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Page 1 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1

Volume 4, Issue 1 April 2008


Thanks to Recent Contributors 3
Francis Slocum Story Coming 5 Chuck Lucy, in stature, a small man but
huge in wisdom and generosity. He grew
SRAC Around the Community 6
up in the Susquehanna River Valley in
Lore of Painted Post 7 Bradford County. He graduated from Ath-
Native Indian Cave Recovery 11 ens High School and attended Cornell Uni-
versity for three years where he played in
Come Dig With Us! 14
the big red band. World War II was under-
Coming Events 15 way and he tried to enlist, but they told him
SRAC Being Assembled 17 he didn't weigh enough. This is under-
standable if you knew Chuck.
Membership Form 18
He then took a job in tool inspection at the
Ingersoll Rand Pneumatic Tool Plant in
Athens, where he worked for a number of
years. He and his wife Elizabeth (Liz)
! raised five children and she went along
e now
nlin in
with her husband's hobby. I remember see-
AC o to r g/jo ing her with a trowel and brush working
SR o .o
n G nter
Joi e Chuck Lucy (right) with Dr. Barry Kent, former PA
A C y! (Continued on page 2)
w.SR toda State Archaeologist.

Since 2005, when SRAC was

founded, it has always been the
plans of the co-founders to raise
enough funds to house our collec-
tions to be shared with our commu-
nity, and to provide educational pro-
grams to share the history that is at-
tached to them. In December 2007,
our dream became a reality. While
our headquarters will remain in Sayre
• Our Vision PA, where we are incorporated, we
The Susquehanna River Ar- are the proud owners of a new loca-
chaeological Center of Native tion in Waverly, NY!
Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is dedi-
cated to education, research and As most of you know, the building
preservation of the Native that we decided to buy was what the SRAC at 345 Broad St. Waverly NY
American archaeological, cul- locals refer to as the “old Phillie Sales
tural and historical assets of the building” that is located at 345 Broad Street be dedicated to a gift shop, museum/exhibit
Twin Tier Region of Northeast- in Waverly, NY. It has three floors including space, and lecture area. However, much
ern PA and Southern NY. the basement and has 5,000 square feet work needed to be done to have anything
per floor. Upon the purchase of the build- in this building as is was badly in need of
ing, we decided that the main floor would repair.
(Continued on page 4)

The Susquehanna
BecomeRiver Archaeological
a member of Center
SRACof Native
today! Indian
back ~
page for more ~ email
Page 2 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 1)

with Chuck on some interesting ex-


I often walked with Chuck on our

favorite sites following stream flood-
ing and plowed farm fields. We
shared each other's knowledge of
projectile points associated with
local native American cultures.
Chuck took a special interest in lo-
cal clay pottery. He was considered
an expert by the professionals,
identifying several dozen tribes or
clans by the tempering used and
the pot's rim decorations found on
various excavation sites. John Wit-
thoft, considered Pennsylvania's
most knowledgeable archaeologist,
became Chuck's mentor, especially
on ceramics and he visited the Lucy
home a number of times and in
1948, asked Chuck to become his
assistant. Chuck declined because
the pay was so low.

Lucy was very active in the An-

dastes #5 chapter of the Society of
Pennsylvania Archaeology, and he
worked closely with the Pennsyl-
vania Historical Museum Commis-
sion, recording a number of sites in
both states. He also held active
membership in the New York State
Archaeology Association and the
Eastern States Archaeology Fed-

Some of the sites Lucy and I worked Sheshequin and the Murray Farm site
together on were: Kennedy site at in West Athens.
Tioga Point; Pepper Farm at LeRoy;
Point Farm, between the Chemung Lucy had a number of his archaeology
and Susquehanna Rivers; works published: The Owasco Culture,
Cowenesque Dam, Tioga County; 1959, 1991; Tioga Point, 1950, 1952
Canoe Camp, Mansfield, Tioga and 1991a; Lucy and Vanderpoel,
County; Blackman site, Hornbrook; 1979; Brule and Spanish Hill, Lucy and
Scrivens site and State Aggregates McCracken, 1985; Friedenshutten, A
Mallory Run site in Sheshequin. Multicomponent site, near Wyalusing,
Lucy and Keir, 2002.
Lucy worked on a number of other
sites: Wilson site, East Towanda Chuck Lucy passed away on June 29,
Fairgrounds with Catherine McCann; 2003 at the age of 81. His wife Liz lived
Ellis Creek site, Tioga County, NY; only 40 days after Chuck's death. They
Abbe-Brennan site, S. Main St. Ath- meant so much to each other, I said
At an excavation site, far left Tom Vallilee, front she died of a broken heart.
ens; Schoonover and Nagle sites in
Chuck Lucy, and Jim Herbstritt facing sideways.
(Continued on page 3)

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Page 3 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 2)

The Tioga Point Museum in Athens

has some of Chuck's artifacts and
he left them an excellent display of
local pottery and projectile points,
individually identified. A number of
things went to the state museum in
Harrisburg including a tremendous
book collection. Sad but true, if we
had organized SRAC a few years
earlier; perhaps we would now
have a number of collections for
display to help preserve our local

Two of the many diagrams Chuck

did of local pottery rims for identifi-
cation purposes are included in
these two pages.

Like History?
SRAC is looking for volunteers
to work at our events on some
weekends and evenings as
well as in our gift shop during
the day at 345 Broad Street

If you are interested in volun-

teering, please call Deb Twigg
at (607) 565-2536!


Angelo Mazzerese Dr. Charles Ellis Lucio & Susan Bartolai
Barb and Bob Twigg Dr. Kenneth Meyer Mike & Jeri Sanders
Bill’s Carpet Cleaning Duane Wells Nancy & Mike Arcesi
Claire Borits Friend's Lab Rebecca Olivet
Corning Painted Post Historical Guthrie Clinic Robin Munn
Society Inga Wells Shawn Reep
Deb Twigg Jack Rowe Sue Hakes
Dick and Marcia Cowles Jeff Terwilliger Susan Fogel
Donald Claire Montgomery Karen & Bernie Dugan Ted Keir
Dr. Barry Skiest Lillian Warren Tom Vallilee

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Page 4 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


to face the larger projects that Tom
(Continued from page 1)
could not hope to accomplish with his
smaller crews during the week.
I cannot explain the feeling that I have
about the outpouring of support in the By mid-March, we had finished the
form of donations, volunteer hours, and renovations in the front gift shop that is
support by the community that came to a huge space of approximately 28 feet
us. Within the following 4 months, we by 60 feet. Next came building an in-
actually have the gift shop and lecture ventory to fill the space that would en-
area open and hope to have the mu- hance our front space. Mike Buynak, Dick Cowles, Jeff Terwilliger, and
seum/exhibit space open before the Tom Vallilee take a much deserved lunch break.
We sent out emails to many local art-
next newsletter is published! If you
ists, and offered a 25% commission have many volunteers in our gift shop.
knew the building’s shape just last De-
which is the lowest you will find in the If you would like to have your items in
cember – you would have said this was
area. The response was incredible. To the gift shop or would like to volunteer,
an impossible task, and I just may
date we have incredible photos by pro- please call 607-565-2536 to
have silently agreed with you –
but today it is a reality, thanks learn more!
to all of the friends of SRAC.
Our lecture hall is also open
I cannot make the last state- and in use. Able to seat
ment without saying that with- around 100 people, the space
out Tom Vallilee, one of is a comfortable place with all
SRAC’s board leaders, none of great seating thanks to the
the renovations could have wonderful donation of over 200
occurred as professionally or swivel chairs by the Guthrie
as timely. To SRAC, Tom is Clinic! We put in a small stage
our quiet warrior, who has and podium and board mem-
spent hundreds of hours work- ber Jessica Quinn and her dad
ing 6 days a week often in the Shawn Reap installed a com-
building without asking for any- plete sound system with sound
thing back but the satisfaction board! As a result, we are rent-
of knowing it would be done ing out the space and of
and done right. Another great course have a great list of up-
attribute of Tom is that he is coming SRAC events planned!
the type of man that others like Tom Vallilee, SRAC Board Member, hard at work at the new Center, Please refer to the SRAC
where you can find him just about every day.
to work with, and for that rea- Events listing in this publica-
son, he was constantly being tion to learn more.
met on many days by other SRAC sup- fessional photographer Dr. Ed Cordes,
porters who would spend the day on carved gourds by Gloria Reigal, bead- Lastly on the main floor, we finished up
whatever project he had planned for work by Marlene Hulbirt, homemade the public restroom and we continue to
the day. As you might expect, the tim- soap by Suzette Noti, pencil artwork by work on the museum/exhibit space.
ing of each move in a project as large Sue Hakes, woodwork by Craig Fitted with over twenty cases donated
as what we took on was hugely impor- Maurey, as well as our own inventory to us by the Corning painted Post mu-
tant. Having a person like Tom who of historical books, kids items and seum, (some of which will be trans-
could both help me understand what gems and minerals. We are lucky to ported by a team led by SRAC Board
funding and timing was needed each member Dick Cowles and his son out
step of the way allowed me to plan the second story window because of
ahead. As a result, each small project their size!) I am sure it will be the spe-
fell into the larger plan month after cial place we have dreamed of to share
month and continues to in a way that our incredible collections with the com-
would make even large companies munity we are dedicated to sharing
envious. them with.

The weekdays were followed by a Sat- Our grand opening will be scheduled
urday workshop for the first few when we are able to have a date that
months and I would say that we had 12 the museum will be ready to be
– 15 people on average every week. (Continued on page 5)
This again was such a great help for us Inga Wells and Anne Meikle brainstorming.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 5 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 4)

opened early this

summer. Stay tuned
for quite a celebra-
tion that we are cur-
rently laying the
plans for!
If you are inspired to
be a part of this in-
credible experience
that we believe is SRAC Lecture Hall and our first in-house event.
making history as
well as sharing it,
please consider
joining or donating
to SRAC.
We appreciate your
SRAC’s Giftshop and some of the many
items available for purchase.

Mary Jane Safford

In loving memory of my
husband Bernard


Thursday, May 8th from 6:30 – 8pm
Frances Slocum, a white child of the American Revolution, was stolen from her Quaker family in 1778 by raiding Delaware
Indians. Her family would not be reunited with her for nearly 60 years.

The film production of the story of her life includes her

travels through our local area and is full of incredible im-
agery that documents history of Revolutionary War times
in our region.

Producer Bill Bachman and actress Florence Howanitz will

come to present the film and answer questions about this
important piece of history!

In addition, the film's musical composer/director/arranger,

Jonathan Pineno, will be join us and he will be doing dem-
onstrations on the Indian flutes used in the film.

Come join us for an exciting, rare opportunity to see an

artistic piece based on our regional history!
Admission: Adults $10
SRAC members $8
Children $6
Refreshments will be available

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Page 6 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


SRAC has gone through a whirlwind of changes since our last journal. We’ve moved into our new building, and we’ve
even opened to the public already. All the while our board members continue to participate in all sorts of events. The year
is off to an exciting start! We’ve begun having events at the new building and hope to open the museum in not too many
months! Stay tuned for announcements of upcoming events, and check the current listing on page 13! We hope to see
more and more of you as we continue to grow!

Deb and Gloria Reigel, gourd artist, discuss

Dick, Jack Andrus, and Deb getting dirty. Ted and Deb at the Chehanna Rock and
plans for the SRAC gift shop.
Mineral Show

Sylvia Wilson and Deb at the Trow

Women’s Book Club Andrea Seeley presents Eating
Marty Borko gives much needed help Out Healthy at SRAC
with painting.
Dick Cowles holds a replica of the
birdstone once owned by his father,
Ellsworth Cowles.

Lon Kuterick and Ted in the midst of the mu-

Deb with good friends Barb and Earl.
seum construction.

Our painters and our friends, Jeri and

Mike Sanders, always hard at work.
Evelyn Keir with her grandsons
Diane Nobles, Carol Reed, and Deb at a Chris and Brennan
special regional meeting of the Lioness Club

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Page 7 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


On September 15, 1990 Newtown Battle
Man from Painted Post."
Chapter, N.Y.S.S.A.R., held a Ceremony
dedicating a plaque memorializing a The story of the final, aggressive act of
portion on the Sullivan- Clinton cam- General John Sullivan's punitive cam-
paign. The plaque reads- "The final epi- paign into Indian territory in western
sode of the Sullivan Clinton Campaign New York in 1779 is not found in local
was the advance of Col. Van Court- history books, the General failed to
landt’s Brigade up the Canisteo River to mention it in his report to President
this area 2 miles beyond the Tory Indian Washington, written from Fort Sullivan,
town of Painted Post. Burned by Capt. now Athens, PA, two days after the
Simeon Spaulding’s Riflemen, Septem- event; an event for which we dedicate
ber 28, 1779." this monument today.
A copy of a speech made by Ellsworth So now since I assume you came here
Cowles on the occasion of the dedication today to find out, let me tell you what
of the monument by the Sons of the really happened at the Painted Post on
American Revolution follows. Cowles a chilly September 28, 211 years ago.
drew his information from several In the spring of 1779, rumors had
sources; (N.Y. historical documents, etc.) reached the English loyalists living
Quotes and spellings are as derived from along the Susquehanna west branch
those references. river valley and southward that a huge
rebel army, led by a red headed Irish- Mr. Ellsworth Cowles, father of SRAC co-
Away, away, and away back, in the founder Dick Cowles.
man, General John Sullivan, was being
1940' s when I was appointed town of
assembled at Easton, PA. It was re-
Erwin Historian, I soon learned that to
ported that his marching orders to and the meetings were not cordial.
a generation not acquainted with the
reach and destroy the British frontier
lore of Painted Post, the name had
outpost at Fort Niagara, would lead A number of Tory families were re-
acquired a bucolic fame rivaling com-
him north over the old Andaste trail up ported to have decided to settle down
munities such as Peoria, Oshkosh,
the Susquehanna and Chemung Riv- among a few other whites already resi-
Paducah and shall I say it
ers and on through most of the popu- dent among the Indians living at the
"Horseheads." Painted Post has been
lated area of the Seneca Indian home- Painted Post. There they built for them-
used as a setting in a mystery story,
land. Many of the Tories on the Sus- selves some log and split-board cabins
written by a president of the US. It was
quehanna frontier did not agree with with fire hearths, barns, sheds, split-rail
frequently mentioned by a former lead-
the Indians that Sullivan's troops could garden and horse coral fences, and
ing radio comedian. It achieved char-
be ambushed and turned back, as had other improvements.
acterization as a motion picture, "The
been the case with General Braddock,
since that strategy had never been All this in the belief that in their new
successful against artillery. Conse- location they would be far enough west
quently, most of them did not wait to of the main route to Niagara to be safe,
have their escape route cut off by Gen- since that route ran north from Cath-
eral Sullivan's advance. erine’s town at Montour Falls, along
the east shore of Seneca Lake to Ge-
Singly, by families or in small groups, neva.
they packed their belongings on the
backs of their cattle and horses, or in That way, they were told by the strate-
flat boats, abandoned their farms and gists among them, would be Sullivan's
trekked north, moving from one Indian Route, if he were lucky enough to get
village to another, stopping for a spell that far, since he would thus leave no
wherever they were recognized as strategic Indian towns behind him. In
friends. Chemung, Newtown, Squee- such an event, Painted Post town
dowa at Big flats, Kanawolahola at El- would be by-passed. And so, tempo-
mira, all destroyed by Sullivan in his rarily, it was.
later advance, and Painted Post were
favorite Tory way-stations along their The well planned ambuscade set by
route to Fort Niagara. Some of them British regulars, butler's Tory rangers
were recognized by former neighbors and Joseph Brant's Indians to trap Sul-
then held as captives in those towns (Continued on page 8)

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Page 8 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 7) mouth of Newtown Creek when the
army moved north. It was a wise
livan's main army at Newtown failed move, since it was not only an ad-
miserably on August 29. Following the vanced supply depot and rendez-
precipitous retreat of the enemy, the vous point in case of necessity, but
General advanced his forces to Ka- also prevented the enemy from
nowollohola, Elmira. In the meantime gathering behind Sullivan's forces
Sullivan had learned from Lt. John Jen- in a flanking action, from their old
kins, Luke Swetland and Daniel base at Painted Post.
McDowell, all of whom had spent some
time in Indian captivity, that there was Having learned from Lt. John Jen-
an Indian and Tory settlement a few kins, Luke Swetland, Daniel
miles up the river at Painted Post. McDowell and others who had
Therefore, in order to protect his further spent some time in Indian captivity,
advance from a flank attack the Gen- that there was an Indian and Tory
eral left a garrison of riflemen at that settlement and other improvements
point with orders to erect a strong pali- at or near the Painted Post, Gen-
sade fort at the mouth of present New- eral Sullivan, on September 26
town Creek, Elmira. ordered Colonel Van Courtlandt up
the Chemung River to investigate.
Then the main army, strung out for a
mile, followed by another mile-long The morning of Sunday September
train of beef cattle and packhorses 26 opened with a heavy downpour,
moved laboriously, destroying every- however, and the detachment of route to Skweedowa, now Big Flats,
thing in its path, apple orchards, peach three hundred riflemen who were "to be some of the boats were filled with corn,
orchards, cornfields, until it reached sent up the Chemung River for the pur- pumpkins and other vegetables "which
Geneva. pose of destroying a town or two," and
were in great plenty."
what houses and corn fields they could
That Seneca town with Butler's Rang- find remained in camp. Apparently working in well guarded
ers headquarters was burned. Then the groups they trampled and burned the
army turned westward, penetrating Se- The following day the same detach- fields, burned an occasional house or
neca country as far as little beards ment, reinforced by the addition of two cabin, and gathered produce to send
town, a large village on the Genesee hundred more men, paraded at seven down the river in the boats to the main
River near present Geneseo, which in the morning and marched off. army encamped at Kanaweeola. Vari-
they burned in September. ous parties passed and repassed each
This "large party" of five hundred sol-
diers, which moved out from Fort Reed other which accounts for the discrepan-
There Canada geese were passing cies in the distance reported by several
southward over their heads, all signs under the overall command of Colonel
Van Courtlandt, divided into two com- journalists, as to how far their group
pointed to an early frost, many uni- advanced up river.
forms were in tatters, and army rations panies. One contingent, led by the
were reduced to little more than what Colonel, formed a long sinuous line as Captain Livermore and most of the
could be salvaged from Indian gardens. it advanced in the well worn trail on the group of men assigned to him to man
north side of the river. The other party
and pole the boats, with the exception
All hopes of a farther advance upon under the command of Colonel D'Hart, of those actually serving as polemen,
Fort Niagara were gone, and the crossed the river and advanced west- had to make the best of their way along
army's return march began. At the ward on the south side. the shore for most of the day, in order
crossing of the trails at Horseheads, to lighten the boats sufficiently to pass
the whitened skulls found along the On the river a small cluster of boats,
making a flotilla of thirty in all, under the shallows. The captain reported that
Sullivan trace at that point accounts for
the command of Captain Daniel Liver- his "great difficulty of getting the boats
the name of the village. up so rapid and shoal a river prevented
more (a revolutionary war ancestor of
On the return of the army from their Mr. Marion Halm of Painted Post) were his land party from proceeding more
scorched earth campaign across west- poled up the stream, trying to keep than five miles. Where the boats
ern New York they went into camp at abreast of one or the other of the two landed, we found large fields of corn
Kanaweeola. They immediately began columns on land. with a few houses. The mountains
the dismantling of the palisaded log fort (here) closing nearly to the river on
that Colonel Reed had erected at the "After destroying...and burning...a con- (Continued on page 9)
siderable amount of corn" along the

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Page 9 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 8) Seneca Lake and
the Genesee River."
both sides. Here the boats were all Some of the cabins
loaded to capacity. At sunset I set out burned by Capt.
with my whole fleet and at nine o’clock Spaulding at
arrived at Fort Reed, fatigued with my Painted Post would
march." have been the
homes of the rang-
In addition to Captain Livermore’s first ers.
group, according to Lt. John Jenkins,
another "large fatigue party was sent Erosion caused by
up the river nine miles, where they the 1936 flood un-
loaded nine boats with corn and vege- covered the charred
tables and brought them down." nine foundation logs of a
miles would place the second foraging small cabin with a
party at Big Flats. Another boat party fire hearth near the
did even better, since Lt. Colonel Cohocton River on
Adam Hubley reported that a part of the Robert Dann
"the detachment ordered to march yes- farm.
terday moved this morning up Tioga
branch to an Indian village, about Within and without
twelve miles from Fort reed, with or- the charred rectan-
ders to destroy the same... At dusk this gle of the cabin ruin
evening, September 27 the detach- were found brass,
ment which marched this morning re- pewter and gilded
turned, after destroying a considerable buttons, some of the Replica of carvings on the Painted Post provided by Corning
quantity of corn, beans, and other latter stamped Lon- Painted Post Museum
vegetables, sixteen boat loads of don, large brass shoe
which they brought with them for the buckles, rusted table knives and two- cer in that detachment, wrote in his
use of the army. They also burned a pronged forks, pieces of "china" cups journal on the 28th that his
small village. . ." Skweedowa. and saucers, long stemmed clay pipes, "detachment moved up the Chemung
broken iron kettles, musket fittings, five miles above where we were yes-
Although Colonel Van Courtlandt with chunk lead, a lead bridle rosette, a
terday (near Big Flats), and burnt two
most of his command returned to Ft. metal mirror, cast lead bullets of vari- or three Indian houses, (near the
Reed that evening, September 27, a ous sizes and other artifacts of home mouth of Post Creek) - (which had
small party led by Capt. Simeon use. Post moulds for a fence along the been bypassed by Capt. Spaulding)
Spaulding, under orders from Van edge of the river terrace nine feet "and destroyed corn on each side of
Courtlandt, "was sent farther up the away, had also been uncovered. About the river. A little before night I went up
river," where after bypassing several eighty feet southeast of the cabin was
the river 5 miles further (or two miles
Indian houses, apparently near the the grave, apparently of a white man, above Painted Post) with Col. Van
mouth of Post Creek they discovered a with the arms folded across the chest, Courtlandt and Captain Spaulding but
Tory Indian settlement with a few who had been buried in a wood coffin found no corn and returned where we
horses still wandering in the woods, box. The darker stain lines in the "found our detachment encamped in
and with "ten acres of corn, beans and sandy soil indicated the outline of the
one of the corn fields without tents.
squash, piles of hay…rail fences, etc." coffin boards. They had been held to-
which bore unmistakable evidence of gether with handmade rose head iron Apparently Captain Spaulding and his
having been built by white people. In nails. This burial was at the edge of an advance party had burned the Tory
the abandoned Tory settlement near older Indian burial ground, where and Indian hamlet at the Painted Post
the Painted Post, they would have en- seven graves were found, two of them several hours before the arrival of
camped during the night of September indicating torture deaths. Colonel Van Courtlandt and Lt. Beatty
27. He and his men destroyed the set- with their men, who would not have
tlement the next day, September 28. Getting back to Colonel Van Courtlandt
arrived until late in the day. Then,
and his command on the morning of
about dusk, the Colonel with Capt.
It is known that "during the revolution, September 28th, he again moved up Spaulding and Beatty and a group of
Tory rangers and Tory sympathizers the Chemung River with his command riflemen crossed the Conhocton and
who did not get to Canada were scat- to rendezvous with and assist Captain proceeded along the Forbidden Path to
tered among the Indian towns on the Spaulding's riflemen at Painted Post if
(Continued on page 10)
Susquehanna and Chemung rivers, necessary. Lt. Erskins Beatty, an offi-
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Page 10 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 9) County. Both old soldiers are said to have
definitely located the site of the engage-
a point beyond the Gang Mills, making no ment which legend has since labeled the
further discoveries. In his autobiography "Battle of Bloody Run."
Colonel Van Courtlandt reported that he
also went 2 miles above Painted Post, as The aged Oliver Rouse of Gibson reported
ordered by General Sullivan. the following, which he said he heard from
Contact Us!
the lips of Capt. Mapes, "General Sullivan
It would have been after nightfall when they started off scouting parties, one of which
returned to one of the corn fields three was ordered to follow up the Chemung
Our Headquarters miles below the post and found their com- River a certain distance. They followed the
mand encamped in the trampled corn. trail of the Indians, and as it appeared
There, across from the chimney narrows, rather fresh, proceeded with cautiousness,
SRAC and near the present Guthrie Clinic, the and near evening encamped not far from
PO Box 12 men ate roast corn in the light of their camp the spot now called Bloody Run. Early next
Sayre, PA 18840 fires and spent a short night in the open, morning they arose and started again, but
under a cold, late September moon. Lt. perceiving smoke ahead they crept up
Phone: Beatty indicated that the men, encamped stealthily to surprise them through what was
607-727-3111 where the Moravian missionary, Ziesberger then a swamp overgrown with laurels. At
Email: had camped twelve years before "slept tol- last looking into the bed of the creek they
erable well, rose early, loaded two of Capt. saw several Indians at their camp fire... Sul- Livermore's boats which we had with us, livan's men... fired upon them and five Indi-
with corn and set off down the river about ans fell into the creek, while the same ran
Our Center 7:00 o'clock. Arrived where the camp had with their blood, which gave it its present
been (at Kanaweeola) where we found the name - the remaining Indians jumped
Location: army had destroyed Fort Reed and left in across and made their escape..."
345 Broad St. the morning…"
In the same article it is noted "in the spring
Waverly, NY
General Sullivan's chief guide, John Jenkins of 1819, a man by the name of Talada dis-
Phone: reported that "the army left Fort Reed and covered a hole in a large white oak tree on
marched ten miles toward Butler's breast- the top of a little knoll situated a little to the
works. At the Newtown battle site we en- left of the road as it is now (1867) runs near
camped that night on a flat 2 miles below the run. His curiosity being aroused, he
Our Website Chemung," about nine o'clock that night the concluded to take his ax and chop into it...
two commands, "Colonel Van Courtlandt's He did so, and found all together the chins and Captain Spaulding's," with Lt. Beatty (jaw bones) of six men. . ." but only five In-
arrived. dians are assumed to have died in the
Our Online Giftshop creek!
Among those stragglers from the Painted Post rendezvous were Private William Again, another would-be historian wrote
Mapes and Lieutenant Nathan Dascum that "the Americans were fired upon by the
from brigadier General Maxwell's brigade, Indians in ambush, at a ravine called
Online Membership of the New Jersey line. Both veterans set- Bloody Run, over which the road now
tled at Big Flats in after years, Dascum be- (1867) passes just before entering the nar- ing buried there in 1840, and the 103 year rows between Big Flats and the Village of
old Mapes likewise in 1846. Corning.
Our Blog According to their accounts, which have not After the skirmish some of Capt. been corroborated, after destroying corn Spaulding's men crossed the river and fol-
and other crops near Big Flats, they ad- lowed up the south side over the site of pre-
vanced to a point near the mouth of Post sent Corning until they came to a fording
Online Donations Creek at Gibson where Lt. Beatty had re- place, near the future Patterson Inn. Then
ported burning Indian cabins, and then were they recrossed to join their companions who engaged in a skirmish with several Indians, went up the north side of the river, to form a
each party shooting at the other across a united column under Colonel Van Court-
small ravine which drained a swamp at a landt who recorded, "... the General sent
place since called Bloody Run. It is so me with a command up the Chemung River
named on the large 1857 map of Steuben (Continued on page 11)

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Page 11 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 10) tent of the country ruined than had Indian forays against the New York
and two miles past the Painted Post..." ever before been the case on this con- and Pennsylvania frontiers during the
tinent. Before the army left Fort Reed following two wars were proof that
Early settlers in the valley stated that their base of supplies at Kanaweeole, General Sullivan's punitive expedition
the location of the skirmish at Bloody it had destroyed in all some 1,600,000 while a tactical success and an out-
Run was indicated up to 1814 by bushels of corn, forty Indian towns and standing achievement of the revolu-
seven oak trees standing near the road hamlets with their fruitful peach, plum, tionary war, was a practical failure.
where it passed the swamp. On three and apple orchards and improvements, Captives were still brought to Painted
of them were painted or carved repre- along with untold quantities of garden Post; two captives were burned at
sentations of Indians with hatchets, produce such as beans, squash, Painted Post. It was still standing when
while on the other four were repre- pumpkins, cucumbers and all else the the first settlers arrived.
sented soldiers with guns. These were Indians could not carry away. The corn
considered to have been of Indian ori- was described as the "finest ever
gin, memorials of the engagement, seen," some of the ears
erected by the Indians following the being twenty inches in
withdrawal of the army. length.
The Olivet Family
The historian stone wrote that during However, the destruction In memory of Grandpa Ellsworth Cowles
the Sullivan expedition more towns caused and the captives
were laid in ashes, and a broader ex- taken during the retaliatory

contexts (Becker 1996, 1997) that have been recovered by
“Some Notes on
others. Among the bones from more than 100 excavations
Native American
in which I have participated or studied1 are only a very few
Grave Recovery
that derive from native North American sites. Four of these
and Multiple Re-
sets of bone derive from native sites of some significance
lated Issues” –
(see Becker 1971, 1972), while a single native grave of the
(adapted from a
later historic period from the area of Toledo, Ohio (cf. Prahl
ms in progress,
and Becker 1966) also is of note for several reasons. The
from a paper pre-
skeletal remains that derive from a Lenape cemetery in
sented at the
Chester County, Pennsylvania and dated to ca. 1720 –
2008 meetings of
1733, are of particular importance because the Lenape are
the Middle Atlantic
the people who have been the focus of my studies for the
Arch Conference,
past 40 years. During those 4 decades there have been
Ocean City, Md.,)
incredible and important changes in the ways that we do
by Marshall
archaeology. Some observations on these processes, and
Becker, PhD,
the contexts in which they have taken place, are of consid-
Senior Fellow An-
erable interest to professionals as well as to the public in
thropology, Uni-
general. For these reasons I have outlined a few of the ma-
versity of Pennsyl-
jor points now involved in the recovery of Native Americans
from grave and other contexts (see Becker 1987), with con-
Marshall Becker, PhD Introduction siderations of some of the issues that now impinge on ar-
chaeological research.2
In the interest of “full disclosure,” my training in anthropol-
ogy was in a program that prides itself on a strong four- Physical Recovery
fields approach. The training has served me well over the
The processes involved in locating, recording, excavating
years. I have applied my skills as a physical anthropologist
and publishing the archaeological record relating to human
as well as my knowledge of archaeology in the recovery of
remains has improved in many ways in recent decades.
literally thousands of burials, from Honduras and Guate-
Archaeological detection, however, may be a bit con-
mala through North America and Europe, to Greece and
strained by concerns for various laws (cf. MacDonald
Turkey (Becker 1999). In addition I have analyzed the
2008), rendering more complex the physical recovery of
bones from hundreds of other graves, both cremations
(Becker 2005) and inhumations, and from scattered other (Continued on page 12)

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Page 12 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 11) recovered. This is far from optimal, but considered to be the descendants of
remains the principle mode of deter- the individual(s) in question.
bones and traces of related human mining affinity. Associated artifacts
remains as part of the archaeological also are used to assign “race.” A burial Crime or Burial?
record. We have become vastly more in a “white” colonial cemetery, in a cof-
sophisticated in the recovery process fin, with a shroud pin and/or coffin If the remains are human, are they
as technologies for analysis have im- hardware would be identified as from a burial context or do they repre-
sent a crime. We’ll ignore the possibil-
proved. Television programs of the 21st “white.” If she were 100% native de-
century may exaggerate what can be scent but had married or lived among ity that formally buried remains may
done, but given infinite resources an- the colonists, she would be identified represent a crime and concentrate on
thropologists can recover and analyze as “white.” The presence of trade silver other contexts. If the remains are in a
human remains in ways undreamed of with a burial, or sterling silver objects suitcase or other less traditional loca-
tion for a corpse one may infer that
only 25 years ago. made in specific forms specifically as
they are related to a crime, unless they
objects for native users (Becker 1992),
Identification of Bones: Are they invariably provides evidence for a have evidence for drill holes or wiring
Human? “native” burial, even if the individual that would suggest that these bones
had been a runaway colonial or cap- may have been imported anatomical
Perhaps once or twice a month for the tured as a child and reared among a specimens. The age of the remains
past 40 years I have been contacted also is important. If the possible crime
native population. We can do much
by the Office of the Coroner of Chester had been committed more than 100
better at identifying human remains
County [Pennsylvania] to examine one through DNA studies, but that is an- years earlier, the perpetrator may be
or more bones. The basic concern is to other part of the subject. assumed to be dead and the crime not
determine if they are human, and if the pursued. If the remains are from a
evidence might indicate that a crime Random finds of bones (partial skele- cemetery or otherwise known source
had been committed. The vast majority tons, single bones) often warrant of human bone they generally are of
of these finds are the remains of deer, closer scrutiny. Isolated burials com- no interest to law enforcement agen-
with a portion of a bear sometimes monly are identified as being native, cies even though the “movement” of a
appearing. Scattered human remains without further consideration. A so- corpse (in these cases only pieces of a
are rare, but generally can be traced to called “native” burial from a rock shel- corpse) is subject to considerable legal
a “relocated” cemetery. The traditional ter near Broomall, PA had long been restriction. In most states it is illegal to
low bidder approach to “relocating” a inferred to represent a native. A sup- call a cab for a deceased relative and
cemetery had been to collect any posed “study” has never been made, thus transport their remains to a mortu-
stone markers from a burial ground but the bones were “repatriated” to a ary, or any other location.
and relocate them to another place. claimant “Lenape” group and have
Often the new location is a new since disappeared, as has the group. If human remains are not the result of
church, which then has a scenic burial During the transfer I aided my “kin” in a crime, what do we do with these of-
ground with no skeletons. “Marker- packaging these bones for transport, a ten random bits of bones? They are a
less” cemeteries abound, as well as problem that, like the proverbial boo-
procedure that I pointed out would be
the dozens of farm cemeteries or small merang, cannot be thrown away.
in violation of a number of different
private burial plots, that abound in laws. I then noted that at least two Dumping them in a landfill simply pro-
every township and county of Pennsyl- people were represented by the skele- vides a problem for future physical an-
vania provide an abundant source of tal material they were “claiming,” and thropologists. Use in teaching or re-
skeletal remains. Usually these that none of these bones appeared to search is problematical as each bit of
sources for skeletons can be identified bone requires documentation and
represent a local native population of
with some ease. Quite often they are cataloguing, and then permanent cura-
southeastern Pennsylvania. The full
hilltop locations, as in the famous tale of the transfer, or disposal of these tion. Storage of bone is a major prob-
“Boot Hill.” Contouring the land for con- bones, merits its own story. As I under- lem in America, as it is in most of
struction projects often reveals these stand it, the first step mandated by the Europe. Only in the Czech Republic
abandoned burial locations. Native American Graves Protection have I seen laudable storage facilities
and complete records that simplifies
and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) in-
Identification of Native Remains volves the study of the skeletal mate- the process of locating them and pro-
rial and the assignment of an “identity,” vides access for research (Becker
For the most part human remains are 2000). Disposal should be total, with
assigned an ethnic (or racial) affiliation whether native or not. These data then
should be provided to any modern na- my favorite method being to pulverize
based on the context in which they are
tive group that would reasonably be (Continued on page 13)

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Page 13 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1

(Continued from page 12) tate.3 One may express one’s wishes tremely successful (see Tielser and
in a will or other legal instrument, but Cucina 2008) where the native popula-
or grind them to dust and regale a rose much of the decision-making process tion has integrity, in every sense of the
fancier friend with the results. Other rests entirely with the heir(s). Unless a word, and interest in their own history.
disposal methods that are less drastic will is extremely carefully written, to However, in the more recent past,
can create a different type of problem. divert inheritance in cases on non- more and more claimant groups ap-
Simply breaking bones into small compliance, an heir may do much as pear, morph, and often disappear, in
pieces duplicates the effects of smash- they please. But what about bones left interesting patterns. I attempted to
ing cremated bone, a situation that in a grave for generations? What about trace these over a period of about 25
leads to the problem of disposing of a bones discovered in a long abandoned years, often including some groups as
cremation. The cremation of human and unmarked cemetery? In general far away as Maryland. The study of
bodies do not produce cigarette-like bones, coffin hardware, shroud pins, these groups, their origins and dynam-
ash, despite the common use of the and any other materials with a burial ics, will make a fascinating doctoral
term “ashes” to refer to the resulting are the property of the owner of the dissertation, but in the context of un-
materials. More recently the neologism property on which they are found. In derstanding native history these
“cremains” has become popular, but theory, there are legal restrictions re- groups are counterproductive. In my
the belief that these are simply pow- garding what one can do with these opinion, none are interested in schol-
dery ashes remains common. Crema- remains, generally covered by modern arly research on any level as each one
tion destroys soft tissue, but bone laws involved with desecration of a wishes to have its own made up story
burned at high temperature often vitri- corpse or the moving of a body. These accepted as a valid version of native
fies. That’s why porcelain or bone strictures are, in general, not applied to history. My own experience is that
china actually uses bone with the fine “archaeologically” recovered remains. none of the leaders of these groups,
clay to create a glass-like material. The and often there are no followers, has
higher the temperature used to cre- Who Wants the Dung? any information regarding native peo-
mate a human, the more difficult it is to ples.
destroy the resulting bone. These bits Human coprolites (feces) are often
of “burned” bone, like broken bits of found in the dry and protected areas of These claimant groups come and go,
bone, are readily identified by a physi- caves and rock shelters. Recently, in led by or composed of individuals with
cal anthropologist. Age and sex often Oregon, Prof. Dennis Jenkins exca- business cards attesting to their official
can be inferred from the smallest sam- vated some of the earliest known hu- status. Simply listing them, with their
man coprolites in the Americas. These officers and membership, for any state
ple of these fragments (e.g. Becker
1997b). In short, one cannot simply “artifacts,” and the associated DNA is a difficult task that remains to be
throw human bones away, no matter (Science online, April 2008), provide achieved. These people, however, pro-
whose they are (originally or legally). important information about the early vide much of the so-called public out-
peopling of the Americas. Not only do reach available to interested individu-
Discarding human bones, and to a these items suggest possible biological als and to those whose taxes support
lesser extent the soft tissue, is an is- associations with populations in Asia, public archaeology as well as aca-
sue that rarely is discussed. I have but the routes taken by these early demic institutions.
never seen reference in print to the immigrants and perhaps the numbers
process of soft tissue disposal, which of migratory waves may be inferred. In Conclusion
commonly occurs on an informal level. Whereas the bones of the producers of
Basic to activities involving human re- these coprolites might generate con- It is safe to say that I have only
mains are the legal situations that de- siderable interest among native claim- scraped the surface of all of the issues
ants, to date no one besides the scien- concerning modern archaeology as it
termine who actually owns these ob-
tists seems interested in this artifact relates to grave recovery. Other ques-
jects. When one is alive and function-
ing, one has control of one’s own body. category. tions abound such as “Where no
Some if not all control may be lost bones or artifacts are detectable in a
through transfer of power of attorney. Public Outreach grave “pit,” do any laws apply?” “How
When one dies, one’s body becomes does excavation on private property
A number of successful collaborative differ from public lands?” “When a
an object that is simply part of the es- programs have brought archaeologists
tate – a piece of property to be han- physical anthropologist is also the ar-
and physical anthropologists together chaeologist in charge and consultant to
dled by the legal heir(s). There are with “native” populations to further
laws limiting and directing what can be the Coroner’s Office, a Catch 22 effect
goals of mutual concern – knowing is created.” “When people who are
done with a body or its parts, but other- their pasts. These programs are ex-
wise they become part of one’s es- (Continued on page 14)

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Page 14 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


(Continued from page 13)

probable native descendants decide to support an archaeo-

logical excavation, are their written statements helpful to SPONSORSHIP
the archaeological team?” “What happens when native
claimants to human remains found in graves are the de- PLEASE CONSIDER SPONSORING THE SRAC JOURNAL
scendants of the people who can be documented as having WITH YOUR TAX-DEDUCTIBLE CONTRIBUTION. FOR
killed that population?” I am confident that this brief review MORE INFORMATION SEE PAGE 16 IN THIS EDITION OR
given of personal experiences will have served to further VISIT WWW.SRACENTER.ORG.
confuse the issues discussed. This most fittingly explains
why these controversies live on.


Susquehanna River Archaeology Center (SRAC) members and Society of
Pennsylvania Archaeology (SPA) members (Andastes Chapter #5) have an
opportunity to participate in a Historic and Pre-historic educational excavation
in Bradford County, Pa.

A husband and wife team, Dan and Maureen Costura, are working on thier
doctorate at Cornell University, and are planning the excavation at French
Asylum, near the Laporte House. They are going down to plan the layout the
last week of April and expect to be working all of May and into June. Individu-
als interested in helping on this dig should contact Ted Keir at 570-888-2718.

Deb Twigg - Executive Director Ted Keir - Chairman of the Board, CoDirector of Susan Fogel - Chief Financial Officer
Dick Cowles - CoDirector of Archaeology/Curation Archaeology/Education Jessica Quinn
Tom Vallilee
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Page 15 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1

SRAC History's Mysteries - The Mound Builder Myth
Tue, Jun 3, 6pm – 8pm – SRAC, 345 Broad Street Waverly
There’s a lot going When many of the ancient mounds and earthworks in
North America were discovered by white settlers, they be-
on at SRAC these
lieved that they were made by: • Aliens • The People of
days! We have all Atlantis • The Vikings. Deb Twigg will take you through time
kinds of events and and show you many mounds that she has personally vis-
programs most every ited in her quest to unravel what has become known in the
week. Watch for an- scientific world as the “Mound Builder Myth.” Doors open at
nouncements of all 6pm. Admission is $5 for adults and $3 for SRAC members
current offerings in and children under 18.
the newspapers, in
flyers, and on the ~ NEW ~ SRAC ROUNDUP EVENTS!
web! SRAC Roundups are events that will gather together as
much of a specific and unique type of artifact as possible
with the help of museums and collectors, to include guest
speakers and specialists.
Carla Cohen presenting a series on healthy Sat, June 7th 1pm - 4pm - SRAC, 345 Broad St. Waverly
living, “Spring Into Spring.” Presented by SRAC with a
special guest presentation by
SRAC Wildlife Rehab Series Ralph Rataul, PhD of the
NYS Museum. In addition,
Thu, May 15 6:30 - 7:30 pm - SRAC, 345 Broad St. Waverly we calling out to all collectors
Barb Cole and LIVE Animals! The SRAC Wildlife Rehab to bring their birdstones from around the region. Secure
Series will be presented every third Thursday of the month storage available. Setup from noon to 1pm. Join us for a
starting in May and will include many topics throughout the very rare afternoon of sharing and learning. Admission is
year to include discussions on owls and other large birds, $5 Adults, $4 SRAC Members, $3 Children
porcupines, deer, reptiles, bats, water fowl, garden birds
and more! Live animals will be present every night! Admis- Wampum and Beads
sion is $3 for children under 18, $5 for adults and $3 for Sat, August 23rd 1pm - 4pm - SRAC, 345 Broad St. Waverly
SRAC members. Refreshments available.
Join us for a Saturday filled
SRAC and the Andaste Chapter of PA Archaeology present “The with wampum and beads!
Lamoka Site” Many pieces will be on display!
Mon, May 19, 7 - 8pm - SRAC - 345 Broad St Waverly Presentation on wampum and
it's usage by SRAC Advisor,
Anyone who has collected artifacts in this region is familiar Dr. Marshall Becker! Collectors
with “Lamoka” points. Charles Van Buskirk was born not far are invited to bring any beads
from Lake Lamoka and early on heard of the famous Indian or beadwork to exhibit for the
site. Natural curiosity developed into a fascination with day! Secure storage available.
these ancient people, and it became a private research Setup from noon to 1pm. Ad-
hobby. He made a trip to the Albany museum and photo- mission is $5 Adults, $4 SRAC
graphed the Lamoka diorama and used his photos to pro- Members, $3 Children
duce large posters for use with his lectures. Van Buskirk
has written a concise history of the Native Americans from
the Paleo through the Iroquois time periods, published by
the Steuben County Historical Society. Admission is free to
the public.

May 30th, 2008 6-

6-8 pm - Kids Night Out ! Storyteller Night
Storyteller night will be presented by SRAC member Jack
Andrus! Jack will come dressed in Native Indian costume Wishing Barbara Twigg
and share interactive Native Indian children stories that all a speedy recovery!
ages will enjoy! Authentic stories! Fun for all ages! Kids $3,
Adults $5

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Page 16 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


Many of you are familiar with our quarterly journal, and the quality and volume of educational information we try to bring to the commu-
nity throughout the year. In fact our range of readership includes high school students to retired persons as well as professional scien-
tists and local universities. The journal has grown into a well read and respected publication; and we hope that it will continue to grow
and be a resource of educational and entertaining material for years to come. Obviously, with this continued growth not only in content
and pages but distribution, there are added costs associated. For this reason, we have decided to offer sponsorship by local individu-
als, families, and businesses who want to help us in our efforts. We currently publish and distribute 1,000 copies each quarter ~ that's
currently 4,000 copies each year, with our coverage mainly in Bradford County PA and Tioga and Chemung Counties in NY, but we
have readership that reaches far beyond these boundaries as well.

How Can You Become a Sponsor?

1.) Choose your level of sponsorship and how many issues you would like to sponsor below. If you
would like to sponsor multiple quarterly journals (4 per year) or even a whole year, just multiply the
sponsorship level.

2.) Tell us what you would like us to print

3.) Include your check along with this completed form.

Thank you for being an active supporter of this worthy cause!

• Platinum $500.00 Our top level of sponsorship! With your donation of $500 you will be facilitating 1,000
copies of one quarterly journal. Your donation will be recognized with a full half-page gray-scale or black and
white ad that can measure up to 7 1/2” wide by 5” tall. (Sorry, but we can accept only one Platinum sponsor
per issue; however, you can reserve for future issues.) Please email artwork and text you wish included to

Please circle the level of sponsorship you wish to make; and

indicate what you would like your sponsor recognition to say in
• Gold the space below…..anything you like!
$100.00 The Leadership Company
234 Main Street LINE 1

Your Town, USA


• Silver The Hollowell Family
$50.00 Jan, Christy
Ryan, Allison, and Tommy LINE 4
(Limit lines to 35 characters. Gold level can include logo if space
allows. Please email logos to

• Sup-
The Johnson Family
In loving memory of our dad John
Send check along with this form to: SRAC
For additional information call Deb PO Box 12
Twigg at 607-727-3111 or email Sayre, PA 18840
• Friend
$10.00 The Lucky Penny Club

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Page 17 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1


major project, the core of SRAC; our

museum space.

This accomplishment is due largely to

our friends at the Corning Painted
Post Museum, who donated over 25
antique museum cases to SRAC last
summer. While many cases had been
moved to the Valley at that time,
some still remained in Painted Post
until the most recent move. This is
because the remaining cases could
only be removed the same way that Cases placed in truck for the trip to
they were moved in; through a third Waverly
SRAC's Co-founder Dick Cowles and floor window.
son Kurt Thanks to the Corning Painted Post
After months of planning, these huge Museum, the Cowles family, and a
Since purchasing the building located cases were placed safely on a huge
group of selfless men with good
at 345 Broad Street Waverly in De- pallet created by Kurt Cowles. One by backs, Waverly, NY will soon be the
cember 2007, the Susquehanna River one they were gently brought to the home to the largest museum space
Archaeological Center (SRAC) has ground by a forklift which then placed filled with local Native Indian
nearly renovated its whole 5,000 them into trucks for their journey to artifacts in the region. We hope to
square ft. main floor. Already, visitors their new home at SRAC.
have a grand opening early this sum-
can stop in a huge gift shop between
Amazingly, these same cases had mer.
1 and 5pm weekdays or attend events
many evenings during the month. On been placed in the Painted Post Mu-
Saturday April 12th we began another seum decades ago by a well known
amateur archaeologist and local histo- “Seeing the pictures of them I was
rian, Ellsworth Cowles; and he reminded of the many times I went to
brought them from Waverly, NY. With the Erwin Town Museum on Friday
the help of a dozen workers and an nights from 7-9 in the winter with Ells-
oversized forklift, Ellsworth's son Dick worth. [During the summer the mu-
and grandson Kurt reversed what he seum had more hours and students
had done and delivered them safely were hired by the town to work there.]
back to Waverly. The Cowles family Sometimes there would be a scout
not only planned and managed the troop visiting or a local history buff
whole project, but funded it as well. would stop and chat. Many times it was
just the two of us. Me jumping back
and forth from excitement to utter bore-
SRAC museum cases were removed dom and him patiently working on
from the 3rd story of the Painted Post some project or talking with me about
Museum life before the white traders came. The
place was dusty, out of the way idio-
syncratic with bits of whatever people
wanted to donate that was old. But in
the end it helped preserved a lot of
stuff and now you and SRAC are fo-
cusing and re-energizing the commu-
nity to learn
its history. As I said to Dad when I
talked to him last night, if I could be-
lieve in an afterlife than I know that
Ellsworth was smiling yesterday.”

Charlotte Cowles
Large case safely returned to the Forklift removes cases form 3rd story
ground window of Painted Post museum

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Page 18 THE SRAC JOURNAL Volume 4, Issue 1
The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies
PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

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