it is now accepted as an independently developed cul- faces; but they
ture of its own. can take on the
form of any animal
The Man Mound is 214 feet long and the width at the or human.
shoulders is 48 feet. Although I am sure it was a lot higher
centuries ago, its highest point is only around 3 feet now. This becomes a Plaque in front of effigy mounds at Devil’s
While the Man Mound is quite rare and unique, the effigy little easier how- lake in Baraboo, Wisconsin. Note the bear
mounds of Baraboo Wisconsin took many shapes. It is my ever when you and the “panther” with the elongated tail:
experience, after visiting over 100 of these mounds, that understand that the waterspirit feature.
the majority represent the thunderbird (sky spirit), the wa- the waterspirits
terspirit (lower world spirit,) and the bear (earth spirit); keep some identifying feature such as an endless tail, or
while a few represent deer, geese, and other animals. horns, etc.

The thunderbirds are spirits that were said to rule the Interestingly, there are a handful of man mounds that take
heavens, were vicious enemies of the waterspirits, and are on human form mixed with the waterspirit. By doing this,
pretty easy to identify as they look like a soaring bird with they seem to represent a person who may have been
outstretched wings. I must note however that they have powerful in that spirit power. For this reason, I would sug-
been misrepresented as “turkey tracks” on more than one gest that the man mounds may have been made to honor
occasion. a person, as opposed to others shaped like the thunder-
birds, bears, or waterspirits; which seem to honor an ani-
The bears are also quite easy to identify as they are large mal or clan spirit.
quadrupeds without tails. I have actually talked with mem-
bers of the Ho-Chunk Nation Bear Clan, and they con- There were, in fact, a handful of man mounds known to
have existed; however,
the mound we visited
outside of Baraboo is
the last one that exists

Even more interesting to

me is that just as the
thunderbirds existed as
the opposing force to
Effigy mound group of thunderbirds, bears, and linear mounds in Iowa the waterspirits, there
seems to be an oppos-
firmed for me that the Bear Clan is responsible for the ing mound shape to the
earth. man mound. I call it the
bird man mound. Just as
On the other hand, the waterspirits who controlled the un- the man mound shows
derworld are not as easy to identify because each have human and waterspirit
their own natural and distinctive form of scaly, four-footed features, the birdman
shows thunderbird and
human features. That is, Man mounds known to have existed
the bird man has an ad- in Wisconsin. Image provided by the
ditional feature, human Sauk County Historical Society

At the time that of European settlement in the late 1830's

Sauk County is estimated to have had up to 1,500 Native
American Indian effigy mounds. By 1906, a survey by Ar-
(Continued on page 5)

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Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 4)

low B. Stout reported that there were still 734, and 198 of
those remained undisturbed while 300 had already been
leveled. Today, only about 100 of these mounds still re-

The Man Mound in Sauk County still exists because of the

efforts and foresight of a group of people back in 1907
who bought the Man Mound for what would be the equiva-
lent of $5,000 today.

The Man Mound Park was dedicated on August 7th, 1908.

The picture below is from that ceremony 100 years ago,
and the man with the beard and the hat sitting in the front
there is W. H. Canfield.

Comparisons of Wisconsin mounds and Pennsylvania

petroglyphs on display at Man Mound Day.

these same shapes of thunderbirds, bears and waterspirits

in Pennsylvania, and in more than one place. More specifi-
cally, the waterspirit in a distinctive form of a scaly, four-
footed beast with horns like an ox, and a tail indefinitely
long, but with nearly human face can be seen in Clarion
County at the Parker’s Landing Petroglyphs site sur-
rounded by thunderbirds and even a bird man.

In Southern PA there is also evidence of thunderbirds,


Parkers Landing
Petroglyphs -
Located on the
Image provided by the Sauk County Historical Society east shore of the
On August 9, 2008, before and after the 100 year com- Allegheny River
memoration ceremony, people were invited to look at
1.6 miles down-
many displays under a huge tent to the east of the mound. stream from
This is where Susan Fogel and I represented SRAC, and Parker City in
where we shared what became a very special and popular Clarion County,
bit of information from Pennsylvania. PA
Although we don't have evidence of effigy mounds in our
region, I believe that the man mound AND many other Fort
Ancient motifs existed in Pennsylvania; and it seemed that bears, bird men, and yes, even a shape that matches our
most everyone at the event agreed, after they saw what horned Man Mound a thousand miles away in Wisconsin.
we brought with us to the event. We had a sampling of It is also noteworthy that they are drawn the same way
artifacts from the Ted Keir collection, and some compari- that artists draw the mound shapes, unlike a stick figure or
sons of Wisconsin mounds and Pennsylvania petroglyphs. any other style of drawing. They are in fact a perfect
Many times we saw one person grab another by the arm match.
and pull them over to our table to show them the material I Below is a chart of the images that were once carved on
have been researching for more than a year. "Indian Rock" along the Susquehanna River in Safe Har-
In fact after sharing this information to the professionals in bor, PA - and as you look down through them, you will see
Wisconsin I can tell you without hesitation that we have (Continued on page 6)

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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 5) I think you will have to agree, just as the professionals in
Wisconsin did when I showed them these pictures, that
the Man Mound shape and the Bird Man Mound shapes. these are just too close to be a coincidence. It seems
Those of you that have seen outlines of the effigy mounds hard to deny that the Fort Ancient culture that was respon-
will recognize that many of the other animal shapes match sible for the effigy mounds in Wisconsin and other places,
the petroglyphs as well: had to have been in Pennsylvania as well at some point.

The truth is that there are many secrets to unfold concern-

ing the prehistoric past of our region and all of Pennsyl-

We at SRAC consider it our responsibility to continue to

press for as many answers as possible.

"Petroglyphs in the Susquehanna River Near Safe Harbor, PA” Little Indian Rock petroglyphs (Source: Cadzow 1934)
by Donald Cadzow of the Pennsylvania Historical Commission


Daran Weber, a senior at Sayre High School needed a senior project and found one at SRAC. Weber is an artist with full
length animated movies on the internet under his belt. He’s also received many artist awards.
When SRAC went out looking for some-
one to do caricatures for their events
this year, Weber found the perfect sen-
ior project that fit his area of expertise!
From Racing Fanfare in Waverly, to the
WhingBlinger event in Corning, NY.
Weber has drawn caricatures for people
at the events with all proceeds donated
to SRAC! SRAC considers themselves
lucky to have an artist like Daran help-
ing this year, and know that he has
been a favorite at SRAC's events.
Daran Weber with caricature of couple at Daran with caricature done at the recent
Thank you Daran Weber!
Racing Fanfare Corning, NY Wingblinger Event

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


26, 1796 - DECEMBER 23, 1872) By Patricia Miran

George Catlin was the first artist to family counted an

paint the Plains Indians on their native Oneida tribesman
lands, and his life reads like an ad- among their friends, but
venture story. He journeyed with trap- this Indian was mur-
pers, explorers, and military expedi- dered when Catlin was
tions into unexplored Indian Territory only ten years old.
keeping a daily travel log. Catlin’s
To please his father,
journals, kept while living amongst
Catlin agreed to study
Indian tribes for extended periods of
law in Litchfield Con-
time, are filled with tales of his partici-
necticut. Upon return-
pation in Indian rituals and hunts. In
ing home to rural Penn-
addition to recording in his journals,
sylvania, he practiced
he spent most of his adult life painting
law for three years with
and lecturing about the lives of Indi-
his older brother. An
ans in the American West and South
ordinary looking man,
America. At his death, Catlin left be-
about 5’8” tall and
hind an extensive documentation of
weighing 135 pounds,
Indian life which would not have oth-
Catlin was a self taught
erwise been recorded. Yet, he died
artist and dabbled in
unrecognized, scorned, ridiculed, and
portraiture. It isn’t clear
financially bankrupt.
why he chose to give
George Catlin painting a chief at the base of the Rocky
George Catlin was born and grew up up law for a career as
Mountains, 1841
on a farm near Wilkes-Barre Pennsyl- an artist; but in his own
vania. He was the fifth child of four- words he decided to,
that during this era drawings and
teen brothers and sisters, and they “Convert my law library into paint pots
paintings were used to help record
grew up hearing stories about Indians, and brushes, and to pursue painting
history and news events.
which must have made a great im- as my future, an apparently more
pression. In addition to hearing sto- agreeable profession.” In 1828, when he was thirty-two years
ries, during the Revolutionary war his old, Catlin met and married his wife
In 1821, Catlin moved to Philadelphia
mother was captured at the Wyoming Clara in Albany. The next year, he
to pursue his art career. He earned a
Valley Massacre and safely returned received a prestigious commission to
living by painting portrait miniatures,
home by the Iroquois. The Catlin paint a group portrait of the 100 Vir-
and exhibited paintings at the Penn-
ginia legislators assembled at the
sylvania Academy of Fine Arts. He
State Constitutional Convention in
was befriended by John Neagle a fel-
Richmond. Although, this marked a
low artist at the Academy. Neagle was
significant step upward in his art ca-
the son-in-law of the famous portrait
reer, he was troubled by the harsh
artist Thomas Sully. His association
criticism of prominent critics. Catlin,
with both artists probably helped him
like many artist of the time, wanted to
to broaden his own skill as a painter.
paint historic pictures rather than por-
When a delegation of Plains Indians traits. Commissions for historic paint-
arrived in Philadelphia in 1824. Catlin ings were heavily sought after by the
was impressed by the delegation, leading artist of the day, which meant
which may have inspired him to paint grueling competition. In 1830, Catlin
several Indian portraits on reserva- decided to dedicate himself to pre-
tions in western New York. In the serving the rapidly vanishing Ameri-
same year, he received a commission can Indian’s culture and customs
to paint DeWitt Clinton, the governor through painting. It is unclear what
of New York. Subsequently, he was catalyst set him on this remarkable
hired to produce lithographs depicting career path; but perhaps it was the
the construction of the Erie Canal. combination of his desire to advance
The camera was too primitive to be his artistic career and his early memo-
Stu-mick-o-súcks, Buffalo Bull's Back used by the news media in this time
Fat, head chief, Blood Tribe, 1832 (Continued on page 8)
period; and it should be remembered

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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 7) lin visited approximately 48 tribes and

completed 500 paintings. He was es-
ries and knowledge of the American sentially interested in recording the
Indian. lives and customs of his subjects
rather than artist expression. Catlin
Catlin’s plan was put into action when
planned to open a museum which
he traveled to St. Louis, Missouri and
would house Indian costumes and arti-
became friends with General William
facts along with his paintings. In 1837,
Clark. The famous explorer, General
he organized his collection and called it
Clark was the Superintendent of Indian
the “Indian Gallery.” The collection was
Affairs for the Western tribes and Gov-
first viewed by the public in Albany,
ernor of the Missouri Territory. At first,
Troy, and New York City.
Catlin painted Indians at Fort Leaven-
worth in northeastern Kansas. In Catlin became a spokesman for the
1831, Catlin went further west traveling Indians and their plight. His lectures
2,000 miles by steamboat on the Yel- and tours of American cities became
lowstone River to Fort Union, North political. The plight of the American
Dakota. He painted landscapes, ge- Indian became his campaign, which in
neric scenes of Indian life and Indian large part was not favorably received
portraits as well as keeping extensive by the public. Manifest Destiny and
notes of his trip in his journals. Catlin removal of the Indians from their lands
painted five to six paintings a day. Out was the popular public sentiment. Cat-
of necessity, he applied the paint thinly lin’s writing and lectures fervently George Catlin 1796-1872
on un-stretched canvas. This pre- pleaded for the plight of the Indians.
vented cracking when the paintings The following quote illustrates his view,
consisted of 500 paintings, a Crow wig-
were rolled for transport. He used a “Their country was entered by white
wam, thousands of costumes, artifacts,
limited palette of earth colors. He was men, but a few hundred years
weapons, and two caged grizzly bears.
forced to work rapidly sketching in since….over the bones and ashes of
He staged Indian dances, songs, and
many areas of the painting, concentrat- twelve millions of red men; six millions
war rituals performed by white men in
ing on the facial features of his sub- of whom have fallen victims to the
native costumes. Catlin’s exhibit was
jects. Catlin planned to finish the small-pox, and the remainder to the
the first “Wild West Show.” His show
paintings in his studio when he re- sword, the bayonet, and whiskey,…”.
was an overnight success, and he was
turned home; however, many paintings
In 1838, Catlin exhibited his “Indian presented to Queen Victoria. He self-
were never finished.
Gallery” in Washington, D.C... He tried published a book entitled “Letters and
On his return trip south, he traveled to interest the US government in pur- Notes on the Manners, Customs, and
with French-Canadian trappers. He chasing his collection. The US Con- Condition of North American Indians.
visited Mandan villages and lived with gress did consider a proposal to pur- Eventually, he replaced the costumed
the tribe for a month. He recorded in chase the “Indian Gallery” for white men with real Ojibwa Indians. He
detail their rituals and customs. Many $150,000; however, decided against stayed in England for 6 years until in-
historians feel that his study of the now the purchase. Catlin took his “Indian terest in his “Indian Gallery” waned.
extinct Mandan tribe was his greatest Gallery” on tour to Baltimore, Philadel-
Catlin moved his show to Paris in
achievement. Years later in the sum- phia, and Boston. He attempted to
1845. King Louis Philippe invited Cat-
mer of 1838, the tribe was ravaged by raise public sentiment for the US gov-
lin’s Indian troupe to perform for the
smallpox with few survivors. It was ernment’s purchase of the “Indian Gal-
royal family. The King invited Catlin to
shortly after this epidemic struck the lery”, and in the process his expenses
exhibit at the Louvre, and commis-
Mandans that John Audubon traveled mounted along with his debt. Catlin
sioned 15 copies of Catlin’s paintings.
to the area. Audubon became one of made one last appeal to Congress low-
The artist attempted to sell his collec-
Catlin’s most well know critics. He ering his price to $75,000, and threat-
tion to the French government but was
claimed that Catlin’s writings and paint- ened to take his exhibit to Europe.
unsuccessful. Tragedy struck when his
ings were mere fabrication since the Congress chose to ignore Catlin’s
wife died of pneumonia and a year
tribe at the time of Audubon’s visit was pleas. Subsequently on November of
later his only son died of typhoid. Their
almost non-existent. It would be years 1839, the artist, at age 43, sailed for
bodies were returned to the US and
after Catlin’s death before his knowl- England with his family and the “Indian
both were buried in a family plot at
edge and account of the Mandans Gallery”.
Greenwood Cemetery, in Brooklyn,
would be recognized by scholars.
In England, he rented exhibition space
(Continued on page 9)
Between 1830 and 1836, George Cat- and set up his “Indian Gallery” which

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Page 9 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 8) three daughters to the US to live with

relatives. When creditors threatened
NY. Catlin and his three young daugh- to sell off Catlin’s collection, Joseph
ters remained in Paris. Harrison, a Philadelphia Industrialist
paid off Catlin’s debts and held the
Louis Philippe had been exiled in the
“Indian Gallery” as collateral. Harrison
American frontier during his youth in
stored the works in a boiler room in his
the late 1790’s. Catlin’s stories and
factory which resulted in substantial
exhibit rekindled the King’s interested
damage to the collection. He tried to
in the American frontier. The King
sell Catlin’s collection to the US gov-
commissioned the artist to paint a se-
ernment but was unsuccessful. The
ries of paintings documenting the New
artist never regained his collection,
World adventures of the French ex-
and 7 years after Catlin’s death Harri-
plorer La Salle. For Catlin, the lucra-
son’s widow donated the surviving
tive commission and prestige of paint-
paintings to the Smithsonian Institute.
ing historical art represented the
height of his artistic career. Unfortu- In Europe, Catlin had met the South
nately, his success was short lived. American explorer Alexander von
The French Revolution broke out and Humboldt in Paris. Inspired by Hum-
King Louis Philippe fled to England. bolt’s expedition Catlin set out for
The republican police questioned Cat- South American. From 1854 to 1860, Buffalo Bull : A Grand Pawnee Warrior
lin suspecting his connection to the he explored unknown territories and (1832)
King. After considerable negotiation discovered new Indian tribes through-
he was able to move to England with out South America, the US west coast
In 1871, Catlin returned home and
his “Indian Gallery”, the La Salle paint- and Alaska. Unlike his earlier explora-
exhibited his “Cartoon Collection” in
ings and his daughters; however, the tions, Catlin found it hard to communi-
New York City. He was 75 years old
new government refused to honor the cate with the native populations. He
and was anxious to find a museum to
King’s debt to the artist. had become hard of hearing and often
house his collection. He accepted an
he could not find an interpreter. The
By 1852, at the age of 56, Catlin had invitation from Joseph Henry, Secre-
paintings he produced were also not of
accumulated substantial debt and was tary of the Smithsonian, to exhibit his
the same quality as his “Indian Gal-
financially bankrupt. He was forced to paintings in Washington. Again, he
lery”. Probably due to lack of funds,
close the “Indian Gallery” and sent his tried to sell his collection, this time for
Catlin painted on inferior materials:
$65,000 to the US government, but
Bristol board and thin paint. Catlin
was unsuccessful. Secretary Henry
called these paintings his “Cartoon
offered the artist living quarters in a
Collection” because of the sketchy
small tower room at the Smithsonian,
quality of the paintings. Since he was
and the artist accepted his offer. Un-
dodging creditors, not much is known
fortunately, Catlin fell fatally ill. Just
of his exact travels during this time
before his death, he went to live with
period; however, he may have visited
his daughter in New Jersey. He left his
Baron Von Humboldt in 1855 and
“Cartoon Collection” behind in Wash-
shared his scientific findings with him.
ington. At the time of his death on De-
In 1860, Catlin returned to Europe. He cember 23, 1872, he was still worried
lived in Brussels, Belgium and painted about his collection remaining intact.
many paintings of North American
Today, Catlin’s paintings and collec-
Plains Indians from the sketches,
tion are recognized as a major
notebook entries and memories of his
achievement in the fields of ethnology,
earlier travels. Probably due to his
American history and painting. He left
financial circumstances, he again
behind a detailed glimpse of the
painted on Bristol board using thin
American and South American In-
paint. He wrote several books about
dian’s way of life. If you are interested
the Indians, and offered to sell his
in viewing Catlin’s collection, much of
“Indian Gallery” and “Cartoon Collec-
Máh-to-tóh-pa, Four Bears, Second Chief, it is on exhibit at The Smithsonian In-
tion” to the New-York Historical Soci-
stitute in Washington DC. Catlin’s
in Full Dress, 1832 Mandan/Numakiki ety for $120,000, but was turned
down. (Continued on page 10)

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Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


(Continued from page 9)

paintings can also be viewed closer to home at the Rockwell

Museum of Western Art in Corning, NY. If you are adventur-
ous and want to mount your own expedition in search of Cat-
lin’s paintings try the Memorial Art Gallery of the University of
Rochester; Carnegie Museum of Art, Pittsburg, PA; Montclair
Art Museum, NJ; Metropolitan Museum of Art and The New
York Historical Society, NY City; National Portrait Gallery and
The National Gallery of Art, Washington, DC; Museum of
Fine Art, Boston; University of Maine Museum of Art; Virginia
Museum of Fine Art; Amon Carter Museum, Texas; Museum
of Fine Art, Houston, TX; Albrecht-Kemper Museum of Art,
Missouri; Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, OK; McCord Museum of
Canadian History, Montreal, Quebec; Museum of Nebraska
Art at the University of Nebraska; Museum of the Rhode Is-
land School of Design; National Museum of Wildlife Art, Jack-
son Hole, WY. Happy Hunting...
Sources: The Last Race Mandan O-Kee-Pa Ceremony, http://,

In the past year, SRAC is proud to have spent many hours with local schools in
the Valley. It is our dedication to actively educating our community that differenti-
ates SRAC from many other historically minded organizations in the region. This
past school year ended for some of the elementary kids from Sayre and Athens
not only hearing about the ancient people who lived here hundreds to thousands
of years ago, but they
also were able to
handle actual tools
and "experience"
some of the way that
they lived.
Ted Keir presenting to Athens elementary
students at Roundtop We'd like to
thank the lo-
cal schools
for allowing
us to share
our knowl-
edge, authen-
tic artifacts,
and passion
with the kids.

SRAC at Sayre’s Snyder Elementary School

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Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


SRAC continues to grow and move strongly forward. We’ve made many improvements to our new building, and we are
looking forward to our first Drumbeats Through Time in our new home! We continue to participate in and host all sorts of
events. There never seems to be enough time to do all of the things our fearless leader, Deb Twigg, dreams up….but we
keep trying! We’ve gained some new members, new volunteers, and even some new board members. Watch for an-
nouncements of upcoming events! We hope to see more and more of you as we continue to grow!

SRAC Board Members

Tom Vallilee and Dick Cowles
Danny Scopelliti and Mary Ann Taylor Dick and Don Straub chatting

Jack Andrus at our annual 4th grade Bloomsburg University’s Dee Anne
presentation at Snyder Elementary Wymer, Jude Kane, and Deb at a re-
Beryl Cleary and Don Taylor work- cent event
ing in the SRAC gift shop

Claire Borits helping out at Racing


Good friend Jim Nobles with Ted and

Tom at SRAC

Susan Fogel at Man Mound Day in Baraboo, WI

Snyder Elementary 4th

grade event
SRAC Member Daryl Stratton

Steve Welles, Tom, and Ted share a mo-

ment in the SRAC Gift Shop Dr. Marshall Becker with Drumbeats 2008 speaker Dr.
New board members Mary Ann Taylor
Dee Anne Wymer, Prof. of Anthropology, Bloomsburg U.
and Janet Andrus hard at work at SRAC

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Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2

Mark Your Calendars!

SRAC’s 5th Annual
Drumbeats Through Time
Is on October 25, 2008!
11:30 – 1PM 2008 SRAC Annual Membership Luncheon
SRAC members and invited guests only can attend this special meeting
lead by the leaders of SRAC where updates on current projects and

Members goals for the coming year will be shared. A private tour of the building
and first look at the special collections of the event will follow in this very
personalized portion of our event for our special friends. Lunch will be
Meeting provided.


1:30 – 2:30PM “Flowers for the Dead: New Research into
the World of the Hopewell Moundbuilder Culture.” by Dr.
DeeAnne Wymer, Bloomsburg University
Using traces of organic and other unusual materials preserved in asso-
ciation with ceremonial copper burial objects, Dr. Wymer will give the au-
dience an intimate view of the ceremonies of the ancient Hopewell
Moundbuilder culture. Simply a breathtaking presentation!

3 – 4PM “Buffalo Creek“ Native Indian Dancers!

The Village of Waverly has agreed have the street closed down for this
very special opportunity for the community to learn and enjoy the dance
and culture of these authentic Seneca Native Indian dancers!

4:30 PM SRAC MURAL Unveiling and Dedication!

We will be unveiling SRAC’s outdoor mural funded by a 2007 Decentrali-
zation (DEC) Grant which was administered by The ARTS of the South-
ern Finger Lakes and sponsored by the Village of Waverly. A special
dedication will follow.

To Learn More About SRAC—Visit

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Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


The Wampum and Beadwork event was
a huge success for SRAC with three
outstanding presentations, with many
private collections on display.

Dr. Kurt Jordan, Director of Graduate

Studies & Asst. Professor, Anthropol-
ogy and American Indian Studies, Cor-
nell University presented
"Postcolumbian Adornment Items:
Shell, Glass, Red Stone, Brass.” Dr.
Marshall Becker, Senior Fellow of An- Dr. Marshall Becker, Sr. Fellow of
Dolores Elliot, MA, noted expert on
thropology University of Pennsylvania Anthropology, University of Pennsylvania
Iroquois Beadwork
presented "Wampum in the Core
Area." Iroquoian beadwork expert,
Dolores Elliot, MA presented "The
History of Iroquois Beadwork.”

In addition to the speakers, we in-

vited private collectors to bring in
their wampum and beadwork to dis-
play securely for the day. The result
was an incredible display of artifacts,
professionals and amateurs together
in an atmosphere that supported Dr. Kurt Jordan, Director of Graduate Studies
knowledge and comradeship. & Asst. Professor, Anthropology and Ameri-
Stanley Vanderlaan and his daughter trav- can Indian Studies, Cornell University
elled from Albion, NY to share their fabu- Special thanks to our presenters, all
lous collection! who brought artifacts, and to every-
one who
made this
a special
event we
will long

Sampling of beautiful Iroquoian beadwork from the Dolores Elliot Collection Wampum from the Stanley
Vanderlaan Collection

Ted, Stan, and Don Hunt discussing the Replica wampum and beadwork from the vast collections
collections of John and Dee Margetanski

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Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2

SRAC’s Revolutionary War Double Feature a Big Hit

SRAC hosted a double feature on Saturday August 30th which
centered on our region’s role in the Revolutionary War and ulti-
mately ensuring our nation’s independence.
The evening began with “Why Sullivan Marched” presented by
SRAC’s co-founder, Dick Cowles. This presentation was de-
signed to systematically unravel the events that led to the Sulli-
Contact Us! van Campaign through our region erupting at Newtown Battle-
field. As Dick explained, the forced relocation of many Native
Americans from the Delaware River area into our region and the
Our Headquarters subsequent influx of white settlers caused tensions to rise.
These tensions led to many bloody events including the Queen
Mail: Esther/Bloody Rock incident and the Battle of Wyoming in 1778.
SRAC The result was an order by General George Washington to Gen- Actress Florence
PO Box 12 eral John Sullivan to team with General Clinton in what is re- Howanitz
Sayre, PA 18840 membered in our area as “Sullivan’s March.”
A question and answer period followed the Cowles presentation and free popcorn was
Phone: enjoyed by the audience as the stage was set for the second presentation of the night
607-727-3111 which was a film production titled “The Battle of Wyoming.”
Email: Original cast members Bob Mischak as Col. Nathan Deni- son, Florence Howanitz as the wife of Rev. Jacob Johnson,
and the film's producer/director, Bill Bachman were on
Our Center hand. The film, shot at a variety of historic locations, de-
picted the Battle of Wyoming on July 3, 1778, which saw
Location: the Colonial side go down to defeat at the hands of the Brit-
345 Broad St. ish and their Indian allies. The following day, July 4, 1778,
Wyoming Valley in Northeastern Pennsylvania was turned
Waverly, NY
over to the British as a condition of the articles of capitula-
Phone: tion. Reproduction firearms and other military campaign
pieces from the Revolutionary period were explained and
demonstrated, and the entire evening concluded with patri-
otic songs and "electronic" fireworks.
Our Website SRAC has a paperback version of Dick Cowles presenta-
Actor Bob Mischak as Col. Na- tion, “Why Sullivan Marched” as well as “The Sullivan Cam- than Denison in “The Battle of
paign” by Ellsworth Cowles on sale in the SRAC gift shop
Wyoming” which is open Tuesdays through Fridays from 1-5 and Sat-
Our Online Giftshop urdays from 11-3. O R L A N D I N I B O O K A VA I L A B L E A T S R A C
John Orlandini, past president of the Luzerne County Historical
Online Membership Society, recently gave a presentation at SRAC related to his
1996 book, "The Ancient Native Americans of the Wyoming Valley: 10,000 year of prehistory." The five years it took to ac-
cumulate the information for the book left him with over-all
Our Blog knowledge of the early Native Americans who lived, hunted,
and traded in the Wyoming Valley.
John's newly released book is titled, "Indians, Settlers, and
Forgotten Places in the Endless Mountains." It covers Brad-
Online Donations ford, Sullivan, Wyoming, and Susquehanna Counties, with dis-
cussions on the Wyalusing Path, stone tools used in everyday activities, flint knapping, Indian graves and petroglyphs, medals presented to the Indians by the English, In
search of the Goose, the French Azilum, Friedenshutten, and twenty other interesting
topics relating to the Endless Mountains.
The book is available for $17.95 at SRAC's Gift Shop (which is open from 1-5 Tuesdays
through Fridays and Saturdays from 11-3pm) The book is signed by the author.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


There is not a person who enters SRAC that does not show the back or shaking his hand
awe for what we have accomplished. In fact, our own board and thanking him for what he
and membership are still in awe. has given SRAC and the
whole community for genera-
We would like to make sure that the community knows that
tions to come.
while there are too many names to list for the generosity
and support that enabled us to do what has been done, we Tom - we know that even
are all indebted to one hardworking, dedicated, and selfless though we try to thank you
gentleman, Tom Vallilee. Many of us like to say that our every day, we never feel like
place at 345 Broad Street in Waverly is "Tom's House" - we have told you enough just
because his two hands have built what we have today, how much we all appreciate
whether or not he has had help on any given day, and all for you and your friendship, and
nothing more than to support our cause. all that he you’ve done!
The next time you see Tom, please consider patting him on
Mr. Tom Vallilee

SRAC has an incredible membership, and that is the reason for our suc-
cesses over the past year in our new building and in the community.
This quarter we’d like to give a special thank you to Harold Koch, who
has donated doors, molding, supplies and many man hours to help board
member Tom Vallilee continue to work on our lecture and exhibit area. Harold and
The solid wood doors that now separate the gift shop from the back area, Tom working
as well as the grand molding that graces our lecture hall are huge im- on the lec-
provements that we could have never hoped to have. Tom also appreci- ture area
ates all of the hours of work you have spent with him getting them in- wall
stalled to perfection.
We hope that you know how much you are appreciated for not only your
generosity, but your friendship to us all.


• Claire and Jon Borits • NYS Museum
• CQ Services • Pat Miran
• Dandy Mini Mart • Paula's Discount Eye Glasses
• David J Scopelliti • Susan Fogel
• Dick and Marcia Cowles • Ted and Evelyn Keir
• Dr. Dee Anne Wymer • Tina Pickett
• Gloria Reigel • Trilla's Massage
• Guy and Marty Abell • UCann Tan
• Harold Koch • Urban Connections
• Home Necessities • Wolf Furniture
• Janet Andrus
• John and Dee Margetanski
• Alger's Trading Post • Klip Joint
• Andy Quinlan • Kris and Ron Wenning Arnold Excavation
• Athens Animal Hospital • Leon Thomas 917 Ross Hill Rd., Waverly Ny 14892
• Cafe Too • Marilyn Overstrom 607-565-8252

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Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


Many of you are familiar with our quarterly journal, and the quality and volume of educational information we try to bring to the commu-
nity throughout the year. In fact our range of readership includes high school students to retired persons as well as professional scien-
tists and local universities. The journal has grown into a well read and respected publication; and we hope that it will continue to grow
and be a resource of educational and entertaining material for years to come. Obviously, with this continued growth not only in content
and pages but distribution, there are added costs associated. For this reason, we have decided to offer sponsorship by local individu-
als, families, and businesses who want to help us in our efforts. We currently publish and distribute 1,000 copies each quarter ~ that's
currently 4,000 copies each year, with our coverage mainly in Bradford County PA and Tioga and Chemung Counties in NY, but we
have readership that reaches far beyond these boundaries as well.

How Can You Become a Sponsor?

1.) Choose your level of sponsorship and how many issues you would like to sponsor below. If you
would like to sponsor multiple quarterly journals (4 per year) or even a whole year, just multiply the
sponsorship level.

2.) Tell us what you would like us to print

3.) Include your check along with this completed form.

Thank you for being an active supporter of this worthy cause!

• Platinum $500.00 Our top level of sponsorship! With your donation of $500 you will be facilitating 1,000
copies of one quarterly journal. Your donation will be recognized with a full half-page gray-scale or black and
white ad that can measure up to 7 1/2” wide by 5” tall. (Sorry, but we can accept only one Platinum sponsor
per issue; however, you can reserve for future issues.) Please email artwork and text you wish included to

Please circle the level of sponsorship you wish to make; and

indicate what you would like your sponsor recognition to say in
• Gold The Leadership Company the space below…..anything you like!
$100.00 234 Main Street
Your Town, USA
123-4321 LINE 2

• Silver The Hollowell Family
$50.00 Jan, Christy
Ryan, Allison, and Tommy LINE 4
(Limit lines to 35 characters. Gold level can include logo if space
allows. Please email logos to

• Sup-
The Johnson Family
In loving memory of our dad John
Send check along with this form to: SRAC
For additional information call Deb PO Box 12
Twigg at 607-727-3111 or email Sayre, PA 18840
• Friend
$10.00 The Lucky Penny Club

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2


SRAC is dedicated to education, research and preservation of the region's Native American archaeological, cultural and
historical assets for the communities within the Twin Tier Region of Southeastern NY and Northeastern PA. We are espe-
cially proud to announce that in the past few months, two more private collections were donated to us. Each collection will
remain under the name of the collector who donated them within SRAC's collections so that the community will forever
recognize these people for preserving their collections with SRAC. SRAC would like to personally thank all of the collec-
tors and their families that have donated their collections to SRAC to date, and hope that others will consider doing so
when they are deciding what will happen to their collections in the long term.
and the best part is that Steve intends
Steve Welles Donates Collection to
to continue his search for arrowheads,
pottery and the working tools of the
Native Americans.

Daniel Chapman Sends Collection

Back to the Region

Daniel Chapman lived at Lowman,

Chemung County, NY and was an
operating engineer on the construction
of Route 17 for 20 years. He grew up
in the Southern Tier, graduating from
Waverly High School in 1954.
Steve Welles with Tom Valilee and Ted
Keir as they look at the collection he Dan collected Indian artifacts in the
donated to SRAC Chemung, Lowman, Elmira, Corning, Dan Chapman and his close friend,
Olean, Nichols, Salamanca, Mt Morris, Bob Gillan
The Susquehanna River Archaeology Geneseo, and Susquehanna River
Center recently became the recipient Valley area. He moved to Albuquer- Ted by Federal Express. He may not
of another outstanding collection of que, New Mexico to retire and took return to this area to see them dis-
Indian artifacts. Steve Welles of 360 the bulk of his collection of projectile played but Ted is sending him photos
Winters Road, Barton, NY has been points and small artifacts with him, of them as they were shown to a num-
collecting for many years in Tioga giving the heavy working tools to his ber of groups visiting the museum.
County and the Susquehanna River mends.
Many people are enjoying Mr. Chap-
Valley. He has accumulated a great We made contact by phone through man's generosity and we appreciate
amount of Indian material and decided his very close buddy, Robert Gillan, a his faith in SRAC.
to donate it to our growing SRAC mu- New York State Department of Con-
seum so that the community could servation officer who retired and lived
enjoy them. near Barton, Tioga County. Ted Keir
One of the most impressive pieces in told Dan and Bob about the Susque-
the Welles collection is a small turtle hanna River Archaeology Center and
effigy that sent them copies of our journal. Dan
SRAC cur- liked the way SRAC operated with a
rently has Board of Directors and an Advisory
on display Council and our plans to convert the
in our lec- old three story Philadelphia Sales
ture area. building on Broad St. in Waverly into a
We deeply museum.
appreciate Dan decided to donate 11 frames of Frames from the Daniel Collection on dis-
this gift Turtle effigy from the
artifacts to SRAC and shipped them to play at SRAC
Welles Collection

• Deb Twigg - Executive Director • Susan Fogel - Chief Financial Officer
• Dick Cowles - CoDirector of Archaeology/Curation • Tom Vallilee
• Ted Keir - Chairman of the Board, CoDirector of Ar- • Janet Andrus
chaeology/Education • Mary Ann Taylor

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 2
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

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Type Annual Fee Benefits

Student $15.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Senior (65 and

$15.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Family $25.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Individual $20.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Research Partner Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, special discounts, and online data-
(Ind.) base collection access.
Corporate or
$250.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.
$500.00 Lifetime membership and quarterly newsletters, special events, exclusive offers, and spe-
One Time cial discounts.

Become a member of SRAC!
• Please check the type of membership you wish to apply for.
• Fill out the information above.
• Submit this form with a check for the appropriate amount to: SRAC, PO Box 12, Sayre 18840

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email

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