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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

Volume 6, Issue 1 January 2010


Effigy Mounds 1 In 1931, Herbert Hoover was President, the In April, 1931, there was also a terrific loss
Gas in Marcellus Shale 9 original film version of Dracula with Bela to the archaeology of Pennsylvania when
SRAC/Lincoln St. School Project 10
Lugosi was released, The Star-Spangled Tioga Point Museum founder, Louise
Banner was adopted as the United States Welles Murray passed away unexpectedly
Woolly Mammoth Exhibit Update 11
National anthem, Nevada legalized gam- after spending a late evening at the mu-
Coming Events 12 bling, construction of the Empire State seum working as she often had. She un-
Recent Events 14
Building was completed, and Dick Tracy, a doubtedly was working on plans for a na-
comic strip detective character first debuted. tionally funded archaeological expedition
SRAC’s New Sign 16 that was to take
SRAC Snippets 17 place in just weeks,
and to be led by a
Welcome Don Hunt 17 young Chicago Uni-
Membership Form 18 versity grad named
James B. Griffin.
In 1927 after
now! spending 2 years at
C o nline
SRA o to join
the University of
Join G Chicago pursuing a
n te
.SRA day! Business degree,
www to he transferred to
the program of
General Science
and graduated with
a Bachelor’s of Sci-
ence. In 1930, he
had graduated from
Griffin’s Team: George Rumph, James Griffin, M. L. Gore, Tom Welch, Carl Cas-
(Continued on page 2)
selbury, Dale Woodruff (Ellsworth Cowles was present during the first week)


The park rangers and other animals. The bird mounds are
• Our Vision and historians are about a hundred feet long, on of the Bear
all trained in vari- Mounds is about 60 feet long. There is
The Susquehanna River
ous areas to talk one along the Wisconsin River not too far
Archaeological Center of about this part of away that is called the ghost eagle mound.
Native Indian Studies the country, each It is thousands of feet long. Another in
(S.R.A.C.) is dedicated to in their fields of Wisconsin is called the "Man Mound", which
education, research and expertise. It also Deb Twigg has visited. It is a man in a rab-
preservation of the Native contains the an- bit or the hare suit. The oral histories say
American archaeological, cient mounds he came in this white costume to this area
cultural and historical assets made to look like before the Europeans, walked on water,
of the Twin Tier Region of birds, bears, pipes, and gave great words of peace, to the na-
Northeastern PA and tives here. This according to local
The Effigy Mounds of Northeast Iowa are part of a National oral tradition of both the Ho Chunk
Southern NY. Monument which is a kind of Park without the full status of and the Sac and Fox natives. This
National Park. (Google the site for a virtual tour of the park.) (Continued on page 7)

The Susquehanna
BecomeRiver Archaeological
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SRACof Native
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See Studies
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Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 1) Bone Identifications:
While the most common animal bone was that of the Vir-
the University of Chicago with a Master of Arts Degree in
ginia deer, the largest animal fragments to be found were
Sociology and Anthropology.
of an elk. Others included the jaw and tooth of black bear,
Beginning in late May 1931 - James Griffin came to the the Jaw of raccoon, the jaw of a domestic dog about size of
Valley where he conducted field studies for the Tioga Point a fox, the bones of another domestic dog size of a collie,
Museum until early July of that same year. the tooth of a beaver, and the humerus of a “large bird”
Unfortunately, the National Research Council funding
would not continue long enough for the expedition to be Burials:
completed, but, the resulting report that James Griffin did
There were also two burials found at the Brennan site in
complete covers four main archaeological sites that we will
1931 that seemed to be more confusing than anything else.
cover briefly here.
Burial #1 was an adult male approximately 50 yrs old, ex-
Site BR-42: Brennan Site, Athens, PA tended burial with a trade pipe and an unidentified piece of
metal. Burial #2 was a child just past the age of 6 in a small
He first reported on a flat clearing between Main Street Ath-
coffin made from white pine. (“The wood was badly de-
ens, PA and the Susquehanna River, known as the Bren-
cayed but the outlines of the box were unmistakable.” Grif-
nan site. In the end, 12 pits were found there with the con-
tents reported as follows:
Burial #1: Concerning the trade goods found in burial #1,
Pit 1: potsherds, flint chips, bone fragments, shells and fire
Griffin reported, “White artifacts with the burial consisted of
a white clay pipe with a broken bowl and a thin object of
Pit 2: Broken roller iron not yet identified…It was at first thought that the mono-
pestle, large fire gram “IB” on the side of the bowl of the white clay pipe
brick, potsherds, found would be of great help in determining the age of the
flint chips, fire site. While other clay pipes have been found with rough
brick, bone frag- dates assigned to them, none of them previously found
ments, shells, cara- have carried the same mark…My interpretation is that the
pace of a small site is post –European. This period could probably be as-
turtle signed to the approximate dates of 1650 – 1750.” -
Pit 3: two broken
triangular wide Pit number 2. There was also pottery found strangely above and below
based arrow points, the feet of the skeleton, about which was reported, “at the
potsherds, flint chips, fore brick, shells. Two arrow points feet of the burial both above and below the level of the
similar to those in the pit were found at the base of the hu- skeleton many large and small potsherds of more than one
mus line. vessel found…If it could be definitely stated that the pottery
at the feet was a burial offering, the burial could be unhesi-
Pit 4: Potsherds, bone fragments, wood ash, shells, broken
arrow point
Pit 5: Potsherds, flint chips, sternum of a duck
Pit 6: Potsherds, flint chips, bone fragments, shells
Pit 7: not reported on (error)
Pit 8: Five bone tubular beads, potsherds, flint chips, shells,
bone fragments
Pit 9: Pieces of a broken pot, triangular wide base arrow
point, potsherds, bone fragments, flint chips, shells and fire
Pit 10: Potsherds, broken arrow points, net sinkers, flint
chips, shells
Pit 11: 3 ½ ” bone harpoon, potsherds, bone fragments,
two arrow points, flint chips, fire brick “The depth of the humus, the shape of the pits, and the depth of
the pits are clearly shown.” - Griffin:1931
Pit 12: Two arrow points, 2 ¾” bone harpoon, flint chips,
(Continued on page 3)
bone fragments

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 2) dian, probably at the time of the Revolutionary War…or
may possibly be that of a white child of the first settlers.
tatingly assigned to the same age of the surrounding pits.” - This gives us three occupations, or one occupation, and
Griffin:1931 two different intrusive burials.”
Interestingly, Ellsworth Cowles disagreed with Griffin on this Later work in 1933 by Ellsworth Cowles and PA’s Dr. Cad-
pottery stating, “While one of the jars at the feet indicates zow revealed much more evidence at the Brennan site of
Iroquois influence, the other is so-called Algonkian in the Andastes to include bone combs and the unique An-
shape…and could have been coexistent in an Algonkian daste pottery. For anyone interested, many articles pub-
village recently coming under influence of the Iroquois…” lished in the local papers during the Ahbe-Brennan excava-
Cowles:1931 tions in 1933 can be downloaded at
But most intriguing to me
was that strange piece of BR-5 The Murray Farm
unidentified metal that laid
The next site that Griffin reported on was on the west side
on that fifty year old’s chest,
of the Chemung River, called the Murray Farm. This site
just below the trade pipe
had been known for at least 150 years before Griffin visited
and shown below. The
it but was first published to the scientific community in 1916
unique (protractor-like)
by Warren K. Moorehead. It should be noted that for gen-
shape should be a clue, but
erations before Moorehead’s team was allowed to exca-
it seems as if it must have
vate 56 Andaste burials, the Murray family had long tried to
turned to dust when it was
protect it from being disturbed .
removed, and there is never
another word used in refer- During the 1931 expedition, James Griffin’s team uncov-
ence to it than “unidentified.” ered six burials, described by Griffin as follows: Burial 1
(Female 18-24)– No artifacts, ribs, vertebrae, pelvis, scap-
Burial #2
ula, and some long bones were missing. Burial 2 (female
The second burial was a child in a white pine coffin who 50)– No artifacts, the seven cervical and the first thoracic
was thought to be just past the age of 6. Strangely, the were the only vertebrae found. The long bones were buried
skeletal material was scattered in the coffin, with the skull in one group and the pelvis lay in about the right position for
sitting atop a pile of bone in the center of the coffin. There a flexed burial. Burial 3 (not identified)- No artifacts, only the
were no artifacts found in the burial. Whether this was a skull and a few portions of skeletal material could be found.
later white burial or an Indian burial that the group had been Burial 4 (female 13)– No artifacts, 13 year old girl, best con-
converted to Christianity or had missionary influence was dition. Burial 5 (male over 45)- we will come back to…Burial
questioned. 6 (female 36-47)- No artifacts, skeletal material scattered
about, even the skull being made up of scattered frag-
Griffin’s closing remarks about dating site BR-42:
“I feel that the burial (burial #1), which from the physical
While I realize that these are gruesome details for some of
type has been identified as Indian, was buried by the group
our readers to read, there is a point that is to be made con-
who left the physical evidence (fire pits) of their occupancy.
cerning them. In fact, it is notable that even Moorehead’s
The clay pipe and unidentified metal object being evidence,
accordance to my interpretation that the site is post Euro-
pean.” (Griffin:1931)
Griffin however noted that Ellsworth Cowles disagreed with
him, stating that “The Brennan Site (Br 42) is an Algonkian
camp or small village occupied a short while, perhaps two
or three years. From the absence of any evidence of white
contact in the village strata and refuse pits, I should date it
previous to the Andaste cemetery on the Thurston Farm.
While one of the jars at the feet indicates Iroquois influence,
the other is so-called Archaic Algonkian (Plate XVIIb) in
shape, and since these could have been co-existent in the
Algonkian village but recently coming under the influence of
the Iroquois, I believe they fit into the above hypothesis, as
do the awls, harpoon, bone beads, and pestle. While the
burial with pipe if Indian I believe belongs to the period of The Murray Farm- 1931
white contact possibly about 1750, and would be intrusive. (Continued on page 4)
The child’s burial seems to belong to a still later date. If In-

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 3) I must say
that I feel that
team in 1916 commented as follows: “In some cases a part Griffin was
of a vessel occurred in one grave and other fragments of right on the
the same utensil in another some distance away” and “A mark when
number of graves were opened in which there were no he reported
skeletons, or at best only a few portions of bones….Some the following,
may have been rifled through by whites….” “If a compari-
(Mooregead:1938) son be made
of the arti-
In his report, Griffin commented on the “scarcity of artifacts”
facts found in
at BR-5 and Moorehead’s attempts to explain them as fol-
the Murray Image from SRAC Collection
lows, “The conclusion reached in the Second Report of the
Garden with
Pennsylvania Historical Commission by the secretary of the
those found at this burial ground a striking similarity will be
expedition (1916) that the scarcity of the artifacts found with
noticed. Certainly it would indicate that the two sites are of
the bodies indicates that the group to which these Indians
the same culture.” – (Griffin:1931) He of course was refer-
belonged “was not in prosperous condition , is I think, not
ring to the shell tempered pots with two faces that were
justified. It might rather be that the lack of artifacts indicates
that the particular time at which these bodies were buried
this group did not place many cultural evidences with their
dead.” (Griffin:1931)
I personally believe that they missed the point. That is that
the burials consistently were scattered and seldom uncov-
ered as one would expect an undisturbed burial t be found.
..This fact I think is relative to what Louise Welles Murray
actually discussed this in her 1908 “Early Athens” book,
when she said, “It may be said that the first recorded discov-
ery of an extensive Indian burial place at Tioga Point was by
Sullivan’s soldiers, close to their camp, mentioned in many
journals, and an object of interest and amusement to all of Image from Tioga Point Museum
the troops.” (Murray:1908)
Allan Eckert’s “Wilderness Wars” which uses many excerpts
from the Sullivan Troops journals recorded for August 11,
1779 the following: “The hardiness of the troops and their
promise for the future was marred for many by the goulish
grave robbing that wa continuing as the men settled in here
at Tioga, although it didn’t seem to bother some of the
higher officers, such as Major James Norris, who simply
Whether through avarice or curiosity, our soldiers dug up
several of their graves and found a good many laughable
relics as a pipe, tomahawk and beads, &c…”
Burial #5
However in 1931, Griffin and his workmen did excavate one
intact burial, and as predicted, it had an artifact in the grave
with the flexed burial. If this two-face effigy pipe was any
illustration of what was found there over the past 150 years
prior to his expedition, we will never know as like so many of found just across the river in Louise Welles Murray’s garden
our local sites, the artifacts become “treasures” and are of- in 1883.
ten sold or lost with no apparent idea that they could be Even more interesting is that we have evidence of the same
used for scientific research or preservation of our local his- design of two faces on yet another artifact found on the east
tory. This specific pipe I am told is actually at in Harrisburg side of the Susquehanna from Main Street Athens, Pa that
and still can be seen. is in SRAC’s Tom Vallilee’s collection. (seen on next page)
(Continued on page 5)

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Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 4)

Personally, I cannot fathom how the two faced design found

in three different sites around the Tioga Point area could not
be considered to represent the same culture.
Site BR-”41” – Thurston Farm (Extension of BR-5 the
Murray Farm)
It is important to note that Griffin uses the site number BR –
41 for the Thurston Farm in his 1933 report, however, that
site number is really to a site located on Sugar Creek near
Towanda. The Thurston site, as it was actually just a football
field or so away from the excavations at the Murray Farm
and therefore uses the same site number- BR-5.
A brief summary of Griffin’s report on a fire pit at this site
follows: “The most productive area of the site was Pit
5…After the fired area was delineated the top soil was re-
moved, many flint chips were present but only one small
triangular point was recovered. Eight net sinkers were taken
curred. By following this dotted line and seeing where the
from the fire place… There were some few pieces of pottery
Griffin trenches were dug, one can see pretty clearly that
found at random throughout this upper disturbed area… As
some trenches were not even close to where the embank-
the actual fireplace was removed it was noticed that the dis-
ments were illustrated to be located by Clark. For example,
turbed area continued below the point which showed con-
look at trenches 4 & 5 on the map to the left , and then look
tact with fire. A large stone slab 2 feet long, 13 ‘ wide and 2’
at where the dotted line runs on the Clark map on the right.
thick was removed Below this stone at the depth of 3’9’ the
However, other trenches were dug at least in a close prox-
broken remains of a good size pot was
imity it seems to where Clark recorded the embankments
found… It is evident from the structure
such as Trench #1.
of the fire place that an excavation was
first made and pottery was placed at
the bottom.”(Griffin: 1931)
Most important, Griffin also reported
that one other feature at the Thurston
Farm revealed European style glass
beads contact. Along with the small
blue glass bead later described by the
Heye Foundation as “Russian,” two
arrow points (triangular), two net sink-
ers, flint chips, and potsherds were Keir/SRAC Collection
found. SRAC’s Ted Keir has reported
that the same blue glass beads have
been found at Tioga Point in conjunction with Andaste style
copper hair coil shown here. Image from
Top of Spanish Hill Site BR-27
“The major excavations on Spanish Hill consisted of eight As a result, Griffin reported that only
trenches and numerous test pits in the ridge.” (Griffin:1931) Trench #1 & #3 showed any signifi-
cance as can be seen by the following
It important to note that a survey was made of the trenches illustrations.
atop Spanish Hill as early as 1878 by a well experienced
surveyor from the civil war, General John S. Clark. In the I think it important to point out that
following diagram I have shown the trenches drawn using during my research on the Griffin Re-
the same illustration of the outline of the top of Spanish Hill port, another photo was in the mix of
by Clark in Griffin’s 1931 report: SRAC/Cowles collection of photos
from Spanish Hill shown here of an
By putting these two images together, one can quickly see Andaste pot and points all described
that Griffin did not realize that he had in fact used the outline to have been found in the trenches
of the top edge of the hill as opposed to the dotted line that (Continued on page 6)
Clark actually used to show where the embankments oc-
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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 5) artifacts on top of Spanish Hill, (36BR27), but had his report
been published, it would have put to rest any further con-
dug in the palisade tranches of the village site found in 1933 cerns about its being the site of Carantouan or its having
below Spanish Hill. Indian earthworks around its top margins.” (Kent: 1984)
In the end, Griffin’s conclusions on Spanish Hill were less To me, the 1984 version of Griffin’s report is very mislead-
than conclusive as he reported, “That Spanish Hill was used ing. Griffin obviously sates that he saw enough evidence
by the Indians is amply proved by the amount of material that had “been picked up in the past” to convince him that
the hill was “used by the Indians.” Furthermore, whether or
not post molds were found, Griffin never states that the em-
bankments were not there.
Another question that comes to mind is how Griffin could
have missed any one of the 400 so called test pits that were
dug around the same top edge area of the hill by Moore-
head’s men in 1916 and illustrated below. I believe the fact
that he did miss them clearly shows that he could have
missed a lot of other evidence as well.

The past records of the embankments in my opinion are too

many to ignore, to include an illustration that General John
S, Clark did along with the survey of the top of the hill in
One of the earliest recorded references to the embank-
ments is by a traveler up the Chemung River from Azylum in
"Near the confines of Pennsylvania a mountain rises
from the bank of the river Tioga (Chemung) in the shape
picked up from its surface in the past. From the work of the of a sugar loaf upon which are seen the remains of
summer of 1931 the embankment does not appear to have some entrenchments. These the inhabitants call the
been made at one time. If the evidence of the fire in Trench Spanish Ramparts, but I rather judge them to have been
1 is Indian in origin, it would indicate that the occupation thrown up against the Indians in the time of M. de Non-
antedated the construction of the embankment by some ville. One perpendicular breastwork is yet remaining
considerable period of time. None of the trenches excavated which, though covered with grass and bushes, plainly
nor the test pits on the embankment disclosed any evidence indicates that a parapet and a ditch have been con-
of post holes or of a trench on the inside of the embank- structed here." (La Rochefoucald-Liancourt 1795:76-7)
ment.” (Griffin:1931)
But by the turn of the century, there is a marked change in
However in 1984, this very report was used as fol- the description of the embankments:
lows:”Griffin’s work confirmed the presence of a few Indian (Continued on page 7)

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 6) In the end, after the summer spent by James Griffin in our
region in 1931, this report was never published. If you go to
“Many now living remember the beautiful flat lawn of Wikipedia and look up James Griffin - the reason given is
several acres on top of the hill, and an enclosure of simply that the funds from the National Research Council
earth 7 to 8 feet high which was within a quarter of a simply ran out. However, other accounts were that there
century been leveled by the plow and harrow.” (Perkins: was a conspiracy because the Tioga Point Museum did not
1906) like his report concerning Spanish Hill.
Whatever the reason, the Griffin Report itself was published
in 2003 in the A.D. Marble Company’s “Alternative Mitigation
to the Interstate Fairgrounds Site(36BR210)” by Dave
Weinberg, and has always been accessible from the Tioga
Point Museum. I have also recently posted my presentation
in pdf and video format on SRAC’s blog for anyone inter-
ested to see. (
Obviously, this article is also my effort in setting the record
straight about what was actually reported by James Griffin in
his 1931 report that has seemed to be cloaked in so much
secrecy by not being published.
What this research project has taught me is that there is a
huge difference between a published article and unpub-
lished one. That is, a published article is out there and can
be used to further research or even be critiqued, corrected,
and/or built upon. But an unpublished report such as James
Griffin’s from the summer of 1931 actually took on a life of
And even Moorehead made note of the embankments being its own that was seemingly untouchable and uncorrectable.
there in 1916 when he reported on another site in Towanda:
I hope that this article clears up a lot of misconceptions
“Traces of a fortified hilltop, there being distinct traces of about this report. I am also proud to be a part of the efforts
embankments. This being smaller than Spanish Hill, but of SRAC to try to publish new articles that uncover the true
it resembled same. It contained Iroquoian pottery and history as well as the misunderstandings concerning our
triangular flint points, probably Andaste." (Moorehead local archaeology. I believe it is a valued addition to the edu-
1938:70) cation and understanding of our prehistoric past.

legend is also told by the Seven Nations of HIs dress and weapons says "I don't need a
the Iroquois in the East. The Native American gun and white man's ways, to live my old life",
church says he was the same spirit that was according to Professor David Faldet.
Jesus. I heard this story also from Spencer
Coming Thunder was of the De Cora family of
Lone Tree, who said his grandfather, a tradi-
the Ho Chunk and the one who lead his people
tional Ho Chunk medicine man, told him about
to the new lands, as their land was taken after
this when he was a boy. Spencer has written
the Blackhawk War. Not much of a reward for
three books that tell the story of a young boy
helping the army capture Blackhawk! He
who was a member of the Ho Chunk, re-
wears a peace medal around his neck, given
moved from their lands in Wisconsin in the
his father from the Louis and Clark expedition.
1830's, and put at Fort Atkinson, Iowa, for
This photo was taken during the 1860's, when
about ten years, guarded by soldiers called
he and his people were taken and held at Fort
dragoons. When the soldiers were needed to
Snelling in Minnesota, "for their own protec-
go to fight in the Mexican War, the natives
tions", during the Sioux uprising that was in
were forced to move again to Minnesota.
1862. Some say his dress, bear claws, and
This happened twice more in the next decade,
bow and arrow, is a sign that he is ready to go
and they wound up hundreds of miles West in
back to the old ways and did not need the sol-
South Dakota and Nebraska. The tribe was
dier food or government assigned land by bu-
used as a buffer between warring peoples Ho Chunk, Coming Thun-
and it took its tole on the Ho Chunk. der, at Fort Snelling, MN reaucrats who were agents for the tribes.
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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


(Continued from page 7) is common in the past, it was a name given them by
neighbors. Minnesotans tell Iowa jokes and Iowans give
This was their reward for helping to end the war and bring them back, much as the People of the North are called Es-
peace to the area. They were forced to move to the West kimo by those who lived further South. . It means those
in between their ancient rivals and enemies. They had to who eat blubber, or fat. Not a flattering name, but a de-
give up all their land in Wisconsin and Illinois. A decade scription by those who lived among the trees to the South.
later they had to give this land up and were moved hun- Wisconsin has much swamp water full of algae, that turns
dreds of miles North, to Long Prairie Minnesota between green and is pungent in the late Summer. Who would want
the warring Chippewa and Ojibwe. to be called the "People who live by the stinky water"?, (or
Winnebago). Ho Chunk is the preferred name and it is now
Each tribe of the hundreds that were here at Columbus
on their website and is their official name.
landing has a trail of tears story. Many were "rubbed
away", from the Earth by the time we became a country. The reward for the belegared
When our country fought with the British against the French,
A thousand years
it is recorded that blankets taken from infected villages that
before the Ho
contained small pox were given to people further West who
Chunk people were
were standing their ground against invasion. This hap- here, a people who
pened near Detroit and also after the Battle of Fallen Tim- may have been the
ber. Germ warfare of an earlier time. When we fought the Ioway, could have
British in the War of 1812 this practice was done by people made these bird
who worked for General Washington in his battles during effigy mounds in
the Revolution. Freedom was for the whites, and even the Iowa.
Cherokee or Tslagi Peoples who owned land, had fine
houses, a written language, and treaties with the Govern-
There are Earth Clan effigies and Sky Clan Effigies through-
ment, were denied their rights during the time of Andrew
out the area. They were made in stages and built over
Jackson. He forcibly moved them all West across the Mis-
many years, with different layers of different river mud, each
sissippi. Many had fought in the Revolution against the Brit-
time they were burned off or cleared. In profile they look
ish, and were paid back with this shameful taking of their
like layer cake. One can see the marks of the baskets that
land. A story says that one woman going back to get a fa-
carried the earth, as they used the baskets to tamp the
vorite stew pot at her home she had just been forced to
earth down and woven patterns formed in the clay. These
leave, had new white people moving in to the home she
mounds were dug into by pot hunters years ago before it
raised her family, and was told to leave with whatever she
was illegal. Most do not contain burials. Some do contain
could carry. There was a lot missing from the stories we
later, native people, buried in the mounds, as they were
were taught in grade school and maybe we are still short
very sacred to those who lived here many generations after
changing our children. The old adage about repeating his-
the builders moved some where else. These are called in-
tory's mistakes
cursion burials.
comes to mind.
The mounds in the photo above are thought to be Peregrine
The painting was
Falcons. These mounds were outlined with lime, similar to
done for the territo-
what is used on baseball fields to make the mounds visible
rial government by
from the air for the photos, and to mark them on maps so
O.H. Lewis. and
they can never be disturbed in the future.
professor Faldet
says maybe it is a If burials are found as roads are being made in Iowa, there
younger Coming are several native holy men who will rebury the remains with
Thunder, or possi- a proper ceremony to honor those whose spirits are dis-
bly, his father. The turbed. This is the law, and this is done through the Arche-
Winneshieks and ology Department of the State of Iowa, which has to exam-
the DeCora had ine all remains found that are native. Some remains in mu-
common ancestors seums have also been reburied in this manner. This only
among the Ho applies to public works projects. There are some protec-
Chunk which means tions for burials on private land. Many land developers have
"the people of the been fined for disturbing mounds where they are building
loud voice", also homes.
some times referred
This is a painting done in 1825 at the to as Winnebago,
treaty of Prairie du Chien in Wisconsin. but not by them. As (Continued on page 9)

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Page 9 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

(Continued from page 8) ham Lincoln, Jefferson Davis, Zachary Taylor and General
It is important to mark all mounds on the state maps to pre-
Friends of the Mounds is an organization in Ohio that partly
vent this. In one Iowa town alone, near the Mississippi
inspired me to take up this work, especially Mrs. Barbara
River, over 1200 mounds were leveled in the early years of
Crandell, who is my hero in saving mounds in Ohio like the
settlement by Europeans. There are probably a thousand
Great Circle. She will be remembered in history, and is an
effigy mounds that are already gone throughout the state,
example to those of us who are younger, and not as wise.
especially in the Eastern half. This area at the time of the
She does speak from the heart and speaks for those who
Prairie du Chien Treaty of 1825, was under the direction of
have walked this earth before us.
Governor Clark, of the Thomas Jefferson expedition It also
had in the area at this time such American icons as Abra-


History methane is also formed in the decay within the Marcellus
Several hundred million years ago during the Devonian
Geological Period of the Paleozoic Era continental Africa Due to erosional patterns and the retreat of the continental
was colliding with North America. These are referred to as glacier the Devonian formation tips down to the south mak-
tectonic plates that continue to move to this day. The evi- ing it a shallow formation in central NY but a deeper forma-
dence for this is overwhelming with marine trenches, earth- tion in PA. The thickness of the formation also varies in dif-
quake zones and volcanic bursts. As a result of the plates’ ferent geographic locations.
collision mountains were formed to our East. As these high-
lands were eroded to the west they formed the Catskill
Mountains and still further to the west lay a shallow sea or Traditional drilling for oil and gas had been vertical wells.
marine environment characterized over time with periods of The oil & gas industrial complex discovered that through a
major evaporation leaving behind the salt now mined to our process of drilling horizontally off of the bottom of the verti-
north and extensive mud flats that supported bacteria and cal wells that they could tap more resources more efficiently
algal mats. Over time the mud flats got thicker and thicker, than ever before. This information coupled with recent ge-
eventually being covered by other layers the deceased bac- ologists’ research, which indicated that the shale held much
teria and algal mats were trapped, decayed, but the meth- more gas than here-to-fore was expected, led to the present
ane had no escape. One of these major beds is the Marcel- situation we find in the Twin Tiers.
lus Shale. Just as decay in our landfills yields methane,
The new twist however is that to release the trapped meth-
ane a process called fracking is necessary. This process
involves filling the thousand feet horizontal bores with water
under high pressure. Not just plain water but water that con-
tains a myriad of chemicals designed to hold the pore
spaces open and facilitate gas flow. One of the dilemmas is
that some of these chemicals are toxic and carcinogenic.
The fracking fluids are handled by humans, and as there is
always going to be human error, many people worry about
our water resources. Once ground water is polluted it can
remain so for decades.
Legal Jurisdictions
Another issue is who is in charge. The NYS Department of
Conservation has the responsibility of granting drilling per-
mits but is drastically understaffed to follow up on any moni-
toring of the wells. Gas lines that connect wells to major col-
lector lines are under the jurisdiction of the Federal Energy
Regulatory Commission. The regulator is also determined
by the amount of pressure that the line is designed for. To
keep the gas flowing the corporations must have compres-
sion stations which have been documented on occasion as
being major producers of benzene and other volatile organic
Approximate depth to the base of the Marcellus Shale (Continued on page 10)

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Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

Gas in Marcellus Shale cont.

SEQRA ognized the problem of cumulative impacts of
all wells, lines and compression stations.
When the NYS SEQR Act was passed it man-
dated that segmentation would not be allowed. Reality
Segmentation means that a project is divided
In spite of all that may be said gas is the clean-
into several smaller projects or phases. The
est burning and most efficient organic energy
Contact Us! LAW mandated that full consideration must be
source. The wells with their collecting lines will
given to the eventual maximum size of the
come to Tioga County.
project. This creates a dilemma as there are
multiple corporations with their own requests The real question is “How can we monitor them
Our Headquarters for wells, lines and compression stations. What and make sure that our environment is safe
Mail: will the maximum of all wells be in a decade? and that they are using the best management
SRAC This is so obvious that the union representing practices to protect us?” New York City doesn’t
PO Box 12 the NYS DEC requested that its own agency believe it can be done. NY City has called for a
not to allow any drilling in the Marcellus Shale ban on drilling in the NY City watershed
Sayre, PA 18840 for at least another year. Their point was that because the NYC Department of
they lack the funds to hire the staff needed for Environmental Protection does not believe that
Phone: oversight of the drilling. They additionally rec- both are possible.
SRAC/Lincoln Street School Project
After a month of exhibition and voting at The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center (SRAC), an awards ceremony was held recently to announce the winners of the Lincoln Street
School 4th Grade Native American projects competition.
Our Center The public was invited to come to SRAC and
Location: cast a penny per vote for their favorite projects
345 Broad St. on display. At the end of the voting period, the
Waverly, NY teachers, Robin Blauvelt and Cathy Hand
picked up all of the containers and brought
them to the school where the students counted
Phone: the “votes” and tallied the scores to determine
607-565-7960 the winners.
The first place winner was Ellie Nittinger
Website: (totem pole); in second was Jared Stewart (totem pole); and in third was Megan Thorp
(long house.) Honorable mention from each
Online Giftshop: classroom was Marissa Trudeau (longhouse) and Ryan Wilson (birch bark canoe.) The
Robin Blauvelt and her 4th grade Waverly Lincoln grand total of votes was $320.44 that went
Street School class. directly to the Lincoln Street School.
Online Membership:
The top three winners received Happy Meals
from McDonald’s as well as a one year family
pass to the SRAC Museum and all SRAC
SRAC Blog: events during 2010. McDonald’s also donated a free order of fries for all the students in the
m Lincoln Street 4th grade. All winners also will
have their projects on display at SRAC
throughout 2010.
Online Donations: Teachers Blauvelt and Hand and their stu-
dents also donated $100 and a “certificate of
donations appreciation” to SRAC. Robin Blauvelt com-
mented on the event stating, “It was very edu-
Mobile Website: cational and the kids were so excited! We had a very close race!”
Cathie Hand and her 4th grade Waverly Lincoln
Street School class.
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Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

The Woolly Mammoth Exhibit – An Update

In 1983, the Newton family in Wyalusing uncovered the jaw with
teeth of a Jefferson Mammoth as they were using a drag-line to
deepen and widen the lake near their home, called Spring Lake. Af-
ter contacting the Pennsylvania Archaeological Society, Carnegie
Museum was called in to oversee the further excavation and search
for the remaining evidence of this huge beast. Throughout the sum-
mer of 83, the search was on and ended with the greatest find of the
excavation; a ten foot tusk said to be in perfect shape.
A couple of years ago, Ted Keir actually took me for a ride down to
Spring Lake, and he drove right up to the Newton family home. Mrs.
Newton came out and invited us in. To my surprise, on the rafter of
her living room was a ten foot tusk which was later described to me
to be a perfect replica of the tusk that was excavated there at the
lake in 1983. The tusk on display in the Newton home was given to
them by Carnegie. All accrual remains were packed up and deliv-
ered to the Carnegie Museum in Pittsburgh, where they remain to-
As I looked up at that tusk, I thought back to one of the first presenta-
tions that I saw Ted give about this woolly mammoth excavation that
Ted Keir holding the Newton family tusk replica in the
I would later learn was dubbed the greatest archaeological find in
early 1980’s.
Pennsylvania by the Carnegie Museum and many others. It was at
that moment that the idea that I would help to do whatever I could to
get the tusk back to our area was planted in my mind.
As I write this update, I am filled with excitement and anticipa-
tion for an upcoming announcement of plans for the unveiling
of the SRAC Woolly Mammoth Exhibit, complete with two mu-
rals, ten foot tusk, jaw and teeth from Carnegie Museum, pho-
tos from the 1983 dig at Spring Lake in Wyalusing, and a kiosk
that will play five videos including actual footage of the dig. Al-
though it was not possible to get the actual artifacts, the An-
daste Chapter of PA with the help of the Allen Pierce Founda-
tion invested in the creation of new replicas by the Carnegie
Museum. This time the replicas are of the jaw and teeth that
began the excitement at Spring Lake, and the ten foot tusk that
ended the excavation in 1983, and it will all be on exhibit at
SRAC for generations to come.
Stay tuned for the unveiling date and invitation to all SRAC
members to take part in the special event to launch the educa-
tional exhibit that will be a salute to the great beasts called
Wooly Mammoth Exhibit Mural woolly mammoths that once roamed this area and the people
who took part in the excavation in 1983.


Special thanks to the following for  The Meikle Family  Andaste Chapter of PA Archae-
their support:  Dandy Mini Mart ology
 Brooks Eldridge Martin  Vince Barrows  Dr. Peter Pratt
 Dr. Barry Skeist  John and Dee Margetanski  Pam Jacobsen
 Dan Caister  Frank Evans  Gloria Reigal
 Barabara Sowinsky  Les Rolfe  Janet Andrus
 Southern Steuben Library  Craig and Rita Maurey
 Ed Hiley  Allen Pierce Foundation

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Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

Coming Events at SRAC—March – May 2010

Saturday, March 13th from 2-3pm LIVE ANIMAL SHOW – "Animals on Our River System", by Tanglewood Nature Center
at the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center, 345 Broad Street, Waverly, NY
Tanglewood Nature Center returns to SRAC with a live animal show - this time bringing live reptiles, birds
and mammals that live along and from our river system and it's resources such as hawks, owls, turtles, and
many more! These events are educational and entertaining for all ages!
The doors will open at 1pm, with the program running from 2 – 3pm. Admission is $5 Adults, $4 for SRAC
members and students, kids under ten, $3. **Is your family having a budget crunch? Call us and we will work
something out for your kids to be able to attend! The public is advised that the SRAC gift shop and exhibit hall
will also be open during this time as well and to please consider arriving early to browse these areas before the
program. For more information, call 570-565-7960 or email
Tuesday, April 6th from 6:30 - 7:30pm History's Mysteries "Stories from the Natural World", by Ed Nizalowski, Newark
Valley Historical Society at the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center, 345 Broad Street, Waverly, NY
The Southern Tier prior to the Revolutionary War was the realm of Native Americans who took the bounty of the land, soil
and forest in ways that had been developed and sustained for centuries. Although native tribes had altered the environment
to suit special needs, the white settlers who streamed in after the Revolution entered a cornucopia of animal life and plant
life all sustained by a forest that offered some of the finest building material in the world.
Nizalowski will present how the past 200+ years the transformation that has taken place in the
natural world of the Southern Tier has been remarkable to say the least. Those interested in wildlife
can read the first reports of animals making their reappearance in Tioga County including the white
tail deer, beaver, bear, coyote and bald eagle. Three possible sightings of the eastern mountain lion
are sure to be intriguing. Forest history includes accounts of the chestnut blight, Dutch elm disease,
wide spread tree plantings in the first quarter of the century and the development of state forests in
the 1930's. Ed has been involved with the Newark Valley Historical Society for over 30 years and
has developed a special interest in ethnic, immigrant and minority groups along with both agricultural
and environmental history.
Doors open at 6pm. Admission is $5 for adults, $4 for SRAC members and students. Admission to the SRAC Exhibit Hall
Filled with thousands of local artifacts is included in the admission price. Call the Center at 607-565-7960 for more
Saturday, April 10th, & 17th from 1-3pm Two Part Photography Class - With Ed and Gail Cordes/ Nature's Vision
Photography at the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center, 345 Broad Street, Waverly, NY
First Class is 2 hours of Power Point led class, where attendees are asked to bring their cameras and enjoy
hands on instruction in use of their own cameras. (Please bring your cameras and camera instruction
then go home and make images during the week to be reviewed the following Saturday. The time during the
workshop is very flexible. If the attendees have a lot of questions or desire more time this is OK. The
instructor encourages questions and hands on learning.
Second Class is 2 hours, with a critique of images and instruction in uploading, basic image processing and image library
management along with basic printing concepts. The time during the workshop is very flexible. If the attendees have a lot of
questions or desire more time this is OK. The Instructor encourages questions and hands on learning.
Instructor: Ed and Gail Cordes/ Nature's Vision Photography:
Fees are $22 per person for each class, payment due the day of the class. RSVP appreciated. To enroll, email or call SRAC - 607-565-7960, (leave your contact info after business hours.)
Thursday April 15th, 6:30 - 8pm, "The History of Greyhounds" Join us for a fun and informative
presentation of the history of Greys from thetothey came to this country, at the Susquehanna River
Archaeological Center, 345 Broad Street, Waverly, NY. If you’re lucky, you might even win a chocolate
greyhound! This event is still in the planning stages, so stay tuned for more information!
Doors open at 6pm. Admission is $5 for adults, $4 for SRAC members and students. Admission to the SRAC
Exhibit Hall Filled with thousands of local artifacts is included in the admission price. Call the Center at 607-
565-7960 for more information.

(Continued on page 13)

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Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

Coming Events at SRAC—March – May 2010

Tuesday, May 4th from 6:30 - 7:30 pm, Histories Mysteries - "Archaeology, Tourism, and Intrigue at the Levanna Site,
Cayuga County", NY Jack Rossen, Associate Professor & Chair, Department of Anthropology, Ithaca College, at the
Susquehanna River Archaeological Center, 345 Broad Street, Waverly, NY
This talk discusses how perceptions and interpretations of the Levanna site have changed throughout the history of
investigations at the site. The site was discovered in 1922 and excavated from 1932-1947 and 2007-2009. The site was
also an elaborate tourist attraction from 1933-1940. Analysis of the collections recovered over three recent field seasons is
underway. Preliminary statements may be made on interpretive changes of the site, including how the site is culturally
assigned (Algonkian, Owasco, Cayuga), the type of domestic architecture (small circular versus proto-longhouse), whether
the site was palisaded, and the nature of regional ceramic typologies and the famous stone animal effigies. There are also
important implications for how archaeologists conducted their business in the 1930s and 1940s and how Native American-
archaeologist relationships are changing in the 21st century. There are some features of this site that have been
compared to those found at Spanish Hill in South Waverly, PA and is a MUST for those seeking more information about
this site as well.
Jack Rossen is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Anthropology at Ithaca College. He received his
doctorate from the University of Kentucky (1991). He has conducted archaeological research in Peru, Chile, and
Argentina, and has also analyzed archaeobotanical materials from throughout South America, the Ohio Valley and the
northeastern U.S. His work on collaborative archaeological and community projects with the Cayuga and Onondaga in
what is now central New York began in 1999.
Admission is $5 per adult, $4 for SRAC members and students. Admission includes entrance to the SRAC exhibit hall.
Doors open at 6pm. Admission is $5 for adults , $4 for SRAC members and students. Admission to the SRAC Exhibit Hall
Filled with thousands of local artifacts is included in the admission price. Call the Center at 607-565-7960 for more
Saturday May 15th, 2- 3pm, "Fluorescent Rocks" with Bob McGuire and 4-5pm,"Fun With Fluorescent Rocks for Kids",
Fluorescent Rocks, An Unusual Creation of Mother Nature at the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center, 345 Broad
Street, Waverly, NY
An informative look at some unusual creations of Mother Nature.
You will see some really unattractive rocks transform into a rainbow of lovely colors simply by turning off
the lights and exposing them to Ultra Violet illumination. See also some of the uses of this phenomenon in
today's world.
The 2- 3pm show is geared toward kids, while the 4-5pm showing will include slides of the now closed zinc
mines in Franklin, New Jersey and one of the past digs there.
The doors will open at 1pm. Admission is $5 Adults, $4 for SRAC members and students, kids under ten,
$3 for each presentation.
**Is your family having a budget crunch? Call us and we will work something out for your kids to be able to attend!
Admission to the SRAC Exhibit Hall Filled with thousands of local artifacts is included in the admission price. Call the
Center at 607-565-7960 for more information.

Barabara Sowinsky has donated $24,000 to SRAC in order to dedicate the SRAC Exhibit
Hall to her late husband, Andrew A. Burns.
Andrew had great interest in archaeology and we are honored to memorialize him in our
Center. A plaque will soon be placed amongst thousands of our local Native American
artifacts in his honor.

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Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

In just a few short years, SRAC has become an important part of the community and its culture! Our events are well
attended, as can be seen by the photographs on these pages. October saw a very successful 6th Annual Drumbeats
event! In addition, SRAC’s educational programs, provided to area schools at no cost, are growing. Our active leader-
ship, board of directors, and membership love sharing knowledge and are always excited to have these opportunities.
Our photo library as always is due in large part to the efforts of John Margetanski, a most
loyal SRAC member!

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Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1


Since SRAC opened in Waverly, we’ve discussed a sign to suit the front of our Center, and we had wanted to stay with
our mission and our brand. We wanted it to be unique as we are. Our good friend Brian Denlinger of Denlinger Design
agreed to design one with me and what developed was a year long process that ended just this past January.
Back in the early part of 2009, our good friend Jeff Wright of Built Wright Construction agreed to get rough cut hemlock
and he brought it up to my house where we have a wood drying barn. There the wood laid flat for weeks until Jeff picked
it up and began building the 9 X 4 feet sign structure. Jeff has built many hemlock sheds and other items, and in fact built
a shed on site at my house a few years ago. He is great at what he does and is a great guy too, so send him some busi-
By Spring, Brian Denlinger took the sign to Granite Works, where they
used our design and logo to make the template to sandblast around to
give it a hand carved look. This actually took a lot more engineering than
we had expected and we didn't get the sign back from the sand blasting
until summer because of alterations we decided to make before the sand
blasting could even begin.
By late summer, the sign made it into SRAC, to begin the long slow proc-
ess of priming all of the design that needed to be painted and weather
sealed. Even Dick Cowles, MaryAnn Taylor, and Sam Ayers took part in
the process.
At that point, you'd think that
it would be easy to get it up
Brian Denlinger on the side of the building,
right? Nope. The truth is the
hardest part was yet ahead of us...or I should say ahead of Tom Valli-
lee....His job was to figure out how to hang a 9’x4’ sign made of solid hem-
lock that weighed A LOT on a space that actually was wood panels cover-
ing up old glass windows!
After of months of planning he figured it out! He drilled anchors in the steel
girder of the building above the place where the sign would hang and had a
frame custom made to perfectly lower the sign over the area that actually
has no place to anchor it. After a long year of collaborative work, Tom and
a bunch of SRAC friends put up a scaffold and lifted the frame and sign into
place...And I just have to say - - it is PERFECT. Dick Cowles and Sam Ayres
After writing this, I have to say that this is yet another of those great SRAC
stories where so many people have come together to make something that at times we wondered if we could ever
achieve. And I must tell you that this is consistently what differentiates SRAC from so many nonprofit organizations with
only volunteer help. By that I mean, we have been through so much together and faced hard times and good times to-
gether that we are a big family that takes care of each other. As a result many of our membership and friends are willing
to roll up their sleeves and help. I feel blessed to be a part of an organization such as SRAC where you can be feel like
you are welcome the first day that you enter our doors and if you stick around - you may just be inspired. Thank you to
Tom and all of our friends who made the year long process of creating and
getting our sign up on the building a success!
When you drive by and look up at this incredible piece of artwork, I hope
that you will think about this story and how that sign represents so much
more than a logo on a big piece of wood. It was and always will be a sign
of something very solid and special that we were all lucky enough to be a
part of. The following are a couple of comments posted on the SRAC Blog:
January 16, 2010 10:08 AM...…”The sign is beautiful and very much
needed. This whole building and program is a miracle realized by a lot of
hard work and dedication. We all thank those responsible, a great asset to
our Valley area.”
January 20, 2010 7:29 PM……”A wonderful classy sign. Great job!
S.R.A.C is indeed an important asset to the Valley.”

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Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1

SRAC Snippets!
Looking for Instructors! SRAC is looking for instructors for educational, art, healthy living, and exercise classes.
Please call Deb Twigg to discuss further at 607-727-3111.
Bears Coming Back! The Bears on Broad St. family promises to return to SRAC this summer! In the meantime, we
have a DVD on sale in the SRAC gift shop about the Rosaire family including portions of the bear show. This documen-
tary film has actually won awards at the Sundance festival!
Volunteers at SRAC usually volunteer for two hours a week. If you have two hours to come and have fun with us,
please call Deb Twigg at 607-727-3111. Anyone who volunteers for 7 hour or more a month gets free admission to all
SRAC events!
Did you know that SRAC was founded in 2005? In December 2007 we bought the building that is now our Center at
345 Broad St., Waverly, NY; and in just over two years, with the support if so many philanthropists and volunteers, we
have renovated what was once an eye sore into a bustling Center with a gift shop, lecture hall, and exhibit hall for our
Recent Renovations at SRAC since our last journal was published include - carpeting for the lecture hall, signage for
the front of our Center, new front doors, and the Woolly Mammoth Exhibit. Stay tuned for more updates soon!
SRAC is a 501c3 and donations to us are a tax deductable investment in our community that you will see results from.
Please consider donating to SRAC today.

It's not too late to help fund our woolly mammoth


It goes without saying that SRAC has also invested

several thousands of dollars to this exhibit; in addition
to the amount donated for the pieces acquired from
Carnegie. We thank all of those people and businesses
that have donated to help us make this an amazing
accomplishment. We ask that if anyone would still like
to donate, to help us finish the exhibit project, please
send donations to SRAC Mammoth Exhibit, PO Box
12, Sayre, PA 18840.

Welcome Don Hunt!

SRAC is proud to announce that long time SRAC member Don Hunt has joined the SRAC Board.
Don brings with him many years of private collecting and a broad knowledge of our local archae-
ology. He also has many years of service in the PA and NY Archaeology chapters as well as be-
ing President of the Tioga Point Museum in Athens, PA.
Please join us in welcoming Don to the SRAC board!

SRAC operates with 100% volunteer staffing. The people listed below donate hundreds
of hours every month to make SRAC a success. Thank you for all that you do! We sur-
vive because of your efforts!

 Deb Twigg  Janet Andrus  Mary Keene  Nellie Brewster
 Dick Cowles  Mary Ann Taylor  Bev Murphy  Ann Carrigan
 Ted Keir  Mark Madill  Beryl Cleary  Don Taylor
 Susan Fogel  Don Hunt  Sam Ayers
 Tom Vallilee  Pat Miran

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Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 6, Issue 1
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840
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