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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1

Volume 9, Issue 1 February 2013


Loyalist Plantations on the Susquehan- 1
Background - The people who ruled the re-
SRAC to hold Fundraising Auction 7 gion on and around the Susquehanna River
Making Memories at SRAC 13 by fending off the powerful Iroquois Nation
during most of the 16th and 17th centuries
Waterman Baldwin 14
were named "Susquehannocks" by English-
Drumbeats 2012 a HUGE Success 15 man Captain John Smith in 1608. The Sus-
New Birch Bark Canoe Display 15 quehannocks were said to have had at least
Coming Events 16
five tribal nations located along the Susque-
hanna River system with several villages per
Museum of the Earth Maize Exhibit 18 nation. Because these people were at their
NYS Museum and SRAC Team Up 19 height of power before the European contact
and written records, and the last Susquehan-
nock tribe was annihilated by the late 18th
century, much of the prehistoric information about these people is a mystery to us today.
Questions surrounding what the originating cultures were that formed the Susquehannocks
have long been under debate. Questions like: Was it a clan broken off from one of the Iro-
quoian nations? Were they somehow Iroquois and Algonquin united together to form a
new culture? Did they evolve from prior cultures in our region? Or were they a separate
culture from another region that moved here? These questions continue to make this cul-
• Our Vision (Continued on page 2)

The Susquehanna River

Archaeological Center of Na- L O Y A L I S T P L A N TA T I O N S O N T H E
dedicated to education, re- COUNTY HISTORIAN
search and preservation of the
Native American archaeologi- The struggle for independence in the thirteen colonies from Great Britain during the period
cal, cultural and historical assets of the American Revolution were difficult times. The outcome was a war that often not only
of the Twin Tier Region of involved neighbor against neighbor, but drew into conflict the Native Americans, and dis-
Northeastern PA and Southern placed thousands of people from their homeland and ultimately created two nations. The
NY. inhabitants of the thirteen colonies who did not oppose Great Britain were known as Loyal-
ists. Over 19,000 Loyalists, mostly men, served Great Britain in a military capacity accom-
panied by several thousand Indians.
This article will endeavor to give some insight into the Loyalist families who resided on the
Scan QR code below Susquehanna during the American Revolution. Settlement had begun on the upper Sus-
to access SRAC
quehanna River in Pennsylvania prior to the American Revolution. The histories relate that
Journals online.
two families of Germans, also known as Palatines, from the Schoharie Valley in New York,
were settlers in May 1770, leaving their homes in New York and removing down the Sus-
quehanna River into Pennsylvania. Rudolph Fox and his wife Catharine Elisabetha Miller
settled at Towanda and the Shoefelt family further south on the river, the latter family re-
moving to the West Branch of the Susquehanna. Several more German families from the
Mohawk, Schoharie, and other German settlements in New York soon followed. Though
this was considered the interior of civilization, German settlers had removed from Schohar-
ie Creek, crossed the mountains and traveled down the Susquehanna for Tulpehocken
(Continued on page 8)

The Susquehanna
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Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


ture very interesting to re- came in April, 1883, measured off a plot in twelve-foot inter-
search. vals from the original grave, and began excavations.
Deemed by professionals The Excavation - Defined Plot: About 80 feet long and
as Proto-Susquehannock, about 20 – 30 feet wide. In the corner, twenty feet from the
archaeologically speaking, north line was found, underground, a pillar of eight large drift
there is no other site that is stones, and with them a flat stone on which is roughly cut the
a better candidate to be exact proportion of the plot.
called the starting point for
In the first grave was a skeleton above the average height,
understanding the origin of
buried in a sitting posture, with turtle-shell rattles in good
the Susquehannock people
condition and four small pebbles in each, close to each tem-
than the Murray Garden, in
ple. This grave yielded also a discoidal stone, a quantity of
Athens, PA.
burnt ochre, a broken antler comb, part of a shell gorget, and
In 1882, Louise and Millard some small shell beads that disintegrated on exposure to the
Murray’s home was located
on Main Street in Athens,
PA and they decided to
have a drainage ditch run
from their house, through
their garden and then directly to the river. This seemingly
mundane home improvement actually turned out to be a
turning point for Louise; one that would change her life forev-
er. It began while workmen were digging the trench through
the Murray’s garden and uncovered a very strange ancient
burial ground. The Pa Bulletin would later report, “The dis-
covery of an Indian burial ground in the garden of their new
home in 1882 at once interested both her and her husband,
and they determined literally to leave no stone unturned until
they learned the origin of those aboriginal remains . . .”
Archaeology as a science did not exist yet in 1882. Anti- In Caborn-Welborn burials and in the Murray Garden burials,
quarianism was underway, but was more of a weekend pot- “whole ceramic vessels were often placed with the dead. Other
hunting effort than any real scientific study. As a result, Mil- types of grave goods included copper or brass beads, tubes, or
lard Murray and other antiquarians of the region read the bracelets…” (Pollack: 2004)
latest books and theories of the time (many times based on Photo courtesy of the Wyoming Valley Historical Society
mythology and legends) to try to understand many of the
local artifacts they picked up. Sadly, in those days, antiquar-
ianism was the most scholarly approach to understanding
the artifacts of past cultures. Louise would later remark that
there were two notable types of antiquarians that existed in
her opinion: those that looked for artifacts as “evidence” to
preserve the past and those that
looked for artifacts “for their own
personal gain.” While most would
continue to be categorized as the
latter by many professionals, Louise
Welles Murray was one of the few to
make the transition from antiquarian Pictures and photo of 4” pot from grave 2,
to scientist. courtesy of the Wyoming Historical Society

When the Indian burial ground was air. Wright added in his report that
uncovered while digging the trench “these objects might well have belonged
in 1882 the Murray’s response was to a squaw, but no skeleton was found
to take the artifacts to the nearest here except of the "medicine man," or
museum, which was the Wyoming "Turtle chief."
Photo of original Murray Valley Historical Society in Wilkes
pot courtesy of Wyoming Barre, PA. As a result, the Society’s Grave #2 contained a bark covered
Historical Society grave (hemlock?), 4 ½ inch pot with fac-
Harrison Wright and S. F. Wadhams
es, the pot contained food (?), (clay of

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


(Continued from page 2) Murray reported, “The graves were grouped somewhat reg-
ularly around the one in the center which was marked with
this pot was burnt black,) a lapstone, and a common “chert” such care that it was believed to be that of a chief surround-
arrow point. ed by members of his clan. This burial site accidentally dis-
covered was on a previously un- occupied village lot. The
Grave #3 contained a skeleton that was noted to be of aver-
workmen unearthed three skeletons buried so close togeth-
age height and with no grave goods, and grave #4 con-
er as to indicate one grave.“
tained a double grave with 1 pot un-
Warren K. Moorehead in his 1916 Susquehanna River Ex-
pedition describes the unearthing of the Susquehannock
chief as follows: "The owner like his forebears, long refused
to examine the grave at the center of the plot but at last had
consented to celebrate the formal opening of the Historical
Museum, and June 27th, 1895, the work was begun. The
circle of stones proved to be over a sepulchre about 3 to 5
feet, with an upright stone at each corner, apparently as a
marker, for, of course this would have been well above the
surface originally...
The writer, hoping to save the pottery, assisted Messrs.
Murray and Ercanbrack in the excavation. Finally, two large
Pictures and photo of high collared pot from flat stones, full of devonian fossils, proved to be the cover-
grave 5, courtesy of the Wyoming Valley ing to a skeleton of six feet or more in height. While laying
Historical Society on back with head to the southeast, with hands crossed on
breast, the crushed front of the skull and the unusual posi-
tion of legs, right foot under thigh, left leg fallen across right,
decorated, 1 large pot between them,
seemed to indicate that he might have been buried in a sit-
and 1 pot with red ochre.
ting posture, and overturned by settling of stones of the sep-
Grave #5 contained a skeleton ulchre, which had evidently crushed the large pot, fully
wrapped in bark with an “Andaste” eighteen inches in diameter, at the left side of the head."
high-collared pot with clay that was
The sepulcher described above was a very strange find for
burnt black.
the crew in 1895, and still is today, because these stone box
Grave #6 contained another double styled graves are not commonly found in our region, and as
grave, with one buried much later on we are about to see, this is just one of the things that makes
top of the other. Grave items included one shell, and the the Murray Garden site an important archaeological site
earlier grave revealed spiral jewelry - bracelet (copper/ today. In the end, for over a decade, the garden continued
bronze). to reveal more and more unique artifacts that to date are still
without comparison anywhere else in our region.
Grave #7 contained the only skeleton buried lying flat (full
length) which had a pillow of twigs and was accompanied by Louise Welles Murray explained, “It yielded skeletal remains
1 pot. It was noted that there was a deep cut in the cranium of twenty-five males, one child, and three females, each of
“evidently by a celt.” the latter buried shoulder to shoulder with a male. Several
skeletons examined by students indicated a height of above
NOTE: “The upper part of each of the graves we met with a
six and a half feet…After Mr. Wright's investigations, test
considerable amount of charcoal. It looked as though sub-
holes having been made all over the one hundred foot lot at
sequent to burial but before the grave was entirely filled in
said stated intervals, it was soon discovered that there were
and slowly smothered out. Whether it was part of the cere-
many more graves and much more pottery.
mony or was charcoal thrown in is not understood.” - Harri-
son Wright, Wyoming Valley Historical Society For long years this had been an apple orchard and under
several of the old stumps, supposed to be from trees of Indi-
Although the 1883 report by Wright seemed quite thorough,
an planting, were Indian graves …Around each of two such
the digging in the Murray Garden was far from over as it
stumps were seven graves in a circle, and directly under
was quickly realized that his test pits at intervals of twelve
one stump in the center of a circle of graves, about three
feet left a lot overlooked.
feet underground on a layer of clay, were eight pots careful-
In fact, in what was to be understood later as the center of ly embedded in sand. Everyone had been perforated by
the burial site, was what was described later as a “chief” in a thread-like apple roots, and all were broken by a careless
stone tomb that was actually unearthed as part of the Tioga workman who was removing the stump just after a day's
Point Museum opening ceremonies in 1895. Louise Welles (Continued on page 4)

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


futile excavation by a second party from Wilkes-Barre. an modeling of the human face, made by eastern Indians,
Throughout this plot with one exception the skeletons were which the writer has seen. They are in high relief and bring
flexed but buried in a sitting posture, often with the right out the forehead, eyebrows, the eyelids, the high cheek
hand upraised and bearing a pot containing food, arrow bones, the aquiline nose, the mouth, and the chin in a quite
points, or seeds, the latter leading to the conjecture that the realistic manner.” – Christopher Wren, North Appalachian
old apple trees may have grown from these very seeds…But Indian Pottery 1914
it was the pottery that attracted most attention; and in all the
Even Pennsylvania’s leading archaeologist, Dr. Barry Kent in
museums we have visited we have yet to find faces more
his “Susquehanna’s Indians” (1984) wrote, "Many facets of
artistically executed than those on one of the five pots, all of
developing Susquehannock culture history in the upper
which were broken in removal.”
reaches of the Susquehanna River valley still need to be
worked out. The need for more archeology here may be
tainting our understanding of settlement patterns, trade good
associations, and the evolution of Shultz Incised from Proto
Susquehannock. Even more mundane questions, such as
the relationships of the strange vessels with faces and rim
and body decorations from the Athens area of Bradford
County (see Witthoft 1959; 48; and illustrations in Wren
1914; Plate 6, figures 1-8; Plate 8, Figures 1-4) can perhaps
be answered through more intensive archeology." (Kent:
Throwing a Wider Net - The opportunity to share research
and learn from others more freely is available now more than
any time in history thanks to the internet. In my research of
the Murray site and its archaeology, I have been able to
email with specialists from all over the country, and look up
hard to get publications either through or
sometimes finding the full articles available online. The fol-
lowing are some new insights to the Murray site that I have
been able to uncover with this help.
First, sculpted and highly defined human faces on early pot-
tery while not a common practice in Iroquoian terms, was a
common practice for other cultures. One category of these
cultures that was of particular interest to me in the beginning
of this research was the Mississippians.
The Mississippians were the most recent of the mound build-
ing cultures, who are known for their huge chiefdom struc-
tured mound complexes surrounded by extensive plazas
(Cahokia being the largest populated by 10,000 people or
more.) The leaders of these complexes were usually consid-
ered god-like to their people, and lived atop the highest
mound looking over his subjects, overseeing all of the com-
merce, religious practices, and diplomacy and/or conflicts
with other chiefdoms and outsiders in the region. More im-
portantly, these cultures were advanced in the arts and their
archaeology seems to illustrate the peak of the ancient pot-
tery making. In fact, defined human effigy faces on the pot-
tery from this culture are not only common, but expected. By
around 1400BC, because of many internal and external fac-
tors many of these chiefdoms began to collapse, and the
people began to disperse from the huge complexes. One of
About the Pottery - The pottery in fact was the most im-
the great questions today is where did the people from these
pressive of all the artifacts from the site, even today there
huge complexes go?
are no other pottery specimens ever found to have the hu-
man faces that were found there. “The faces shown in dif- One well researched example of a collapse and aftermath of
ferent views in this plate are the very finest examples of Indi- a known Mississippian mound society is that of the Angel

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Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


Mound complex in Indiana which was located along the con- man remains in that location in the 19th century. This site
fluence of the Ohio and Wabash rivers. We know that the shows evidence of the Angel Phase ceramics which literally
Angel Mound complex collapsed around 1400AD and sever- may have been taken directly from the Angel Mound com-
al resulting villages appeared across the region due to the plex as well as distinct post-Angel phase ceramics and even
displacement of that population (thought to be around 1,000 begins to show the intermixing with Late Woodland motifs. In
fact, the incised line filled triangles and descending
chevrons commonly found on Caborn-Welborn pot-
tery (Pollack: 2004) may someday be found to have a
direct correlation with the same incised designs on
pots found in the Murray Garden.
Sadly, most of the site has been washed away by the
changing direction and constant erosion of the river,
and most of what we had until recently from this spe-
cific site was either not thoroughly studied by profes-
sionals or was lost during antiquarian/pot-hunter
times. But in 1990, Indiana University’s Cheryl Mun-
son began a new phase of excavations with the hope
to salvage what was left from being erased by ero-
sion. Sadly, Munson reported later that the
“Mississippian cemeteries and the residential area on
the highest ground had been destroyed long ago.”
It was only by delving deeper into the information
available on the Bone Bank’s earliest excavation by
people.) These resulting sites and their inhabitants are re- naturalist, Charles Alexandre Lesueur; that I found that he
ferred to as the “Caborn-Welborn culture.” This culture devel- recorded in very detailed sketches the archaeology that he
oped at the demise of the Angel Mound society in1400 AD saw during his work at the Bone Bank site in 1873. Using
and disappears from the archaeological record by 1700AD these sketches allows us to see through this man’s eyes into
and it remains unclear if any historic era cultures were their what the site looked like; and more importantly, what the ar-
descendants. chaeological evidence looked like.
The earliest of the Caborn-Welborn sites, dated approxi- Face to Face with the Past - One of the most intriguing im-
mately at the very time of the Angel Mound collapse at ages of artifacts drawn by Lesueur from the Bone Bank site
1400AD, is called the Bone Bank site, situated along the Wa- is a human effigy face that probably was once on the rim of a
bash River east of the Angel Mound complex area. It was pot and has been considered a great example of common
named the Bone Bank because of a large wash out of hu- decoration for Late Mississippian pottery (shown here on the
left). It in itself is a great piece and if I had not
been researching the pottery at the Murray Gar-
den, I would have considered it in the same way,
but the expression of this face automatically drew
me right back to another ceramic face that I know
quite well. On one of the pots in the Murray gar-
den there is also an effigy face (shown here on the
right) that was on a pot rim, and this one automati-
cally seemed to possibly match the one found at
the Bone Bank site.
If you look at these faces again - you will see some
identical features. 1.) The nose has a bar or a
"plug" shoved upwards causing the nose and face
to look skewed. 2.) The right eye is "winking"
showing discomfort and wrinkle lines. 3.) The
mouth is shoved to one side in effect accentuating
the look of discomfort. Now these are my terms,
but I feel sure that you can see each of these are-
as on the one face that matches with the other.
What doesn't match is the type of pottery or the
cultural affiliation between the two. It also seems

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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


that this specific “wrenched” face is not a common motif

in our region. As I spent a day going through the NYS
Museum collections in Albany, there are no matches to
be found. I also sent the images to and spoke with people
from the Rochester Museum who also state that this is
not found in their collections either. In addition, I sent the
images to the Rochester museum’s Martha Sempowski,
PhD and she has never seen a face effigy with the same
expression either.
Another important point to make is that the Mississippian
face from the Bone Bank on the right is a “human face”
with very human features, and created exactly the way
Mississippian pottery effigies resemble human features.
However the one from the Murray Garden is integrated
into an Iroquoian pot rim design and might very well be
described as a “mask” with slits for eyes to look through.
In fact, Christopher Wren in 1914 in his “Study of North
Appalachian Pottery” believed that the Murray Garden
face represented a “man-being,” a character from a well-
known Iroquois legend.
Students of the Iroquois cultures & belief system may
immediately realize that Wren was relating the legend of
the “False Face” masks, which has many variations of the
exact text. Generally speaking, the legend relates the
story of a human being that believes he is a god and that
he created the mountains and the earth. He is met by a Spirits is an interesting theory to consider. Add the fact
benevolent spirit which is described with many names, and that this False Face legend is used as a healing story
for the purposes of this paper I will refer to as the “Spirit where turtle rattles are used to heal those who are sick or
Medicine Being“ who teaches the human that he is not facing a great turmoil not unlike the challenges the Caborn-
“god like” by asking him to move the mountain that he Welborn culture must have faced following the collapse of
claims to have commanded before them; and when he can- their whole society makes it a great candidate for a future
not, the “Spirit Medicine Being“ does move the mountain so thesis paper.
fast that it strikes the human in the face, breaking his nose
Other artifacts found at the Murray Garden site also may
and leaving him disfigured forever. The story continues
be of some assistance to a researcher willing to delve
that the human becomes a very famous healer knows as
deeper, to include an owl effigy pendant (which is also a
"Old Broken Nose." Iroquoian False Face healing ceremo-
common motif in the Angel Phase archaeological record), a
nies are said to honor Old Broken Nose and the Iroquois
ceramic sun effigy, a dog effigy, and another effigy that has
False Face masks are created to be very deformed faces
yet to be understood.
to represent his smashed face.
Is the Murray Garden Proto-Susquehannock or Late
More importantly, the story of “Old Broken Nose” and the
Mississippian OR BOTH?
false face masks is “one of the oldest and may be as old as
the creation story,” (per personal conversation with a Sene- The Murray Garden site (1450 – 1525 AD) and the Athens
ca historian.) Additionally, false face mask ceremonies in- area are deemed “ProtoSusquehannock” by professionals;
clude the use of a turtle rattle to drive away sickness, dis- and as such, is considered to be the melting pot where the
ease, and evil spirits. This again has an interesting relation- Susquehannock culture supposedly formed.
ship to the Murray Garden site as we have already dis-
Indiana’s Bone Bank site (1400 AD) and effigy face is rep-
cussed one burial found there was later deemed by the
resentative of a Late Mississippian people whom we al-
excavators to be the burial of a ”turtle chief” complete with
ready understand had just dispersed from a collapsed soci-
turtle adornments and rattle.
ety/community and travelled away from it to begin a new
Whether the False Face legend and ceremony still held way of life, which archaeologically resulted in the manifes-
today actually is a remnant story passed down through the tation of a new and distinct culture that we now call
generations, originating from the collapse of a chiefdom “Caborn-Welborn.”
where man-made mountains (mounds) were overseen by
In order to understand the relationship of these two faces
leaders who were held in the same regard as the Great
that originated so far apart from one another, I think it is

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


important to begin to ask the following questions:

1) Do these faces represent “Old Broken Nose?”
2) Were the people buried in the Murray Garden a troop broken off
from the mass movement from the Angel Mound area (such as
those dethroned leaders and their families) who actually want-
ed/needed to get far away from the others?
3) Could the remains found in the Murray Garden be a clue to a
budding culture that melded with the people of our region form-
ing a new culture which would later be deemed Proto-
I believe that this research has at least shows that the possibility
exists; and it is my hope that this paper has provoked thought and
interest to further research dedicated to finding the answers.


We’ve all got things that are taking up space around the house or
office. They’re too good to throw away, and you’d like to find some
use for them. SRAC will be hosting in an outdoor fundraising auc-
tion. Please consider donating your items, working and clean condi-
tion, for auction! Once the sale is completed. you will receive a letter
indicating the value of your donation for tax deduction purposes .
We will begin accepting donations immediately, and continue to ac-
cept your items up to the auction date in the spring. Call SRAC at
607-565-7960 to make arrangements. Watch for further details.

So let SRAC find a new home for

your “too good to throw away”

SRAC Board of Directors SRAC Volunteers

• Deb Twigg • Tom Vallilee • Don Hunt • Beryl Cleary • Nicole Rogers
• Dick Cowles • Janet Andrus • Mary Keene • Jim Nobles • John and Dee
• Barb Richards Margetanski
• Ted Keir • Mary Ann Taylor • Michael Sisto
• Susan Fogel • Mark Madill • Sig Wilkinson

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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


(Continued from page 1) along the Susquehanna, both Loyalists and Patriots dif-
fered in their perceptions of the country and its future. The
and Swartara in Pennsylvania at much earlier dates, the line between Patriot and Loyalist was not always sharply
first in 1722, fifty or more families in 1725, and again in drawn and often circumstances dictated ones choice. As
1729. circumstances developed it would appear several families
from the Wilkes Barre area of the Wyoming Valley removed
Prior to, during, and after the American Revolution, the
further up the Susquehanna River prior to the Revolution
State of Connecticut claimed a large portion of Pennsylva-
into present Bradford and Wyoming Counties perhaps to be
nia, including that portion that is now Bradford and Wyo-
further from their neighbors who were beginning to pledge
ming Counties through which the Susquehanna River
allegiance to the struggle against Great Britain.
flows. Those settlers who attempted to obtain land titles
either secured title under the Susquehanna Company, At an adjourned town meeting of the inhabitants of West-
which had been formed in Connecticut for the purpose of moreland held at Wilkes Barre January 6, 1776, among the
settlement in the Wyoming Valley and nearby lands or un- several resolutions adopted was the following relating to
der Pennsylvania title. Others had leasehold interests, the families settled some thirty or forty miles above Wilkes
some of which appeared to be ten-year contracts with the Barre: “Voted that Solomon Strong and Robert Carr and
landholder. Many others simply settled without title, hoping Nathan Kingsley be a committee to proceed up the river
for obtainment by possession or to secure title after settle- and let the people known that the inhabitants of West-
ment. Pennsylvania had issued warrants for land interests moreland are not about to kill and destroy them and take
before the settlement by the Fox and Shoefelt families, as any of their effects as reported, but they may keep their
evidenced by the warrant for Peter Hunt dated 3 April 1769 effects and continue in peace on reasonable terms provid-
for 300 acres on the Susquehanna River adjoining Adolph ed they conform to the laws of the Colony of Connecticut
Wallrad “on this side of Wialoosing” (Wyalusing). and the Resolves of the Continental Congress, and confirm
their intentions by signing the subscription paper for that
Most of the settlers along the Susquehanna were farmers
purpose that said committee will produce.”
and built homes along the river where they planted crops,
often in already cleared fields they found when arriving, In 1776 there was an assessment list compiled of the set-
that had been previously cultivated by the Indians. They tlers in the Upper River District, County of Westmoreland,
built barns and other storage facilities, erected fences, and State of Connecticut. The Upper River District was com-
began the task of clearing more land. The farms or planta- prised mostly of settlers in present Bradford and Wyoming
tions as they were known were productive on the fertile Counties who were settled along the Susquehanna River.
soils of the Susquehanna River Valley. The list contains the names of 60 males. The names of An-
ger, Bender, Bowman, Brunner, Buck, Depue, DeWitt, Fox,
Research into these families who were settling on the Sus-
Frank, Hickman, Hopper (Hover), Kentner, Pauling, Pensler
quehanna reveals they were of various ethnic groups and
(Pencel), Phillips, Shout (Short), Showers, Searls (Sills),
from various locations within the colonies. Several families
Simmons, Smith (originally Schmidt), Stephens, Strope,
were Germans from the Mohawk and Schoharie Valleys in
VanAlstine, Vanderbarrack (Vanderburgh), Vanderlip, Van-
New York, a few were of French Huguenot extraction from
Valkenburg, Windecker, Winter, and Wartman indicate sev-
the Hudson Valley region, others were of Dutch extraction
eral families of German and Dutch nativity were settled on
from New York, others were New Englanders from Con-
the Susquehanna. Of those 60 names, it has been deter-
necticut, a few were from Sussex County, New Jersey and
mined that 37 were Loyalists, 16 were non-Loyalists, and 7
others were Germans from settlements in southern Penn-
are presently unknown. Pennsylvania also soon levied tax-
es, not recognizing Connecticut titles and landholders, sev-
As the days of the American Revolution drew closer, the eral Pennsylvania titleholders probably living along side
reasons for becoming Loyalists were varied and many. The many of the settlers on the Upper River District assessment
native German, for instance, had deference for authority list who do not appear on that list. The first tax lists for the
and loyalty to Great Britain for giving them passage to the same jurisdiction under Pennsylvania and known as Wyo-
colonies. This allegiance also held true for the majority of ming Township, Northumberland County exists for 1778
the German families along the Susquehanna. Scattered and 1779 though at that date the majority of Loyalist fami-

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(Continued on page 9)

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(Continued from page 8) much exposed to being plundered, robbed, and captivated
by the Indians and Tories, and were obliged to leave our
lies had left the Susquehanna.
possessions and move off with our families and effects to a
The original Up the River District, County of Westmoreland, different part of the country for safety, whereby your memo-
State of Connecticut, August 1776 assessment list is here rialists are deprived of the privilege of our settlements and
given: At the October 1776 session of the General Assem- improvements for the support of our families; whereupon
bly of Connecticut a certificate was received from the Lis- your memorialists pray your Honours would take our case
ters of Westmoreland setting forth that “the Grand List for into your consideration, and grant that our several rates
the town of Westmoreland, made on the August lists for the made on the list of August, 1777, may be abated, or in
year 1776 is £6996, 13 shillings. some other way may grant relief, as your memorialists in
duty bound will ever pray. Signed Elijah Phelps, on behalf
As the days darkened, those who felt loyalty to the crown
of himself and others. Hartford, the 27th day of May, 1778.”
made various preparations, many of the men joining the
ranks of Butler’s Rangers and departing for New York and The above petition is not a true statement of the facts or
Canada, often leaving women and children behind to care perhaps an awareness was unknown of the fate of some
for the plantations. Those who remained were branded as families or their allegiance. Fitch, Kingsley, and York were
traitors and often threatened. Nearly every man on the Sus- captives among the Indians while the Forsythe, Millard,
quehanna who joined Butler’s Rangers to fight against the Phelps, Vanderlip, and Williamson families were Loyalists.
American Colonies were in Walter Butler’s Company or Wil-
Some of the Loyalists fighting on the British side who tried
liam Caldwell’s Company. At least twelve of the names
to return to their plantations and families were executed by
found on the 1776 assessment list of the Upper River Dis-
those who they were serving.
trict can be found on the list of Caldwell’s Company and at
least eleven on the list of Walter Butler’s Company. Richard McGinnis, a soldier in the Rangers, wrote of Jacob
Hutsinger and Peter Simmons, Rangers:
Families along the Susquehanna did not escape conflict.
Threats, plunder, and death struck on both sides. Many of While we were at Tioga, there was two men who had wives
their families suffered great hardships, women often en- and children there that had lived somewhere down the river,
deavoring to maintain livestock and crops while their hus- the name of the place I don't remember. Their sir names were
bands and sons were away. In the early conflict it soon be- Hotsinger and the other Simmons. These two men was good
came apparent that the Susquehanna was under Patriot subjects and had been at the Orisque battle with Colonel But-
control. Often fleeing in panic and confusion, Loyalist exiles ler and Captain Brant and behaved with honour to themselves.
began on the Susquehanna, forced to leave behind posses- These men told me more than once that Colonel Butler had
sions and often faced with an unpromising future. Families gave themselves leave to stay and go and gather in their har-
were driven from their homes to watch them burn, livestock vest for the use of their families to support them on the road
driven off and entire household contents plundered and to Niagara. But on the whole Captain Caldwell would not let
taken. Loyalist men who were away in Butler’s Rangers them go at any rate. Upon this these men, to wit Hotsinger and
returned to vulnerable families and were often imprisoned. Simmons, took leave and went off by stealth. Captain Caldwell
Some families ventured to the Mohawk Valley in New York, immediately sent off Lieutenant Turney with a party to Tioga.
others to Niagara, and still others to the refugee camps of When they came to Tioga they were informed by the people
Sorel and Machiche in Lower Canada (now Quebec) where going to Niagara they had not seen them. When on the way
barracks were built and provisions secured. Harsh living back they met those unhappy men and Turney immediately
conditions often plagued families in refugee camps. gave orders to shoot them, which was executed accordingly.
Their scalps were taken likewise and brought to Oughquaga
In 1777, another assessment was taken of the same dis- and hung up at Captain Caldwell's tent. In my judgement this
trict, several of the Loyalist families not appearing, already was not well done, as they might have made prisoners of
having departed. (See page 4.) them.
The following petition is of interest: A monthly return of the Rangers dated late in 1778, record-
“To the Honourable General Assembly of the State of Con- ed that they were killed at Tioga on 18 August 1778. In April
necticut, now sitting at Hartford, the memorial of Lemuel 1779, Henry Simmons, Peter's father was paid £12, the
Fitch, Richard J. Jeralds (Fitzgerald), Amos York, Benjamin balance due for his son's outstanding pay.
Skiff, Benjamin Eaton, Benjamin Merry, John Williamson, As the conflict progressed, armed Loyalists and Indians
Frederick Vanderlip, Nathan Kingsley, Nicholas Depew, returned to the Susquehanna and the Patriots were in turn
Elijah Brown, Elijah Phelps, Ichabod Phelps, Elijah Phelps, driven from their homes. The once developing and flourish-
Jr., James Forsythe, Thomas Millard, Thomas Millard, Jr., ing plantations on the Susquehanna were soon void of most
and James Wells, of the County of Westmoreland, humbly families as the conflict and dangers of living on the frontier
showeth: That your memorialists were settlers on the Sus- intensified. Many Loyalist families had hoped to return. The
quehanna river, in the upper part of the county aforesaid,
(Continued on page 10)
nearly adjoining the Indian settlements, and were very
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Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


(Continued from page 9)

terms of the capitulation worked

out between Colonel John Butler
after the attack on Wyoming in
July 1778 in the sixth article stat-
ed - “That the properties taken
from the people called Tories up
the River be made good and they
to remain in peaceable posses-
sion of their Farms and unmolest-
ed in a free Trade throughout this
state as far as lies in my power.”
It is probable that some plantations may have extended be-
Another journal
yond Tioga Point on both the Chemung River and Susque-
relates –
hanna River in New York. Rev. David Craft stated – “It is
“Thursday 5th.
very certain that quite a number of Loyalists had homes of
- Thus we
more or less permanence extending from Tioga Point to
moved for sev-
Chemung. A Fitzgerald farm was mentioned by Sullivan’s
eral miles, then
soldiers as opposite Barton in present Tioga County, New
arrived in a
York “and in ruins in 1779.” Lieutenant William McKendry
small valley
with the Clinton Campaign enroute to meet General Sullivan
called Depue's
wrote – “We are now 6 miles from Genl. Sullivans camp –
farm; the land
one Fitch Jerritt had lived at this place and is now with Genl.
very good.
Sullivan as a Pilate.” Lieut. John Jenkins with the Sullivan
Continued our
campaign on their return trip wrote on September 29, 1779 –
march . . . and
“The army left Fort Reed (located at present Elmira) and
arrived in a
marched 10 miles toward Fort Sullivan passing Butler's
fine and large
breastworks. We encamped at night on a flat 2 miles below
valley, known
Chemung. This evening Capt. Spalding returned from a com-
by the name of
mand up the Tioga branch where he destroyed a small town
and about 10 acres of corn, the fences, &c. This town ap-
This valley was formerly called Oldman's farm, occupied by
peared to have been built by white people.”
the Indians and white people; together, they had about sixty
Many journals of officers and enlisted men of the Sullivan houses, a considerable Moravian meeting house, and sundry
campaign recorded the plantations they encountered along other public buildings; but since the commencement of the
the Susquehanna River on their expedition in 1779 to de- present war the whole has been consumed and laid waste,
stroy the settlements of the Six Nations. One of the journals partly by the savages and partly by our own people. The land
states – “After this we soon arrived at Standing Stone Flats, is extraordinarily calculated chiefly for meadows. The grass
distant from Wyalusing ten miles. Here is plenty of good at this time is almost beyond description, high and thick,
land, fit for meadow and for raising wheat and other grain. It chiefly blue grass, and the soil of the land very rich. The val-
was formerly settled by a few families, some of whom have ley contains about 1200 acres of land, bounded on one side
since been so villainous as to join the savages.” (Journal of by an almost inacessible mountain, and on the other by the
Rev. William Rogers, D. D., Chaplain of General Hand’s Bri- river Susquehanna.” (Journal of Lieutenant Colonel Adam
gade). Hubley).
Another journal states – “Aug 4 - Marched at 6 o'clock pro- Many of the Loyalists of the Susquehanna can be found on
ceeded 17 miles to a dessolated farm call'd Vanderlips which provision lists of Machiche or at Niagara. The July/Aug 1779
is an excellent tract of land we passed several dessolated provision list of Machish (Machiche) included Widow Sipes,
farms to day one of which was on a Streem 5 miles from Elizabeth Bowman, Conrad Sell (Sill), Isaac VanAlstine,
where we incamp'd last night call'd Meshoping. Aug 8th - Isaac Larroway, Widow Beebe, Elizabeth Phillips, Henry
The Army march'd at 6 o'clock I had the flank Guard passed Winter, Lambert VanAlstine, Mrs. Franks, Stephen Farring-
Several high mountains & several dessolate farms proceed- ton, Margaret Buck, Garret Vanderbarrack, George Kentner,
ed to what is call'd the Standing Stone bottom where there is Edward Stokes, and Frederick Vanderlip, all former residents
a learge body of excellent land that has been Improv'd. Aug on the Susquehanna. Of the 294 people on the list, only 18
9 - March'd at 7 o'clock proceeded 3 miles to a dessolate were men, the remainder woman and children.
farm on the mouth of a streem call'd Wesawking” (Journal of
(Continued on page 11)
Lieutenant Colonel Henry Dearborn).

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Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


(Continued from page 10) children of Loyalists, offer valuable information about the
Susquehanna families. Many petitions indicate extensive
Many of the Susquehanna plantation owners removed to cleared lands, large quantities of animals, homes and build-
Niagara as the majority were part of Butler’s Rangers. In ings along the Susquehanna River. The claim of Philip Buck
1781, Lieutenant Colonel John Butler declared that four or stated – “He had a proprietor’s right on Susquehanna, set-
five families newly settled would require for seed sixty bush- tled in 1771. Paid $10, 15 acres clear, built a house, barn
els of spring wheat and oats, twelve of buckwheat and a and barrick. Lost 2 cows, 2 young creatures, 4 sheep, 20
barrel of Indian corn. Peter and James Secord, two of the hogs, furniture, utensils, grain, 100 bushel. Lost grain, 20
heads of families, were about to build a saw and gristmill. A hogs by the rebels when we went away in ’77. The Indians
census of the new settlement was taken by Col. Butler on had his other cattle in ’78. His furniture and utensils were left
August 25th, 1782. Besides the Secords were “George Stu- behind.” Michael Showers witnessed his statement and stat-
art, George Fields, John Depuis, Daniel Rowe, Elijah ed – “He had settled on the Susquehanna. He had 20 or 25
Phelps, Philip Bender, Samuel Lutz, Michael Showers, Har- acres clear and very good buildings.” Neighbors often were
monious House, Thomas McMicking, Adam Young, witnesses, which further helps to establish the identities of
McGregor VanEvery, and Isaac Dolson. There were sixteen some families who did not appear on the August 1776 and
families consisting of eighty-three persons. Cleared land August 1777 assessment lists.
made a total of 238 acres (Haldimand papers).” Several of
The Loyalist and non-Loyalist families from the 1776 as-
these families had been former residents on the Susquehan-
sessment list are here given:
When the war drew to a close in 1783, more than 40,000 • Elisha Wilcox - Loyalist - Thorn Bottom (20 miles from
men, women, and children displaced from the colonies, set- Pittstown)
tled in Canada. The greatest numbers removed to present • Icahbod Phelps - non-Loyalist
day Ontario, including the majority of the Susquehanna set- • Ephraim Tyler - non-Loyalist
tlers. Colonel John Butler, whose land and home had been • John Secord - Loyalist - opposite Tunkhannock
in the Mohawk Valley of New York and who had led disas- • James Secord - Loyalist - Mehoopany
trous strikes against the Patriot settlers on the Susquehan- • Jacob Sage (perhaps Jacob Segar or Sager) - if Segar/
na, including the Wyoming Battle in July 1778, led his follow- Sager perhaps Loyalist
ers to the west bank of the Niagara River when the regiment • Peter Secord - Loyalist - Mehoopany
disbanded in 1784. The government provided land in Cana- • Joshua Beebe - Loyalist
da for Loyalists and the petitions of many are valuable re- • Isaac Laraby (perhaps Larabee) - unknown
sources for learning of the trials and misfortunes that many • Frederick Vanderlip - Loyalist - Black Walnut Bottom
of these families experienced. A few, such as Jacob Bow- • Abram Workman (Wartman) - Loyalist - Tunkhannock
man returned, but for most, their homes and plantations on • Philip Bender - Loyalist
the Susquehanna were lost forever. • John Williamson - Loyalist - Black Walnut Bottom
“Since the settlers were going into the wilderness with little • Elijah Phelps - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek on
prospect of supporting themselves until they had cleared west side of Susquehanna River
sufficient land, the British Government provided them with • Read Melory (perhaps Mallory) - unknown
rations on a reducing scale for three years (beginning in • Prince Bryant - non-Loyalist
1784). In the first year they received full rations for each per- • Nathan Kingsley - non-Loyalist
son over 10 years of age, two thirds in the second year, and • Stephen Ferrington - Loyalist – “Crossed over the hills to
one third in the third and final year. Small children under 10 Farringdon's, who lives at a small run's mouth 8 miles
years of age received half of the amount that adults were above Tunkhannock” (Jesse Lukens journal)
given. After the end of the third year the settlers were ex- • Jacob Bowman - Loyalist
pected to be able to support themselves. A typical daily ra- • Nicholas Depue - non-Loyalist
tion consisted of one pound of flour and one pound of beef • Thomas Wigton - non-Loyalist
or 12 ounces of pork, but there were considerable variation
• Adam Bowman - Loyalist - Tunkhannock
depending on availability in different localities (Crowder).”
• Amos York - non-Loyalist
Besides rations, Britain also compensated them for war • Elijah Brown - unknown
losses. The definition for eligibility was – Loyalists were • Josiah Dewey - unknown
those born or living in the American colonies at the outbreak • Philip Buck - Loyalist - mouth of Tunkhannock Creek
of the Revolution who rendered substantial service to the • Edward Hicks - Loyalist - Sugar Run (present Wilmot
royal cause during the war, and who left the United States Township, Bradford County)
by the end of the war or soon after. Some left substantially • Thomas Millard - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany Creek
later, mainly to gain land and to escape growing intolerance. on west side of Susquehanna River
The provisioning lists and land petitions for Loyalists and (Continued on page 12)

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Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


(Continued from page 11) Page a tenant of the Pawling family at Wyalusing, Thomas
Silk, Jacob Sipes and Annatje Schauers (Showers) at Mace-
• Thomas Millard, Jr. - Loyalist - north of Mehoopany donia, George Stewart and Mary Depue, Jacob Teague and
Creek on west side of Susquehanna River Anna Margretha Weaver on Tagues Creek near Tunkhan-
• David Bigsby (Bixby) - non-Loyalist nock, Parshall Terry, Jr., John Young.
• Gasper Hopper (Caspar Hover) - Loyalist - Terrytown on For preliminary genealogies on the above Loyalist families
west side of Susquehanna River prepared by J. Kelsey Jones, see the files at the Bradford
• Hendrick Winter - Loyalist - Wyalusing County Historical Society.
• John Stephens - Loyalist References:
• Frederick Smith - Loyalist
Luzerne County Historical Society - original Upper River District assessment lists,
• Huldrick Shout (Johan Hendrick Short) - Loyalist 1776 and 1777.
• Frederick Frank - Loyalist Butler’s Rangers, Caldwell’s Company - We the undermentioned Commissioned
• Henry Simmons - Loyalist & non Commissioned Officers & Privates of Captain William Caldwell’s Compa-
• Henry Windecker - Loyalist ny of Rangers do acknowledge to have received from John Butler Esqr. Major
• Ben & Will Pawling - Loyalists - Wyalusing Commandant of a Corps of Rangers the full amount of our Pay from 24th De-
• Nicholas Phillips - Loyalist - north of Wyalusing cember 1777 to 24th October 1778 inclusive. Gives list of several men of whom
at least fourteen were from the Susquehanna and appear on the 1776 assess-
• George Kentner - Loyalist - Sugar Run Creek
ment list of the Upper River District, County of Westmoreland, State of Con-
• Reuben Herrington - non-Loyalist necticut.
• John Depue - Loyalist - Skinner's Eddy (though he may Murray, Louise Wells. A History of Old Tioga Point and Early Athens, Pennsylva-
have removed up river to Wyalusing) nia. 1908.
• Andrew Hickman - unknown Craft, Rev. David. History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Illustrations and
• John Dewit - unknown Biographical Sketches of Some of Its Prominent Men and Pioneers. Philadelph-
• Zebulon Marcy - non Loyalist ia, Pennsylvania. 1878.
• Frederick Anger - Loyalist - Asylum Bradsby, H. C. History of Bradford County, Pennsylvania with Biographical
• Abel Palmer - non Loyalist Sketches. Chicago, Illinois. 1891.
• Fox (probably Rudolph) - non-Loyalist - Towanda Reid, William D. The Loyalists in Ontario: The Sons and Daughters of the Ameri-
• Isaac VanValkenburg - non-Loyalist though eldest son can Loyalists of Upper Canada. Lambertville, NJ, Genealogical Publishing Co.,
and a daughter removed to Canada as Loyalists - 1973.
Wysox Fraser, Alexander. Second Report of the Bureau of Archives for the Province of
• Cole - non-Loyalist Ontario. Toronto, Canada: L. K. Cameron, 1905.
• Bastian Strope - non-Loyalist - Wysox Centennial Committee. The Old United Empire Loyalists List. Toronto, Canada:
• Jacob Brunner - Loyalist - Macedonia Rose Publishing Co., 1885.
• Lemuel Fitch - non-Loyalist Connecticut Archives, Susquehanna Settlers, No. 90.
• Isaac VanAlstine - Loyalist - Standing Stone Land under Certificates of Location, Districts of Mecklenburg and Lunenburg 1790
• Old VanAlstine (Lambert VanAlstine) - Loyalist - Stand- RG1, L4, Volume 12.
ing Stone Munger, Donna Bingham. Connecticut’s Pennsylvania Colony 1754-1810 – Sus-
• James VanAlstine - Loyalist - Standing Stone quehanna Company Proprietors, Settlers and Claimants. Three volumes. West-
minster, Maryland: Heritage Books, 2007.
• Coonrad Seaerls (Conrad Sills) - Loyalist - Rummerfield
• Isaac Laraway - Loyalist - Wysox The Loyalist Gazette, Volume XLIII, No. 1, Spring 2005.
Reaman, G. Elmore. The Trail of the Black Walnut. Scottdale, Pennsylvania,
Herald Press, 1957.
60 names: 37 Loyalist, 16 non-Loyalist, 7 unknown
Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. Columbus, Ohio: University at
In addition to the above, on the 1777 assessment list the Columbus, 1920.
Loyalist who appeared were: Cruikshank, Lieut-Colonel E. Ten Years of the Colony of Niagara 1780-1790.
• John Pensler (Pensel) Welland, Ontario: Tribune Print. 1908.
• Frederick Anker (Anger) 16. Cruikshank, Brig. General E. A. Records of Niagara –A Collection of Docu-
• Michael Showers ments Relating to the First Settlement 1778-1783.
• Gart Vanderbarrack (Garrett Vanderburgh) 17. Linn, John Blair. Annals of Buffalo Valley, Pennsylvania 1755-1855. Harris-
In addition, there were Loyalist families who did not appear burg, Pennsylvania: Lane S. Hart Printer. 1877.
on the assessment lists and they included Jacob Anguish Turner, O. History of the Pioneer Settlement of Phelps and Gorham's Purchase
and wife Elisabeth, Redman Berry who is related to have and Morris' Reserve: embracing the counties of Monroe, Ontario, Livingston,
Yates, Steuben, Most of Wayne and Allegany, and parts of Orleans, Genesee
been a tenant of the Pawling family at Wyalusing, James
and Wyoming. Rochester, New York: 1851.
Forsyth and wife Eunice at Wyalusing, Philip Fox and Cath-
erine Lamar at Terrytown, John Lord at Sheshequin, Joseph (Continued on page 13)

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


(Continued from page 12) House. 1980.

Cook, Frederick – Secretary of State. Journals of the Military Expedition of Major
Crowder, Norman K. Early Ontario Settlers – A Source Book. Baltimore, Mary- John Sullivan Against the Six Nations of Indians in 1779 with Records of Cen-
land: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc. 1993. tennial Celebrations. Auburn, New York: Knapp, Peck & Thomson. 1887.
Egle, William Henry. Notes and Queries – Historical and Genealogical Chiefly Harvey, Oscar Jewel. A History of Wilkes Barre, Luzerne County, Pennsylvania.
Relating to Interior Pennsylvania. Volume I, Baltimore, Maryland: Genealogical Vol II, Wilkes Barre. 1909.
Publishing Co. 1970.
Detty, Victor Charles. History of the Presbyterian Church of Wysox, Pennsylvania
Records of St. Mark’s and St. Andrew’s Churches, Niagara. 1791 - 1936. Elmira, NY: Barber & Doane, Inc. 1937.
Booth, Charles Edwin. The Vanderlip, Van Derlip, VanderLippe Family in Ameri- Penrose, Maryly Barton. Baumann/Bowman Family of the Mohawk, Susquehan-
ca. New York: 1914. na & Niagara Rivers. Franklin Park, New Jersey: Liberty Bell Associates. 1977.
Records of the Lutheran Trinity Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, Montgomery Boyd, Julian P. The Susquehanna Company Papers. Vol. IV 1770-1772: Wilkes
County, New York. Barre, Pennsylvania. 1933.
Records of the Reformed Dutch Church of Stone Arabia, Palatine, Montgomery McBride, Robert Collins. Biography of John Stevens Senior UE. The Loyalist
County, New York. Gazette, Volume XLIII, Spring 2005 and September 2005.
Taylor, Robert J. The Susquehanna Company Papers.Vol V: 1772-74, Wilkes Siebert, Wilbur H. The Loyalists of Pennsylvania. University at Columbus, Ohio.
Barre, PA. 1920.
Reid, William D. Death Notices of Ontario. Lambertville, New Jersey: Hunterdon


On days like today I am reminded of my fourth grade field trip to Spanish
Hill. That experience was something that I talk about every week at
SRAC. But I also have asked many visitors to SRAC if they remember
where they went for their fourth grade field trip -(4th grade is the curricu-
lum that covers our Native American history) and there has never been a
person who couldn't tell me. To me, this gives us at SRAC a huge re-
sponsibility as we now provide the fourth grade field trips for more and
more schools in the area. Recently we hosted Waverly School District's
whole fourth grade - and it was the best one yet! A total of five classes
came to SRAC either in the morning or afternoon shift, and were split up
into four groups who rotated through 4 stations.
Station 1 was hosted by SRAC's Ted Keir who talked about the Ice Age
and what our region was like 12 - 15,000 years ago. Station 2 was host-
ed by SRAC's Dick Cowles who discussed the arrival of the white man to
our region. By the way, Ted Keir and Dick Cowles are both 88 years
old! Station 3 was the Museum of the Earth MAIZE: Mysteries of an
Ancient Grain, hosted by SRAC's Janet Andrus. Station 4 was the ever
popular SRAC gift shop where many of the kids were able to buy some-
thing for as little as 25 cents and also could draw a Christmas scene to
enter or Christmas drawing contest and be automatically entered into our
contest where they could win great prizes!
In the meantime, back at the grade school, we had our own Jack Andrus
who was fully dressed in Native American dress who visited the 3rd and
4th grade classes and shared many Native American children's stories.
Most importantly, we did ALL of this free of charge. Some people ask why
we don’t charge the schools. And to that I can only ask if people realize that the whole Waverly fourth grade actually had to
walk to SRAC today for their field trip for lack of funding for buses. The point is that we are a community, and we take care
of one another. The teachers teach and try to give best learning experiences they can - to include a field trip to SRAC. And
we at SRAC give what we can to those teachers and kids. We are all volunteers at SRAC, and we love doing our part.
That's how it works. I hope that you consider what it is that you can do for your community too. Together we are all better
for it.
SRAC is a 501c3, are staffed 100% by volunteers, we rely on our memberships, admission donations, sales in our gift shop
and generous donations from our community to support all that we do.
I hope that you will stop in SRAC sometime soon, consider supporting us and see what a community can create.
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Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


This is the fourth in a series of articles written by local historian Dr. Earl P.
Robinson, MD. He is a Revolutionary War historian, and is particularly
knowledgeable about the events that occurred in our region during that
pivotal point in our nations history. Contact Us!
Waterman Baldwin was the third son of Isaac Baldwin Sr. He was
born in Connecticut on August 1, 1757 and migrated with his family
to the Wyoming Valley of Pennsylvania in 1772. He began his ser-
vice in the Continental army fighting for General Washington in the
Our Headquarters
area of New York City and New Jersey. He later enlisted in Cap- Mail:
tain Durkee’s Company on January 7, 1777, near Easton, Pennsyl- SRAC
vania and saw service in New Jersey around Morristown spending PO Box 12
the winter at Valley Forge. Being a superb horseman and an excel- Sayre, PA 18840
lent shot with the long rifle he was in great demand by superior
officers as a scout and courier. In this capacity he frequently deliv- Phone:
ered the personal messages of General Washington on his famous 607-727-3111
horse Roanoke. Being a frontier scout and carrying messages through hostile territory was dan-
gerous work and Watt, as he was referred to, was captured three times by the Indians. At one Email:
time he was made to “run the gauntlet,” a life threatening event. On the last occasion of his cap-
ture it was decided that he should be burned at the stake. On the way to the Indian village he
spoke in joking terms with his capturers. Upon arrival at the village, he requested an audience
with Cornplanter, their chief, a request the Indians thought quite unusual. As arrangements were Our Center
being made for his sacrifice Watt continued to engage the Indians in conversation and his cool Location:
and intrepid manner in the face of a certain gruesome demise gained Cornplanter’s admiration 345 Broad St.
and he took him by the hand and cancelled the torture. The great Indian Chief then took Watt to Waverly, NY
his village at the headwaters of the Alleghany River where he adopted him as his son. Here he
learned to speak the Seneca language fluently and became very much attached to Cornplanter Phone:
and the other Seneca Chiefs. Cornplanter had a daughter Falling Feather who was one of his 607-565-7960
close companions at the village. He remained there until exchanged for 2 bushels of oats and 2
bags, an expense of 30 S.
Following the Revolutionary War the officers gave Watt a silver saddle in appreciation of his ser-
vice. Watt then returned to Pennsylvania, where Connecticut Yankees were not well liked due to
the ongoing feud over land rights with the Pennsylvanians. A woman in the Pennsylvania group Online Giftshop:
had a vicious dog that she delighted in setting after Watt. He put up with it for a while and then
shot the dog. The incident was seized as an excuse for prosecuting another “Wild Yankee.” He
was brought in front of a Pennamite Magistrate and fined for his act of self-defense. Later he met
the Justice out in the open and gave him a whipping with the ramrod of his rifle. As soon as he
Online Membership:
could the Judge sent the Pennsylvania authorities after Watt. Baldwin easily kept ahead of his
pursuers but tiring of the chase he halted and placed a pole across the road. When the authori-
ties arrived he shouted from his concealment “the first man who passes that mark is a dead SRAC Blog:
man.” Knowing Watt’s aim and reputation the posse wheeled around and left.
At another time, again being pursued by the Pennsylvanians, he came upon a farm family that
he had helped in the past. Seeing that he was in trouble the farmer’s wife suggested that he Online Donations:
hide in the milk house. Roanoke went in and never disturbed any of the gourds or pots lying on
the stone floor and made not a sound. The woman threw the officers off the track and Watt re-
sumed his Journey. Mobile Website:
Watt was once married to an Indian maiden. Her previous lover had been an Indian Chief named
Lone Wolf. Lone Wolf killed the maiden and in the ensuing struggle Waterman killed the chief
and put his head on a pole at the river’s edge. Later, Celinda Burnham married Waterman in
1788, moving with him from Pittstown, Pennsylvania to Chemung in 1799. After his wife’s death
legend has it that Falling Feather, Watt’s adopted sister, came to care for Watt as was the Indian
Captain Waterman Baldwin died April 21, 1810, and is buried with his father and brothers in the
Knoll (Baldwin) Cemetery on the Newtown Battlefield in Lowman, NY with Falling Feather at his
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


The day began with our membership luncheon. As a thank you for their
support of SRAC, each member was given a dozen tickets to drop in bags
to win any of the fifty door prizes…..from $50 gas cards from the Dandy
Mini Mart to 2 vintage tulip chairs valued at $500. Before the doors were
opened to the public, the members were given a tour of the site of the new
SRAC Research Library at the Teaoga Development building.
Dr. David Oestreicher traveled from New York City to present "The Lenape:
Lower New York's First Inhabitants.” Dr. Oestreicher is recognized as a
leading authority on the Lenape (Delaware), our region's first inhabitants,
having conducted linguistic and ethnographic research among the last trib-
al traditionalists for over 30 years. David actually stayed for the whole day
after his presentation, which is a testament to the event for everyone!
Dr. Martha Sempowski followed David's presentation with "Changing Styles
of Smoking Pipes Used by Seneca Iroquois A.D. 1550-1800." This talk
was very interesting to collectors and archeologists, as well the rest of our
packed lecture hall, including grade school children who stayed the whole
day! The presentation consisted of a slide-illustrated overview of smoking
pipes from Seneca Iroquois village sites spanning a 250 year period from
Members of the Seneca Buffalo Creek Dancers
the mid-sixteenth to the late eighteenth centuries, and many could be
found in the SRAC collections!
The event closed with our dear friends the Seneca Buffalo Creek Dancers, who have won national awards at Pow-Wows
across the country. But more importantly, Dick and Marci and the gang are like family to us, and we all enjoy catching up
each year and spending the time together. The event was a great mix of professionals, students and locals of all ages.
Drumbeats is an annual event to honor our membership and inspire the community, and it is always totally free!
Thanks to all of the businesses that donated door prizes, the speakers and dancers who traveled hours to be a part of this,
to our board members who make every day at SRAC an amazing experience for our visitors, the media who helped us get
the word out about the event, and to everyone who attended the event and supported us throughout the year. It was a
good day for everyone involved. We think it was the best Drumbeats yet.


(WAVERLY, NY) Visitors to the Susquehanna River Archaeological Center
(SRAC) in Waverly, NY now will be able to enjoy an up close view of an over 100
year old Native American birch bark canoe. Birch bark canoes were being used by
the people who inhabited the Great Lakes region since around 1500AD. Just as they
were made centuries ago, the canoe at SRAC was created solely with hand carved
split spruce, sheets of birch bark, spruce root strapping and sealed with a mix of
spruce gum and charcoal. Surprisingly, the canoe is over 13 feet long but only
weighs only about 70lbs. This made it the perfect way for the Native Americans to
travel where they had to cross from portage to portage, meaning that the canoe
would be carried over land to different streams that lead to their destination. As a re-
sult, the birch bark canoe was superior to the dugout canoe and any boat that the
early Europeans brought to America for travelling on our streams, rivers and lakes.
SRAC’s Deb Twigg explained, “The canoe was donated in 2008 by Waverly native
Les Rolfe and until now was not able to be safely displayed. Recently, we had
brought the canoe down for a local school field trip, and we decided that moving it
around for special occasions was just not a good idea anymore. At that point we
contracted with Barbara Koehn who is known well for her work at the Don Merrill Mu-
seum, to help us figure out how to suspend the canoe safely. The result is a glimpse
into our past that will stay with people long after their visit.”
SRAC is located at 345 Broad Street in Waverly, NY and is open from 1-5pm Tues- Barb Koehn, and SRAC's Don Hunt &
days through Fridays and Saturdays from 11am-5pm. To learn more, visit Tom Vallilee stand below the suspended canoe

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1

Coming Events at SRAC

Jewelry & Beading Class
Second Saturday of each month, 11:30am – 1:30pm
SRAC, 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Local artisan Ellen Sisco creates jewelry from a wide variety of materials. Having worked with stones, metals, and beads
of all kinds in her jewelry for 25 years, she conducts a popular class on basic beading techniques here at SRAC . You
will be provided with instruction and all the supplies you will need, including semiprecious stone beads, glass beads,
metal beads, pearls and tools so that you may create your own gift, keepsake, or special piece. Beads in all colors of the
rainbow are available, and she has made a special purchase of unusual and beautiful semiprecious stone beads just for
our classes. Learn to make necklaces, bracelets, earrings and other jewelry. Just ask about any style you would like to
try, and Ellen will teach you to create jewelry to match your wardrobe, and to make things for the holidays; now you can
make your own jewelry for Halloween and Christmas. The fee for this two hour beading class is $25.00. Reserve by
calling the Center at (607)565-7960 or by emailing
Deb Twigg—Faces of the Past
Tuesday, March 5, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
SRAC’s Deb Twigg is offering the public a first view of an upcoming article to be published in the national magazine ,
Ancient American, titled “Faces of the Past.” In this well researched presentation, the audience will be drawn back to the
earliest times of Iroquois in our region. Twigg will slowly unwind yet another mystery of our region’s past that has until
now been all but forgotten. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free
admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For
more information, visit, email, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Jim Nobles—Then and Now Around Sayre—A Trip Down Memory Lane
Tuesday, April 4, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
What was in the building where Rock and Docs is? What building predated the Sayre American Legion Post No. 283 in
Milltown? What is now located where the trolley barn of the Waverly, Sayre & Athens Traction company was located?
Answers to these questions will be part of a presentation by Jim Nobles, a life-long resident and local historian of Sayre.
Jim will be making a visual presentation of changes that have occurred over the many past decades. A general admis-
sion donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at
SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For more information, visit, email, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Dr. William Engelbrecht—Point Mends in an Iroquois Village
Tuesday, May 7, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Past NYSAA President and author William Engelbrecht will present “Point Mends in an Iroquois Village.” Dr. Engelbrecht
has spent the last two years trying to fit Madison Point bases and tips together and then trying to figure out what the dis-
tribution of mends mean. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free
admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For
more information, visit, email, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum Presents—Amazing Animals
Saturday, May 25, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Bring your family to enjoy a live animal show presented by Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum. Free admission for
this presentation and to the SRAC exhibit hall. For more information, visit, email in-, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Emma Sedore—Gone, But Not Forgotten, Owego’s Ahwaga Hotel
(Continued on page 17)

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Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1

Coming Events at SRAC

(Continued from page 16)

Tuesday, June 4, 6:30pm – 7:30pm

SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Tioga County historian, Emma Sedore returns to SRAC to tell the history of Ahwaga Hotel. It’s the history of a grand old
hotel that stood on the corner of Front and Church Streets in Owego from 1852 to 1959. Emma has authored a book by
the same name that will be available at the presentation. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC
members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is
included in this donation. For more information, visit, email, or call the Center
at 607-565-7960.
Lincoln—by Lance Heidig
Tuesday, July 2, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Waverly native and Cornell Outreach and Learning Services Librarian Lance Heidig has spent the past year creating an
exhibition about Abraham Lincoln for Cornell and will present his program which gives us little known information while
celebrating the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation (January 1863) and the 150th anniversary of
the Gettysburg Address (November 1863) A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is
requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in
this donation. For more information, visit, email, or call the Center at 607-565-
Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum Presents—Birds of a Feather
Saturday, July 6, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Bring your family to enjoy a live animal show presented by Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum. Free admission for
this presentation and to the SRAC exhibit hall. For more information, visit, email in-, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Charles Mitchell—Nature: From Howling Wilderness to Vacation Destination
Tuesday, September 3, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Drawing on landscape painting, photography, traveler’s accounts, and other sources, this presentation explores the evolu-
tion of American attitudes towards nature. Beginning with the perceptions of the American landscape as a howling wilder-
ness, a wasteland to be tamed and transformed, the lecture traces the social, cultural and economic forces that led to the
perception of wild nature as something of value to be experienced and preserved. Key topics and figures along the way
include the sublime, romanticism, Henry David Thoreau, Thomas Cole, and the Hudson River School, John Muir, Ansel
Adams, and the Lorax. A general admission donation of $6 for adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free ad-
mission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For
more information, visit, email, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum Presents—Lizards, Snakes, and Turtles, Oh My!
Saturday, September 14, 2:00pm – 3:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
Bring your family to enjoy a live animal show presented by Tanglewood Nature Center and Museum. Free admission for
this presentation and to the SRAC exhibit hall. For more information, visit, email in-, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.
Saturday, October 5, 11:00am – 4:00pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY Watch for further details!!!
(Continued on page 18)

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Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


Ron Heines—Underwater Archaeology in the Finger Lakes
Tuesday, November 5, 6:30pm – 7:30pm
SRAC - 345 Broad Street Waverly, NY
With over 50 years of experience in underwater archaeology in the Finger Lakes region, Ron Heines will take us back to
a time of the great ships like the “Half Moon” of Henry Hudson to the time of the “Horse Drawn Navy” otherwise known
as canal ships. Bothe historical and archaeological in nature, this presentation will show us the remains of these great
ships now found covered in leopard mussels at the bottom of our great lakes. A general admission donation of $6 for
adults and $4 for SRAC members is requested. (Free admission for all students every day at SRAC.) Free admission to
the SRAC exhibit hall is included in this donation. For more information, visit, email in-, or call the Center at 607-565-7960.


Did you hear about this amazing exhibit in MAIZE (corn) which
covers from the ancient uses through current technologies and
research of this amazing grain that is used more than any other
grain in the world? No wasn’t on exhibit in Syracuse, Ithaca, or
NYC....It was right here in the Valley- at SRAC!
Maize is the largest production crop in the world and plays a cen-
tral role in all of United States agriculture and food production.
Explore the science of maize, one of the most significant crops to
humankind for thousands of years, and why it continues to sur-
prise us today.
This ancient grain was among the many organisms that evolution-
ary scientist Charles Darwin examined. In his travels to South
America, Darwin recognized the tremendous variation in maize
and its long history of intentional breeding. In regards to domesti-
cation, Darwin stated, “Although man does not cause variability
and cannot even prevent it, he can select, preserve, and accumu-
late the variations given to him by the hand of nature almost in any
way which he chooses; and thus he can certainly produce a great
result” (from The Variation of Animals and Plants Under Domesti-
cation, Charles Darwin, 1868).
The exhibition explores how scientists utilize the process of evolu-
tion to encourage the selection of “functional” and useful mutations
for increased disease resistance, healthier and larger plants, and
maintained diversity. The natural diversity within a species can
provide a plant with a buffer against changes in its environment,
providing the plant with the flexibility to adapt. Scientists are using
conventional and molecular plant breeding to combat world health
issues, such as Vitamin A Deficiency, a major health problem for millions of people in the developing world. In extreme
situations, for example drought or disease epidemics, diversity can be essential for the survival of the population.
Learn about fascinating advances in the science of plant genetics, the history, the process, and the controversies. Don't
miss this opportunity to explore evolution in action through history and science in Maize: Mysteries of an Ancient Grain.
Funding for this exhibition is from the National Science Foundation Plant Genome Research Program DBI-0820619.
This exhibition is developed and managed by the Paleontological Research Institution and its Museum of the Earth lo-
cated in Ithaca, New York and has traveled the country, landing in Waverly, NY only until January 26th – Although it has
now traveled on to Texas A & M, while it was here, it was another reason to see for yourself why everyone continues to
say - "There's Always Something Going on at SRAC!"

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Page 19 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue 1


The NYS Museum Research & Collections Department and SRAC
have had a close relationship for several years. About five years ago
Ted, Susan and I went there to view and record all of their Native
American artifacts from our area. They have also facilitated several
presentations at SRAC over the years. Last year they allowed me to
go through all of their collections in my latest research on the faces
that I will be giving a presentation on this coming March 5th. We are
all on a first name basis and have become very good friends.
When I called Ralph Rataul a few weeks ago about a huge collection
that was donated by SRAC member Ron Arnold, he was happy to
come down and help us go through it and figure out a plan of how to
start the cataloging process. Thanks to Ralph and Merideth Young for
driving down form Albany and spending the day with us!
Here are some pictures I took on that day:

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Page 20 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 9, Issue
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