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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1

Volume 5, Issue 1 March 2009


Louise Welles Murray Garden 1
Six Popular Myths 1 The Welles family, whose Murray, and they had
Membership Drive Contest! 9 heritage reaches as far three children, Jessie,
Archaeology in the News 10
back as the early settlers Elsie, and Louise.
of French Azilum, has
SRAC Gift Shop Volunteers 11 Louise and Millard’s home
been very deeply rooted
was located on Main
Janiak Collection Added 11 and involved in the pres-
Street in Athens, and in
ervation of our area’s his-
Recent Events at SRAC 12 1882 they decided to have
tory for over a hundred
a drainage ditch run from
Headliner in NYSAA Newsletter 14 years. Louise Welles was
their house to the river.
born on January 2, 1854
SRAC Sponsorship Board 14 The PA Bulletin would
to Charles Fisher Welles
SHS Senior Volunteer Artist 15 later report, “The discov-
and Elizabeth LaPorte. At
ery of an Indian burial
Thanks to Our Contributors 15 the age of 12, Louise’s
ground in the garden of
interest in archeology was
Journal Sponsorship 16 their new home in 1882 at
said to be first aroused
once interested both her
Pottery Roundup/Symposium 17 when Ralph Pumpelly, a
and her husband, and
cousin, spent some time
Visit Us at SRAC 17 4 inch pot from grave #2 (Photo they determined literally to
in her father’s house writ-
leave no stone unturned
SRAC Board of Directors 17 ing his first volume on ex- courtesy of Tioga Point Museum)
until they learned the origin
SRAC Membership Form 18 plorations in Asia. By all
of those aboriginal remains . . .”
claims, Louise was a very intelligent child,
and attended Wells College at the age of This seemingly dull home improvement
16. By age 22, she married Millard P. became a turning point for Louise; one that
C o nline (Continued on page 2)
SRA o to
Join G g/join
C e
www to
Marshall Joseph Becker, PhD Prof. of Anthropology, Sr. Fellow in Anthropology
19 West Barnard Street Emeritus University of Pennsylvania
West Chester, PA 19382 West Chester University Philadelphia, PA 19104 West Chester PA 19383

Today there are over 550 different Native seek economic opportunity as well as to
American tribes recognized by the Federal maintain cultural traditions that were in-
Government and thereby eligible for special creasingly altered or influenced by the new-
services and preferred treatment. The real comers. Those who remained in their an-
• Our Vision history of each of these tribes is a fascinat- cient homeland, or homeland at least since
The Susquehanna River Ar- ing and very complex story. For the Lenape ca. 1000 CE, merged into the colonial
chaeological Center of Native the major “historical” events in their aborigi- population (Becker 1990a, 1992c, 1993a).
Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is dedi- nal homeland took place over a period of
cated to education, research and Many popular beliefs now blur distinctions
some 200 years, ca. 1550 to 1750. During
preservation of the Native between these many aboriginal tribes of the
the first part of this period of European con-
American archaeological, cul- Delaware Valley, creating a fictitious
tact some adventurous Lenape began to
tural and historical assets of the "Indian" that never existed. In the twentieth
move away. By 1737 most of the more tra-
Twin Tier Region of Northeast- century a Pan-Indian political movement
ditional members of the Lenape people had
ern PA and Southern NY.
moved out of the Delaware Valley, both to (Continued on page 6)

The Susquehanna
BecomeRiver Archaeological
a member of Center
SRACof today!
Native Indian
See Studies
back ~
page for more ~ email
Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 1) explain local artifacts, their design and seum, which was the Wyoming Valley
their age. While this might seem ri- Historical Society in Wilkes Barre, PA.
would put her on a path that would diculous today, until professional ar- The Society’s Harrison Wright and S.
change her life forever. The reason for chaeology became a science, anti- F. Wadhams came in April, 1883,
this is that while digging the trench quarianism was the most scholarly ap- measured off the plot in twelve-foot
through the Murray garden, the work- proach to understanding the artifacts of intervals from the original grave, and
men uncovered a very special Susque- past cultures in the United States. began excavations.
hannock burial ground. Louise would later observe that there
The following is the actual diagram
were two notable types of antiquarians
It is important to note that Archaeology and explanation of the site by Harrison
that existed: those that looked for arti-
as a science did not even exist in Wright, courtesy of the Wyoming Val-
facts as “evidence” and a way to pre-
1882. “Antiquarianism” in the United ley Historical Society.
serve the past, and those that looked
States had begun in the 19th century
for artifacts for their own personal gain. Defined Plot: About 80 feet long and
and was the basic study of archaeo-
While most would be categorized as about 20 – 30 feet wide. In the corner,
logical evidence before there was
the latter by the next generation of twenty feet from the north line was
much science associated with it. There
scientists, Louise Welles Murray found, underground, a pillar of eight
is documentation that in fact Millard
would actually make the transition large drift stones, and with them a flat
Murray at least had been an antiquar-
from antiquarian to scientist in her stone on which is roughly cut the exact
ian of sorts and knew of many sites
lifetime. proportion of the plot.
that existed at Tioga Point and the sur-
rounding region. Millard and other anti- I have to wonder what my response Grave #1 contained a skeleton above
quarians of the region relied on the would have been if workmen dug up the average height, buried in a sitting
latest books and theories of the time artifacts while working in my yard back posture, with turtle-shell rattles in good
(many times based on mythology and then. The Murray’s response was to
legends, rather than science) to try to take these artifacts to the nearest mu-

(Continued on page 3)

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 2) Although the 1883 re-

port by Wright seems
quite conclusive, the
digging in the Murray
Garden was far from
over as it was quickly
realized that his test pits
at intervals of twelve
feet left a lot to be over-
In fact, in what was to
be understood later as
the center of the burial
site, was what would be
described later as a
chief that was actually
Artifacts from graved #1 and 6 (spiral bracelet), courtesy unearthed as part of the
of the Wyoming Valley Historical Society.
Tioga Point Museum High collared pot from grave #5,
opening ceremonies in courtesy of the Wyoming Valley His-
1895. Louise Welles torical Society
condition and four small pebbles in each, close to each tem-
Murray reported, “The
graves were grouped somewhat regularly around the one in
This grave also yielded a discoidal stone, a quantity of the center which was marked with such care that it was be-
burnt ochre, a broken antler comb, part of a shell gorget, lieved to be that of a chief surrounded by members of his
and some small shell beads that disintegrated on exposure clan. This burial site accidentally discovered was on a previ-
to the air. Harrison added in his report that “these objects ously un-occupied village lot. The workmen unearthed three
might well have belonged to a squaw, but no skeleton was skeletons buried so close together as to indicate one
found here except of the "medicine man," or "Turtle chief." grave.“ (Murray, 1921)
Grave #2 contained a bark covered grave (hemlock?), 4 ½ Warren K. Moorehead in his Susquehanna River Expedition
inch pot with faces (the clay of this pot was burnt black and describes the unearthing of the Susquehannock chief as
possibly contained food), a lapstone, and a common chert follows:
arrow point.
"The owner like his forebears, long refused to examine the
Grave #3 contained a skeleton that was noted to be of aver- grave at the center of the plot but at last had consented to
age height, with no grave goods; and grave #4 contained a celebrate the formal opening of the Historical Museum, and
double grave with 1 pot undecorated, 1 large pot between June 27th, 1895, the work was
them, and 1 pot with red ochre. begun. The circle of stones
proved to be over a sepulchre
Grave #5 contained a skeleton wrapped in bark with an An-
about 3 to 5 feet, with an upright
daste high-collared pot with clay that was burnt black.
stone at each corner, apparently
Grave #6 contained another double grave, with one buried as a marker, for, of course this
much later on top of the other. Grave items included one would have been well above the
shell, and the earlier grave revealed spiral jewelry - bracelet surface originally...
The writer, hoping to save the pot-
Grave #7 contained the only skeleton buried lying flat (full tery, assisted Messrs. Murray and
length) which had a pillow of twigs and was accompanied Ercanbrack in the excavation. Fi-
by 1 pot. It was noted that there was a deep cut in the cra- nally, two large flat stones, full of
nium “evidently by a celt.” devonian fossils, proved to be the
covering to a skeleton of six feet
NOTE: “The upper part of each of the graves we met with a
or more in height. While laying on
considerable amount of charcoal. It looked as though sub- back with head to the southeast,
sequent to burial but before the grave was entirely filled in with hands crossed on breast, the
and slowly smothered out. Whether it was part of the cere- crushed front of the skull and the Warren K. Moorehead
mony or was charcoal thrown in is not understood.” (Wright, unusual position of legs, right foot
1883) (Continued on page 4)

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 3) cle of graves, about three feet underground on a layer of
clay, were eight pots carefully embedded in sand.
Every one had been perforated by thread-like apple roots,
and all were broken by a careless workman who was re-
moving the stump just after a day's futile excavation by a
second party from Wilkes-Barre.
Throughout this plot with one exception the skeletons
were flexed but buried in a sitting posture, often with the
right hand upraised and bearing a pot containing food,
arrow points, or seeds, the latter leading to the conjecture
that the old apple trees may have grown from these very
But it was the pottery that attracted most attention; and in
all the museums we have visited we have yet to find faces

Murray Garden pots taken by the Wyoming Historical Society in

1883. Due to flood damage and lost records, sadly these pots
are no longer accounted for or available for research. (Photo
courtesy of Wyoming Historical Society)

under thigh, left leg fallen across right, seemed to indicate

that he might have been buried in a sitting posture, and
overturned by settling of stones of the sepulchre, which
had evidently crushed the large pot, fully eighteen inches
in diameter, at the left side of the head." (Moorehead,
Many may remember this skeleton because it was actually
placed in the museum for many years, and even I recall it
scaring me to death at my 4th grade field trip to the mu-
In the end, for over a decade, the garden continued to re-
veal more and more unique artifacts that to date are still
without comparison anywhere else.
Louise Welles Murray explained, “It yielded skeletal re-
mains of twenty-five males, one child, and three females,
each of the latter buried shoulder to shoulder with a male.
Several skeletons examined by students indicated a
height of above six and a half feet…
After Mr. Wright's investigations, test holes having been
made all over the one hundred foot lot at said stated inter-
vals, it was soon discovered that there were many more
graves and much more pottery.
For long years this had been an apple orchard and under
several of the old stumps, supposed to be from trees of
Indian planting, were Indian graves …
North Appalachian Pottery – Christopher Wren,
Around each of two such stumps were seven graves in a 1914 (Photo courtesy of Wyoming Historical Society)
circle, and directly under one stump in the center of a cir- (Continued on page 5)

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Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 4) response to increased contact

with European traders and the
more artistically executed than those on one of the five pots, growing pressure to replace
all of which were broken in removal.” (Murray, 1908) native items with European-
made goods. By the end of
About the Pottery: The pottery in fact was the most im-
the 17th century, brass trade
pressive of all the artifacts from the site, even today there
kettles had almost entirely
are no other pottery specimens ever found to have the hu-
replaced native-made pottery
man faces that were found there. Christopher Wren wrote in
vessels in the Susquehannock
his North Appalachian Indian Pottery in 1914, “The faces
culture. “
shown in different views in this plate are the very finest ex-
amples of Indian modeling of the human face, made by If this is true, then we have
eastern Indians, which the writer has seen. ..They are in just dated the Murray Garden
high relief and bring out the forehead, eyebrows, the eye- site at 1600-1625 AD, which
lids, the high cheek bones, the aquiline nose, the mouth, supports the idea that the
and the chin in a quite realistic manner.” (Cadzow, 1936) Susquehannock were here in Louise Welles Murray
1615 when Brule visited the
Even Dr. Barry Kent in his Susquehanna’s Indians (1984)
nation of Carantouan and Spanish Hill. Add the fact that
wrote, "Many facets of developing Susquehannock culture
brass (copper) spiral bracelets have been unearthed in the
history in the upper reaches of the Susquehanna River val-
garden in association with that pottery as well as other sites
ley still need to be worked out. The need for more archeol-
in Athens, PA that are dated 1570 – 1625 AD, and I think
ogy here may be tainting our understanding of settlement
we have decidedly uncovered enough evidence to question
patterns, trade good associations, and the evolution of
current beliefs professionals such as Kent (1984) have
Shultz Incised from Proto Susquehannock. Even more mun-
claimed that the Susquehannocks left our region before
dane questions, such as the relationships of the strange
Brule’s historic journey.
vessels with faces and rim and body decorations from the
Athens area of Bradford County (see Witthoft 1959; 48; and I look forward to ongoing research on this site and many
illustrations in Wren 1914; Plate 6, figures 1-8; Plate 8, Fig- others in our region. SRAC considers it our responsibility to
ures 1-4) can perhaps be answered through more intensive continue to compel these discussions concerning our region
archeology." (Kent, 1984) and the people who lived here. As many of you already
know, I personally believe that the truth concerning this part
As I researched this pottery design, the closest face effigies
of our history is long overdue.
on pottery that I could find was a very simple version of this
style found in Washington Boro, Lancaster County, Pennsyl- It is also important to note that as a result of the Murray
vania as reported in Susquehannock Indians of Pennsyl- Garden, Louise Welles Murray went on to found the Tioga
vania by Donald Cadzow, in 1936. Cadzow reported that all Point Museum, and eventually would become one of the
of the vessels at that site had “two elevated notched angles cofounders of Pennsylvania Archaeology. I have to wonder
opposite each other on the rim with a molded face upon if the workmen did not uncover the burial site in her back
them.” yard in 1882, if she would have actually been involved with
Interestingly, the Pennsylvania State Museum reports on
their website that “Curiously, effigies only appear on Sus- The author expresses special thanks to John Orlandini and
quehannock pottery during the first quarter of the 17th cen- the Wyoming Historical Society for providing reports and
tury. The Susquehannock may have developed this elabo- photos to help preserve this information enabling future re-
rate decoration, an expression of pride in native tradition, in search.

407 E. Main St, Have a Dandy Day!
Endicott, NY
7:30 PM, 4th Thursday, Nearly 60 stores in
except July, Aug., & Dec.
PA and NY

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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 1) During the winter each of these bands other scholars (Nelson 1894, 1899,
separated into its individual families, 1902, 1904, then Stewart 1932) in the
began among various people of native each of which moved into the interior early 20th century. At the end of the
descent as a means of creating a new for winter food collecting and hunting. 20th century I became the fourth person
identity, and sometimes to gain political to point out the distinctions between
The basic fact that most people find
power. My people, the Lenape, called these two very different Native Ameri-
difficult to understand is that in aborigi-
themselves "Lenape" (Le-NAH-peh), a can tribes. [Thank you, Josephine Tay].
nal times the total population of Lenape
self-referent term that means "The
was only about 300 individuals, typical 3. Myth: William Penn held a single big
People" (as in "We are Lenape."), or
for a foraging society. These numbers treaty with the Lenape under an elm
“human beings.” With the recent pass-
are confirmed by the archaeological tree at Shakamaxon and bought all
ing of the last of the final generation of
evidence as well as from the documen- their land at one time
native speakers in Oklahoma, the lan-
tary record. In particular, the land sales
guage spoken 100 years ago in east- Reality: The several bands of Lenape
records from the Lenape list every
ern Oklahoma no longer survives in the each claimed the lands that they used,
adult male as well as some females,
United States. All of these people were and each band made its own decisions
providing the basis by which full gene-
born to Lenape parents, who spoke regarding sales. Land was held in com-
alogies can be constructed.
Lenape at home in the first half of the mon by all the members of a band,
twentieth century. Efforts to reconstruct 2. Myth: The Lenape lived on both thus supposed “sales” bearing the sig-
that language are ongoing. There is a sides of the Delaware River. nature of only one vendor are to be
caveat, however, that remains to be questioned (cf. Becker 1998 MEH) In
Reality: The Lenape lived only on the
studied. The people living in the Bar- addition to numerous small tracts of
tlesville area of Oklahoma may actually western side of the lower Delaware
land sold by individual Lenape bands
have been descended from the Lenopi River. The people who lived on the
to Swedish immigrants after 1638,
east side of the Delaware, in New Jer-
(Len-OH-pee) from southern New Jer- small parcels also were sold to many
sey (Becker 2008a). Efforts to trace the sey south of the Raritan River (Becker
other individuals long before William
genealogies of these two separate cul- 2008a) were an entirely different tribe.
Penn came to the New World. By 1661
The name "Lenopi" was used by the
tures have been a focus for my re- many of the Lenape had abandoned
search for more than 30 years peoples of southern New Jersey, and
the Delaware Valley to move west and
(Beckera, 1998b). I believe that this also means “The People.” Both the
become involved in the lucrative pelt
Lenape and the Lenopi had been one
line of research ultimately will provide trade. Penn made dozens of purchases
answers to questions relating to the people during the Middle Woodland
from all of the various Lenape bands
descent lines of each of the two groups period. Technological developments at
during the 21 years between 1682 and
the beginning of the Late Woodland
of "Delaware" who settled in different 1701 (Kent 1979; other volumes on
parts of Oklahoma. The different deci- period, ca. 1000 CE, such as the de-
Native Land Cessions also are avail-
sions made by the ancestors of these velopment of the bow and arrow, led to
able), ultimately purchasing all of the
more specific or focused foraging
groups regarding where to settle in lands of the Lenape. Many of these
what had been "Indian Territory" ap- strategies throughout the region. The
purchases were followed by
pears to reflect their long standing cul- Lenape focused on anadromous fish
"confirmation" treaties, at which the
spawning in the streams in a specific
tural differences. earlier deeds were reviewed with the
part of the west side of the Delaware
Lenape vendors and their descen-
A few of the most common myths drainage (Becker 2006a), while the
about the Lenape are listed here, fol- Lenopi focused on marine (salt water)
lowed by the “reality” that is based on resources. These separate lifestyles The myth of a single “treaty” became
what we now know about their history led to two distinct cultural traditions, common after Benjamin West painted
and archaeology between 1000 and and to linguistic differences that devel- his masterpiece; a painting of a ficti-
1750. oped after ca. 1200 CE. The similari- tious event that “depicted” Penn’s sup-
ties in the names “Lenape” and posed treaty (one) with the Indians.
1. Myth: The Lenape lived in one or
“Lenopi” led to the Lenopi being identi-
two large villages, the largest now bur- 4. Myth: The Lenape were forced off
fied consistently by the English colo-
ied under Philadelphia. their lands.
nists as the "Jerseys" (see Becker
Reality: The members of the 13 iden- 2008a). Reality: Every inch of Lenape land
tified Lenape bands lived most of the was sold to William Penn, and at very
The distinction between these two cul-
year at a series of very small fishing high prices. In fact, the prices paid by
tures was common knowledge before
stations spaced all along their territory, William Penn were a major factor in his
1740. The distinction was
a stretch of the lower Delaware River venture going broke. Somewhat related
"rediscovered" by John Heckewelder
extending from Old Duck Creek on the is the fact that much of the land of the
late in the 18th century, and by two
south to Tohiccon Creek on the north..
(Continued on page 7)

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 6) bounds as well as detailed lists of 2005) being given to Indians, merits a
goods given for the land and excruciat- study by itself.
Lenape had been sold before, to ingly detailed accounts of what rights
6. Myth: Archaeological sites where
Swedes as well as to other English were included in the land sale, such as
large numbers of stone tools are found
colonists. Some of these Lenape had “fishing, fowling, etc. Furthermore, peri-
represent Lenape “villages.”
abandoned these lands more than 100 odic confirmation treaties were held for
years before Penn first arrived in the almost every one of these sales! At Reality: Archaeological sites in south-
Delaware Valley in 1682. Many more these confirmation treaties, the vendors eastern Pennsylvania and much of the
had moved west by 1661 to become would be invited to attend with all their northeast have a long history, and
involved in the lucrative pelt trade. kin. The deeds then would be read so many have been reused for thousands
Many other Lenape groups left after that all present could hear what had of years (multi-component sites). The
1675 when the Susquehannock Con- been paid and what lands had been use of these sites by a single family, or
federacy of central Pennsylvania was bought, and the ancient (and usually a small band, even only once a year,
destroyed by the Five Nations Iroquois. non-literate) vendors would confirm for 15,000 years, can easily create
Other Lenape never left. By the time (verify) their marks (signatures) for the huge collections of stone tools. The
that Penn arrived, so many of the Le- next generation, whose members then historic Lenape, as a distinct people,
nape bands had left the area to be- could sign the confirmation record. All came into being after 1000 CE. These
come rich in the pelt trade that he had these native people were then pre- Lenape, and most of their neighbors,
difficulty in calling them back into the sented with “gifts” or resources that rapidly shifted to the use of metal tools
Delaware Valley to arrange the pur- were, in effect, a type of payment for after 1600 CE. By 1650 or perhaps as
chases of their abandoned areas. Still their services as legal witnesses to the late as 1660 the Lenape had all but
other Lenape married among the colo- original treaties. abandoned the use of stone for making
nials, or otherwise merged into colonial tools.
Modern claims that the natives did not
understand what was going on reflect Some Notes on What the “Lenape”
A myth related to the idea that these ignorance of the documentary record, and Their Neighbors were Called:
people were forced from their lands is or deliberately ignore that record. I do
one suggesting that the Lenape (and not know when the first claims of igno- "Lenni Lenape" is a usage found
largely among historians that can be
other Indians) were ignorant of con- rance regarding European land rights
cepts of land ownership. This basically were made, or if they were made by traced to the nineteenth century. It was
is a racist view in that it suggests that natives or by non-natives. All fail to not and is not in common use by the
Lenape or their descendants. It ap-
the Indians were uniformly stupid and consider the vast numbers of docu-
unable to conceptualize land rights ments and make up stories regarding pears to have derived from a letter from
such as those held by the immigrants. the historical and archaeological re- the Ohio frontier that included a call to
the "real Lenape" who remained behind
At best it reflects ignorance of the cords.
changes in land sales over a period of in various parts of Pennsylvania to join
5. Myth: Disease was a major factor in their kin in the west. The alliterative
more than a century, which can be un-
the "demise" of the Lenape. qualities of this designation appear to
derstood only through reading the
many deeds in chronological order Reality: Disease had no more impact be the principal reason that non-native
(e.g. Kent 1979). People who make on the Lenape than on the colonists (cf. speakers seem to like this designation.
such claims about “ignorant” Indians Snow 1995). The popular myth regard- A related problem is the development
have never read any of the documents. ing disease wiping out the Indians is a of the common fiction that "Lenape"
The early land sales from the Lenape racist view suggesting that the native and "Delaware" are synonymous.major
were for small holdings, and the peoples of the Americas, after many native groups have, at one time or an-
boundaries are generally as imprecise years of contact with Europeans, re- other, been glossed as "Delaware": the
as they are unimportant. The definition mained biologically inferior to the immi- Lenape, the Lenopi, and the Munsee.
of precise borders became a problem grants. This view also depends on the All three of these groups were collec-
common throughout the colonies. Even idea that the only “Indians” are people tively called the "River Indians" in the
the very important and very famous who wear buckskins and feathers or seventeenth century. All three of these
Mason and Dixon’s Line was not sur- wampum, and that once natives groups did use the Delaware River as
veyed until 1763 to 1767. This survey adopted European dress and lifestyles one part of their respective boundaries.
provided some resolution to border is- they were no longer native. Using the All three also were foragers, but with
sues between four colonies; issues that perspective that dress equals culture, three very differnt foraging strategies
had led a number of conflicts among we may ask what event killed all the (see Becker 2006a). Even the Se-
these colonial governments. By the Quakers? The myth of disease, and of konese (Ciconicin) chiefdom, the north-
1660s native land sales documents disease ridden blankets (see Becker
(Continued on page 8)
generally list precise meets and

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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


(Continued from page 7) some claimants to native descent from means "treacherous" or "stealthy" is a
them. bowdlerization. I'll gladly provide in a
ernmost true chiefdom in the Middle journal article the translation that Nora
More interesting is the Lenape term
Atlantic Region (see Becker 2004c) Thompson Dean reluctantly offered to
"Minquas" or "Minquasy" [not Minqua]
have commonly been called me many years ago; one that has
to describe the neighboring Susquesa-
"Delaware" by amateur historians, and since been confirmed by scholars of
hannock, theof the Susquehannah
now are commonly called "Lenape" by the Algonquian languages.
River region. The idea that "Minquas"

1000 CE: Origins of Lenape culture. Transformation from Middle to Late Woodland cultural tradition. This
is marked by the invention of the bow and arrow and developments of region-specific, intensive foraging
1500-1550: Earliest contacts with Europeans; sporadic and minimal direct influence. However, this period
established the basis for the continental pelt trade and the development of the great Susquehannock and Five
Nations Iroquois confederacies.
1623: Susquehannock use routes through Lenape territory to vend pelts to Dutch on the Delaware River.
1638: Swedish “colonization” of the Delaware Valley has little direct impact on the Lenape. A number of
Swedish colonists have Lenape wives and bilingual children.
1640-1660: Gardening of maize provides a cash crop to be sold before leaving on winter hunting (Becker
1995? ETC.
Land sales and other economic activities provides the Lenape with access to European cloth and
other desired goods.
1650s: Five Nations aggression weakens the Susquehannock, who provide concessions to allies such as the
Lenape. Some Lenape moving west. Traditional bands summering upstream from ancient fishing stations.
1655-1660: New England farmers can sell maize at cheaper rates than Lenape, accelerating Lenape move-
ment west to participate in the pelt trade. Mill dams interfere with fish runs.
1674-75: Five Nations destroys the Susquehannock confederacy, leaving the Lenape as de facto principals in
the pelt trade. Further migration takes place.
1681: Beginning of William Penn land purchases (1681-1701). Penn protects rights to summer fishing sta-
tions. Continuing flow of individual Lenape into the colonial population.
1733-35: Last of the Lenape fishing bands shift their summer stations to location along the Susquehanna
River or further west. A small number of Lenape remain at the headwaters of the Schuylkil River, in the
Tulpehocken area, and others live among the colonists.
A few Lenopi move from New Jersey into the Forks of Delaware in Pennsylvania, a formerly unin-
habited mutual resource area north of Lenape territory.
1800: The last Lenape remaining in their homeland die in the early 1800s. The last colonists who had seen
Lenape living in traditional ways also are dying. This is the period of Quaker missionaries working among the
1830: The publication of Quaker missionary reports describing Seneca lifeways ca. 1800 leads to confusion
as to how the Lenape had lived. Historians ignorant of the fish-oriented Lenape foraging lifestyle describe
generic Indians as being village dwelling, maize planting horticulturalists, such as the Five Nations Iroquois.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 9 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


This paper covers a small part of my research on the Lenape as they were during the period 1600 to 1750 that has been
carried out over the past 40 years. These data were included in the symposium Time, Space, and Society in the Eastern
Woodlands organized by Bernard K. Means for 2009 MAAC meetings in Ocean City, MD. My sincere thanks are due to
Prof. Means for his invitation to join this session and for his encouragement to get this information into print.
The kind efforts of many people have contributed to this research over the years. The listing of their names would consid-
erable, but all have contributed to this effort. Special thanks are due Dr. Charles A. Bellow and Dr. Ellen Kintz. Thanks are
also due Mr. and Mrs. Henry Secondine, who were my hosts during my stay in Oklahoma, and to Mrs. Nora Thompson
Dean for her many insightful observations on her people and the people who came to Oklahoma in an attempt to glean
information from her and from others. The important information and guidance of Dr, Sue Roark-Calnek prior to my trip to
Oklahoma was crucial to the success of that trip. The support and encouragement of these people were essential to my
understanding of Lenape culture history. Thanks also are due to Josephine Tay, whose revelations put into perspective the
task faced by scholars in revealing truths that no one wants to hear.
The initial support for this research was provided by a generous grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
That grant produced an enormous amount of information, distilled into a
paper presented (Becker 1983), but never published. My apologies are
due the NEH and all the people involved in this research for my long
delay in putting these data together. My thanks also are due the Con-
gress of the United States of America for the encouragement provided
by the tax laws that support research. Thanks also are due to Denise B.
and Ernest Tyler, and to F. P. and M. E. Gillon for their generous support
of this research`. The ideas presented here, as well as any errors of in-
terpretation or presen-
tation, are entirely the
In memory of: responsibility of the
Jim Northrup Ed Nizalowski author.
A full list of references
is available from the
Elynor W. Depue Beryl Cleary

S R AC M E M B E R S H I P D R I V E C O N T E S T !
From today until our next annual membership meeting at our Drumbeats Through
Time event on October 10, 2009, we are having a membership drive contest. SRAC
members can win huge prizes for referring new members to SRAC!
There will be three top winners in two categories: Most new members referred
and most membership dollars made.
How can YOU win?
1.) You need to be a member.
2.) In order for a referral to count for you in this contest, the new member must write
in that they were referred by you on their membership form.
3.) Download the form at, put
your name on them as the referrer and give them to your friends to join the contest
4.) We will keep track of the new members and referrers in our database. We'll
announce the leaders at different intervals throughout the contest. The top three
winners for both categories will win prizes and will be announced at the annual
event in October!
Stay tuned for more information!

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1

Archaeology in the News

A New Explanation for the Demise of the Mammoths
The earliest people known to be in North America are
referred to as the Paleo-Indian or Clovis culture, named
after a site in New Mexico where this style of spear point
was first identified. The clovis points are rarely found in our
area and at last count, 7 were known to be found in
Bradford County PA. The Clovis culture lived as hunters
and gatherers, not having an understanding of agriculture
yet. Even more interesting is that their points have been
found in skeletal remains of woolly mammoths and other
huge creatures that died out around 12,900 years ago. It
was until recently presumed that this Clovis culture was the
cause of these huge creatures extinction...but now some
scientists claim that man as well as the huge beasts all
were met with the same horrific event.
In January of 2009, a very interesting yet brief paper was Walter Newton and Ted Keir with 10 foot woolly mammoth tusk
published that offers a new insight: "Last year a 26-member uncovered at Spring Lake, near Wyalusing, PA
team from 16 institutions proposed that a cosmic impact
event, possibly by multiple airbursts of comets, set off a
1,300-year-long cold spell known as the Younger Dryas, sediments -- weighing from about 10 to 2,700 parts per
fragmented the prehistoric Clovis culture and led to the billion -- in the six locations during digs funded by the
extinction of a large range of animals, including mammoths, National Science Foundation.
across North America. The team's paper was published in
"The nanodiamonds that we found at all six locations exist
the Oct. 9, 2007, issue of the Proceedings of the National
only in sediments associated with the Younger Dryas
Academy of Sciences.
Boundary layers, not above it or below it," said Kennett, a
Now, reporting in the Jan. 2 issue of the journal Science, a UO archaeologist. "These discoveries provide strong
team led by the University of Oregon's Douglas J. Kennett, evidence for a cosmic impact event at approximately 12,900
a member of the original research team, report finding years ago that would have had enormous environmental
billions of nanometer-sized diamonds concentrated in consequences for plants, animals and humans across North
America." (Source:

When Was Corn Domesticated?

Corn (maize) was domesticated from a wild grass called
teosinte that is found in Mexico, Guatemala and Nicaragua.
This wild grass has been proven to be the origin of
domesticated corn, but the period of when this domestication Students Grinding Corn
occurred has remained elusive. at an SRAC Event Early
man, the domestica-
By analyzing starch residue in ancient grinding tools and tion of corn and the
charred remains in cooking pots, researchers now claim that transition from
they have found evidence that corn was being domesticated "hunter/gatherer" to
as much as 8,700 years ago. Even more impressive is that an agricultural society
they have located a rock shelter in Mexico's Central Balsas has been a hot topic in
River Valley that actually yielded evidence of domesticated archaeology for a very
corn and squash.(Anthony Ranere, Dolores Piperno et al. The long time.
Cultural and chronological context of early Holocene maize
and squash domestication in the Central Balsas River Valley,
Mexico. PNAS, March 24, 2009)
But wait a minute....ROCK SHELTER...AGRICULTURAL
SOCIETY? These two terms are not commonly used together!
The people that used rock shelters are commonly referred to as the PaleoIndian/Early Archaic and agriculture is not
thought to have been part of their lifestyle. How this relates to the PaleoIndian/Early Archaic people who lived in our
region will also be an interesting thing to watch for. If anyone has any info on the use of starch analysis in the Northeast,
please send it to SRAC so that we can share it with our readers!

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1

Archaeology in the News

Cahokia Copper Axe Stolen!
In March 2009, the following news announcement was released by William R.
Iseminger, Asst. Site Manager/Public Relations, Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site:
"We recently discovered that a copper celt (axe) had been stolen from one of our
exhibit cases. The thieves apparently were able to compromise the security of the
case at the "Fiber" display. It was solid copper, 5 inches long, 2 inches wide, and 7/8
inch thick. One side had fabric impressions on the surface caused by the copper
oxidizing and incorporating the pattern of the cloth or bag in which it originally had
been wrapped. There was a catalog number on it, 19 x 862. Please keep an eye out
for this axe and if you see it or something similar for sale, please contact us.
This comes at a time when we are understaffed due to budget cuts but we are taking
special steps to make sure all the cases are more secure. Other than some minor
vandalism, this is the first artifact theft at the Interpretive Center in the 20 years since
it opened."

SRAC Gift Shop Volunteers ~ THANK YOU!

SRAC’s Gift shop has grown immensely but could not be possible without the
wonderful volunteers that have donated hundreds of hours to allow us to be
open Tuesdays through Fridays from 1-5pm and Saturdays from 11-4pm. Would you like tp be a volunteer in our
Special thanks to: gift shop? Volunteers who work at
least 7 hours a month get to attend all
• Mary Ann Taylor • Ben Borko of the events each month for free! Call
• Pat Miran • Ann Carrigan the Center at (607)565-7960 during
• Mary Keene • Marilyn Weber hours of operation for more
• Bev Murphy • Beryl Cleary information.
• Nellie Brewster • Janet Andrus

Janiak Collection Added to SRAC Exhibits

Recently Valerie Sinsabaugh contacted the Susquehanna To learn more about SRAC visit, call
River Archaeological Center (SRAC.) Her parents, Stan (607)565-7960 or email
and Barbara Janiak, past residents of the Valley now living
in Myrtle Beach, SC heard about SRAC and wanted to
return their artifact collection to the area. The collection
included 4 cases of arrow and spear points and 2 cases
with hard to find glass trade beads, some from as early as
the 17th century.
SRAC’s Executive Director, Deb Twigg stated, “The Janiak
collection is a wonderful addition to the SRAC and it is the
tenth local collection that we have received since our in-
ception. While we have received much larger collections in
the past, this collection is special specifically because of
the glass trade beads that are very hard to find these
days. I want to thank the Janiak family again for donating
these wonderful artifacts because many people would
have sold them for a lot of money instead of considering
their worth as it relates to our history.”
The SRAC/Janiak Collection is already on display in the
SRAC Exhibit Hall, which is located at 345 Broad St.,
Waverly, NY and is open from 1-5 pm Tuesday through
Friday and 11am – 4pm on Saturday. Barbara Janiak Displays the SRAC/Janiak Collection

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1

The start of 2009 has been wonderful for SRAC and its membership! We continue to provide the community with many
fun learning opportunities, and the crowds at our events keep growing. The pictures on these two pages are just some
of the special moments we’ve captured.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1



Contact Us!

Our Headquarters
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840
Email: SRAC was honored to be the lead story in the New York State Archaeology (NYSAA) Winter 2009 Newsletter. The article can be read online by visiting the NYSAA website at
Our Center The NYSAA is a non-profit organization composed of people interested in various phases
Location: of archaeology in New York State. Founded in 1916 and chartered in 1927 by the Board of
Regents of the State of New York, NYSAA is a nonprofit organization composed of 15
345 Broad St. chapters and a world-wide membership-at-large. All who are devoted to historic and pre-
Waverly, NY historic archaeology are invited to join.
Several of our members are members of the Tri-Cities Chapter of the NYSAA as well.
NYSAA functions are:
» to vigorously promote research into the lifestyles of the early inhabitants of New York
Website: State with an emphasis toward cultural preservation, » to participate in excavations when
necessary to preserve threatened historic and pre-historic habitats, » to interpret excavated cultures in a shared environment by lecture or publication in one of many
scholarly journals, » and to promote that environment by hosting an annual conference in
Online Giftshop: one of the 15 communities within which NYSAA chapters are located and by publishing "The Bulletin" which is the annual journal of NYSAA.

Online Membership: S R AC S P O N S O R S H I P B OA R D Be on the lookout for a new addition to the exterior of
the SRAC building at 345 Broad Street in Waverly,
SRAC Blog: NY. SRAC has decided to offer a sponsorship board
to organization sponsors in our banner program that will honor them by placing their organization banner
on our sponsor board for different lengths of time
Online Donations: based on their level of sponsorship. The SRAC Sponsorship board area will be on the
upper space of the Center at 345 Broad Street,
Mobile Website: Waverly, NY that faces eastward.Please contact SRAC executive director, Deb Twigg at (607)727-
3111 for more information.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


Sayre High School senior and active volunteer at SRAC, Daran

Carlin Weber, has received many awards for his artwork over the
years, and even has full length animated movies online. He has also
put in many hours as a volunteer at SRAC, from manning the gift
shop to using his art skills. As an artist, Daran has created carica-
tures at several SRAC events and his latest endeavor is to create a
huge mural from approximately 20 smaller maps. This mural is lo-
cated in the SRAC Exhibit Hall and shows many of the known Native
American sites in the region that SRAC is involved with preserving
evidence from. SRAC would like to thank Daran for all of the hard
work he has done for SRAC, and wishes him well in his endeavors at
college in the coming years. We will miss you!
Daran With One of His Caricature Customers

Daran Working on the Mural Map

Large Mural Map Located in SRAC Exhibit Hall

Stanley Vanderlaan Special thanks to

John Margetanski
for taking event
Arnold’s Excavating
photos for SRAC!


Special thanks to the following for • William J. Inman & Lucia A. • Sandy Campbell
their support: Inman Fund • Stan Vanderlaan
• Dandy Mini Marts • Ed Nizalowski
• Triple Cities NYS Archaeologi- • Arnold’s Excavating
cal Association
• Beryl Cleary
• Janet Andrus
• Elynor Depue
• Guthrie Health
• Harley Mayo

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Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1


Many of you are familiar with our quarterly journal, and the quality and volume of educational information we try to bring to the commu-
nity throughout the year. In fact our range of readership includes high school students to retired persons as well as professional scien-
tists and local universities. The journal has grown into a well read and respected publication; and we hope that it will continue to grow
and be a resource of educational and entertaining material for years to come. Obviously, with this continued growth not only in content
and pages but distribution, there are added costs associated. For this reason, we have decided to offer sponsorship by local individu-
als, families, and businesses who want to help us in our efforts. We currently publish and distribute 1,000 copies each quarter ~ that's
currently 4,000 copies each year, with our coverage mainly in Bradford County PA and Tioga and Chemung Counties in NY, but we
have readership that reaches far beyond these boundaries as well.

How Can You Become a Sponsor?

1.) Choose your level of sponsorship and how many issues you would like to sponsor below. If you
would like to sponsor multiple quarterly journals (4 per year) or even a whole year, just multiply the
sponsorship level.

2.) Tell us what you would like us to print

3.) Include your check along with this completed form.

Thank you for being an active supporter of this worthy cause!

• Platinum $500.00 Our top level of sponsorship! With your donation of $500 you will be facilitating 1,000
copies of one quarterly journal. Your donation will be recognized with a full half-page gray-scale or black and
white ad that can measure up to 7 1/2” wide by 5” tall. (Sorry, but we can accept only one Platinum sponsor
per issue; however, you can reserve for future issues.) Please email artwork and text you wish included to

Please circle the level of sponsorship you wish to make; and

indicate what you would like your sponsor recognition to say in
• Gold The Leadership Company the space below…..anything you like!
$100.00 234 Main Street
Your Town, USA
123-4321 LINE 2

• Silver The Hollowell Family
$50.00 Jan, Christy
Ryan, Allison, and Tommy LINE 4
(Limit lines to 35 characters. Gold level can include logo if space
allows. Please email logos to

• Sup-
The Johnson Family
In loving memory of our dad John
Send check along with this form to: SRAC
For additional information call Deb PO Box 12
Twigg at 607-727-3111 or email Sayre, PA 18840
• Friend
$10.00 The Lucky Penny Club

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Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1

Visit Us at SRAC
Gift Shop and Exhibit Hall Open:
Tuesday through Friday 1:00 - 5:00pm
Saturday 11:00 - 4:00pm
Call 607-565-7960 during business
hours for more info.
345 Broad Street, Waverly NY
• Deb Twigg • Tom Vallilee
• Dick Cowles • Janet Andrus
• Ted Keir • Mary Ann Taylor
• Susan Fogel • Mark Madill

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Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 5, Issue 1
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840
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Student $15.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

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$15.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Family $25.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Individual $20.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

Research Partner Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, special discounts, and online data-
(Ind.) base collection access.
Corporate or
$250.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.
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One Time cial discounts.

Become a member of SRAC!
• Please check the type of membership you wish to apply for.
• Fill out the information above.
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