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Page 1 Volume 3, Issue 3

Volume 3, Issue 3 September 2007

T H E R E G IO N ’ S A R C H A E O L OG I C A L , C U L T U R A L A N D H I S TO R I C A L R E S O U R C E
Studying Wampum 1 INDI AN N AT ION BY M A RSH A LL B E CK E R, P HD
Before Sullivan Marched Part 2 1
Spanish Hill Presentation 6 During the winter of 1674-5 members of
4th Drumbeats & Bus Tour! 8
the Five Nations Iroquois made their most
disastrous raid into Pennsylvania. Ever
Sloat Family Donates Collection 8 since they destroyed the Erie, around
New Spanish Hill Book 8 1653, they had been battering the Sus-
quehannock. With the complicity of the
SRAC Around the Community 9
Maryland colonists, who coveted the
Our First Home 10 lands to their north, the Five Nations scat-
Coming Events 10 tered the Susquehannock Confederacy
Check Your Sources (Editorial) 11
and left all of central Pennsylvania wide
open. Some of these Susquehannock
SRAC Crossword Puzzle 12 took refuge among the Lenape, who pro-
SRAC Visit to NYS Museum 13 tected their autonomy in exile. These
Susquehannock may have returned home
Membership Form 14
in 1699.

In 1700 the Five Nations Iroquois de-

manded a visit from the Lenape, who had
sheltered one remnant of the Susquehan-
nock Indian confederacy. The reasons
are unclear, but we know that after a ten
plans year delay the Lenape organized an ex- Marshall Becker examines wampum belt
Make aturday,
spend r 13, 2007 pedition to the Five Nations. The party
c tob e ts was led by the young Sassoonan
O mbea stopped first to treaty with the Provincial
at Dru Time & (Allumapees), and they brought with them Council of Pennsylvania, and to show
g h
Throu l BUS four belts and a number of strings of
specia e page 8 (Continued on page 2)
! Se wampum. This Lenape delegation
TOUR ore info!
for m
dezvoused at the head of the Canisteo
By the spring of 1778 all of the known To- River where they made dozens of dug
ries had left the Wyoming valley, but their out canoes and proceeded down to Ti-
• Our Vision raiding along the entire Pennsylvania fron- oga and Queen Esthers Town. Here they
The Susquehanna River Ar- tier, although continuous, had not been picked up many Seneca warriors includ-
chaeological Center of Native effective in driving back the remaining set- ing Gencho, the only child of Queen
Indian Studies (S.R.A.C.) is tlers, or even slowing their steady migra- Esther by her Seneca husband Ego-
dedicated to education, re- tion. Frustrated by the virtual stalemate, hund. Gencho had recently arrived at
search and preservation of the the British commanders at Ft. Niagara manhood and was being groomed to be
Native American archaeologi- made plans for a decisive campaign down a chief. This would be his first battle, his
cal, cultural and historical as- the Susquehanna to clear out the entire initiation as a warrior and his mother de-
sets of the Twin Tier Region Wyoming area. Colonel John Butler was cided to join the expedition more as a
of Northeastern PA and placed in command of 450 Tory Ranger spectator than a participant or a leader.
Southern NY. and 800 Seneca Warriors under chief Kay-
ingwaurto. This sizeable expedition ren- (Continued on page 2)

Become a member
The Susquehanna of SRAC
River Archaeological Center oftoday! See
Native Indian back
Studies page for more
~ information.
~ email
Page 2 Volume 3, Issue 3


(Continued from page 1) type of wampum. Diplomatic belts are presented and received enormous
only one category of bands that fea- numbers of diplomatic wampum bands,
them the belts and recite the orations tures a panel of wampum beads, but generally called “belts.” Most of those
that accompanied these important they had elaborate protocols for their received by the Oneida may have been
pieces that would be presented to the use. held at Onondaga, where the Mora-
Five Nations. They wanted the Council vians Charles Frederick and David
to understand that this was a peaceful Another type of wampum band was Zeisberger were resident in 1754 into
mission that was being undertaken. used only within the Catholic convert 1755 to learn the language. During that
communities. These “ecclesiastical” period of the mid-eighteenth century
Nearly 300 years later another Lenape bands were made for presentation to the “Six Nations Council at Onondaga
made a parallel trip, but a very special other groups within the Catholic had custody of a ‘whole pile’ of wam-
trip to see the wampum bands held by Church, being presented as “calls” pum belts” that were temporarily in the
the Oneida Indian Nation, Inc. The ar- made to the faithful. We often know cabin occupied by the two Moravian
rangements took only a few months, who produced ecclesiastical belts and brethren. Although most of the diplo-
rather than ten years, and the travel to whom they were presented because matic belts may have been held at
time was a leisurely two days rather the missionaries involved in their fabri- Onondaga, condolence wampum,
than two months. As the Lenape who cation recorded these events, and the wampum used in ornamentation, and
made the trip this time around, I can recipients often made note of their re- any possible ritual items would have
truthfully say that the results were ceipt. A third category of wampum in- been held at various Oneida and other
equally successful. cludes ornamental or decorative bands villages.
of wampum (“personal” wampum)
There are three central questions we made and used within the same tribe. Also of note is the fact that very few
can ask about each of the approxi- These generally remained among their examples of wampum now can be
mately 300 surviving bands of wam- makers, but some may have been found within the Core Area of wampum
pum. First, who made it; second, to given as personal gifts to people out- use. Thankfully, the Oneida are actively
whom was it given (presented); third, side the community. interested in gathering and preserving
why was this “belt” presented. We now any examples of these now rare items,
know that wampum bands (and strings) The Five Nations of the League of the and in understanding how, when, and
made for diplomatic purposes, com- Iroquois formed the center of the Core by whom they were used.
monly called “belts” in English and col- Area of wampum use. Within the
(Continued on page 3)
lier in French, were the most common League the Oneida people generated,


(Continued from page 1) the river across them was shot in the river, the other
from present was killed on land, and it was on him
day Wilkes- they took out all of their vengeance,
Barre and here scalping him and mutilating his body.
they decided to
make their He was Gencho, Queen Esther’s
stand. So it only son.
was here they
feverishly A short time afterward Queen Esther
strengthened discovered her son's mutilated body.
their stockade The young man in whom she and
and collected Echohund had invested their most
The Wyoming settlers had by this time all of their guns, ammunition and cherished hopes lay dead, before
become aware of an army moving supplies. her unbelieving eyes, his mutilated
towards them, but did not know how body dishonored.
large. So, they dispatched a runner to The first shots were fired at a skir-
Stroudsburg, the nearest source of mish a few miles up stream where a What happened next is part of what
help, and started working frantically small group of farmers had insisted, is one of the more intense of many
day and night strengthening their de- against wiser advice, on doing some ongoing debates to come out of the
fenses. There were several, so called last minute crop tending. A party of revolutionary war.
forts in the area but only two of them Butler's Indian scouts stalked and
were strong enough to be of any use killed several of them, and when a During the next two days the raiders
holding off a large attacking force. mounted party later went out to re- captured three of the smaller outlying
One of these had the strange name cover the bodies they, in turn, found forts without a fight and burned and
Forty Fort. It was on the west side of and killed two young Indians. One of (Continued on page 4)

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Page 3 Volume 3, Issue 3


rows deep. It has nine open with Brian Patterson (Bear Clan Rep-
(Continued from page 2)
squares of white beads ar- resentative to the Tribal Council, OIN
ranged diagonally. The founda- and recently elected President of the
tion of both is of twine.” United South and Eastern Tribes) to
(Beauchamp 1901: 426) make arrangements to have access to
their collections specifically for re-
The caption for Beauchamp’s Plate search on wampum. Mr. Patterson
23: fig. 254 identifies the long band kindly made all the necessary ar-
with five slashes as an “Ordinary belt rangements for this study to be con-
of seven rows from near Georgian ducted for the purpose of scholarly
bay, Canada.” Beauchamp (1901) publication. In addition, copies of all
illustrated these two cuffs, and many relevant documents were generously
of the other items that he identified, provided by the OIN for this research.
with drawings rather than photo-
graphs. After the 1901 publication, One of the two most important pieces
Since every small bit of data helps us these cuffs and the related belt that of information learned from studying
to understand the general issues re- came from Georgian Bay with them the Oneida wampum concerns their
lating to wampum, I recently made a disappeared from public view. origins. What I had called The
study trip with Deb Twigg to examine “Beauchamp Cuffs” are now known to
Recently these two cuffs “re-emerged” have come from near Georgian Bay,
the two wampum cuffs held by the
together with the long, 7-row, five Canada ca. 1895. This region, once
Oneida Indian Nation, Inc. (OIN). The
slash dark wampum belt that had home of the Wendat (Huron), strongly
results of this specific piece of re-
been secured in Canada by Goodwin. suggests that they were made by the
search, which included making note of
In 2005 the cuffs were prominently Wendat, most of whom were long
two important belts also owned by the
featured in a section of the website of gone from the area by 1895. Groups
Oneida, deserves to be shared with
the Oneida Indian Nation under the of Wendat who did not leave may
all people interested in the Oneida as
heading "Wampum at the Shakowi have retained these bands. The pos-
well as the general subject of wam-
Cultural Center." The Center is lo- sibility that in 1895 these bands were
pum. Anyone interested in any of the
cated ca. 35 miles (50km) east of in the hands of members of another
kinds of objects made by Native
Syracuse, NY. By January of 2007 an culture is possible, but more likely
American peoples, especially objects
even more detailed photograph of they were held by traditionalists
that continue to be of importance in
these cuffs was posted on this web- among the Wendat, who now are rec-
understanding our shared history, will
site (www.oneida- ognized as the only makers of this
be pleased to know what was learned. al- category of wampum band.
The four bands of wampum that we lowing for better descriptions to be
observed in June 2007 were pur- made. Dr. Anthony Wonderley, then The second important finding is that
chased by the OIN during the 1990s, the Tribal Historian, put me in touch both cuffs at Oneida include only
in two separate transactions. The
cuffs now held by the OIN had first
been reported by Beauchamp in

“ In 1895 S. H. Goodwin sent

the writer three small belts for
examination, which he had
from near the Georgian bay
[sic], Canada. Fig. 254 shows
one of these, being an ordinary
belt of seven rows, having five
rows [slashes] of white beads
arranged diagonally on the
dark ground. The others were
of unusual form, an expanding
basket shape, broad at the top.
Fig. 169 shows one of these
[that is] 28 rows deep, having
five open white diamonds on a Oneida-Goodwin-Beauchamp Wampum Cuffs
dark ground. Fig. 170 is of the (Continued on page 6)
same general form, and is 27

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Page 4 Volume 3, Issue 3


(Continued from page 2)

plundered outlying
farms. Inside Forty
Fort there were
almost continual
arguments about
whether to march
out and engage
the enemy or to
wait for the hoped
for relief column.
Nobody realized
they were outnum-
bered three to one.
The senior officers
generally advised
caution and waiting
but the younger
ones were chaffing
for a fight. Finally,
after some taunting
charges of coward-
ice the officers
agreed to fight and
they sallied forth in good marching a little larger than the average coffee headed for the river and Lebius kept
order. A lot of interesting history has table, is still there today known as on a path through the woods. Then
been written about the tactics and the Queen Ester's rock. One of the four- he tripped and fell headlong down a
progress of the battle but it all can be teen prisoners was named Lebius low bank into a tangled mass of
summed up in a short sentence: They Hammond and another was named brambles and brush. His thoughts at
marched straight into a classic am- Joseph Elliot. Lebius Hammond tells the time were that surely he would
bush. The first volley was a total sur- that small groups of the captives were now be caught and killed, but to his
prise and took a heavy toll, particu- forced to kneel with their heads on surprise his pursuers ran on by him
larly among the officers. John Butler's the rock while Queen Ester, still and he was able to remain hidden
hidden crescent shaped line not only crazed by the death and dishonoring until darkness allowed him to make
had the marchers outnumbered, it of Gencho, carried out her vows of his way back to Forty Fort. Elliot in
also had them partly flanked before vengeance. She personally executed the meantime made it to the river
the fight even began, and it steadily them, one at a time, by smashing and, being a strong swimmer, was
closed around them as the battle pro- their skulls with a large war club. Le- able to make it out into the main
gressed. The marchers fought bius Hammond's version of the story stream before his pursuers started
bravely and with cool determination goes on to say that he and Elliot were firing. Then by swimming under water
for a considerable time but when they at the rock together and were about as much as possible he avoided all
finally realized they were being sur- to become the last two victims. He but one of their shots. That one hit
rounded they broke and ran in panic. noticed that whenever Queen Ester him just below his right shoulder and
Most were run down and killed as was poised with the war club high disabled his right arm. Although pain-
they fled. A few were captured alive over her head, the Indians seemed to fully wounded he was still able to
and held as prisoners. Less than a become transfixed by all of the gore, swim on his back and keep going
hundred made it back to Forty Fort. the sheer drama of the event and the until he reached safety on the far
Most of the officers were killed. By a anticipation of the coming blow. He shore. Once on land he stopped his
twist of fate, one of the casualties of whispered to Elliot, "When she gets bleeding by stuffing moss into his
the battle is now known by historians that club over my head, lets bolt and wound and made his way cautiously
to have been one of the Paxton try to get out of here." With cool back to Forty Fort.
Gang. nerves, precise timing and a surge of
fear driven strength, that is exactly There is an opposing side to this
Later that day fourteen of the captives what they did and in an instant they story told by all of my Indian friends,
were brought to a spot along the riv- were both free, running desperately both Delaware and Seneca. They
erbank where the bank drops steeply for their lives down the steep bank insist that Queen Ester was much too
about fifteen feet to the flood plain. and into the woods in the lower flats. refined and gentle a person to have
Here also is a large oval shaped flat After a few minutes of desperate ever taken part in such a brutal orgy
rock setting near the bank. The rock, sprinting they separated. Elliot (Continued on page 5)

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Page 5 Volume 3, Issue 3



(Continued from page 4) cause was doomed, and their only safety
lay in leaving the Wyoming valley forever.
Contact Us! of human slaughter. They are familiar with
similar versions of this story which are told The survivors, stunned by the overwhelming
Mail: in virtually all of the white history books, loss of so many husbands, sons and fathers
SRAC and which are all deeply hurtful and dis- were now homeless, without food and with
PO Box 12 turbing to them. They further point out that only the clothes on their back. Many of them
Sayre, PA 18840 the executioner was described as a very were too elderly, sick or wounded to con-
tall muscular woman and Queen Ester, sider the sixty-mile trail over rough, moun-
Phone: tainous wilderness to Stroudsburg. But
although tall and regal, was refined and
607-727-3111 there was no alternative. Most of them
slight of build. They also point out that she
Email: would have still been in mourning at this banded together, and only a few of the time and unable to take part in any such weakest perished on the trail. Among the
public display. My final comments will be survivors was a twelve-year-old girl named
based on another episode still to come, Mary Whittakar. She and her father had
We’re on the Web! moved to Wyoming from Minisink, only a
and so must wait until then. few years earlier and they both made it
On the 4th of July 1778 Colonel Butler de- back to Stroudsburg and Minisink. Mary
manded the surrender of Forty Fort and all insisted for the rest of her life that Joseph
of its guns, ammunition and other military Brant had saved her life while the Indians
supplies. He promised to protect the lives were pillaging inside the fort. All of the set-
of the survivors in hIe fort providing they
would, in turn, sign a sworn statement that
they would never again raise arms against
the king. He refused to promise to protect
any of their property. They, of course, had
little confidence in his promises. They were
the kind routinely demanded in all similar
situations, and history records they were
just as routinely broken. But they had no
option, and after some token attempts at
Visit SRAC’s Online Gift negotiation they accepted his terms with
Shoppe! only slim hopes that he would keep his
promise about their personal safety. The
From kids items to hard to Indians of course were flush with victory
find historical books, we have and wanted more bounty from scalps and
restocked our online store prisoners. Butler, however, was able to tlers were cowering in corners, expecting to
with not only SRAC published persuade them that if they wanted any be killed when Joseph Brant held her up by
works, but many items for more help from the king they would have to her hair with one hand while he painted her
people of all ages. obey his orders. There are many stories of face red with the other. "That will save you,"
Visit atrocities after the surrender of the fort but Brant told her. However, Mary was mis-
to learn more today! most historians today believe them to be taken. Joseph Brant was never at Wyoming
exaggerations, amplified by every retelling. that summer. He was known, beyond all
There was plunder on a grand scale, as question, to have been 70 miles away with
was standard practice by all sides in war- his Mohawks at Oquaga. Probably, the In-
Be a part of SRAC’s fare at that time. The Indians and Butlers dian chief who painted her face red was
4th Annual Rangers both took part in the looting, and Kayingwaurto, the Seneca Chief. Further-
everything of value was either carried away more, a thoughtful reconstruction of the
Drumbeats Through or burned. The owners watched helplessly scene leads to the following set of reason-
Time! as their most prized possessions were able conclusions. Mary was probably not
carried away, often demanded and physi- the only girl to have her face painted red by
Come see the largest cally removed from the wearer. Finally the the Indian chieftain and the painting was
collection of local arti- buildings and crops were all burned and almost certainly done in plain sight of all the
destroyed. When all of the looting, burning other frightened survivors in the fort. So
facts in one location! and destroying was finished, Butler and his Mary's mistaken identification of Joseph
army headed back to Niagara, confident (Continued on page 7)
they had at last taught the rebels that their

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Page 6 Volume 3, Issue 3


(Continued from page 3) dat, the long band appears to be typi- match the description with a known
cal belt made for formal presentation band.
(“prestation”) at a diplomatic meeting,
or treaty. If the five-slash belt from We continue our studies of wampum
Georgian Bay was “held” by the Wen- as an important part of understanding
dat, and is of the size generally used Oneida cultural history, and the history
for significant requests made at trea- of each of the many cultures that inter-
ties, it most probably had been made acted in interesting ways within the
and given to them by one of the Five area that forms the present State of
Nations Iroquois or by a colonial gov- New York. Our slow progress towards
ernment. The important question is answering some of our questions de-
now - who made and presented this pends on the co-operation of many
belt? people. The generous cooperation and
shared interest of Brian Patterson and
Over the years I have found that very the Oneida Indian Nation in pursuing
few of the hundreds of diplomatic belts these goals and in furthering wampum
that are mentioned in treaty minutes research is deeply appreciated.
are described well enough to allow us
to match a surviving belt to a specific
event. Most are noted only as “A Belt”
to indicate that a belt had been pre-
wampum beads. No glass beads have sented at that point. The few belts that
been used in their construction, either are described at all are noted only as
intentionally or accidentally. This sug- “A Large Belt” or as “A Belt of Seven
gests that they were not purely decora- Rows.” The two belts now held by the
tive. Decorative wampum bands may Oneida Indian Nation are of a size that
include glass and/or brass or copper could be called “medium.” In the many
beads as part of the construction. surviving documents such belts are
Wampum bands used in diplomatic usually noted only at the end of a
contexts have only pure wampum statement or request, where the scribe
beads, although an accidental inclu- notes “A Belt” to indicate that the par-
sion may appear from time to time. ticular speaker at the treaty has made
This leads me to believe that wampum the presentation. A “small” belt is
cuffs may have been official badges of sometimes noted in association with a
office, worn only as coat cuffs or minor request, and a “large” belt may
gauntlets by ritual or political leaders be noted after a very significant re-
among the Wendat. quest has been made. In almost all
cases the design elements, if any, are Marshall Joseph Becker, Ph D is an
We believe that wampum cuffs were not described. Only in exceptional SRAC Advisory Board Member and a
made and used only by the Wendat, cases do we have a record that allows Senior Fellow in Anthropology at the
but diplomatic belts generally were us to know what the belt really looked University of Pennsylvania.
made for presentation. Although the like, and in even fewer cases can we
cuffs probably were made by the Wen- 25 July 2007.

SRAC is sponsoring a presentation by Ted Keir and Deb Twigg, on Sunday September 23rd
at 3 pm at the Waverly Opera House in Waverly, NY.

At 3pm, Twigg will give a one hour presentation concerning her ongoing research on Span-
ish Hill, and Keir will be on hand displaying actual artifacts found at Spanish Hill and the sur-
rounding area. This presentation is great for young and old alike and is free to the public.

Twigg will also offer a book signing for her new book " Spanish Hill and Carantouan: The
History, the People, and the Politics." This book is a follow-up to her "Carantouan" booklet
and the 2005 article in the Pennsylvania Archaeologist on Spanish Hill. Deb Twigg and Ted Keir

Donations to SRAC will be gratefully accepted and will go to support their new building on Broad Street Waverly, NY. To
learn more, visit

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Page 7 Volume 3, Issue 3


(Continued from page 5) gain a lot or extra PR if Queen Ester

gress lost some of its interest. The
played the staring role? costs were too high and the difficulties
Brant as the Chief who saved her from of such a large wilderness campaign
death or captivity was not just her mis- So, is it time to rewrite history? Strong too uncertain. Then in November of
take; it was almost certainly the com- arguments and equally strong passions that same year the Tories and Indians
monly held belief of all of her compan- still rail to provide an objective jury with struck again. This time at Cherry Valley
ions in the fort. a convincing answer to that haunting in New York, led by Captain Walter
drumbeat from our past. Butler and Joseph Brant. This time
The following year, however, Joseph there were more civilian casualties,
Brant and his Mohawks did raid Minis- But there is another drumbeat from our most of them carried out by Butlers
ink and burned and destroyed all of the past which is becoming clearer as I Rangers. Congress was turned on
buildings and property. This time, Mary, grow older. It is a patiently relentless again and Washington soon appointed
now thirteen, hid with others in a potato drumbeat telling me that those Con- Major General John Sullivan to com-
hole over which boards had been necticut settlers had no business being
mand the campaign. To guarantee suc-
placed. She remembered being close in Wyoming in the first place. Only a cess he authorized one third of his en-
enough to have touched the Indian's generation earlier, it had been given to tire regular army, over 5,500 men, or-
feet as they stood talking on the the Delaware people on the promise ganized in four regiments; one each
boards, but, fortunately, they never that; if they would leave their ancestral from Pennsylvania, New York, New
looked under the boards. homelands along the Delaware, they
Jersey and Massachusetts. Each com-
could have the Wyoming Valley for
manded by their own Brigadier Gen-
Eighty-eight years latter Mary's great their new permanent homeland. So, if eral.
great granddaughter, Marrietta Doan, some internet hacker ever manages to
married a great grandson or Lebius reach, I've got an e- There were several other reasons moti-
Hammond; a young man named Jeffery mail standing by for Grandfather vating Congress to approve the cam-
Sly. Hammond that's even more urgent paign, and debating the relative impor-
than the Queen Ester question. "Dear tance of those various reasons is an
I remember Marrietta Doan Sly. She Grandpa Hammond, now that you have ever-popular pastime among historians
and Jeffery were my great-grand par- lived for a while in a plane where the and reenactors. I am personally con-
ents. level or enlightenment and understand- vinced that, without the powerful stimuli
ing is so much higher, can you explain of the Wyoming Valley and Cherry Val-
So that makes Lebius Hammond my what happened, almost universally, in
great-grandfather's great-grandfather, ley massacres, all of the other reasons
the minds and consciences or all or the combined would not have been suffi-
and Mary Whittakar my firth great- thousands or your friends and
grandmother. You can be absolutely cient for Congress to have approved
neighbors that allowed all or you to, 'Do the necessary funds and manpower to
certain that through all or those genera-
unto the Indians as you would NOT like carry out the campaign.
tions there has never been any doubt them to do unto you."'
that Grandpa Hammond told the truth
about his escape from Queen Ester. I nurture the hope that such a question
After all, he and Elliot were the only two would not embarrass Grandpa
white people known to have witnessed Hammond. In fact I nurture the further
that show and live to tell about it. Some hope that his answer might start out
histories point out that they both proba- with, "I thought you'd never ask."
bly knew Queen Ester because she
was known to have come to Wyoming One or the final outcomes or the Wyo-
to trade. Yet, on the other hand, they ming Valley massacre was the loud
both also reported that the body and and continuous demand for the Conti-
race of the woman executioner was nental Congress to authorize a counter
heavily painted with all kinds or weird invasion or the Iroquois League, large
garish designs. We know Grandma enough to stop forever those frontier
Whittakar, and probably all or her com- raids. Congresses' reaction was, at
panions, were mistaken about the iden- first, favorable and Washington was
tity or Joseph Brant. Could Grandpa officially instructed to start plans for a
Hammond and Elliot have been equally major campaitn starting the following
mistaken about Queen Ester? After all, spring. There was even some discus-
if they had even heard a suggestion sion about a winter campaign, but that
that this gruesome apparition or a was quickly dropped because of insuffi-
woman might have been Queen Ester, cient time for all of the necessary plan-
wouldn't they have been quick to adopt ning, organizing and procurement of Mr. Dick Cowles, SRAC CoDirector
such a rumor? Their story would indeed supplies. During that fall, however, con- of Archaeology/Curation

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Page 8 Volume 3, Issue 3

4 T H A N N UA L D RU M B E AT S T H RO U G H T I M E & B U S T O U R !
SRAC's 4th annual "Drumbeats Through Time" is just around the corner and this year we’ve
included a bus tour! This year SRAC members are invited to a special sneak peak at some of
the latest donated items. The doors will open for SRAC members only at 9:00 a.m. During
this private session there will be refreshments and a meeting for members to talk with the
board, ask questions, offer ideas, give feedback, and for us to tell you some of the things we
are working on. This is also a chance for our members to get to know other like-minded peo-
ple in our community. Members are encouraged to bring a friend to join SRAC, and to partici-
pate in this exclusive portion of our annual event. If you are not a member and want to be a
part of this special preview, join now with the form on the back of this newsletter or just come
on October 13th and join at the door. We look forward to seeing many of you there!

The doors open at 11:00 a.m. for the general public. We’re excited about the many artifacts that will makeup our mu-
seum this year. In addition to several private collections, SRAC will have the privilege of sharing some of the recently
donated items in our collection. As usual, we will include new and different local collections that are always the most
popular draw for our event! Do you have a collection that is from our region you would like to show at our event? Con-
tact Ted Keir at 570-888-2718!

We’re also excited about the presentations this year. This year we will have some familiar faces presenting, like our
own Ted Keir, and some new faces like Ralph Rataul, NYS Archaeology Collections who will present "Caretakers of
New York State History - The Role of the NYS Museum.” We met Ralph at a recent visit to the NYS Museum in Al-
bany, and he’s quite an interesting fellow. We think you’ll enjoy him as much as we did.

The speakers will end with our good friend and local expert on the topic, Earl Robinson giving a presentation explaining
the points of interest concerning the events that led up to and included Sullivan's March through our region in 1779.
Afterward, Earl Robinson will be your guide for a tour relative to Sullivan’s March, taking us to see where the events
occurred. The buses will board at 2:45 p.m. and follow the route Sullivan traveled, taking riders from Queen Ester’s
Flats to Newtown Battlefield. Tickets for the tour are $8.00 for SRAC members and senior citizens, $10.00 for general

Not a member? Join now! Go to


Special thanks goes out to Sam and Barbie Sloat of Milltown, PA for donating two frames of fine points as well as sev-
eral unframed miscellaneous points and one broken pestle from Cayuta Creek in Sayre, site number 36BR20. This is
SRAC's fourth official donation. This is another welcomed donation made in the effort to preserve the evidence of our
local history. The frames will be forever noted as the "Sloat Collection" within the SRAC collection.

Framed points from the newly acquired Sloat Collection

N E W S PA N I S H H I L L B O O K A VA I L A B L E S E P T E M B E R 2 3
Deb Twigg has just completed the latest volume of her research concerning Spanish Hill, called “Spanish Hill and Caran-
touan: the History, the People, and the Politics.” This book covers the people and events that have affected our local his-
tory. Over 100 pages of actual documentation and little known facts that make it a must read for anyone wanting to know
the Spanish Hill story and our rich local history. The book will be available beginning September 23 at 3pm, when Twigg
will offer a book signing at her presentation at the Waverly Opera House. To order the book online go to All proceeds benefit SRAC.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 9 Volume 3, Issue 3


It has been a very busy summer for those of us on the SRAC Board! Many of you may have seen us at the Sayre
Farmer’s Market this summer. We also had a booth at many special events like Arts in the Park, the Newtown Battle-
field Reenactment, and others. We continue to make new friends and we are grateful for the all of the positive feed-
back and support from the community we’re so proud to be a part of!

New friends and participants at the Newtown Bat-

Deb talks with John Borits after her recent tlefield Reenactment.
presentation “The Mystery of the Blue Inga Welles, Mark Madill, and Tom Valilee at a
Amulet” recent Bradford County Andaste
Chapter meeting in Burlington, PA

Deb and Marcia Cowles share a

Ted and Dick at the Newtown Battlefield moment after “The Mystery of the
Reenactment Blue Amulet” presentation

Jessica, Dick, and Marcia at the Corning

Historical Society Wingblinger Event

Who’s that dashing fellow in the

Deb speaks to a group at the Waverly Methodist
bonnet? Proof that SRAC has fun!
Church on her favorite topic, Spanish Hill.

Jessica Quinn talks with a

visitor at one of our sum-
mer events.
Inga and Susan on an day
in the SRAC booth
SRAC traveling mini-museum.
Dick and Ted bear the heat at an event.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 10 Volume 3, Issue 3


Over the past two years, SRAC has been trying to raise
funds towards one goal. A place that we can call home.
We’ve found it at 345 Broad St. in Waverly!

While many of you have come to see us at local events in

many different places, what you do not see is all of the thou-
sands of artifacts and rare books and documents we cannot
share in that type of venue. Without a building we cannot
provide the services that we envision for our communities .

Our Education and Research Center will be dedicated to pro-

viding regional history and archaeological evidence that be-
gins as early as the first hunters who entered this area hunt-
ing such animals as the great elk and wooly mammoth. It will
house artifacts from hundreds to thousands of years old; and
with the right funding, one day may even house a locally un- Future Home of the Susquehanna River Archaeological Cen-
covered wooly mammoth skeleton. We hope to provide ter of Native Indian Studies
classes for children and adults in not only scientific and his- other section, we see our collections on display with people
torical topics, but cultural topics as well. from miles around saying "I never knew…"
SRAC will open its doors to professionals and students of These are indeed exciting times for not only SRAC, but for
archaeology to allow them to use our artifacts and library to
our community as well. After all, this is OUR history that we
continue research that is relative to this region. We’re plan-
all should take pride in.
ning a monthly lecture series, a kid's club, field trips and
workshops for young and old alike. How can you be a part and/or help support this effort? There
are many ways that you can help. Here are just a few:
As you can see, the Center will be a place of activity. Not
only will it be a place where tourists will want to stop, but it • Join SRAC by using the form on the back of this newsletter
will also be a place for our communities to use for educa-
tional and cultural purposes. • Volunteer to help us with cleaning, painting, or other jobs as we get
the building ready
Phase 1 - Initially, we will have a small museum, a gift shop • Donate funds to help get this building ready
and visitor center, and a lecture workshop area on the main
floor. As you can see in the picture from a few months ago, • If you are a contractor, donate labor to help us get our bathrooms
while the merchandise from the last business was still on the and lighting set up
floor, the area will be more than adequate for our initial
needs; but it will take a lot of work and expense to get it • If you are a business that sells items we may need, donate fixtures,
ready to open. flooring, building materials, etc

Yet amidst the rubble we will need to clean up, the walls we SRAC is a nonprofit and materials and monetary donations
will need to paint, and a floor we will need to fix, we already are tax deductible.
envision interactive learning workshops with kids of all ages, For questions or more information about how you can be a
sleeves rolled up, making pottery or carving soapstone part, please visit us at, call us at 607-
sculptures... we hear music filling the air from a Native Indian 727-3111, or email us at You may also
musician brought in to teach us about this music; and in an- send mail to SRAC, PO Box 12, Sayre, PA 18840.

Thursday, September 20 (begins noon) Roots of Peace- 13A, west of Ithaca. Contact Audrey Cooper
making: Indigenous Values, Global Crisis, An International or 607-272-2292, ext. 135.
Day of Peace at the birthplace of democracy day-long pro-
gram at Onondaga Lake Park, Liverpool, NY. It is free with Sunday, September 23 (3pm) Spanish Hill Presentation at
a Waters Ceremony by Taiko Drummer Koji Kakamura the Waverly Opera House. Deb Twigg will present an hour
from the Miho Museum in Japan leading everyone to the long discussion, followed byTed Keir displaying and dis-
lake, followed by all kinds of featured speakers. cussing artifacts found at Spanish Hill. For more informa- tion go to

Saturday, September 22 (11am – 6pm) Tutelo Homecom- Saturday, October 13 (9am – 4pm) 4th Annual Drumbeats
ing Festival welcoming Cayuga, Tutelo, Saponi, and kin- Through Time. The largest collection of local native Indian
dred Indian Nations at Tutelo Park, Bostwick Road, off artifacts in one location, special member’s only activities 9-
11am, followed by speakers and a bus tour.

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 11 Volume 3, Issue 3


Recently, I read a news article from Kansas about a Malcolm about Native Ameri-
Webber, aka Grand Council Chief Thundercloud IV – self- cans, their history,
declared chief of the non-existent “Kaweah” Indian Nation. and their beliefs.

Reports state that Webber claimed to be born in Oklahoma to Honestly, I am part

Sioux-Cherokee parents. When investigated, the Bureau of In- Dutch, and I have
dian Affairs found his birth certificate stated that he was actually never considered
born in Maine to non-Indian parents and could find nothing to myself knowledge-
substantiate his claim of Indian ancestry. able of Dutch cus-
toms, history or
If this sounds outlandish and that the people he fooled must have beliefs just because
been fools too, you are wrong… I have Dutch blood,
(or think I do.) In-
A gentleman claiming to be Chief Lightfoot Talking Eagle, a stead I would have
graduate of Yale and thought to be the last Susquehannock alive to have to be a stu-
in the 1960's, but later rebuked, made the following statements in dent of it; because
an article in the Evening Times in July, 1966: even though my
grand parents had
"The following information may be helpful to you and your tons of wooden
associates n your efforts to save the Susquehannock Bear shoes and those
Clan Peace Temple prayer mound, mistakenly called cute little porcelain
"Spanish Hill" and to have it rededicated to its pre- kissing Dutch kids,
Columbian purpose as a sacred hill upon which peace and it still wouldn’t make
brotherhood ceremonials were conducted. me feel as though I
could teach anyone
During our conversation over the talking wires last night was
anything about
pointed up that at one time a temple and a Holy of Holies
them. And I certainly don’t use any of it to define who I am.
stood on top of the mound. These should be restored to their
original purpose as proposed in Micah 4:1 8, Zachariah 8:3, But more importantly, if I were to decide that being Dutch was
and Isaiah 2:2 to 4, Isaiah 13-32. “cool” and that people wanted to learn about my heritage, and
that I was part Dutch and therefore had some inherited wisdom
The sacred hill or mound south of Waverly is one of the Bib-
about that culture, there would be no benefit to anyone, with the
lical references listed above. There are many such on this
exception of my own expanded ego by sharing what I thought I
hemisphere that must be restored and rededicated to their
knew. Worse yet, I would be making the truth a lot less clear to
original purpose before the truth and lasting peace can
people who were merely seeking it.
come to Earth. The Susquehannock (Andaste) Bear Clan
Mound in the beautiful "Valley of Peace" is one such One truth that I found when researching Spanish Hill for years is
mound." that we all must understand that all that was written, just as all
that someone may have told you will not always be true. That
Whether or not Mr. Applegate (aka Lightfoot Talking Eagle)
even scholars make mistakes, and certainly no blood line allows
scammed anyone out of money, or defrauded our government, to
anyone to skip the study in their journey to seek wisdom about
me there is a much greater crime that is committed by scammers
any topic.
of this sort. That is dispersing misinformation.
We at SRAC feel a great responsibility to not only teach our com-
I have to be honest here, I have met people who claim to have
munities with factual information, but to indeed check the
some small amount of American Indian blood, yet never studied
sources that we use. Rest assured that when it comes to what
Native American cultures or history, and because they had an
SRAC stands for, we have no interest in making “self proclama-
uncle who had “high cheek bones” or a grandfather with “long
tions” without backing it up with the real thing.
dark hair,” they somehow have inherited some inner wisdom

COMING EVENTS cial Guest Instrumentalists: Monica Spishock - Tympani
asp and Percussion, Tom Hines - Oboe, Ed Wargo – Flute,
Corky Klinko and his Brass Quartet
Saturday, October 27 Native American Arts & Culture
Festival at Colgate University (Sanford Field House) Sherri
Hopper w/Haudenosaunee Singers and Dancers, the Blues
group Corn Bred, and Inca Son performing Andean music Would you like to receive email no-
and dance. Contact Carol Ann Lorenz, tices of upcoming events? Email and ask to be
added to our announcements list.
Saturday, December 8 (7pm) The Valley Chorus presents
"The Voices of Christmas". Athens High School Auditorium.
Members will perform the cantata “The Voices of Christ-
mas” along with their usual holiday oriented fare. With Spe-

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 12 Volume 3, Issue 3


This puzzle is a bit tougher than the previous one! Test yourself to see just how much you are learning about
our regions pre-history! (The answers to last issues puzzle are below.)


1 Geological material once used by Indians for paint 2 "Place of the Big Horn"
4 Something made in the shape of a spirit 3 Algonquin home
7 SRAC's website is www. .org 5 Once "Teoga"
9 Louise Murray 6 Indian Rock Art
12 Six Nations 8 Earliest (spear) point known
13 Material commonly used to make arrowheads 10 Once lived on the Delaware River
15 Who murdered the Contestogas in 1763 11 In archaeology it means "ancient"
17 Mr. Cowles 14 Early man was a hunter and
18 Mohawk Chief who fought against Sullivan 16 Material that made canoes light to carry
19 Queen Esther's son

Answers to last issue’s crossword puzzle:

Across 13- mammoths Down 6 - Smith
2 - mortar 16 - Champlain 1 - Faces 8 - Murray
7 - Newtown 18 - Tioga Point 3 - Andaste 10 - Carantouan
9 - atlatl 19 - Susquehannocks 4 - Cowles 12 - Seneca
11 - Esther 20 - Delwares 5 - three 14 - Spanish Hill

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 13 Volume 3, Issue 3

In July of and again - it had a face on one side and
2007, a sunburst on the other.
three of
SRAC's This is the power of recording ALL of the
Board artifacts we can that were found in our
Members, region. We hope to be able to offer re-
Ted Keir, searchers not only the artifacts that we
Susan can preserve and save from auction, but
Fogel and we also want to be able to help with
I made a showing whatever trends we can. Already
journey to we have two faced items recorded that
we were unaware of which begins to
Ted Kier and Ralph Rataul, of the the NYS
Museum show a trend of the use of these faced
NYS Museum
in Albany, pieces in our region. I am sure with more
NY in order to record all Native Indian research; we will find the true meaning
artifacts from our surrounding NY coun- and possibly even the specific use they
had. Image 1 - Courtesy of the New York
ties. We had heard that a prominent local State Museum, Albany, NY
collector from the early 20th century, LD
The last request of our research at the
Shoemaker had donated his collection to
the NYS Museum, and we felt that it was museum was to see all of the bird-
important to record these artifacts with stones they had. (see image 3) We
SRAC. This is because we believe that a were impressed with several high qual-
researcher should be able to come to ity birdstones they have, and all the
different shapes that they were made
SRAC one day and have a pretty good
idea of the artifacts that may not be here
anymore, but were found in this region. While many still have no idea what the
Once we got there, we were signed in Susquehanna River Archaeological
and met by a representative of the ar- Center actually strives to be, I hope
chaeology department. Then we were that those that read this article realize
allowed into the highly secured area that our goals are set high. Simply put, Image 2—Courtesy of the New York State
while we plan to have a museum
where the artifacts are stored by county in Museum, Albany, NY
space open, we are also striving to be
hundreds of large flat file cabinets. Truth-
fully, I was impressed with the volume the preeminent Native Indian ar-
from just Tioga, Chemung, Chenango, chaeological research and educa-
and Steuben counties. It took us several tional center in the region for all ages.
hours to digitally record each drawer and With several hundreds of rare books
and pages of documents and letters
some specific items - in total 182 high
quality photos for detailed records. already in our archives as well as
several hundreds of artifacts and hun-
One interesting item from the Shoemaker dreds more records of others that
collection, which for the most part came were found in our region, we believe
from the Chemung River area between that this is a goal we can achieve.
Waverly and Corning, NY, was a face
item. (see image 1) It also had a sunburst If you believe this is a just cause and Image 3—Courtesy of the New York State
a good one for our community, I urge Museum, Albany, NY
on the reverse side, which to my thinking
is relative to the Sun/Sky spirit belief sys- you to join SRAC and support the
tem. It is approximately 4 inches in height effort today.
and 3 inches in width. Interestingly
though, there was yet another of these *Special Note: Ralph Rataul, will present: "Caretakers of New York State History: The Role of
faces found within the drawers of the the NYS Museum" at Drumbeats Through Time. SRAC will return the favor and give Ralph
counties I mentioned above (see image 2) full access to view all of our collections before the event.

Deb Twigg - Executive Director Ted Keir - CoDirector of Archae- Susan Fogel - Chief Financial Officer Jessica Quinn
Dick Cowles - CoDirector of Archae- ology/Education and Chairman of the Inga Wells - Secretary Tom Valilee
ology/Curation Board Sharon Franklin


The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email
Page 14 Volume 3, Issue 3

PO Box 12
Sayre, PA 18840

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$15.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

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Individual $20.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.

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(Ind.) base collection access.
Corporate or
$250.00 Quarterly newsletter, special events, exclusive offers, and special discounts.
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One Time cial discounts.

Become a member of SRAC!
• Please check the type of membership you wish to apply for.
• Fill out the information above.
• Submit this form with a check for the appropriate amount to: SRAC, PO Box 12, Sayre 18840

The Susquehanna River Archaeological Center of Native Indian Studies ~ ~ email

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